Patent application title: ANTISEPTIC WOUND DRESSING
Harald K. Horchler (Wiehl, DE)
Hans-JÜrgen Buschmann (Kempen, DE)
HAWEST RESEARCH AG
IPC8 Class: AA61L1528FI
Class name: Preparations characterized by special physical form web, sheet or filament bases; compositions of bandages; or dressings with incorporated medicaments dressings
Publication date: 2016-04-21
Patent application number: 20160106879
The invention relates to an antiseptic material, in particular as a wound
dressing, containing a carrier material and at least one antiseptic
together with a surfactant, wherein the carrier material is equipped with
a cyclodextrin or cyclodextrin derivative that is loaded in the
antiseptic or antiseptics.
1. Antiseptic material, especially wound dressing, containing a carrier
material and at least one antiseptic together with a surfactant, wherein
the carrier material is finished with a cyclodextrin or cyclodextrin
derivative, which is loaded with the antiseptic.
2. Antiseptic material according to claim 1, wherein the carrier material is a polymeric foam, especially a porous polyurethane foam.
3. Antiseptic material according to claim 1, wherein the carrier material is a textile carrier material, especially a polyester or cotton.
4. Antiseptic material according to claim 1, wherein the carrier material is finished with a β-cyclodextrin or a β-cyclodextrin derivative.
5. Antiseptic material according to claim 1, wherein the cyclodextrin or cyclodextrin derivative is bound to the carrier material via an anchor group chemically and/or mechanically and/or by physical interactions.
6. Antiseptic material according to claim 1, wherein the cyclodextrin or cyclodextrin derivative is bound chemically to a polysaccharide, a polyvinylamine or a polyethylenimine, which for its part is bound to the carrier material via physical interactions.
7. Antiseptic material according to claim 1, comprising a content of 1 to 5 wt % of cyclodextrin or cyclodextrin derivative, relative to the weight of the carrier material.
8. Antiseptic material according to claim 1, wherein the antiseptic is one from the group of polyamines or biguanides.
9. Antiseptic material according to claim 8, wherein the cyclodextrin or cyclodextrin derivative is loaded with chlorhexidine or polyhexanide.
10. Antiseptic material according to claim 1, wherein the molecular ratio of cyclodextrin or cyclodextrin derivative to antiseptic lies in the range of 0.1 to 1.0.
11. Antiseptic material according to claim 1, wherein it contains a betaine.
12. Antiseptic material according to claim 11, wherein the betaine is undecylenic amidopropyl betaine or trimethylammonium acetate.
13. Antiseptic material according to claim 11, wherein it contains antiseptic and betaine in approximately equimolar amounts.
14. Antiseptic material according to claim 1 as wound dressing or plaster.
15. Antiseptic material according to claim 1 as everyday textile for the health care.
16. Antiseptic material according to claim 1 as an antimicrobial functional patch for the cosmetics.
17. Antiseptic material according to claim 1 as protective garments finished with biocide.
18. Use of a polyvinylamine-.beta.-cyclodextrin with polyhexanide loading in aqueous solution together with a betaine for the preparation of antiseptically finished materials.
 The invention relates to an antiseptic material, which in
particular can also be used for wound dressings. It contains a carrier
material and one or more antiseptics and a surfactant.
 Antiseptically finished materials for the clinical area, especially for wound care, but also for cosmetic and other purposes, are widely known and in use. Such materials consist as a rule of a carrier material, which is finished with one or more antiseptics. Both textile materials and non-textile materials, such as polymer films and foams, come into question as carrier material.
 Especially in the area of health care and wound management, antiseptics based on polyamines and biguanides have proved themselves. For example, chlorhexidine, polyethylenimine (Lupasol®), spermine, triethylenetetramine or also polyhexanide (PHMB, poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride) may be mentioned. Chlorhexidine and PHMB in particular have a considerable antibacterial potential, wherein PHMB generally exerts a lower toxicity on human cells.
