# Brian J. Koch, Berkley US

## Brian J. Koch, Berkley, MI US

Patent application number | Description | Published |
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20090091299 | DYNAMICALLY ADAPTIVE METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE STATE OF CHARGE OF A BATTERY - A method for determining the state of charge (SOC) of a lithium ion battery is provided. The method leverages a circuit model of the lithium ion battery, and generates four battery parameters from which the SOC is derived. | 04-09-2009 |

20090115420 | METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING A STATE OF CHARGE OF A BATTERY - Methods and systems are provided for determining a state of charge of a battery. A magnetic force between the battery and a magnet is detected. The state of charge of the battery is determined based on the detected magnetic force. | 05-07-2009 |

20090140742 | METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING A STATE OF CHARGE OF A BATTERY - Methods and systems are provided for determining a state of charge of a battery. The battery is subjected to a predetermined magnetic field such that the battery and the predetermined magnetic field jointly create a resultant magnetic field. The resultant magnetic field is sensed. The state of charge of the battery is determined based on the resultant magnetic field. | 06-04-2009 |

20090210179 | MODEL-BASED ESTIMATION OF BATTERY HYSTERESIS - A method of battery state of charge estimation considering battery hysteresis includes using a Preisach-model-based algorithm to calculate a battery state of charge. | 08-20-2009 |

20090302855 | METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR CHARACTERIZING A BATTERY - Methods and systems are provided for characterizing a battery. A property of the battery is measured. A dynamic characteristic of the battery is determined from a second order linear dynamic model. | 12-10-2009 |

20100076704 | METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING A STATE OF CHARGE OF A BATTERY - Methods and systems for determining a state of charge of a battery are provided. A first component of the state of charge is calculated based on a first property of the battery. A second component of the state of charge is calculated based on a second property of the battery. The first component of the state of charge is weighted based on a rate of change of the first property relative to a change of the state of charge. The second component of the state of charge is weighted based on a rate of change of the second property relative to a change of the state of charge. The state of charge is determined based on the first and second weighted components. | 03-25-2010 |

20100076705 | METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING A STATE OF CHARGE OF A BATTERY BASED ON A TRANSIENT RESPONSE - Methods and systems for determining a state of charge of a battery exhibiting a transient response are provided. At least one property of the battery is measured. The state of charge of the battery is determined based on the at least one measured property and a transient response of the battery. | 03-25-2010 |

20100321025 | Method for use With A Vehicle Battery Pack Having A Number of Individual Battery Cells - A system and method for use with a vehicle battery pack having a number of individual battery cells, such as a lithium-ion battery commonly used in hybrid electric vehicles. In one embodiment, the method evaluates individual battery cells within a vehicle battery pack in order to obtain accurate estimates regarding their average transient voltage effect, open circuit voltage (OCV | 12-23-2010 |

20110148363 | METHOD FOR USE WITH A VEHICLE BATTERY PACK - A method for use with a vehicle battery pack, where the method determines a voltage threshold that may prevent the vehicle battery pack from being overcharged. The voltage threshold may be a dynamic threshold that changes or adjusts over time in order to accommodate changing conditions in the vehicle battery pack, the vehicle and/or the surrounding environment. The method may consider one or more battery readings when determining the voltage threshold, including temperature, voltage and/or current readings. According to one embodiment, the method is designed to accommodate high-current, short-duration charging events, like regenerative breaking. | 06-23-2011 |

20110166811 | METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING A STATE OF CHARGE OF A BATTERY - Methods and systems are provided for determining a state of charge of a battery. The battery is subjected to a predetermined magnetic field such that the battery and the predetermined magnetic field jointly create a resultant magnetic field. The resultant magnetic field is sensed. The state of charge of the battery is determined based on the resultant magnetic field. | 07-07-2011 |

20110224928 | BATTERY STATE ESTIMATOR USING MULTIPLE SAMPLING RATES - A method for estimating vehicle battery parameters that uses two different sampling rates. The method samples a battery terminal voltage and current at a high sampling rate to estimate the battery open circuit voltage and high frequency resistance. The battery state of charge (SOC) is derived from the open circuit voltage. Next, the battery terminal voltage and current are re-sampled at a low sampling rate. Other battery parameters can be extracted from the low-rate sampled signals. Next, all of the battery parameters that were obtained from the two sampling rates are used together to predict battery power. | 09-15-2011 |

