# Timing correction

## Subclass of:

## 367 - Communications, electrical: acoustic wave systems and devices

## 367014000 - SEISMIC PROSPECTING

## 367037000 - Land-reflection type

## 367038000 - Signal analysis and/or correction

### Patent class list (only not empty are listed)

#### Deeper subclasses:

Class / Patent application number | Description | Number of patent applications / Date published |
---|---|---|

367050000 | Timing correction | 66 |

20080247272 | Method for reducing 3-D migration operator to 2-D migration operator for inhomogeneous media - Time slices of seismic data are transformed from rectangular space-time domain to cylindrical space-time domain. 2-D seismic migration is performed on the transformed data for each radial direction. Slices of the migrated data are inverse transformed back to the rectangular space-time domain, generated migrated 3-D data for generally inhomogeneous media. | 10-09-2008 |

20090245023 | A METHOD FOR REFLECTION TIME SHIFT MATCHING A FIRST AND A SECOND SET OF SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA - A method is disclosed for reflection time shift matching a first and a second set of seismic reflection data ( | 10-01-2009 |

20100034053 | Autonomous Seismic Data Acquisition Unit - A method, apparatus and system for acquiring land seismic data includes acquiring seismic data with a first autonomous seismic data acquisition unit and a second autonomous seismic data acquisition unit wherein each acquisition unit comprises a plurality of digitally controlled temperature-compensated crystal oscillators. Oscillator-based timing signals are acquired that are associated with the plurality of digitally controlled temperature compensated crystal oscillators and a time correction is determined to apply to the seismic data acquired with the first autonomous seismic data acquisition unit. The time correction is determined using the oscillator-based timing signals from the first and second autonomous seismic data acquisition units. | 02-11-2010 |

20100067328 | INTERFEROMETRIC DIRECTIONAL BALANCING - A method for estimating seismic data from sources of noise in the earth. The method includes calculating a first set of Green's functions between a first seismic receiver and each seismic receiver of an array of seismic receivers using interferometry. The array of seismic receivers is disposed around the first seismic receiver, and the first seismic receiver is part of the array of seismic receivers. The method also includes calculating one or more correction factors to correct the first set of Green's functions and calculating a second set of Green's functions between each seismic receiver of the array and a second seismic receiver using interferometry. Here, the first seismic receiver is disposed at a predetermined distance away from the second seismic receiver. Also, the first set and the second set of Green's functions are biased due to non-identical strengths of the sources of noise. The method then applies the correction factors to the second set of Green's functions to create a set of unbiased Green's functions between each seismic receiver of the array and the second seismic receiver. | 03-18-2010 |

20100118651 | METHOD FOR GENERATION OF IMAGES RELATED TO A SUBSURFACE REGION OF INTEREST - A method and system for generating images of a subsurface region of interest. In general, one embodiment of the present invention includes establishing boundary conditions utilizing seismic data and initial conditions which include excitation from source locations in an earth model. Source wavefields are then propagated forward through the earth model to a maximum time, and saved at a plurality of checkpoints sparsely in time and also corresponding boundary values of the source wavefields at each time step are saved. Source wavefields are also propagated backward through the earth model from the maximum time utilizing the plurality of checkpoints when available and the saved boundary values at each time step. Receiver wavefields are propagated backward concurrently through the earth model from the maximum time. Imaging conditions are applied at selected time steps to both the backward propagated source wavefields and receiver wavefields and those wavefields are utilized to generate images related to the subsurface region. | 05-13-2010 |

20110019502 | PRACTICAL AUTONOMOUS SEISMIC RECORDER IMPLEMENTATION AND USE - Seismic systems and methods are provided to synchronize both source and receiver data using inexpensive timers and/or low energy timers to obtain high resolution seismic data. | 01-27-2011 |

20110032798 | APPARATUS FOR CORRECTING THE TIMING FUNCTION IN A NODAL SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION UNIT - A wireless seismic data acquisition unit with a wireless receiver providing access to a common remote time reference shared by a plurality of wireless seismic data acquisition units in a seismic system. The receiver is capable of replicating local version of remote time epoch to which a seismic sensor analog-to-digital converter is synchronized. The receiver is capable of replicating local version of remote common time reference for the purpose of time stamping local node events. The receiver is capable of being placed in a low power, non-operational state over periods of time during which the seismic data acquisition unit continues to record seismic data, thus conserving unit battery power. The system implements a method to correct the local time clock based on intermittent access to the common remote time reference. The method corrects the local time clock via a voltage controlled oscillator to account for environmentally induced timing errors. The invention further provides for a more stable method of correcting drift in the local time clock. | 02-10-2011 |

20110075515 | ESTIMATION OF TIME SHIFT BASED ON MULTI-VINTAGE SEISMIC DATA - The invention is a method of calculating seismic time shifts Δ{right arrow over (t)}(t), comprising: | 03-31-2011 |

