Patent application title: SYSTEM FOR CAPTURING, CLASSIFYING AND SEPARATING RAINWATER
Wadih Antonio Garios (Juiz De Fora, BR)
IPC8 Class: AC02F100FI
Class name: Liquid purification or separation with alarm, indicator, register, recorder, signal or inspection means material level or thickness responsive
Publication date: 2013-08-29
Patent application number: 20130220901
A system based on the elimination of debris, turbidity and undesired
water collected from the rain, through a system having a group of parts
for functioning and utilizing all the collected water in a efficient and
effective way. The system initially possesses a debris separating and
deviating filter (8), with the characteristics of its filters (10), (11)
and (13), to adapt greatly to the momentary overflows of rain and to
retrieve and eliminate undesirable matter from the piping. It also
accomplishes the elimination of turbid water by reading of turbid water
data, using a beam of light (19) and a light receptor (21). It has a
self-calibrating routine in its appliances for precision in the readings.
Besides eliminating the turbid water, it also measures the conductivity
of the collected water by a sensor (17) to obtain the best quality of
water. It has luminous and/or resonant signs that detect system crashes.
The sensors and the valve (23) are managed by the command module (33)
that collect water with reference of being of the most pure and clean
quality, free from the various impurities aggregated to rainwater on its
way to the exit (24). The undesired waters are ejected by the exit (30).
1- A system for capturing, classifying and separating rainwater,
comprising a group of parts that make a system where (3) a pipe through
which the collected rainwater passes from catchment areas (4), enters the
waters in the separating filter and deviator of debris (8), where the
separation and classification of rainwater begins, and the calibrator (5)
programs the filter's inclination (11) to the various rain flows. The
filter (11) is fastened to the rod (9) and connected to the auto
retractable filters (10) and (13). The trash (15) is disposed through the
exit (14) out of the system. The water (6) is separated from the trash
(15) and flows to the exit (7) following through the piping (16) towards
the sensor (17) and sends signals to the command module (33) informing of
the presence of water. It also measures the connectivity. To the exit
(30) where it is eliminated into the sewer or to the exit (24) in
direction of the chlorinator (26) going to the entry (27) that conduces
the water to the cistern or reservoir (29), where the automatic (28)
sends a signal to the command module (33) avoiding an overflow. The
command module (33) also signals the stages in activity with leads and
manages the emission of resounding signals in case of system crash. The
battery (31) is used when there is a shortage of electrical power supply
network (32). The sirene (35) emits a resonating signal in critical
situations. Because it has a battery of its own, this signal is also
emitted by the saved rain (34) when there is a total power shortage in
 This system gathers rainwater from roofs and large rainwater
gathering areas, that thanks to its constructive, useful and especially
innovative characteristics, it stands out in an extremely practical and
 This system, which includes a group of necessary parts that make use of all the rainwater gathered in an efficient and effectual way, and that initially has a built-in separating filter and rubbish separator and diverter, with the characteristic of stretching and moving to adapt itself in order to gather the most of the timely downpour, yet has another characteristic: to eliminate from the system all the garbage coming from the surfaces of the dimensions above its fabric, eliminating with precision, the gathered impurities on the catchment surfaces. This at the same time, benefits the performance during the next stages, as well as the equipment where even more impurities are eliminated, such as turbid and undesirable waters. The process of elimination of turbid water is made in an adequately prepared place, with a gleam of light that sends its signal through water to a certain distance to a luminosity receptive sensor. The beam of light can only be interrupted by turbidity in the water, and not by rubbish. The separating and diverting of rubbish prevents the light's or the sensor's obstruction by greater causes. By reading the turbidity the system eliminates all the turbid water through a valve, and is maintained at the reading's precision by a system that contains a auto-calibration routine. As well as reading the turbidity, this system can also classify the water through its conductivity, channeling a much cleaner and purer water reference to the cistern, free from any impurities aggregated to the rain, even those from the catchment surface.
 The first rainwater has a high concentration of rubbish that has accumulated with time, and that is carried by the rain to the catchment system, causing problems to its equipment, components and possibly the health of any who may consume it. Turbid water, that contains floating solids, which are finally divided or are in colloidal state and which have microscopic organisms, besides being aesthetically undesirable, is potentially dangerous. The disinfection of the water, principally the inactivation of viruses and microorganisms, is more effective where the water is least turbid.
 There are, at present, various processes to collect and use rainwater. The simplest of them show water being collected directly into a cistern, yet in others the first rain waters are deviated manually until they seem clean to the naked eye, which then are redirectioned to the cistern in use; in places where technology is available, the reference documents, such as U.S. Pat. No. 6,077,423 A, U.S. Pat. No. 6,884,001 B1, JP 7.207.714 A can be seen.