20110309838 | ADAPTIVE BATTERY PARAMETER EXTRACTION AND SOC ESTIMATION FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERY - A system and method for estimating internal parameters of a lithium-ion battery to provide a reliable battery state-of-charge estimate. The method uses a two RC-pair equivalent battery circuit model to estimate the battery parameters, including a battery open circuit voltage, an ohmic resistance, a double layer capacitance, a charge transfer resistance, a diffusion resistance and a diffusion capacitance. The method further uses the equivalent circuit model to provide a difference equation from which the battery parameters are adapted, and calculates the battery parameters from the difference equation. | 12-22-2011 |

20120074960 | ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM ENERGY CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY MONITOR - A method and device for reporting the characteristics of an energy storage system. The method comprises acquiring the open circuit voltage. The method also comprises providing a coulomb capability and a coulomb capacity of the energy storage system based on the open circuit voltage, and determining at least one of an energy capability or an energy capacity of the energy storage system based on at least one of the coulomb capacity, coulomb capability, or combinations thereof. | 03-29-2012 |

20120101753 | ADAPTIVE SLOWLY-VARYING CURRENT DETECTION - A system and method for determining whether an onboard estimation process, such as a recursive least squares regression process, can effectively calculate the state-of-charge of a battery. The method includes defining a current sample time and a previous sample time and measuring the battery current. The method then calculates a variation moving average of the measured current and an index of current change rate determined by averaging the absolute value of the current variation moving average using the measured current and calculated moving averages from the previous sample time. The method then determines if the current change index is greater than a predetermined threshold, and if so, the estimate of the battery state-of-charge resulting from the onboard estimation process is valid. | 04-26-2012 |

20120105013 | APPARATUS OF SOC ESTIMATION DURING PLUG-IN CHARGE MODE - A system and method for estimating parameters of a rechargeable energy storage system during a plug-in charge mode include reading a first measured voltage and a measured current from the rechargeable energy storage system while charging the rechargeable energy storage system during a plug-in charge mode, interrupting the charge to stop current flow to the rechargeable energy storage system for a predetermined period of time, reading a second measured voltage during the charge interrupt, calculating a resistance based on the first measured voltage, the second measured voltage and the measured current, calculating an open circuit voltage of the rechargeable energy storage system based on the resistance, the second measured voltage, the measured current and determining the state-of-charge for the rechargeable energy storage system using the open circuit voltage. | 05-03-2012 |

20120109556 | BAND SELECT STATE OF CHARGE WEIGHTED SCALING METHOD - A method and system for selectively using a voltage-based state of charge estimate in an overall state of charge calculation. Regions or bands of battery pack state of charge are established, where in some regions, open circuit voltage is known to be a good indicator of state of charge, and in other regions, open circuit voltage is known to be a poor indicator of state of charge due to a high sensitivity to measurement error. In regions or bands where voltage-based state of charge is expected to be accurate, the voltage-based state of charge estimate may be used to scale or adjust a current-based state of charge estimate, thus avoiding a continuous accumulation of error in the current-based estimate. In regions or bands where voltage-based state of charge is known to be prone to error, only current-based state of charge information is used. | 05-03-2012 |

20120109617 | OPTIMIZATION OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENT PARAMETERS IN ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM MODELS - A method of predicting an electrochemical mapping parameter in a vehicle that derives at least a portion of its motive power from an energy storage system is provided. The method may comprise providing a plurality of electrochemical mapping parameter sources capable of rendering one or more electrochemical mapping parameters selected from the group consisting of resistance and capacitance and selecting at least one electrochemical mapping parameter source capable of rendering one or more electrochemical mapping parameters based on the state of the energy storage system. The method may also comprise determining an adaptive gain and determining an adaptive factor based on the operating state of the vehicle or the energy storage system. The method may also comprise adapting the one or more electrochemical mapping parameters based on the adaptive factor and adaptive gain to provide an adapted electrochemical mapping parameter value. | 05-03-2012 |

20120133369 | ALGORITHM FOR DETERMINING THE CAPACITY OF A BATTERY WHILE IN SERVICE - A method for estimating the capacity of a vehicle battery while in service. The method includes providing a previous battery state-of-charge, battery temperature and integrated battery current amp-hours, and determining that battery contactors have been closed after they have been opened and disconnected from a load. The method determines if the battery has been at rest for a long enough period of time while the contactors were open, where the battery rest time is based on battery temperature, and determines an initial battery voltage from a last time step when the battery contactors were closed prior to the contactors being open during the battery rest time. The method determines a present battery state-of-charge from the initial battery voltage and the battery temperature and calculates the battery capacity based on the battery integrated current amp-hours divided by the difference between the present battery state-of-charge and the previous battery state-of-charge. | 05-31-2012 |