 Particularly in the wound management, but also in the antibacterial finishing of textiles for health management and other purposes, the problem exists, however, that the antibacterial effect of the active substances is exhausted after relatively short time. Reason for this is the poor durability of the active substances on the textile materials. In the wound management, it additionally occurs that the active substances are diluted by the wound exudate and are removed (aspirated) together with the wound exudate. This makes a frequent change of the wound dressing necessary, which is not entirely conducive to the wound healing.
 A particular problem exists in wounds that are filled with an absorbent material, closed and subjected to vacuum by means of a pump or suction bottle. It has been shown that a slight vacuum promotes the healing process. An impregnation of the absorbent material with an antiseptic would be advantageous here, but quite generally this is sucked out of the wound together with the exudate within entirely short time. As the consequence, the wound threatens to become infected unless a change of dressing is carried out regularly. However, a change of dressing is detrimental to the healing process. A prolongation of the useful life/duration of action of the antiseptic finish of the wound dressing would be very desirable here.
 Finally, an antiseptic finish of textiles for the health care or the infection protection, in which the finish remains active over longer time, would also be desirable.
 In this context the task of the invention is the provision of an antiseptic material which retains its effectiveness over longer time but simultaneously acts less toxically on human and animal cells, is simple to manufacture and simple to handle.
 This task is accomplished with an antiseptic material of the type mentioned initially, in which the carrier material is finished with a cyclodextrin or cyclodextrin derivative, which is loaded with the antiseptic or with several antiseptics.
 According to the invention, any material that is finished antiseptically in the described way is understood as antiseptic material. Such a material respectively has a carrier material, which contains an antiseptic and a surfactant. Textile materials in particular come into question as carrier material, wherein they may be woven textile fabrics or nonwovens. Plastics also come into question as carrier material, especially porous plastic foams, as find application in the medicine in the wound treatment, especially open-porous polyurethanes, which qualify as eminently body-friendly.
 The term "textile materials" includes all types and forms of natural and synthetic fibers and textiles produced from them. Woven and nonwoven fabrics of cotton and polyester can be mentioned in particular.
 Polyamines and biguanides in particular come into question as antiseptics, wherein the term "polyamine" includes both antiseptically acting multifunctional amines and also polymeric amines. Biguanides, including chlorhexidine and polyhexanide, are preferred.
 The carrier materials used according to the invention are finished with a cyclodextrin or cyclodextrin derivative. The known α-, ρ- and γ-cyclodextrin forms are understood as cyclodextrins, wherein they are cyclic sugar molecules with 6, 7 or 8 α-D-glucose units. These cyclodextrins may be derivatized in the usual way. Furthermore, they may be provided with anchor groups known in and for themselves, via which a binding to a carrier material takes place. This binding may take place in chemical way, in physical way via interactions or else purely mechanically via so-called anchor groups, which interlock with the carrier material. A physical binding takes place, for example, via electrostatic interactions or via chemical interactions between the molecule or its derivative, for example hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions of the cyclodextrin with the surroundings and the surface of the carrier material. All of these methods are adequately described in the literature.
 By cyclodextrin derivatives, derivatives of the α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins are known that in addition to an anchor group have a further functionalization in order to achieve desired effects. Such derivatives are to be selected such that they exert not any negative but if necessary a positive influence on the complex formation of the cyclodextrin with the antiseptic.
 Common surfactants come into question as surfactants, but especially betaines. Especially undecylenic amidopropyl betaine and trimethylammonium acetate would have to be mentioned here. As a rule the surfactants are bound not to the cyclodextrin but instead via electrostatic interactions to the carrier material.
 The carrier material coming into use according to the invention as a rule contains 1 to 5 wt % cyclodextrin or derivative thereof, especially 3 wt %, relative to the weight of the carrier material. Investigations have shown that, with proper process control, almost all cyclodextrin units are loaded in the usual case with one molecule of the antiseptic, i.e. the ratio of the cyclodextrin molecules to the molecules of the antiseptic lies in the range of 0.1 to 1.0. Where the surfactant or betaine is concerned, as a rule it is contained in the antiseptic material approximately in the same amount as the antiseptic.