20110141850 | Electromagnetic system for timing synchronization and location determination for seismic sensing systems having autonomous (NODAL) recording units - A synchronization system for a nodal geophysical data recorder includes an electromagnetic transmitter associated with a master recording unit. The master unit includes devices for determining time and geodetic position from an external reference. The transmitter includes a code generator to cause transmission of a time synchronization signal as a coded sequence. The transmitter is configured to induce an electromagnetic field in at least one of subsurface rock formations and a body of water. At least one nodal geophysical data recorder includes at least one geophysical data sensor. The at least one sensor has measurements therefrom stored in a data storage device associated with the recorder wherein the recorder includes a clock for time indexing the stored data measurements. The recorder includes a receiver for detecting and decoding the time synchronization signal in the coded sequence to synchronize the clock with the synchronization signal. | 06-16-2011 |

20110205845 | VIBROSEIS SEISMIC ACQUISITION TECHNIQUE - A technique includes monitoring acquisition activity of a plurality of seismic vibrators. The technique includes receiving signals from the seismic vibrators during the monitoring. Each of the signals indicates that at least one of the seismic vibrators is available for an associated seismic operation. The technique includes, in response to the signals, regulating the operations based on the monitored acquisition activity. | 08-25-2011 |

20110317519 | REVERSE TIME MIGRATION WITH ABSORBING AND RANDOM BOUNDARIES - Images relating to a subsurface region may be generated based at least in part on a backward propagated source wavefield and a receiver wavefield. A source wavefield may be propagated from an initial wavefield-state forward in time, from an initial time-state to a final time-state, through an earth model associated with the subsurface region. The backward propagated source wavefield may be determined by propagating the source wavefield backward in time, from the final time-state to the initial time-state, through the earth model to reconstruct the initial wavefield-state. The receiver wavefield may be propagated, from the final time-state, through the earth model. The earth model may include at least one boundary region that can be defined as having one or more of absorbing characteristics, boosting characteristics, randomly perturbed characteristics, and/or other characteristics. As such, wavefields may be dampened, amplified, randomly scattered, and/or otherwise altered at the at least one boundary region. These wavefields may be used for constructing images of subsurface regions with improved signal-to-noise ratios. | 12-29-2011 |

20120026833 | 3-D HARMONIC-SOURCE REVERSE TIME MIGRATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SEISMIC DATA ANALYSIS - Computing device and method for processing seismic traces to produce an image of a subsurface area. The method includes receiving a series of seismic traces related to the subsurface area and recorded by one or more seismic receivers, wherein the one or more seismic sources are originally generated by a source; applying a phase encoding function to the series of seismic traces, at least a portion of said seismic traces comprise signals reflected by geological interfaces of the subsurface area; applying a 3 dimensional (3D) harmonic-source reverse time migration of the series of seismic traces encoded with the phase encoding function; computing a forward wavefield by solving a first wave equation; computing a backward wavefield by solving a second wave equation; and cross-correlating the forward wavefield with the backward wavefield to generate an image of the subsurface. | 02-02-2012 |

20120236685 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR SEISMIC IMAGING WITH REDUCED COMPUTATIONAL COST - A computer-implemented method, system, and article of manufacture for generating images of a subsurface region are disclosed. The method includes obtaining seismic data and an earth model related to the subsurface region, forward propagating a source wavefield through the earth model for a limited time range dependent on a first travel time and a second travel time, backward propagating a receiver wavefield through the earth model for the limited time range dependent on the first travel time and the second travel time, and applying an imaging condition to the forward propagated source wavefield and backward propagated receiver wavefield to generate images related to the subsurface region. The first travel time is a length of time taken by seismic energy to travel from a seismic source to an image point in the subsurface region and the second travel time is a length of time taken by seismic energy to travel from a seismic receiver to the image point in the subsurface region. The limited time range is between the first travel time and the second travel time subtracted from a maximum travel time. | 09-20-2012 |

20130003499 | INTERFEROMETRIC METHOD OF ENHANCING PASSIVE SEISMIC EVENTS - The interferometric method of enhancing passive seismic events includes the step of cross-correlation (CC) of the trace recorded at a reference receiver location with the traces recorded at the rest of receiver locations. Next, the CC traces are aligned to zero timing by applying shifts that are calculated by searching for the position of the maximum CC trace value. Subsequently, the aligned CC traces are summed to produce a stacked CC trace that has a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) better than the individual CC traces. Lastly, the stacked CC trace is convolved with each raw trace to put the MS event at the correct timing. Due to this process, the timing of the MS event on the i-th convolved trace, tccasci, will be equal to the timing of the MS event on the corresponding i-th raw trace, i.e., tccasci=ti. | 01-03-2013 |

20130135968 | Synchronization of Modules in a Wireless Array - Presented are systems and methods for wireless data acquisition. The wireless data acquisition may involve synchronizing modules within a data acquisition array. The synchronized data acquisition array may be used to facilitate a seismic survey. Synchronization may be facilitated by receipt of a reference time event such that a clock is synchronized based on the reference time event. | 05-30-2013 |

20130279292 | SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING INCLUDING PREDICTING MULTIPLES USING A REVERSE TIME DEMIGRATION - Methods and systems for generating a stable reverse time demigration (RTDM) equation for predicting wave phenomena such as reflections, refractions and multiples are described. A coupling term is added to an RTDM equation and reflectivity associated with the coupling term is replaced with a pseudo-density function derived from a nonlinear equation. The resultant coupled and stabilized RTDM equation is then used to predict the desired wave phenomena based on the applied seismic image. | 10-24-2013 |