 Based on these documents we will stated the differences, advantages in the economics, precision and security between the "rainwater catchment, classifying and separating system" and the other systems mentioned, which produce different, lower quality sub products.
 The JP 7.207,714 A system's aim is to eliminate the turbidity. It is also used in buildings, as well as in many other systems, with the aim of collecting the gathered rainwater that comes directly from the roofs. It doesn't apply a system for eliminating the trash that comes from a roof, making it an incomplete process. Within this method there are also other contamination risks, being it temporarily stores the turbid water in an intermediate reservatory to read the turbidity, it accepts the intermediately turbid waters between the final stage of maximum turbidity and the beginning of the clean water stage. This system uses a PH reading process, using electrodes, a non precise method for turbidity readings. Depending on the region, dust, pollution and debris may comprise an infinite amount of material that could lead to errors and to making the wrong water selection. Besides this, when the rain ceases there is a decantation process with mud formation at the bottom of this intermediate reservatory, where the turbidity reading is done, which is another mistake, since in time there will consequently be crystal clean water at the top, yet contaminated by the deposited contaminated mud. This clean and still water will confuse the sensor, possibly falling temporarily into the deposit at the next rainfall, creating risk of contamination and making it inappropriate for use. The JP 7.207.714 A system, uses two valves, as many others, making the process more expensive.
 The U.S. Pat. No. 6,884,001 B1 document presents a process used for another purpose, in rivers that flow into lakes, to avoid silting. With this, its system has no precision in the turbidity reading, neither does it have a filter before the turbidity reader to eliminate leaves, branches and other debris from flowing through and hindering the reading process and the closing of the water flow diverting doors. It doesn't have auto calibration in the process between the signals of the gleam of light and the receptor of luminosity to compensate for the trash deposited in the devices, resulting in other types water quality. The water resultant of this process is not appropriate for use in residences and commerce in general.
 The U.S. Pat. No. 6,077,423 A document also has a different objective, to collect rainwater into the decanting basins, in attempts to avoid flooding in developed area, forcing the water into the subsoil. It's a very complex, high cost, technique with a variety of interlinked mechanisms, susceptible to flaws, which makes it impossible for the population to have access to the process to obtain water in their residences, their commerce, etc. . . .
 However, the documents mentioned above are incomplete, showing insecure techniques, of which some are also expensive if used to collect rainwater when trying to guarantee water free from contamination, because of their lacks possibly giving way to much loss. Like, for example, the systems above have no indispensible auxiliary system at the beginning of its process, like a separating filter and trash deviator to outside of the catching mechanism, which would avoid debris and rubbish of interfering in the beam or reader, hindering the reading of the turbidity and confusing the system. This debris can hinder the process at various stages and can contaminate the water in the deposit with undesired material such as small animals, etc. . . .
 These known rainwater catching systems still don't have the auto calibrating process in the turbidity reading, and, with time the reading devices dirty, therefore altering the type of classified water. The existing systems also do not possess many other resources that the "rainwater catching, classifying and separating system" makes available to produce the desired water.
 Desiring to solve the mentioned problems, and many other existing ones, and aiming to overcome them, a "rainwater catching, classifying and separating system" subject of this patent, was developed. Because of the characteristics, it is possible to have a better calculated product, and that it is more economical in various points, like for example, in not needing an intermediate reservatory to stock sooty, contaminated water to perform turbidity readings. The readings are done by the emission of light and a luminosity receptive sensor, through an appropriately projected running water tabulation. Being the case it is self-cleaning and there is no mud concentration, eliminating this contamination risk as well. It is simpler and cheaper, since it only uses one valve with the actuator that directs the water flow to the deposit or sewer. "The rainwater catching, classifying and separating system" needs to employ a separating and deviating filter of debris at the beginning of the process to eliminate the trash, small animals and debris that may hinder the components of the system such as the turbidimeter, sensors, valves and the contamination of this water in various ways. This filter's special characteristic of adapting itself to take advantage of downpours, various degrees of intensity of rain, also moves, expands or contracts itself, and goes far beyond the traditional existing systems' catching of rain.
 The turbidimeter set on the tube's structure is designed in order to make precise readings, avoiding bubbles and some turbulence. The invention is indispensably characterized by having a periodic auto calibration routine, to compensate for the accumulated dirt deposited in the sensor parts and the instabilities inherent to the circuit; it keeps the system always calibrated, promoting the desired standard of the water.
 It possesses an economical system which keeps the light off, which is turned on for measurement in the routine of auto calibration and in its effective use when there is rain.
 The invention has a command module that starts an alarm preventing malfunctioning.
 It also has another device with an independent battery that activates a sirene when the machines are in total energy failure state.
 The invention can be better understood through the following detailed description in accordance to the attached drawings.
 FIGS. 1, 2, 3 and 4 show a side view, with signs of water in the system.
