Patent application title: Bushing and assembly for improved recoil guide rod assembly
Willard Lester (Ronkonkoma, NY, US)
IPC8 Class: AF41A378FI
Class name: Ordnance automatic buffers and brakes
Publication date: 2012-11-29
Patent application number: 20120297971
The present invention is directed to a bushing that allows for adaptation
of a single spring guide rod assembly into handgun with dual spring guide
rod assemblies to further allow for greater customization and control of
the gun upon recoil when the chambered cartridge is discharged.
1. A bushing for use with and in semiautomatic hand guns that restricts
the recoil spring while allowing the recoil guide rod to pass through
said bushings interior.
2. A bushing according to claim 1 wherein said bushing is of sufficient exterior circumference to maintain the same within the recoil system assembly channel in the firearm's frame and slide of said semiautomatic hand gun and maintain the recoils spring contained within said recoil system assembly in place therein.
3. A bushing according to claims 1 wherein said bushing has an interior passage for the semiautomatic hand guns guide rod while further comprising a means for interior retention of the semiautomatic handgun's recoil spring therein.
4. A bushing assembly for use in a semi automatic hand gun in furtherance of a conversion and customization of the recoil control method wherein the same consists of a guide rod and recoil spring, herein said busing assembly comprising a proximate end, concave middle section and distal end and a manner for capture and securement of the bushing and recoil spring contained thereupon with the guide rod.
5. A device allowing for the customization of semiautomatic hand guns recoil springs, comprising: a bushing, a capture screw, a single recoil spring and a single recoil guide rod, all of which serve to replace the original recoil guide rod and recoil springs.
6. The bushing according to claim to claim 5, the bushing being of exterior circumference to contain the spring and recoil guide rod in the interior of said handgun.
7. The bushing according to claim 5, the bushing's interior circumference being of a circumference to allow said guide rod to pass through while simultaneously restricting said spring from passing there through and thus being maintained within the confines of the semiautomatic hand gun's recoil system assembly channel in the firearm's frame and slide.
8. The guide rod spring according to claim 5 wherein said guide rod spring is of lesser diameter than the original recoil guide rod springs.
9. The guide rod spring according to claim 5 wherein said guide rod spring is of lesser diameter than the original recoil guide rod spring.
10. The spring according to claim 5 wherein said spring may be of greater compression strength than that of the original spring.
11. The spring according to claim 5 wherein said spring may be of less compression strength than that of the original spring.
12. A screw according to claim 5 wherein said screw is capable of being attached or otherwise affixed to said guide rod to capture the recoil spring in a semi-compressed state for easy installation of replacement spring.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to firearms, and more particularly to an auto loading handgun, more particularly semi-automatic handguns and therein their spring(s) and guide rod(s). More particularly this invention specifically pertains to a device in the form of a bushing that allows for the conversion of a hand gun with a dual spring guide rod assembly to as single spring guide rod assembly.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention is directed to the field of firearms and more particularly the components of a semi automatic hand gun and therein the guide rod assembly. Guide rods in hand guns effectively serve the purpose of controlling the barrel jump by controlling the recoil spring as the slide reciprocates when the cartridge in the gun is discharged allowing for the shooter to better control the handgun's movement at time of discharge and thus the hand gun's accuracy.
 Accordingly, but not limited to, the present invention is directed to long felt needs of professional and competitive shooters who are functionally dissatisfaction with stock and original manufacture's equipment ("OME") guide rods notably those with two (2) springs. Take for instance the newest Generation 4 Glock handguns. Glock handguns have been the standard issue weapons of the U.S. military and police departments for decades. However the present design in the Glock Generation 4 is flawed and problematic in its application to custom or low power cartridges in that its guide rod assembly is consists of a rod with two (2) springs the specifications and diameters of which precludes: 1) use of past Generation 3 single guide rod assemblies, and 2) medication of the springs being used to adjust them according to the users desired customization, be it for recoil control or the custom load in the cartridge. Thus, the dual spring system is problematic in it does not allow for the ejection of lower power or custom loaded cartridges as well as an inability to customize (e.g. alter the springs' tensions) recoil from the handgun when fired.