20140086010 | LAND BASED SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION UNIT - A wireless seismic data acquisition unit with a wireless receiver providing access to a common remote time reference shared by a plurality of wireless seismic data acquisition units in a seismic system. The receiver is capable of replicating local version of remote time epoch to which a seismic sensor analog-to-digital converter is synchronized. The receiver is capable of replicating local version of remote common time reference for the purpose of time stamping local node events. The receiver is capable of being placed in a low power, non-operational state over periods of time during which the seismic data acquisition unit continues to record seismic data, thus conserving unit battery power. The system implements a method to correct the local time clock based on intermittent access to the common remote time reference. The method corrects the local time clock via a voltage controlled oscillator to account for environmentally induced timing errors. The invention further provides for a more stable method of correcting drift in the local time clock. | 03-27-2014 |

20140204711 | SIMULTANEOUS WAVELET EXTRACTION AND DECONVOLUTION PROCESSING IN THE TIME DOMAIN - Blind wavelet extraction and de-convolution is performed on seismic data to enable its practical usage in seismic processing and to provide quality control of data obtained in areas where data from wells are not available. The wavelet extraction and deconvolution are realized in the time domain by iteration, producing a mixed phase wavelet with minimal prior knowledge of the actual nature of the wavelet. As a result of the processing, the de-convolved seismic reflectivity is obtained simultaneously. | 07-24-2014 |

20140328140 | METHOD APPARATUS AND SYSTEM FOR MIGRATION NOISE ATTENUATION AND IMAGE ENHANCEMENT - A method for processing seismic data includes receiving seismic data and a velocity model (c(x)) for a plurality of locations (x), scaling a dimension of the seismic data according to the velocity model (c(x)) to provide a velocity normalized seismic data, and generating a final image (S(x)) of the subsurface using the velocity normalized seismic data. The velocity normalized seismic data may be a reverse-time migration image (I(x,ξ)) corresponding to the plurality of locations (x) and a plurality of propagation distance offsets (ξ). The method may also include transforming the reverse-time migration image (I(x,ξ)) for the plurality of selected positions (x) to a wavenumber domain to provide velocity normalized wavenumber data (I(k,ψ)) and suppressing data components corresponding to non-physical or undefined reflection angles to provide enhanced wavenumber data (I′(k,ψ)) and using the enhanced wavenumber data (I′(k,ψ)) to generate the final image (S(x)). A corresponding apparatus is also disclosed herein. | 11-06-2014 |

20190146110 | METHOD FOR TIME DRIFT MEASUREMENT, SEISMIC NODE AND SEISMIC NODE HANDLING SYSTEM | 05-16-2019 |

367051000 | Dynamic timing correction | 17 |

20090080290 | Method and apparatus for correcting the timing function in a nodal seismic data acquisition unit - A wireless seismic data acquisition unit with a wireless receiver providing access to a common remote time reference shared by a plurality of wireless seismic data acquisition units in a seismic system. The receiver is capable of replicating local version of remote time epoch to which a seismic sensor analog-to-digital converter is synchronized. The receiver is capable of replicating local version of remote common time reference for the purpose of time stamping local node events. The receiver is capable of being placed in a low power, non-operational state over periods of time during which the seismic data acquisition unit continues to record seismic data, thus conserving unit battery power. The system implements a method to correct the local time clock based on intermittent access to the common remote time reference. The method corrects the local time clock via a voltage controlled oscillator to account for environmentally induced timing errors. The invention further provides for a more stable method of correcting drift in the local time clock. | 03-26-2009 |

20090122644 | Method and a System for Determining the Position of a Drill Bit - A method and a system for determining the position of a drill bit are presented. The method comprises determining positions of seismic wave detectors, recording seismic waves generated at the drill bit, identifying events at the drill bit, determining a plurality of relative positions of the drill bit, and determining, based at least partly on a starting position and a sum of the relative positions, an absolute position of the drill bit. The method further comprises determining a position of the drill bit at a second event in relation to a position of the drill bit at a first event, and determining a second seismic wave propagation velocity between the drill bit and at least one of the detectors, based at least partly on the determined position of the drill bit at the second event. | 05-14-2009 |

20110090759 | Seismic Acquisition System - Various technologies for a seismic acquisition system, which may include an acquisition central system configured to determine a desired start time for a sweep cycle in one or more vibrators and a recorder source system controller in communication with the acquisition central system. The recorder source system controller may be configured to receive the desired start time from the acquisition central system. The seismic acquisition system may further include one or more vibrator units in communication with the recorder source system controller. Each vibrator unit may be configured to start a sweep cycle in a vibrator at the desired start time. | 04-21-2011 |

20110317520 | SYSTEM FOR ACQUIRING SEISMIC DATA OVER SAND DUNE SURFACES - A system for acquiring seismic data over sand dune surfaces is provided. The system includes a seismic wave generator for emitting a plurality of seismic signals into the Earth in an area covered by sand dunes. The system also includes a sand streamer for acquiring seismic data over the sand dune surfaces, such that the sand streamer includes a plurality of geophones. The plurality of geophones receive a plurality of wave signals transmitted from a subsurface corresponding to the sand dune surface, in response to emission of the plurality of seismic signals to the area of the sand dune surface by the seismic wave generator. Each geophone of the plurality of geophones is mounted on a panel wherein, one or more sides of the panel are coupled loosely to one or more rigid plates. The one or more rigid plates provide stability and mobility to assembly of panels and the plurality of geophones, thereby enabling the sand streamer to move efficiently over the surface of the sand dune. The system further includes a processor for receiving the seismic data from the sand streamer and for processing the seismic data to perform seismic survey of the sand dune surface. | 12-29-2011 |