 In describing the invention in detail, as is seen in the FIGS. 1, 2, 3 and 4, the system is made of individual parts that together form a system that are (1) the surface that collects the rainwater, (2) the chute where the collected waters are kept, (3) and the pipe through which the received rainwater passes from the catchment surfaces or the roof collectors, etc. Consequently the separation and classification by entry of the waters (4), occurs, connected to the separating filter and deviator of debris (8), and the system begins to operate on the waters, which, until then had carried all the rubbish deposited through time on its collecting surface.
 The water flow, with its rubbish, passes through the filtering device that has a tubular form composed of the filters (10, 11 and 13). The filters (10), (11) and (13) use the water (6) in all its surface if necessary.
 Besides tubular, its walls are made of cloth and move to adapt to the volume of the rain (6) eliminating the trash (15) easily. The filters (10) and (13) are made of cloth, articulate, auto-expansible and retractive according to the water flow. They are previously calculated with filter (11) to adapt to a determined water flow according to the calibrator (5).
 If receiving a downpour or sudden rain, at that moment the filter (11) that is attached to the rod (9) adapts itself to this water flow and changes its inclination, and therefore expands its filters (10) and (13) increases its absorption area to take the best advantage of the rain possible. See also FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 respectively related to the increase of the rain flow.
 The filters (10), (11) and (13), have their initial position calculated for the easy ejection of trash from the system. They have an increased inclination when there's softer rain, which allows the exit of debris (FIG. 1) changing this position proportionately with the rain's increase, tending toward the position in FIG. 2, and gradually arriving at the position of FIG. 3; depending on the rain flow. At a given moment, after reducing this water flow, the filter (11) begins to return to its initial programmed position, and the filters (10) and (13) begin to retract proportionately, increasing the filter's (11) inclined angle ((12) to facilitate the elimination of the trash (15) with the least amount of water possible (FIG. 1).
 Even when inclined against the water flow during strong rain, FIG. 3, all the debris will be expelled from the system. The filter (11), as was said, may be in a declining, fiat or even in an inclined position in relation to the water flow.
 Because of the climatic changes and thanks to the mobility of the filtrating elements (10), (11) and (13), with permeable walls, we will take more advantage of the rain, even of its sudden variations, compared to the existing filters for this purpose that waste a precious amount of water (6). Furthermore, it keeps its capacity to absorb water, since it doesn't keep the trash, rather it expels it from the system.
 With systems that do not possess the characteristics of constitution and mobility there will be more water waste. Thus, there is a great advantage in the technique of this separating and debris diverting filter (8). The calibrator (5) programs the inclination of the filter (11) that is connected to the filter (10) and (13) adjustable to any determined spill of the rainwater flow in the piping. The filter (11) is fastened onto a rod (9) but it can be fastened in other position as well. The trash (15) comprised of leaves, small branches, insects, geckos, bats, etc. is disposed of through the exit (14) of the system, since a leaf, or something similar (15), could hinder the sensors, impede the reading of the turbidimeter, or hinder the valves (24 and 30) in their separation of the waters. For example, in case a small animal is stuck by a valve, the animal would keep it half open or be crushed or cut and thus contaminate the whole system. The filters (10, 11,13) are fundamental to the system, for they avoid that the trash (15) passes straight through the piping, entering the cistern (29) and possibly contaminating that water as well (6). The water is separated from the rubbish (15) and flows through the exit (7), the rubbish (15) is carried to the exit (14) by an adequate volume of water (6). The water that is free of rubbish follows through the piping (16) towards the sensor (17) that could be comprised of two stainless steel screws (two electrodes), adequately fastened to the piping (16) to be able to identify the rain as it enters. The screws are positioned vertically to the ground, parallel and in contrary direction, one fastened to the superior part of the piping, without touching its inferior part, at an adequate distance, and the other fastened to the inferior piping, also without touching the superior part of the channel, at a certain distance. The screws are at a pre-established distance one from the other. If a single water blade would pass in this location, it would be detected by the screws or the sensors, by which they send a signal to the command module (33) informing it of the presence of water and measuring its conductivity.
 Reading the existent conductivity between the terminals may be useful in some regions and situations, together with the turbidity reading, to classify the catchment of rainwater with more knowledge. Measuring the conductivity is good for verifying the purity of some distilled or di-ionized water.
 After passing through the sensor (17) the water flows in the direction of the section (20), first passing through the vent (18) that also eliminates the air bubbles which can hinder the turbidity reading.
 After the command module (33) receives the signal from the sensor (17) telling of the presence of water, it will rise at this moment to the beam of light (19), that is normally off, sparing its wear, energy expense, and life span and avoiding the natural changes of a light constantly focused on a luminosity receptor.
 The command module (33) is programmed to do a routine dry auto calibration to the system, which could be done at the moment the sensor (17) detects the water's entry into the piping.