20120136594 | DYNAMIC BATTERY CAPACITY ESTIMATION - A method of determining a state of health of a battery in real time includes estimating a parameter value associated with the state of health of the battery and determining one or more of a terminal voltage, an accumulated charge, a state of charge, and a temperature of the battery. The method further includes determining, via a computing device, a reserve capacity of the battery based at least in part on the estimated parameter value and one or more of the terminal voltage, the accumulated charge, the state of charge, and the temperature of the battery. | 05-31-2012 |

20120136595 | BATTERY DIFFUSION VOLTAGE ESTIMATION - A method includes estimating a first diffusion voltage value of a battery by selecting the first diffusion voltage value from a look-up table, estimating a second diffusion voltage value of the battery using an estimation procedure, selecting at least one of the estimated first and second diffusion voltage values, and determining an open circuit voltage of the battery based at least in part on the selected diffusion voltage value. The method may be implemented by a computing device in a vehicle. | 05-31-2012 |

20120161757 | METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING A STATE OF CHARGE OF A BATTERY - Methods and systems are provided for determining a state of charge of a battery. The battery is subjected to a predetermined magnetic field such that the battery and the predetermined magnetic field jointly create a resultant magnetic field. The resultant magnetic field is sensed. The state of charge of the battery is determined based on the resultant magnetic field. | 06-28-2012 |

20120161776 | 06-28-2012 | |

20120215471 | METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING A STATE OF CHARGE OF A BATTERY - Methods and systems are provided for determining a state of charge of a battery. A magnetic force between the battery and a magnet is detected. The state of charge of the battery is determined based on the detected magnetic force. | 08-23-2012 |

20120261397 | METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR HEATING A VEHICLE BATTERY - A method and system for heating a vehicle battery, such as the type used for vehicle propulsion in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Depending on the battery chemistry involved, such batteries may not perform well in extremely cold environments. For instance, a lithium-ion battery can exhibit a high internal resistance when the battery is extremely cold, which in turn can negatively affect the available power or other capabilities of the battery. According to an exemplary embodiment, the method and system take advantage of the high internal resistance in a cold vehicle battery by purposely cycling electrical current in and/or out of the battery so that heat is created. This heat warms up the vehicle battery and thereby improves its overall performance and capabilities. | 10-18-2012 |

20130027048 | METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING A VEHICLE BATTERY - A method and system for manipulating, adjusting or otherwise controlling a state-of-charge (SOC) operating range for a high voltage vehicle battery, such as the type used for hybrid or electric vehicle propulsion. By providing a dynamic SOC operating range that changes in response to changing battery conditions, the battery performance may be improved so that the battery life is extended. Depending on the particular embodiment, the dynamic SOC operating range may have different combinations of hard and/or soft boundaries or limits. | 01-31-2013 |

20130063094 | METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR USE WITH A VEHICLE BATTERY - A method and system for use with a vehicle battery pack having a number of individual battery cells, where the method estimates, extrapolates or otherwise determines individual cell resistances. According to an exemplary embodiment, the method and system use a voltage and temperature reading for each of the individual battery cells, as well as a voltage and current reading for the overall battery pack to determine one or more cell resistance values, such as a minimum and maximum cell resistance for the battery pack. This approach relies upon temperature deviations in the battery pack to make assumptions or estimates regarding individual battery cell resistances. By having individual cell resistance valuesâ€”instead of using an overall pack resistance value and building in a buffer to account for cell variationsâ€”better and more accurate cell-level data can be obtained that, in turn, can improve charging, discharging, cell balancing and/or other battery-related processes. | 03-14-2013 |

20130149565 | MAGNETIC SENSOR TRANSFORMER FOR DETERMINING STATE OF CHARGE FOR IRON PHOSPHATE LITHIUM ION BATTERIES - A magnetic sensor for measuring the magnetic properties of a battery cell, and converting the magnetic properties to a battery cell SOC. The magnetic sensor includes a magnetic core formed of laminated high permeability plates provided in a C-shape. An extended portion of the battery cell extends through a transverse opening in the core so that it is positioned within the core. A driving coil is wrapped around one end of the magnetic core and generates a magnetic field in the core that extends across the transverse opening and through the battery cell. A receiving coil is wrapped around an opposite end of the core that receives the magnetic field, and converts the magnetic field to a representative current. A detection circuit converts the receiving coil current to the battery cell SOC. | 06-13-2013 |