 Directed to Glock and not limited thereto herein. They have recently released the new "Generation 4" series of two models of pistols. The previous 3 generations of Glock pistols utilized a guide rod composed of a single rod of plastic, with a single recoil spring of a spring-resistance weight of 17 pounds permanently affixed to the rod. The "Generation 4" Glock pistols has changed this system to be a dual spring unit.
 The new Glock Generation 4 pistols are malfunctioning for many users, due to the fact that the spring weight in the new factory dual spring system is too heavy for 9 mm, the model G17. Since the factory system is permanently sealed, the springs cannot be changed to a lower weight spring. This new product remedies the condition by allowing the use of lower weight springs of the user's choice.
 By allowing the user to use a lower weight spring of choice, the pistol can be "tuned" to run properly with light power target loads.
 Accordingly, there are two purposes for this new item that overcome past deficient's or prior designs and implementations:
 Thus, what is disclosed herein overcomes a safety and functionality needs resulting in dramatic improvement to semi automatic handguns, their functionality, control and accuracy with dual spring recoil guide rods.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 The design of semiautomatic pistols has not changed significantly since the introduction of the Colt 45 Model 1911 in the early 1900's. Since that time, others have made some minor modifications in the basic design, but nothing of a fundamental nature.
 For example, in the Model 1911 pistol, cartridges are stored in an ammunition clip, which is inserted into the grip of the pistol. Cocking and firing of the gun are accompanied by movement of an external slide. The slide travels a distance on the order of several inches each time the gun is fired, and this limits the cycle time or rate at which successive rounds can be fired.
 These components and other parts of the action are subject to substantial wear leading to mechanical failure. There exists a long felt need for substantial improvement with respect to design of the aforementioned recoil guide rod slide assemblies and their components.
 There are many uses for handguns that include sport, police and military use, and personal self-defense. In the sport known as action or combat shooting, an individual is presented with a series of targets that simulate combat and/or self-defense scenarios. Another type of shooting sport is fixed-target shooting. Police and military personnel also participate in these sports as part of training exercises. In these activities the objective is to hit the target in a given period of time with as high accuracy as possible. The preferred (and in some sports required by rule) handgun for these activities is the semiautomatic type where each round (cartridge, bullet) is automatically loaded from a magazine into the gun barrel.
 Automatic/semiautomatic pistol carries a slide/barrel assembly that slides longitudinally along a frame. A spring braced between the slide and frame holds the slide/barrel assembly in a forward and closed position. A cartridge chamber exists within this slide/barrel assembly. In the forward position, the rear end of the barrel is covered by the breech face upon the slide. A hole in the breech face provides access to the cartridge chamber for a firing element to pierce the primer of the pistol cartridge, thereby discharging the cartridge and expelling the bullet. The firing element can be driven forward by a hammer striking it, or it can be moved backward under spring pressure and released to drive the firing element forward through the breech face to the primer. In either instance the hammer or the firing element itself is connected through mechanical means to a trigger operated by the user.
 Upon discharge of a pistol cartridge, a bullet travels forward out through the barrel, the slide/barrel assembly moves rearward for a specific distance where the barrel moves slightly downward and stops, the slide continues to move rearward opening the cartridge chamber. The extractor (through spring pressure) holds the spent cartridge casing to the breech face, removing it from the barrel. As the slide continues rearward, the ejector (mounted in the frame) contacts the spent cartridge casing, pushing it away from the breech face, causing the extractor spring pressure to be overcome to expel the empty cartridge from the pistol. Therein the recoil spring's tension aside from assisting (or not, if the spring is to heavy for the cartridge being used) in the removal of the spent casing effects the recoil/barrel jump and thus accuracy as well as the speed by which the next cartridge may be cycled for firing in the case of competitive target and/or military shooting.
 Now at maximum rearward travel, the slide has cleared the magazine assembly, allowing the next cartridge in the magazine to move up (magazine cartridges are loaded under spring pressure). Spring(s) pressure pushes the slide forward contacting the next cartridge from the magazine and delivering it to the cartridge chamber which closes as the slide moves forward. Slide fully forward, the pistol is loaded ready to fire again.
 This generally describes the operation of an automatic pistol with a locked breech mechanism, fired either by striker or hammer operation. A straight blowback mechanism operates similarly. However, the barrel is not part of a slide/barrel assembly. The slide containing the breech face, is held forward closing the cartridge chamber only by spring force and with no particular mechanical interlock.
