# Ehsan Maani, San Jose US

## Ehsan Maani, San Jose, CA US

Patent application number | Description | Published |
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20110002391 | DIGITAL IMAGE COMPRESSION BY RESOLUTION-ADAPTIVE MACROBLOCK CODING - Disclosed is an image encoder that divides a digital image into a set of “macroblocks.” If appropriate, a macroblock is “downsampled” to a lower resolution. The lower-resolution macroblock is then encoded by applying spatial (and possibly temporal) prediction. The “residual” of the macroblock is calculated as the difference between the predicted and actual contents of the macroblock. The low-resolution residual is then either transmitted to an image decoder or stored for later use. In some embodiments, the encoder calculates the rate-distortion costs of encoding the original-resolution macroblock and the lower-resolution macroblock and then only encodes the lower-resolution macroblock if its cost is lower. When a decoder receives a lower-resolution residual, it recovers the lower-resolution macroblock using standard prediction techniques. Then, the macroblock is “upsampled” to its original resolution by interpolating the values left out by the encoder. The macroblocks are then joined to form the original digital image. | 01-06-2011 |

20110002554 | DIGITAL IMAGE COMPRESSION BY RESIDUAL DECIMATION - Disclosed is an image encoder that divides a digital image into a set of “macroblocks.” Each macroblock is encoded by applying spatial (and possibly temporal) prediction. The “residual” of the macroblock is calculated as the difference between the predicted content of the macroblock and the actual content of the macroblock. The residual is then “decimated” by taking an orderly subset of its values. The decimated residual is then either transmitted to an image decoder or is stored for later use. To recreate the original image, the macroblocks are first recreated from their received residuals. When a decimated residual is received, the values of the residual left out during decimation are interpolated from the values actually received. Using the prediction techniques along with the residual, the original content of the macroblock is recovered. The macroblocks are then joined to form the original digital image. | 01-06-2011 |

20110188571 | RECURSIVE ADAPTIVE INTERPOLATION FILTERS (RAIF) - Adaptive interpolation filters which are recursively updated based on previously reconstructed images, and which can differ within a single frame as they adapt to spatial changes. An initial set of filters is known within a coding system, including both encoder and decoder. Fractional-pel motion estimation of macroblock is generalized by communicating integer-pel motion vectors and an index to a selected prediction interpolation filter. Prediction filters are updated based on local correlation data comprising auto-correlation data, and/or cross-correlation data. | 08-04-2011 |

20110249739 | CONTEXT ADAPTIVE DIRECTIONAL INTRA PREDICTION - Enhanced directional prediction apparatus and methods are taught which are based on edge-based adaptive directional estimation, for providing an improved prediction direction for intra prediction within a coding device. Image gradient vectors are obtained for pixels in the neighborhood of the current block, and edge directions determined. Candidate edge directions are processed to derive a dominant edge direction in response to defining an objective function as a summation of projections to a candidate direction and computing suggested direction of each neighboring pixel. The dominant edge direction may be utilized for the prediction direction, such as in response to a detection mode flag signaled to the decoder, or modified by an angular adjustment, which can be communicated to a decoder. | 10-13-2011 |

20120014443 | DIFFERENTIAL CODING OF INTRA DIRECTIONS (DCIC) - Spatial domain directional intra prediction has been shown to be very effective to remove the correlation between the pixels in the current block and reconstructed neighbors. In AVC, 8 directional prediction modes (plus the DC prediction mode) are defined. The prediction mode number is signaled to the decoder using a simple predictive coding method. The previous intra prediction methods have two major disadvantages: lack of precision for arbitrary directional patterns and accuracy lack of accuracy to exploit geometric dependency between blocks. To address these issues, a new method accurately predicts the intra directions from reconstructed neighboring pixels and differentially encode the intra directions. This allows a more precise directional prediction without the significant increase in the cost for transmitting the side information. | 01-19-2012 |