20130151180 | BATTERY MAGNETIC STATE OF CHARGE SENSOR CONTROL ALGORITHM - A system and method for estimating the state-of-charge (SOC) of a battery cell in a vehicle using a magnetic sensor that measures changes in magnetism of the battery cell. The method provides an offset correction to a current output signal from the magnetic sensor that calibrates the current output signal to a known magnetic field strength, provides a temperature correction to the current output signal that corrects the current output signal based on a temperature of the magnetic sensor, and provides a current correction to the current output signal that removes portions of the magnetic field caused by other battery cells, where the corrected current output signal is converted to the battery cell SOC. | 06-13-2013 |

20130218496 | BATTERY STATE ESTIMATOR WITH OVERPOTENTIAL-BASED VARIABLE RESISTORS - A battery model and equivalent circuit that includes an ohmic resistance, a first RC-pair that models a battery cell charge transfer reaction and double layer processes and a second RC-pair that models battery cell diffusion. Each of the ohmic resistance, the charge transfer reaction resistance and the diffusion resistance in the model are variable resistances, where each resistance changes in response to a change in voltage potential across the resistance. | 08-22-2013 |

20130317771 | MODELING CHANGES IN THE STATE-OF-CHARGE OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE CURVE BY USING REGRESSED PARAMETERS IN A REDUCED ORDER PHYSICS BASED MODEL - A method for modeling changes in the state of charge vs. open circuit voltage (SOC-OCV) curve for a lithium-ion battery cell as it ages. During battery pack charging, voltage and current data are gathered for a battery cell. A set of state equations are used to determine the stoichiometry and state of charge of the cathode half-cell based on the charging current profile over time. The voltage and current data, along with the stoichiometry and state of charge of the cathode half-cell, are then used to estimate maximum and minimum solid concentration values at the anode, using an error function parameter regression/optimization. With stoichiometric conditions at both the cathode and anode calculated, the cell's capacity and a new SOC-OCV curve can be determined. | 11-28-2013 |

20140172332 | METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR DETERMINING WHETHER A VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT IS USABLE FOR A STATE OF CHARGE ESTIMATION - Systems and methods for improvements in battery state of charge accuracy, charge termination consistency, capacity estimation, and energy delivery consistency. More specifically, embodiments herein detail systems and methods using an algorithm to calculate the change in state of charge for a given voltage change (dSOC/dV) at a given temperature in a region around the present voltage measurement or estimation and to set a signal indicating when the measurement should not be used due to potential error. | 06-19-2014 |

20140214347 | METHOD TO DETECT OPEN-CIRCUIT VOLTAGE SHIFT THROUGH OPTIMIZATION FITTING OF THE ANODE ELECTRODE HALF-CELL VOLTAGE CURVE - Methods are disclosed for modeling changes in capacity and the state of charge vs. open circuit voltage (SOC-OCV) curve for a battery cell as it ages. During battery pack charging, voltage and current data are gathered for a battery cell. In one method, using multiple data points taken during the plug-in charge event, data optimization is used to determine values for two parameters which define a scaling and a shifting of the SOC-OCV curve from its original shape at the cell's beginning of life to its shape in the cell's current condition. In a second method, only initial and final voltages and current throughput data are needed to determine the values of the two parameters. With the scaling and shifting parameters calculated, the cell's updated capacity and updated SOC-OCV curve can be determined. The methods can also be applied to data taken during a discharge event. | 07-31-2014 |

20140278167 | Battery State-Of-Charge Estimation For Hybrid And Electric Vehicles Using Extended Kalman Filter Techniques - Adaptive estimation techniques to create a battery state estimator to estimate power capabilities of the battery pack in a vehicle. The estimator adaptively updates circuit model parameters used to calculate the voltage states of the ECM of a battery pack. The adaptive estimation techniques may also be used to calculate a solid-state diffusion voltage effects within the battery pack. The adaptive estimator is used to increase robustness of the calculation to sensor noise, modeling error, and battery pack degradation. | 09-18-2014 |

20140333317 | BATTERY STATE ESTIMATOR COMBINING ELECTROCHEMICAL SOLID-STATE CONCENTRATION MODEL WITH EMPIRICAL EQUIVALENT-CIRCUIT MODEL - A battery state estimator which combines an electrochemical solid-state concentration model with an empirical equivalent-circuit model. The battery state estimator uses a reduced-order physics-based electrochemical solid-state concentration model to calculate open circuit voltage of a battery cell, and uses the calculated open circuit voltage in an equivalent-circuit model to evaluate a diffusion voltage drop and other battery cell parameters. The battery state estimator is implemented in an online estimator framework using an extended Kalman filter, with a measured terminal voltage and measured current as inputs. A state of charge of the battery cell can be determined from the calculated open circuit voltage, and the state of charge along with the other parameters from the equivalent-circuit model are used to evaluate battery pack performance and to control battery pack charging and discharging. | 11-13-2014 |