 Moreover, because of inherent size limitations, small-sized handguns currently available have very limited fire power and very poor accuracy and tend to be relatively heavy and difficult to hold. Such handguns are typically 0.22, 0.25 or 0.32 caliber and have barrels which are no more than about two inches long. Accuracy is limited not only by the shortness of the barrel, but also by a tendency of the muzzle to rise (recoil) when the gun is fired.
 Two important characteristics of semiautomatic handguns are minimum recoil and minimum cycle-time (i.e. the time between successive firings of the handgun). Other important factors are the gun weight and fire power. When a gun is fired the explosion of the gunpowder in the ammunition casing or shell creates a forward force on the bullet that propels the bullet out of the gun barrel. Basic physics requires that an equal and opposite force be exerted rearward by the bullet on the gun. This force is referred to as recoil. The portion of the recoil sensed by the gun user is "felt" recoil. The felt recoil is less than the total recoil because semiautomatics contain a spring, or springs, which absorb some of the energy released when fired.
 Furthermore, as is well known, recoil of any handgun increases as the handgun, or that part of it which recoils, is decreased in weight or the power of the ammunition that is fired is increased. The physical reason is that a given cartridge will develop a characteristic amount of recoil momentum, for a particular length of barrel, regardless of the type of the handgun in which it is fired. This recoil momentum results in an increase in the energy of recoil which is proportional to the square of the recoil momentum and varies inversely with the mass of the recoiling part. In other words, doubling the recoil momentum by increasing the power of the cartridge will quadruple the recoil energy of the handgun. Reducing the recoiling mass, on the other hand, by fifty percent will double the recoil energy. Therefore, since reducing the weight of a handgun and increasing the power of the ammunition substantially increases the handgun's recoil, recoil is a critical problem in stability of light-weight handguns when firing powerful ammunition. Conversely decreasing the load of the ammunition with the OME spring jeopardizes the ability of the handgun to cycle the next round.
 Moreover, because the gun barrel wherein the recoil force is applied is usually slightly above the wrist of the user, a moment is created about the wrist that tends to rotate the gun barrel upward after firing. In a semiautomatic handgun the result is that the handgun must be re-aimed before it can be fired again. It can be appreciated, therefore, that minimal felt recoil is a desirable attribute for handguns since it will reduce the time required to re-aim the handgun.
 Similarly the dual spring systems generally utilize a guide rod of greater diameter making interchanging with single spring rod assemblies an impossibility, as the same is also a fixed element of the manufacturer. Thus the present invention overcomes many of the disadvantages inherent in the manufacture, assembly/disassembly, use and maintenance of conventional handguns.
 U.S. Pat. No. 3,618,457, issued to A. Miller on Nov. 9, 1971, and U.S. Pat. No. 3,318,912, issued to Miller on May 9, 1967, both disclose a gas-operated rifle utilizing a gas-operated piston and rod assembly with the piston rod telescopically mounted over a stationary guide rod and being spring-biased.
 U.S. Pat. No. 3,675,534, issued to P. C. Beretta on Jul. 11, 1972, discloses a gas-operated automatic rifle having a piston and stem inside a gas tube with the stem fixedly attached to the bolt carrier.
 U.S. Pat. No. 4,358,986, issued to C. Giorgio on Nov. 16, 1982, discloses a gas-operated automatic rifle having a stationary piston and a segmented movable gas cylinder/operating rod assembly including a biasing spring.
 U.S. Pat. No. 5,069,110 issued to Menck on Dec. 3, 1991 discloses an impact-buffering recoil mechanism for firearms includes a buffer moveably mounted on a guiding member between a plurality of coil springs. The mechanism is positioned in the firearm so that the moveable buffer travels from a position of repose to interpose between moveable parts of the firearm set into motion by the firing of the firearm and the frame of the firearm. This interposing will bring the moveable parts to an orderly halt while dissipating impact energy that would normally be transmitted to the frame and hence to the shooter.