20120014452 | MULTI-PARAMETER MOTION FOR EFFICIENT PREDICTION IN VIDEO COMPRESSION - Motion Compensated Prediction (MCP) has been a key factor in most advanced video compression schemes. For further reduction in the residual signal energy in B-frames, bidirectional prediction where two motion-compensated signals are superimposed has also been utilized in most prior video coding standards such as MPEG-2 or MPEG-4/AVC. Syntax changes and appropriate motion vector prediction that allows efficient use of multi-parameter MCP is described. The prediction signal is constructed by linearly combining the motion-compensated signals from each parameter (or motion vector). | 01-19-2012 |

20120183041 | INTERPOLATION FILTER FOR INTRA PREDICTION OF HEVC - 4-tap interpolation filters are able to improve intra prediction when used instead of linear interpolation. | 07-19-2012 |

20120183050 | PARAMETRIC LOOP FILTER - A parametric loop filter uses a set of fixed filters to remove or reduce noise and artifacts introduced during video coding. The filters are pre-trained offline and hardwired into encoder and decoder, instead of online trained Wiener filters. The filters are able to be specified using one or more parameters including: direction, bandwidth along the direction (bw | 07-19-2012 |

20120183054 | CODEWORD SPACE REDUCTION FOR INTRA CHROMA MODE SIGNALING FOR HEVC - Intra prediction is used in state-of-the-art video coding standards such as AVC. The intra prediction modes are coded into the bitstream. Luma and chroma components could potentially have different prediction modes. For chroma components, there are 7 different modes defined in AVC: vertical, horizontal, DC, diagonal directions, and “same as luma”. Statistics show that the “same as luma” mode is frequently used, but in AVC, this mode is encoded using more bits than other modes during entropy coding, therefore the coding efficiency is decreased. Accordingly, a modified binarization/codeword assignment for chroma intra mode signaling is able to be utilized for high efficiency video coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding standard. | 07-19-2012 |

20120183067 | B-PICTURE SYNTAX CHANGE FOR GENERALIZED BI-PREDICTION IN HIGH EFFICIENCY VIDEO CODING (HEVC) - An enhanced prediction direction method and encoding syntax for B-pictures in state-of-the-art video compression. In bi-directional prediction, instead of using one motion vector (MV) from list | 07-19-2012 |

20120183237 | System and method for effectively performing an intra prediction procedure - A system and method for effectively performing an intra prediction procedure with an electronic device includes an encoder that utilizes a delta value comparison procedure to identify optimal delta values for creating optimal predicted blocks of image data corresponding to original blocks of image data. The encoder then utilizes the original blocks and the optimal predicted blocks to generate residual blocks that represent the original blocks in an encoded format. The encoder then generates a bitstream containing the delta value information and the residual block for storage or transmission purposes. A decoder may decode the delta values and the residual block to reconstruct the image block. | 07-19-2012 |

20120218432 | RECURSIVE ADAPTIVE INTRA SMOOTHING FOR VIDEO CODING - A recursive adaptive intra smoothing filter for intra-mode video coding is executed using one or more approaches including, but not limited to matrix multiplication, spatial filtering and frequency domain filtering. Matrix multiplication includes initially computing a prediction matrix P | 08-30-2012 |

20120218440 | VISUALLY OPTIMIZED QUANTIZATION - Visually optimized quantization is described herein. Specifically, the visually optimized quantization is for arbitrary block-based transforms such as Mode-Dependent Directional Transform (MDDT). The compression method involves the process of taking a discrete cosine transform of an MDDT basis function, obtaining the frequency weights, and computing the contrast sensitivity function for each of the frequency components. The overall effect of the distortion is calculated by error pooling and the quantization matrix is the inverse proportional of the overall effect. | 08-30-2012 |

20120218443 | DECODER-DERIVED GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATIONS FOR MOTION COMPENSATED INTER PREDICTION - A method of estimating motion by estimating motion parameters of a complex motion model using reconstructed neighboring pixels of the current block and then applying the estimated motion parameters to the coordinates of the current block to determine motion compensated in a corresponding reference block. The parameters are not transmitted to a decoder and are derived at the decoder side. The encoder only sends a 1-bit control-flag to indicate whether the derived parameters should be used. | 08-30-2012 |