20130088940 | DEVICE AND METHOD FOR SOURCE MECHANISM IDENTIFICATION - Computing device, software and method for identifying a source mechanism associated with a microseismic event taking place in a subsurface of the earth. The method includes receiving traces associated with a plurality of receivers located in a grid above the subsurface; dividing the grid in a set of sub-blocks, determining, for each sub-block, a corresponding summation element based on traces associated with the corresponding sub-block; identifying a predetermined number of patterns that are associated with plural source mechanisms; multiplying each summation element by a polarization coefficient according to a corresponding pattern; calculating for each pattern, a semblance function based on summation elements of the sub-blocks; and identifying the source mechanism of the microseismic event based on the semblance function. | 04-11-2013 |

20130182537 | DEVICE AND METHOD FOR ESTIMATING TIME-SHIFTS - Computing device and method for calculating time-shifts associated with travel-times of seismic waves emitted by a source and recorded by plural seismic detectors after reflection from a subsurface structure. The method includes receiving seismic data (d) that includes plural traces related to a subsurface, wherein the seismic data (d) is in a time-space domain; transforming with a processor the seismic data (d) from the time-space domain to a radon domain; picking linear events from the seismic data in the radon domain; calculating the time-shifts associated with the picked linear events; correcting the seismic data (d) based on the time-shifts to obtain new seismic data (d′); and computing an image of the subsurface based on the new seismic data (d′). The time-shifts are calculated per trace and per event. | 07-18-2013 |

367052000 | Normal moveout | 11 |

20080232196 | METHOD OF ACCOUNTING FOR WAVELET STRETCH IN SEISMIC DATA - A computer-implemented method of accounting for angle-dependent wavelet stretch in seismic data based on a novel relationship between wavelet stretch and the cosine of a reflection angle of an acoustic ray. Conventional seismic data having at least one wavelet, such as data generated from a reflection seismic survey, is accessed. The data is processed such that at least one wavelet is subject to angle-dependent wavelet stretch. A reflection angle for at least one wavelet is also determined. An operator is utilized to calculate a wavelet stretch factor for at least one wavelet based on the cosine of the corresponding reflection angle of the wavelet. The wavelet stretch factor is applied to the seismic data to account for angle-dependent wavelet stretch. | 09-25-2008 |

20080304359 | Processing Seismic Data - A method of processing seismic data including convolving at least first and second seismic data traces or respective portions of at least first and second seismic data traces to forma composite trace. The travel time of an event may then be determined in the composite trace. This provides an improved method compared to the prior art technique of picking the travel time of an event individually in each one of a number of seismic data traces and averaging the individual picked travel times. | 12-11-2008 |

20090213692 | Method for three dimensional seismic travel time tomography in transversely isotropic media - A method for estimating seismic velocities in vertically transversely isotropic media includes generating an initial estimate of vertical interval velocity and interval normal moveout velocity with respect to depth from seismic data. An initial estimate is generated of a first anisotropy parameter with respect to depth. The first anisotropy parameter is related to the interval normal moveout velocity and the interval vertical velocity. An initial estimate is generated with respect to depth of a second anisotropy parameter. The second anisotropy parameter is related to the first anisotropy parameter and an interval anelliptic parameter. A first tomographic inversion is performed with respect to the interval normal moveout velocity and the second anisotropy parameter at a constant value of the first anisotropy parameter until travel time differentials reach minimum values. Layer depths are adjusted with the initial estimate of vertical interval velocity. Using values of the second anisotropy parameter determined in the first tomographic inversion, a second tomographic inversion is performed of interval normal moveout velocity and the first anisotropy parameter with respect to depth. The adjusted layer depths, interval normal moveout velocities and interval vertical velocities are again adjusted and interval anelliptic parameters are calculated from the second tomographic inversion. | 08-27-2009 |

20100039894 | METHOD FOR SEPARATING INDEPENDENT SIMULTANEOUS SOURCES - This is a method of separating simultaneous sources that uses an inversion-type approach. Each source will preferably activated at a random time with respect to the others. These random delays tend to make the interference between sources incoherent while the reflections create coherent events within a series of shots. The shot separation is performed via a numerical inversion process that utilizes the sweeps for each shot, the start times of each shot, and the coherence of reflection events between nearby shots. This method will allow seismic surveys to be acquired faster and cheaper. | 02-18-2010 |

20100074052 | INTERBED MULTIPLE PREDICTION - A method and apparatus for predicting interbed multiples is described herein. Trace geometries may be generated for one or more desired shot-side traces, one or more desired receiver-side traces, and one or more desired interbed multiple generator traces, for a first target trace. A first set of reflections at the interbed multiple generator layer may be extracted from one or more recorded traces closest to the desired interbed multiple generator traces. A second set of reflections below the interbed multiple generator layer may be extracted from one or more recorded traces closest to the desired shot-side traces. A third set of reflections below the interbed multiple generator layer may be extracted from one or more recorded traces closest to the desired receiver-side traces. The interbed multiples for the first target trace may be estimated based on the first set, the second set, and the third set. | 03-25-2010 |

