# Tae S. Yoo, Bartlett US

## Tae S. Yoo, Bartlett, IL US

Patent application number | Description | Published |
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20080294572 | SYSTEM AND METHOD OF MARGINING FIXED PAYOFF PRODUCTS - A system and method is disclosed for determining performance bonds related to fixed payoff products, i.e. contracts which payoff a fixed amount based on the outcome of an underlying event regardless of the particular value of the underlying event. The worst outcome of the overall portfolio, which may contain more than one instrument, is calculated. This permits the portfolio to have both long and short positions on the same underlying event and offsets, e.g. long (bought but not closed out) and short (sold but not closed out) positions, among instruments in the portfolio are factored in. A universe of outcomes is constructed including single events with single outcomes, and the probability thereof, an single events with multiple outcomes, each with a probability thereof. This universe is implemented in a matrix probabilities on different outcomes, also referred to as “strikes.” Each strike/outcome then has an associated price and probability, typically factored together as single value reflective of both. Events with low probability will have low values, resulting in a lower margin requirement, as will be explained below. The margin requirement/performance bond is then set equal to the amount of the maximum loss that the portfolio can sustain for any possible outcome of the underlying event, adjusted for the probability of the outcome. | 11-27-2008 |

20080294573 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR HYBRID SPREADING FOR RISK MANAGEMENT - A risk management system and method is disclosed which utilizes a flexible and configurable set of spreading techniques which may be incorporated into existing risk management software to enhance functionality, flexibility and accuracy. In the disclosed embodiments, multiple different types of spreading are combined to allow for a more accurate assessment of risk. In one exemplary embodiment, a subset of the derivative products held by a futures trader are first analyzed by the scanning based spreading methodology. Typically, futures products in the same class of products (e.g. equity futures or agricultural futures) would be analyzed together by the scanning based spreading methodology. Then an average delta would be calculated for that subset. Using that delta, that subset would then be analyzed in relation to the remaining derivative products (not in the subset) using a delta based spreading methodology. The delta for the subset could be computed in a variety of ways including scaling the deltas for each product, tying the delta to a fixed time period or other methods. | 11-27-2008 |

20080301062 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR EFFICIENTLY USING COLLATERAL FOR RISK OFFSET - A system and method for analyzing correlation between the assets given by the trader for collateral and that trader's open positions is disclosed. Thus, if the collateral is correlated to the trader's open positions, then some offset can be given. If there is no correlation than the collateral is valued in the conventional way. For example, if a trader provides t-bills as collateral for an account that has open positions (e.g. short futures) in T-bills, than that trader's account can be credited with some offset since the value of T-bills and T-bill futures are highly correlated. | 12-04-2008 |

20090076982 | System and method for asymmetric offsets in a risk management system - A system and method for using asymmetrical offsets for products in a risk management analysis system are disclosed. Conventional systems assign symmetrical offsets for products, that is, if two products have an 80% correlation they each would be assigned an offset of 80% with respect to each other. However, it is desirable to allow for asymmetrical offsets. In the disclosed system and method, when two products have a correlation of 80%, one may be assigned an offset of 75% and the other may be assigned an offset of 80%. There are many reasons to vary the offset between the products. The varying offset may reflect an asymmetry in the risk in one of the products, such as being traded in an illiquid market or in a less desirable venue. The varying offset may correct for an imbalance in spread credits due to special charges from intra spreading. | 03-19-2009 |

20090177592 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FLEXIBLE SPREAD PARTICIPATION - A system and method for risk analysis of a portfolio of derivative products is disclosed which is conducted based on a set of flexible rules. The system and method allow creating predefined sets of products for the purpose of future risk offsets. If a futures trade as a subset of that set of products that met a threshold level, then the subset is assigned the offset value (or a pro rata or other portion of the offset value) of the predefined set. For example, assume that the predefined set consists of one S&P 500 futures, one NASDAQ futures, one S&P Midcap 400 futures and one Russell 1000 futures and the threshold is three. If the futures trader holds any three of those four futures, the three futures can be grouped, assigned an offset value, and this group can be used as one asset for purpose of further risk offsets. | 07-09-2009 |

20110178956 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR EFFICIENTLY USING COLLATERAL FOR RISK OFFSET - A system and method for analyzing correlation between the assets given by the trader for collateral and that trader's open positions is disclosed. Thus, if the collateral is correlated to the trader's open positions, then some offset can be given. If there is no correlation than the collateral is valued in the conventional way. For example, if a trader provides t-bills as collateral for an account that has open positions (e.g. short futures) in T-bills, than that trader's account can be credited with some offset since the value of T-bills and T-bill futures are highly correlated. | 07-21-2011 |