20130142251 | SYNTAX EXTENSION OF ADAPTIVE LOOP FILTER IN HEVC - An extension of an adaptive loop filter includes, in the sequence parameter set, a bit is added to signal whether the “default” or fixed adaptive loop filters are to be updated for this sequence. If yes, then the new set of default filters are explicitly coded. In the picture parameter set, a flag is used to determine whether to update the default filters at the picture level. If yes, filter coefficients are transmitted. In the Slice Header, a flag is added to show whether the online filter and the fixed filters are both available for block-level switching or not. Block-level filter switching is also referred to as ALF's CU control parameters. In the LCU Header, the maximum depth (minimum block-size) for the ALF's CU control parameters (block-level filter switchings) is explicitly signaled. | 06-06-2013 |

20130142419 | ENCODER OPTIMIZATION OF ADAPTIVE LOOP FILTERS IN HEVC - An optimized adaptive loop filter does not redesign filters inside the optimization loop of signaling depth which saves computations. Additionally, the Sum of Squared Errors (SSE) (distortion) of blocks is computed for the smallest blocks, thus, allowing for the distortion of larger blocks to be computed efficiently by adding block SSEs together which saves computations by removing redundant operations to calculate SSE of a block each time. | 06-06-2013 |

20130188695 | LOGICAL INTRA MODE NAMING IN HEVC VIDEO CODING - A method and apparatus of using logical mode numbers during both prediction and coding in the bit stream, such as for high efficiency video coders (HEVC). These logical intra mode numbers are sorted based on angle which as a result leads to improved coding designs with fewer and smaller look-up tables, and a small gain in coding efficiency. Furthermore, by using this type of naming, the number of most probable modes (MPMs) can be readily extended since no additional tables are required. The use of three MPMs achieves a larger gain of 0.25% and 0.31% for the AI_HE and AI_LC cases, respectively. | 07-25-2013 |

20130188737 | FLEXIBLE BAND OFFSET MODE IN SAMPLE ADAPTIVE OFFSET IN HEVC - A Flexible Band Offset (FBO) apparatus and method of performing Sample Adaptive Offset (SAO) filtering within encoders and decoders, such as according to the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, and similarly configured coding devices. The number of Band Offset (BO) modes and the number of necessary offsets is reduced. The invention beneficially provides simpler coding, reduces temporary buffer size requirements, and can yield a small performance gain over existing SAO techniques of HEVC test model HM 5. | 07-25-2013 |

20130272376 | SAMPLE ADAPTIVE OFFSET (SAO) FILTER WITH BOUNDARY INTERPOLATION - A boundary interpolation method is described for use with band offsets (BO) and largest coding units (LCU) within a video encoder. In BO, for example, very different offsets could otherwise be added to neighboring pixels which result in large discontinuities and visual artifacts. An interpolation, such as linear, is performed between the BO, or the periphery of the LCU, or a combination thereof, to smooth the offset function toward preventing introduction of visual artifacts. | 10-17-2013 |

20140348234 | CODEWORD SPACE REDUCTION FOR INTRA CHROMA MODE SIGNALING FOR HEVC - Intra prediction is used in state-of-the-art video coding standards such as AVC. The intra prediction modes are coded into the bitstream. Luma and chroma components could potentially have different prediction modes. For chroma components, there are 7 different modes defined in AVC: vertical, horizontal, DC, diagonal directions, and “same as luma”. Statistics show that the “same as luma” mode is frequently used, but in AVC, this mode is encoded using more bits than other modes during entropy coding, therefore the coding efficiency is decreased. Accordingly, a modified binarization/codeword assignment for chroma intra mode signaling is able to be utilized for high efficiency video coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding standard. | 11-27-2014 |