20100118652 | Determination of depth moveout and of residual radii of curvature in the common angle domain - A method is disclosed for processing seismic data. The method includes prestack depth migrating seismic measurements to compute common angle domain image gathers with an initial depth model. Residual moveout analysis is performed in the common angle domain, moveout corrections are derived in terms of the residual radii of curvature at zero reflection angle. Corrections for larger reflection angles are obtained from separate analyses for the coefficients of suitable series expansions. The residual radii of curvature at zero reflection angle can be used to improve the signal to noise ratio of the migrated data and to assess or improve the velocity model used for the prestack depth migration. | 05-13-2010 |

20100265798 | Seismic Data Processing Method for RMO Picking - The invention relates to a method of processing seismic data, the said seismic data comprising a gather of seismic traces organised according to one or several acquisition parameters, comprising the steps of: | 10-21-2010 |

20110007604 | METHOD FOR PROPAGATING PSEUDO ACOUSTIC QUASI-P WAVES IN ANISOTROPIC MEDIA - A computer-implemented method for pseudo acoustic quasi-P wave propagation which remain stable in anisotropic media with variable tilt and is not limited to weak anisotropic conditions. The method includes acquiring a seismic exploration volume for a subsurface region of interest, and determining a modeling geometry for the seismic exploration volume. The method further includes propagating at least one wavefield through the seismic exploration volume utilizing the modeling geometry and initial conditions and preventing the accumulation of energy along the axis of symmetry of the seismic exploration volume and ensuring positive stiffness coefficients in the stress-strain relations through the use of finite quasi-S wave velocities thereby producing a stable wavefield. The method includes utilizing the stable wavefield to generate subsurface images of the subsurface region of interest. | 01-13-2011 |

20110292765 | Method for Bispectral Picking of Anelliptical NMO Correction Parameters - Method of determining the velocity V and anellipticity η parameters for processing seismic traces in a common midpoint (CMP) gather comprising:—a preliminary step to define a plurality of nodes (dtn, τ | 12-01-2011 |

20120057431 | GENERATING INVERSION READY SEISMIC DATA - A technique includes receiving first seismic data acquired by one or more receivers in response to energy produced by one or more seismic sources interacting with a subsurface feature. The first seismic data is indicative of measured reflection coefficients for image points for the subsurface feature, the measured reflection coefficients are associated with incidence angles, and a range of the incidence angles varies with respect to an image point position. The technique includes processing the first seismic data in a machine to generate second data indicative of a normal incidence reflection coefficient for at least one of the image points not associated with a normal angle of incidence. | 03-08-2012 |

20140301165 | SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING USING JOINT TOMOGRAPHY - Various implementations directed to seismic data processing using joint tomography are provided. In one implementation, a method may include receiving seismic data corresponding to a region of interest. The method may also include generating one or more first gathers and one or more second gathers based on the seismic data. The method may further include determining a relative shift in depth between at least a first event in the one or more first gathers and at least a second event in the one or more second gathers. The method may additionally include performing a joint tomography based at least in part on the first event, the second event, and the determined relative shift. | 10-09-2014 |

367053000 | For dip | 28 |

20090010105 | SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR MIGRATION OF SEISMIC SIGNALS INCORPORATING AZIMUTHAL VARIATIONS IN THE VELOCITY - A method and system for seismic data processing utilizes azimuthal variations in the velocity of seismic signals. The system and method utilizes a plurality of seismic energy sources that are located at known positions at the surface of the earth. The seismic energy sources generate seismic signals that propagate downward into the earth. Some of the seismic signals are reflected and diffracted by various sub-surface layers and are returned to the surface of the earth. The returned seismic signals are received by a plurality of receivers. The method includes the step of determining the distance from an energy source to an image point. A fast travel time of the seismic signal from the energy source to the image point is determined, and a slow travel time of the seismic signal from the energy source to the image point is determined. The azimuth angle between the energy source and the surface location of the image point is calculated. A first travel time of the seismic signal traveling from the energy source to the image point is calculated. A second travel time of the seismic signal traveling from the image point to the seismic receiver is calculated. The total travel time is calculated by adding the first and second travel time. The amplitudes from the recorded signal at the total travel time are phase adjusted and added into the output image at the image point. The foregoing steps are repeated for a plurality of image points beneath the surface of the earth and the total travel time is calculated. | 01-08-2009 |

20090052280 | Method of seismic data processing - The invention relates to a method of seismic data processing, wherein the data includes a set of seismic traces, with each trace including a signal that has been recorded by a sensor after having been propagated in a subsurface area, with the signal being defined by an amplitude as a function of time, including the steps of: | 02-26-2009 |