 Just as the light beam (19) sends its signal to the luminosity sensor (21), as well as the sensor itself, are outside the section (20), duly isolated from external light, so as to not interfere with their function. They communicate by the interior of the piping (20), through two totally transparent and anti-fog windows (22) letting the signals of the beam of light pass through without obstacles, or condensation, to the receptor. The strong luminous signal (19) reaches the luminosity receptor (21) on the other side, outside the piping. The windows (22) are adequately installed, isolating water (6) inside the piping, they have de-foggers to avoid problems that could interfere with the measuring.
 The de-foggers could be made of a strong pre-determined heat source, applied to the window or to where would be necessary, avoiding condensation and droplets.
 The system also consists of a group of pipes appropriately set and adequately ready, made to receive the water from the roofs (1) so as to receive a reading of all the data efficiently, and separate the rainwater with knowledge (6) to the exits (30) and (24).
 The measure of the turbidity and conductivity reference for the system is obtained through the standard sampling of water collected, which could be the region's treated water; an adequate sampling collected from the rain or any other choice. One sample may be chosen for turbidity and another for conductivity.
 It is put into the system where the values of turbidity and conductivity are registered.
 Based on this turbidity and conductivity measurement of reference, the command module (33) can be programmed to do what is preferred, to classify and separate the rainwater automatically, declassifying those with turbidity values above that of the sample, and as an option, to declassify simultaneously the undesired conductivity rain flow.
 Dirty, polluted, impure waters are generally the waters gathered at the beginning of the rain, where impurities have accumulated on the catchment surface after a period of time, or have been brought the wind from polluted regions as well as from atmospheric dust that has been caught, are all above the stipulated parameters and so are sent to the exit (30) and directed to a sewer treatment plant. The waters classified "clean waters", certainly are the waters gathered after the means of catchment has been properly washed and is free of a certain amount of pollutants which all go to the exit (24). Always after eliminating the turbidity, depending on the region and the situation, will the sensor conductivity (17) reading be used re-classifying and separating this "distilled" water towards the exit (24) flowing towards the cistern (29) or eliminating them through the exit (30). The valve directed by the command module (33) then becomes literally a water divider, sending the waters to the exits (30 or (24). The valve's functional mechanism (23) operates as follows:
 The command module (33) directs the actuator (25) that turns the internal cylindrical pipe within the piping system (23), the water flow enters through the opposite extremity to the actuator (25), FIG. 4. Within this internal water pipe (6) there will be one exit alone every time the exit (24) or exit (30) is adopted. On the internal side of this spinning pipe there are two openings of the same size as the exit (24) and exit (30), that are positioned one at a time by the actuator (25). When one of the openings of the internal pipe coincides with the exit (30) the other opening closes the exit (24) and vice-versa.
 At this point, the exit (24), the classified water, free of impurities, clear and of determined conductivity, will follow to an optional chlorinator (26).
 Because the garbage and the improper waters are eliminated at the beginning, damage to the system and to the person using it are avoided.
 The valves or registers (36) and (37) are located respectively after and before the section (20) and function to retrieve the water from where the turbidity is measured in the system. The valves are programmed with enough flow to empty a section (20) after a certain time after the rain has ended, avoiding still water, leaving the piping dry.
 The opening (27) leads the water to the cistern or deposit (29) and the automatic (28) sends a signal to the command module (33) when the box is full, so being, the water is diverted to the exit (30) avoiding several problems caused by the excess of water in the cistern (29).
 The battery (31) is used when power supply in the network is lacking, ensuring its operation.
 The command module (33) beyond its functions: to detect the presence of water, to read the turbidity, to read the conductivity, to command the actuator and the routine auto calibration . . . It also signalizes through a light panel (leds) of references, the diverse stages that are happening at the moment. It uses as an emergency, a resounding signal through a sirene (35) in a critical situation that may pass the electrical system to collect rainwater, such as: when lacking signals, a defect in the light beam (19), lack of a receptive signal, or a defect in the light sensor (21), in an impossibility of auto calibration of data and a defective actuator (24), when disconnected or not answering the command module (33) and in all the existent points and those that will be incorporated to the system as it evolves.
 This resounding signal is produced by a sirene (35) and is also used independently by the saved rain (34). The saved rain (34) has an important function, unique differentiating itself even more from all the other methods for water recycling from existing rainwater, since it announces through the sirene (35) the lack of total power supply in the circuit, because it has an internal rechargeable battery. Therefore, the rainwater will not be lost because of a simple disconnecting of the cables, turning off of the electric switch, or by a simple lack of energy in their central supply network. The supply of power is done by the electric network (32).
Patent applications in class Material level or thickness responsive
Patent applications in all subclasses Material level or thickness responsive