 U.S. Pat. No. 7,493,845 issued to Mantis on Feb. 24, 2009 discloses a recoil mechanism for a gun with a frame, a barrel and a slide, has a cylinder with a rear with external flange and an internal diaphragm spaced forwardly of the flange and between a rear chamber and a front chamber in the cylinder. A nut is fixed to the frame and an axle has a rear end threaded to the nut and extends in the cylinder. The axle has a collar trapped in the front chamber by the diaphragm. A first spring around the cylinder, has a front end abutting the slide and a rear end abutting the flange. A second spring extending at least partly in the rear chamber has a rear end abutting the nut and a front end abutting the diaphragm. A third spring in the front chamber, is shorter in length than the front chamber. A recoil adjusting plug is used with or without the recoil mechanism.
 U.S. Pat. No. 7,827,720 issued to Erdem on Nov. 9, 2010 discloses a auto loading handgun is a short recoil, locked breech, semiautomatic service pistol. A rear located safety latch is provided for ambidextrous usage. A hold-open lever opens the pistol after the last round in the magazine is fired. A recoil spring guide rod, which alone is used for field stripping, is provided. Only three moving elements, a trigger, trigger bar, and a striker are required for firing. The hold-open lever is formed from a single piece lever acting laterally and cooperating with the magazine follower. A standard Browning swinging barrel lock is utilized wherein at the instant of firing, barrel and breechblock remain locked with each other, recoil backward for a small distance, and then swing vertically away from each other via cam elements. The swinging barrel lock construction has no intermediate parts.
 Again for reference and specific to Glock (U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,539,889, 4,825,744 and 4,893,546) is an intermediate action mechanism that works like a single action mechanism. Most importantly, it maintains the firearm in a partially "cocked" position where accidental discharge by dropping the weapon is impossible (a single action design makes inadvertent discharge through dropping prevalent), since the intermediate position of the firing element does not have enough spring tension to drive the firing element through the breech face if released.
 Also, whereas numerous automatic and semi-automatic pistol designs are known in the art, they utilize a "blowback" design wherein the bolt is not locked up in the chamber when the cartridge is fired. Furthermore, the automatic and semi-automatic pistol designs that are utilized are designed for pistols and revolvers, such as for instance and not limited to the: 45 ACP; 9 mm; 10 mm; 38 special; 40 cal, and the 357 and 44 magnum, calibers the cycling of the extended round of which is greatly dependant on the tension of the springs being used, or preferably spring. It are these low pressure aka light loaded custom cartridges that cause problems with standard double spring systems that the present invention overcomes.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
 An object of the invention is to overcome the disadvantages of the above-described firearms by providing a modified recoil guide rod assembly and the components, some of which can be used independently, to improve the performance of Glock and like semi automatic pistols with dual spring guide rod assemblies.
 An object of the present invention is to minimize recoil upon discharge of a cartridge.
 Another object of the present invention is to allow for replacement of the spring to allow for customization for the powder charge within the cartridge to be used.
 Another object of the present invention is to greater assure the ejection of an exhausted cartridge.
 A still further object of the present invention is to provide enhanced handgun control.
 Another object is to be able to allow for quick modification of the spring tension.
 Other objects, advantages, and novel features of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
 The present invention achieves its advantages by providing a modified recoil guide rod which utilizes a single guide rod assembly that may be inserted into handguns with a dual spring guide rod assembly thereby allowing customization and functionality as not provided for with the OME guide rods.
 Accordingly, the present invention does indeed accomplish the aforementioned objects. Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the teachings herein.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 This disclosure comprises three independent, and one interchangeable, parts as claimed herein, with the understanding that the materials disclosed herein may be altered as would be commonly understood by a person skilled in the art without deviation from the inventions herein:
 1. A hardened steel guide rod that is heat treated and black oxide coated, and sized to be of a diameter to utilize springs manufactured by ISMI Springs that are used in, for example, the springs used in the Generation 3 (or prior generations) of Glock pistols, or also the stock spring used in Generation 3 or prior Glock pistols. This steel guide rod is of a lesser size to fit in the new Generation 4 frames, when coupled with,
 2. a bushing that fills a hole in the front of the slide, designed to capture the recoil spring and center the steel rod in the frame;
 3. a capturing screw to attach the bushing to the rod, capturing the spring in a semi-compressed state for easy installation, and while not independently claimed herein, and
 4. a recoil guide rod spring.
 FIG. 1 is a diagram of the present invention's recoil guide rod.
 FIG. 2 is a diagram of the present invention's bushing.
 FIG. 3 is a diagram of the present invention's capture screw.