20090257308 | Migration velocity analysis methods - A method of performing migration velocity analysis may include: obtaining seismic data and an initial velocity model; determining reflection points; deriving a wavepath backprojection operator based on the initial velocity model and the reflection points by constructing wavepaths from each reflection point of the reflection points; and performing a traveltime inversion using the wavepath backprojection operator. The initial velocity model may be updated based on the traveltime inversion. Determining reflection points may be automated by calculating reflection points based on results from a depth migration algorithm performed on the initial velocity model. Selection of residual moveout values may be automated by selecting based on a dip field for each prestack gather obtained from a depth migration algorithm performed on the initial velocity model. Residual traveltimes may be calculated using the selected residual moveout values. The residual traveltimes may be used in the traveltime inversion. | 10-15-2009 |

20100054082 | Reverse-time depth migration with reduced memory requirements - A method of prestack reverse-time migration of seismic data that yields significant gains in computer storage and memory bandwidth efficiency is disclosed. The values only of the source wave incident on the boundaries of a simulation domain are saved, rather than all of the values of the wavefield throughout the entire simulation domain. This data allows an accurate and robust approximation of the forward propagated source wave for all finite-difference approximation orders of the acoustic wave equation. The method reduces the amount of data storage required by an order of magnitude and overcomes the present challenge of requiring special large memory hardware while allowing for the implementation of 3D prestack reverse-time migration on off-the-shelf platforms. | 03-04-2010 |

20100054083 | MEASURING AND MODIFYING DIRECTIONALITY OF SEISMIC INTERFEROMETRY DATA - Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for replacing the individual receivers used with a seismic interferometry process with an array of seismic receivers and then manipulating the array data in order to measure and modify the typical non-uniform directionality function of the background seismic energy. The non-uniform directionality function is a significant cause of noise with seismic interferometry. Furthermore, the array of receivers may be used to significantly enhance the preferred reflection energy and damp undesirable near surface energy. The directionality function may be modified by using an array of receivers for the virtual source location of seismic interferometry to measure the non-uniform directionality function, generating multiplication factors, and applying the multiplication factors to convert the measured directionality function into a desired directionality function. | 03-04-2010 |

20100097888 | Separation and Noise Removal for Multiple Vibratory Source Seismic Data - The invention discloses a way to recover separated seismograms with reduced interference noise by processing vibroseis data recorded (or computer simulated) with multiple vibrators shaking simultaneously or nearly simultaneously ( | 04-22-2010 |

20100110832 | Fourier finite-difference migration for three dimensional tilted transverse isotropic media - A method for migrating three dimensional seismic data in tilted transversely isotropic media (“TTI”) is based on generating numerical solutions to an exact relationship for a three dimensional dispersion relationship of seismic energy traveling through TTI media. The numerical solutions use selected input values of polar angle and azimuth angle of a transverse isotropic axis of symmetry, and selected values of Thomsen anisotropic parameters to generate tables of numerical values. Based on the tables of numerical values, optimized coefficients for a finite-difference relationship are estimated along multiple splitting directions. The seismic data are then migrated using a three dimensional Fourier finite difference extrapolation algorithm. | 05-06-2010 |

20100149917 | Method For Geophysical and Geological Interpretation of Seismic Volumes In The Domains of Depth, Time, and Age - A method of transforming geologic data relating to a subsurface region between a geophysical depth domain and a geologic age domain is disclosed. A set of topologically consistent surfaces is obtained that correspond to seismic data. The surfaces are enumerated in the depth domain. An age is assigned to each surface in the depth domain. The age corresponds to an estimated time of deposition of the respective surface. An age mapping volume is generated. An extent of the age domain is chosen. A depth mapping volume is generated. Both the age mapping volume and the depth mapping volume are used to transform geophysical, geologic, or engineering data or interpretations between the depth domain and the age domain and vice versa. The geophysical, geologic, or engineering data or interpretations transformed by at least one of the age mapping volume and the depth mapping volume are outputted. | 06-17-2010 |

20100296367 | METHOD OF IMAGING A TARGET AREA OF THE SUBSOIL FROM WALKAWAY TYPE DATA - A method of imaging a target area of the subsoil from “walkaway” data having application to development of oil reservoirs or monitoring of geologic storage sites is disclosed. After acquisition of seismic data of walkaway type and estimation of the rate of propagation of the seismic waves in the subsoil, p illumination angles are selected. The seismic measurements are then converted to data D | 11-25-2010 |

20100329079 | Method for dynamic aperture determination for three-dimensional surface-related multiple elimination - Dips are calculated for a series of sets of adjacent multiple contribution traces, from seismic data representative of subsurface formations, in the vicinity of a boundary of an aperture of a multiple contribution gather, the seismic data acquired by deploying a plurality of seismic sensors proximate an area of the earth's subsurface to be evaluated, the seismic sensors generating at least one of an electrical and optical signal in response to seismic energy. The boundary of the aperture of the multiple contribution gather is recursively extended, based on the calculated dips. Multiple contribution traces in the multiple contribution gather with the extended aperture boundary are stacked to generate predicted multiple traces. The predicted multiple traces are subtracted from the seismic data to generate surface-related multiple attenuated data useful for imaging the subsurface formations. | 12-30-2010 |

20110002194 | Method For Geophysical and Geological Interpretation of Seismic Volumes In The Domains of Depth, Time, and Age - Method for transforming geologic data relating to a subsurface region between a geophysical depth domain and a geologic age domain. A set of topologically consistent surfaces ( | 01-06-2011 |