20110246350 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ACTIVITY BASED MARGINING - A system and method for factoring in a trader's trading activity into the margin requirements is disclosed. In the securities arena, day traders are assessed different margins than non-day-traders, however, the specific profile of the trader is analyzed (that is, the same rule applies to all day traders). | 10-06-2011 |

20120047091 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ASYMMETRIC OFFSETS IN A RISK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - A system and method for using asymmetrical offsets for products in a risk management analysis system are disclosed. Conventional systems assign symmetrical offsets for products, that is, if two products have an 80% correlation they each would be assigned an offset of 80% with respect to each other. However, it is desirable to allow for asymmetrical offsets. In the disclosed system and method, when two products have a correlation of 80%, one may be assigned an offset of 75% and the other may be assigned an offset of 80%. There are many reasons to vary the offset between the products. The varying offset may reflect an asymmetry in the risk in one of the products, such as being traded in an illiquid market or in a less desirable venue. The varying offset may correct for an imbalance in spread credits due to special charges from intra spreading. | 02-23-2012 |

20120059772 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR HYBRID SPREADING FOR RISK MANAGEMENT - A risk management system and method is disclosed utilizing a flexible and configurable set of spreading techniques which may be incorporated into existing risk management software to enhance functionality, flexibility and accuracy. Multiple different types of spreading are combined allowing for a more accurate risk assessment. For example, a subset of derivative products held by a futures trader are first analyzed using a scanning based spreading methodology. Typically, futures products in the same product class (e.g. equity or agriculture futures) would be analyzed together thereby. Then an average delta would be calculated for that subset. Using that delta, that subset would then be analyzed in relation to the remaining derivative products (not in the subset) using a delta based spreading methodology. The delta for the subset could be computed in many ways including scaling the deltas for each product, tying the delta to a fixed time period or other methods. | 03-08-2012 |

20120072373 | System and Method of Margining Fixed Payoff Products - A system and method is disclosed for determining performance bonds for fixed payoff products, i.e. contracts which payoff a fixed amount based on the outcome of an underlying event regardless of the value thereof. The worst outcome of the overall portfolio, which may contain more multiple instruments, is calculated, allowing the portfolio to have both long and short positions on the same underlying event and offsets among instruments within the portfolio. A universe of outcomes is constructed including single events with single outcomes, and the probability thereof, and single events with multiple outcomes, each with a probability thereof. Each outcome has an associated price and probability. Low probability events will have low values, resulting in a lower margin requirement. The margin requirement is then the amount of the maximum loss that the portfolio can sustain for any possible outcome of the underlying event, adjusted for the probability thereof. | 03-22-2012 |

20120109811 | System and Method for Activity Based Margining - A system and method for factoring in a trader's trading activity into the margin requirements is disclosed. In the securities arena, day traders are assessed different margins than non-day-traders, however, the specific profile of the trader is analyzed (that is, the same rule applies to all day traders). | 05-03-2012 |

20120123967 | System and Method for Flexible Spread Participation - A system and method for risk analysis of a portfolio of derivative products is disclosed which is conducted based on a set of flexible rules. The system and method allow creating predefined sets of products for the purpose of future risk offsets. If a futures trade as a subset of that set of products that met a threshold level, then the subset is assigned the offset value (or a pro rata or other portion of the offset value) of the predefined set. For example, assume that the predefined set consists of one S&P 500 futures, one NASDAQ futures, one S&P Midcap 400 futures and one Russell 1000 futures and the threshold is three. If the futures trader holds any three of those four futures, the three futures can be grouped, assigned an offset value, and this group can be used as one asset for purpose of further risk offsets. | 05-17-2012 |

20120296850 | System and Method for Asymmetric Offsets in a Risk Management System - A system and method for using asymmetrical offsets for products in a risk management analysis system are disclosed. Conventional systems assign symmetrical offsets for products, that is, if two products have an 80% correlation they each would be assigned an offset of 80% with respect to each other. However, it is desirable to allow for asymmetrical offsets. In the disclosed system and method, when two products have a correlation of 80%, one may be assigned an offset of 75% and the other may be assigned an offset of 80%. There are many reasons to vary the offset between the products. The varying offset may reflect an asymmetry in the risk in one of the products, such as being traded in an illiquid market or in a less desirable venue. The varying offset may correct for an imbalance in spread credits due to special charges from intra spreading. | 11-22-2012 |