 FIG. 4 is a diagram of the present invention's recoil guide rod, a exemplinary spring, bushing and capture screw.
 FIG. 5 is a diagram of the present invention's recoil guide rod, a exemplinary spring, bushing and capture screw assembled.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
 In the prior art section, pistols of various well known designs were described. In general, the present invention is applicable to such pistols, no matter which kind and independent of the detailed design of its various parts. Accordingly, details of such pistols that are already well known will not be set forth herein, as such are well within the knowledge of those skilled in the art. Instead, details will only be given as they effect the design and/or fabrication of such parts of the pistols.
 FIG. 1. Referring now to FIG. 1, is the present inventions recoil guide rod 10 further consisting of a proximate end 11, middle section 12 and distal end 13. Said proximate end 11 being of a greater circumference than the middle section 12. Said distal end 13 being milled or otherwise hollowed out 14. Said milled or hollowed out 14 distal end 13 further being threaded or with otherwise means for retention of a manner for sealing said milled or hollowed out 14 distal end 13.
 FIG. 2. Referring now to FIG. 2, is a representation of the present invention's bushing 20. Said bushing 20 comprising a proximate end 21, concave middle section 22 and distal end 23. Said proximate end 21 is of sufficient exterior circumference 24 or restrict the passage of a spring or like mechanisms passage around said bushing 20. Said proximate end 21 being hollowed out 25 or not to allow for capture and further possible restriction of a spring of like mechanism. Said concave middle section 22 being hollowed out 25 or not of sufficient dimensions to allow capture and/or restrict a spring or like mechanism. Said distal end 23 containing a further predetermined void section 26 that would allow for the insertion of passage of a corresponding recoil guide rod and or a means of afffixment.
 FIG. 3. Referring now to FIG. 3 is a representation of the present invention's means of bushing removable afixment depicted herein as a capture screw 30. Herein said capture screw 30 compromises a proximate end 31, middle head section 32 and manner for tightening 33. Said proximate end 31 in the preferred embodiment being threaded 34 to allow for insertion and afixment into a recoil guide rod. Said middle head section 32 being of sufficient diameter to allow for the retention of a bushing.
 FIG. 4. Referring now to FIG. 4 is a representation of the aforementioned recoil guide rod 10, bushing 20, capture screw 30 with an exemplary spring 40 (which is not taught or independently claimed herein). Herein it is shown how the exemplary spring 40 is inserted over said recoil guide rod's 10 distal end 23 and comes to abut against said geode rod's 21 proximate end 22 being centered and held in place over said guide rod's middle section 23. Herein further said bushing 20 is inserted over said exemplary spring 40 now enveloping said guide rod 20. Said bushing 20 is hereby used to facilitate the compression of said exemplanary spring 40 is captured and essentially held in place by said bushing 20 hollowed out concave interior middle section 22. Now said bushing 20 with the engulfed exemplanary spring 40 are pressed down such that said capture screw's 30 proximate 31 threaded end 34 is inserted into said bushing's 20 predetermined void section 26 which is further compressed over said recoil guide rod's 10 distal end 13 such that said capture screw's 30 distal threaded end 34 passed through said bushing's 20 predetermined void section 26 and is inserted and affixed into said recoil guide rod's 10 distal end 13 that is threaded or otherwise hollowed out 14 for acceptance of said capture screw's 30 proximate end 31. When assembled the disclosure and elements of FIG. 4 represent a customized recoil guide rod with interchangeable single spring is suitable and prepared for insertion and operation in to a semiautomatic handgun.
 FIG. 5. Referring now to FIGS is a representation of the aforementioned recoil guide rod 10, bushing 20, capture screw 30 with an exemplary spring 40 assembled. Herein the recoil guide rod's proximate end is exposed 11 with the middle section being encompassed by said exemplary recoil spring 40 with the guide rod's and said exemplary spring's 40 distal ends being enveloped by said busing 20 with said spring being further recessed in the bushing's 20 interior concave middle section 22. The entire apparatus being detachably maintained as a single unit with the insertion and detachable afixment of said capture screw through the bushing and encompassed spring into said guide rod's distal hollowed out and threaded end such that all of which all that is exposed is the distal end of said capture screw 32.
 It is to be understood that the present invention is not limited to the embodiment described above, but encompasses any and all embodiments within the scope of the following claims.