20110069582 | SLANT-STACK FOR TIME GATHER TO ANGLE GATHER CONVERSION - A method to correct errors in a conversion from time gather to angle gather using slant stacks wherein the slant stacking is performed along a direction that is normal to a dip or along three orthogonal directions. The slant stacking is performed in various domains. | 03-24-2011 |

20110075516 | Seismic Imaging Systems and Methods Employing Tomographic Migration-Velocity Analysis Using Common Angle Image Gathers - In at least some embodiments, the system obtains shot gathers for a survey region and migrates the shot gather data with an initial velocity model to obtain angle-domain common image gathers. The system processes the common image gathers to determine depth residuals and corresponding angle-dependent time deviations throughout a seismic survey region. The system solves a set of tomographic equations which employ ray theory to establish a relationship between a travel time deviation and the depth residual of a reflector in the depth-offset ray parameter (z,p) domain. The resulting updates are applied to the velocity model and can be used to re-migrate the shot gather data. The system generates a representation of the survey region that can be displayed to a user. | 03-31-2011 |

20110103185 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR SEISMIC BEAM FORMATION THAT ACCOUNTS FOR EQUIPMENT MISALIGNMENT - Seismic data representing the propagation of seismic energy through a geologic volume of interest is processed. The seismic energy propagates through the geologic volume of interest from one or more source locations at or near the geologic volume of interest to one or more detector locations at or near the geologic volume of interest. In processing the seismic data, the seismic energy is modeled as beams (e.g., Gaussian beams). The processing performed (i) corrects for misalignment of the one or more source locations and/or the one or more detector locations with a regular, predetermined mesh, and (ii) steers the seismic data based on the modeled beams. | 05-05-2011 |

20110317521 | CORRECTING GEOMETRY-RELATED TIME AND AMPLITUDE ERRORS - A method for predicting a plurality of surface multiples for a plurality of target traces in a record of seismic data acquired in a survey area. The method includes selecting a target trace and identifying two or more desired traces for multiple prediction based on the target trace. After identifying the desired traces, the method identifies one or more recorded traces for each desired trace. Each identified recorded trace is described as being substantially close to one of the desired traces. The method then includes correcting the identified recorded traces for one or more geometry-related effects associated with the survey area and convolving the corrected recorded traces to generate a plurality of convolutions. After convolving the corrected recorded traces, the method then stacks the convolutions. | 12-29-2011 |

20120092962 | Generating an Angle Domain Common Image Gather - A technique includes processing first data indicative of a first image of a subsurface region of interest on a machine to generate second data indicative of a second image. The first image is derived from measurements of seismic waves, which propagate in a plurality of directions, and the second image is generated by partitioning the first image based on the directions. The technique includes processing the second data to determine a dip decomposition for each of the directions; and based on the dip decompositions and the directions, generating an angle domain common image gather. | 04-19-2012 |

20120257477 | AMPLITUDE CONTRAST SEISMIC ATTRIBUTE - A method for visualizing seismic data of a subterranean formation, including obtaining an estimated dip field of the subterranean formation, wherein the estimated dip field represents a measure of deviation of a stratigraphic layer from flat, extracting a matrix data item surrounding a voxel of the seismic data, wherein the matrix data item is extracted from the seismic data based on a value of the estimated dip field surrounding the voxel, generating modified seismic data by at least applying a matrix operator to the seismic data, wherein the matrix operator calculates a partial derivative of the seismic data using the matrix data item, and displaying the modified seismic data. | 10-11-2012 |

20120275268 | DEVICE AND METHOD FOR EXTRAPOLATING SPECULAR ENERGY OF REVERSE TIME MIGRATION THREE DIMENSIONAL ANGLE GATHERS - Computer instructions, computing device and method for processing seismic data under-sampled in an angle domain, the seismic data corresponding to a reverse time migration, three-dimensional, angle domain common image gather (ADCIG). The method includes receiving the seismic data; calculating, based on the seismic data, shot and receiver wave-fields with an RTM wave propagation engine; applying a wave-fields decomposition algorithm to obtain a propagation direction for the shot and receiver wave-fields; forming the ADCIG by applying an image condition to the shot and receiver wave-fields; determining that specular energies of the ADCIG are under-sampled around a reflection angle; during the step of forming the ADCIG, extrapolating the specular energies to a neighborhood of the reflection angle; and generating an image of a subsurface that is being surveyed based on the extrapolated specular energies. | 11-01-2012 |

20120307593 | NON-LINEAR TOMOGRAPHY METHOD FOR MAIN AXIS OF SYMMETRY OF ANISOTROPIC VELOCITY MODEL AND APPARATUS - Device and method for estimating an event-related main anisotropy axis for a volume in a subsurface. The method includes selecting a velocity migration model for the given volume of the subsurface; receiving seismic data for the given volume; migrating the seismic data based on the velocity migration model; picking locally coherent events from the migrated data; and performing a tomographic process based on invariants to calculate the event-related main anisotropy axis. | 12-06-2012 |