20120317055 | System and Method for Flexible Spread Participation - A system and method for risk analysis of a portfolio of derivative products is disclosed which is conducted based on a set of flexible rules. The system and method allow creating predefined sets of products for the purpose of future risk offsets. If a futures trade as a subset of that set of products that met a threshold level, then the subset is assigned the offset value (or a pro rata or other portion of the offset value) of the predefined set. For example, assume that the predefined set consists of one S&P 500 futures, one NASDAQ futures, one S&P Midcap 400 futures and one Russell 1000 futures and the threshold is three. If the futures trader holds any three of those four futures, the three futures can be grouped, assigned an offset value, and this group can be used as one asset for purpose of further risk offsets. | 12-13-2012 |

20130041804 | System and Method for Activity Based Margining - A system and method for factoring in a trader's trading activity into the margin requirements is disclosed. In the securities arena, day traders are assessed different margins than non-day-traders, however, the specific profile of the trader is analyzed (that is, the same rule applies to all day traders). | 02-14-2013 |

20130080355 | System and Method of Margining Fixed Payoff Products - A system and method is disclosed for determining performance bonds for fixed payoff products, i.e. contracts which payoff a fixed amount based on the outcome of an underlying event regardless of the value thereof. The worst outcome of the overall portfolio, which may contain more multiple instruments, is calculated, allowing the portfolio to have both long and short positions on the same underlying event and offsets among instruments within the portfolio. A universe of outcomes is constructed including single events with single outcomes, and the probability thereof, and single events with multiple outcomes, each with a probability thereof. Each outcome has an associated price and probability. Low probability events will have low values, resulting in a lower margin requirement. The margin requirement is then the amount of the maximum loss that the portfolio can sustain for any possible outcome of the underlying event, adjusted for the probability thereof. | 03-28-2013 |

20130159211 | System and Method for Efficiently Using Collateral for Risk Offset - A system and method for analyzing correlation between the assets given by the trader for collateral and that trader's open positions is disclosed. Thus, if the collateral is correlated to the trader's open positions, then some offset can be given. If there is no correlation than the collateral is valued in the conventional way. For example, if a trader provides t-bills as collateral for an account that has open positions (e.g. short futures) in T-bills, than that trader's account can be credited with some offset since the value of T-bills and T-bill futures are highly correlated. | 06-20-2013 |

20130232057 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FLEXIBLE SPREAD PARTICIPATION - A system and method for risk analysis of a portfolio of derivative products is disclosed which is conducted based on a set of flexible rules. The system and method allow creating predefined sets of products for the purpose of future risk offsets. If a futures trade as a subset of that set of products that met a threshold level, then the subset is assigned the offset value (or a pro rata or other portion of the offset value) of the predefined set. For example, assume that the predefined set consists of one S&P 500 futures, one NASDAQ futures, one S&P Midcap 400 futures and one Russell 1000 futures and the threshold is three. If the futures trader holds any three of those four futures, the three futures can be grouped, assigned an offset value, and this group can be used as one asset for purpose of further risk offsets. | 09-05-2013 |

20130246250 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ACTIVITY BASED MARGINING - A system and method for factoring in a trader's trading activity into the margin requirements is disclosed. In the securities arena, day traders are assessed different margins than non-day-traders, however, the specific profile of the trader is analyzed (that is, the same rule applies to all day traders). | 09-19-2013 |

20130332392 | System and Method of Margining Fixed Payoff Products - A system and method is disclosed for determining performance bonds for fixed payoff products, i.e. contracts which payoff a fixed amount based on the outcome of an underlying event regardless of the value thereof. The worst outcome of the overall portfolio, which may contain more multiple instruments, is calculated, allowing the portfolio to have both long and short positions on the same underlying event and offsets among instruments within the portfolio. A universe of outcomes is constructed including single events with single outcomes, and the probability thereof, and single events with multiple outcomes, each with a probability thereof. Each outcome has an associated price and probability. Low probability events will have low values, resulting in a lower margin requirement. The margin requirement is then the amount of the maximum loss that the portfolio can sustain for any possible outcome of the underlying event, adjusted for the probability thereof. | 12-12-2013 |

20140032390 | System and Method for Asymmetric Offsets in a Risk Management System - A system and method for using asymmetrical offsets for products in a risk management analysis system are disclosed. Conventional systems assign symmetrical offsets for products, that is, if two products have an 80% correlation they each would be assigned an offset of 80% with respect to each other. However, it is desirable to allow for asymmetrical offsets. In the disclosed system and method, when two products have a correlation of 80%, one may be assigned an offset of 75% and the other may be assigned an offset of 80%. There are many reasons to vary the offset between the products. The varying offset may reflect an asymmetry in the risk in one of the products, such as being traded in an illiquid market or in a less desirable venue. The varying offset may correct for an imbalance in spread credits due to special charges from intra spreading. | 01-30-2014 |