20120320712 | DIP SEISMIC ATTRIBUTE - A method can include, within a neighborhood, selecting a sample seismic trace and neighboring seismic traces, individually time shifting each of the neighboring seismic traces with respect to the sample seismic trace to determine a set of individual time shift values that correspond to individual maximum cross correlation values for each of the neighboring seismic traces with respect to the sample seismic trace, determining series of inline direction and crossline direction first derivative values for the set of time shift values, determining an inline average dip value and a crossline average dip value based on the series of first derivative values, and storing to a memory storage device, coordinates for the sample seismic trace, the inline average dip value, and the crossline average dip value. Various other apparatuses, systems, methods, etc., are also disclosed. | 12-20-2012 |

20130100771 | Near-Offset Extrapolation For Free-Surface Multiple Elimination In Shallow Marine Environment - The invention is a method for extrapolating missing near-offset seismic data ( | 04-25-2013 |

20130182538 | REVERSE TIME MIGRATION MODEL DIP-GUIDED IMAGING - Computing systems and methods to producing a reverse time migration model dip-guided image using processed vertical seismic profile data are provided. In one embodiment, vertical seismic profile data for a subsurface geological formation is obtained. One or more dip estimates corresponding to the subsurface geological formation are also obtained. One or more model dip-guided reverse time migration imaging conditions are determined and applied to the obtained vertical seismic profile data to produce the processed vertical seismic profile data. | 07-18-2013 |

20130242699 | SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING AND APPARATUS - There is a method of seismic data processing that includes receiving seismic data that includes a set of seismic traces, each trace including a signal recorded by a sensor after having been propagated in a subsurface area; migrating the seismic data according to a first velocity model; picking from the time-migrated seismic data one or more events corresponding to one or more subsurface reflectors so as to obtain a set of facets locally approximating the event; kinematic demigrating the picked set of facets so as to obtain simplified seismic data that includes the set of facets and a set of attributes associated with the set of facets; migrating the set of facets based on a second velocity model; and updating the initial velocity model based on an alignment of migrated points within the set of facets. | 09-19-2013 |

20140086011 | STRIKE AND DIP TOOLTIP FOR SEISMIC SECTIONS - A method for displaying exploration and production (E&P) data set during an E&P tool session of a field having a subterranean formation. The method includes generating, by an E&P tool executing on a computer processor during the E&P tool session, an E&P data set based on a subterranean formation field data set, displaying, to a user controlling the E&P tool session, the E&P data set as a multi-dimensional canvas, generating, by the computer processor and in response to a user input identifying a point in the multi-dimensional canvas, a strike&dip tool tip, and further displaying the strike&dip tool tip superimposing the multi-dimensional canvas, wherein the strike&dip tool tip is tagged to the point in the multi-dimensional canvas. | 03-27-2014 |

20140133275 | Process for Creating Image Gathers - The process of obtaining seismic data includes deploying a seismic energy source and seismic receivers, actuating the source, and detecting seismic energy resulting therefrom at the receivers. The process further includes digitally sampling seismic energy detected at the receivers indexed with respect to time to form a plurality of traces and sorting the traces to form a plurality of shot gathers. In addition, the process includes applying a depth migration technique to the shot gathers to generate two images according to the cross-correlation imaging condition (I | 05-15-2014 |

20140185413 | DIP SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES - A method can include receiving a request for a dip value for a location within a sub-surface volume; responsive to the request, locating complimentary dip values for locations within the sub-surface volume where the location for the requested dip value lies within bounds defined by the locations for the complimentary dips values; and interpolating a value for the requested dip value based on the complimentary dip values. Various other apparatuses, systems, methods, etc., are also disclosed. | 07-03-2014 |

20140293744 | SPECULAR FILTER (SF) AND DIP ORIENTED PARTIAL IMAGING (DOPI) SEISMIC MIGRATION - According to one embodiment, subsurface ray directions in beam migration or subsurface wave propagation directions in reverse time migrations are used to obtain additional Specular Filter (SF) and Dip Oriented Partial Imaging (DOPI) images. SF migration applies a specular imaging condition during migration with a pre-specified subsurface dip field. It boosts the S/N ratio in both images and gathers, by effectively removing migration noise. DOPI images are produced by decomposing a standard migration image according to subsurface dip inclination or/and dip azimuth groups, providing various views of the subsurface image. Both SF and DOPI migration images can supply valuable additional information compared to a standard migration image, and they can be efficiently generated during migration. | 10-02-2014 |

20150355355 | Process for Creating Image Gathers - The process of obtaining seismic data includes deploying a seismic energy source and seismic receivers, actuating the source, and detecting seismic energy resulting therefrom at the receivers. The process further includes digitally sampling seismic energy detected at the receivers indexed with respect to time to form a plurality of traces and sorting the traces to form a plurality of shot gathers. In addition, the process includes applying a depth migration technique to the shot gathers to generate two images according to the cross-correlation imaging condition (I | 12-10-2015 |

367054000 | For weathering layer | 1 |

20120113751 | STATICS CALCULATION - A method and system of for determining near surface velocity structure and statics corrections includes acquiring multicomponent seismic data associated with a sensor location, computing spectrograms for all orthogonal components of the multicomponent seismic data using a processing unit, calculating a median H/V spectrum, calculating an initial Rayleigh ellipticity solution associated with the sensor location and inverting the values associated with the median H/V spectrum with a forward-modelled Rayleigh ellipticity solution to determine a velocity depth distribution associated with the sensor location. | 05-10-2012 |