 Investigations have shown that the antiseptic material according to the invention has a high bactericidal activity and in addition is antivirally and fungicidally active. The fungicidal activity is obtained above all by the addition of the betaine, which is capable of detaching biofilms from wound surfaces and of promoting the penetration of the antiseptic into the wound. It exerts a kind of entrainment effect. Tests with pathogenic germs, especially of S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans, have achieved a practically 100% inhibition of the microorganism in a short time.
 In addition, cyclodextrins are suitable for assimilating protein substances and other decomposition products of body cells and of removing them from the surroundings. A healing-promoting and simultaneously also odor-reducing effect is derived from this. The wound is kept cleaner on the whole. Associated with the assimilation of such decomposition products is the release of antiseptics, which are contained in the cyclodextrin and which in this way are delivered gradually into the wound region. This is responsible for the lasting effect of the antiseptic materials according to the invention.
 The antiseptic materials according to the invention may be used for a multiplicity of purposes. This is especially the use in conjunction with the wound care as wound dressing, bandage material or plasters. Foams may be used for the filling of wounds in the course of a vacuum therapy. Furthermore, in the clinical area, everyday textiles for health care, such as bed linens, gowns, patient clothing and the like, may be finished accordingly. A further application is that in cosmetic patches, and also for work garments outside hospitals in areas in which contamination with microorganisms cannot be ruled out. Finally, such a finish may also be used for the surface treatment of garments that are used for the protection of the transmission of bacteria and viruses and, for example, is specified for Mecca pilgrims. Everyday textiles may be reloaded after the laundering.
 Particularly preferred antiseptic materials have a carrier material that is finished with β-cyclodextrin that is loaded with polyhexanide. Undecylenic amidopropyl betaine is present as the betaine. This cyclodextrin is bound via an anchor group to a polysaccharide, which will be applied onto the carrier material. In particular, common gel-forming polysaccharides come into question as the polysaccharide, such as carrageenan, tragacanth, guar, fucoidan or alginate. The binding of the cyclodextrin takes place by reaction of monochlorotriazenyl-β-cyclodextrin in water at an elevated temperature (90° C.) in the presence of sodium hydroxide solution at a pH of 11 to 12. The product so obtained, in which the β-cyclodextrin is bound to the polysaccharide, may be applied durably onto the carrier material by spraying or padding. It remains there even after several launderings.
 The loading of the cyclodextrin with the antiseptic takes place by immersing the carrier material in a solution of the antiseptic, by spraying the antiseptic or by reacting the monochlorotriazenyl-β-cyclodextrin with the polysaccharide in the presence of the antiseptic manufactured. In the latter case, it must be ensured that undesired side reactions do not occur.
 A further preferred form of the binding of the cyclodextrin to the carrier material may be achieved via polyvinylamine or polyethylenimine. β-Cyclodextrin-substituted polyvinylamine or polyethylenimine adheres excellently to the surface of textiles, but also of polyurethane foams, which is why correspondingly finished carrier material is also suitable in particular for wound treatment, but also for garments.
 Accordingly, the invention also relates to an aqueous solution, which contains a cyclodextrin bound to a polyvinylamine or polyethylenimine, which is loaded with polyhexamide and additionally contains undecylenic amidopropyl betaine.
 Tests have shown that a carrier material that is finished with 3% polyvinylamine-β-cyclodextrin and is loaded with approximately equal amounts of PHMB and undecylenic amidopropyl betaine, hereinafter referred to as the PHMB/betaine complex or complex, has a series of advantageous properties:
 The PHMB/betaine complex has cationic properties and binds excellently to OH bonds, such as are present in cellulose, for example. An aqueous solution of the correspondingly loaded polyvinylamine-β-cyclodextrin complex may be used appropriately for decontamination and prevention of infection.
 The complex exhibits a very good biocompatibility index with a high "killing rate" for microorganisms and a low toxicity toward human cells (tested on HaCaT cells). An accelerated wound healing and a very low infection rate have been shown.
 The complex is capable of stabilizing the pH environment of a wound at 5.5 and thus of creating prerequisites for the wound conditioning. In chronic wounds, the pH is regularly in the alkaline range. At pH 5.5, the wound healing proceeds much faster.
 The combination of PHMB and betaine dissolves biofilms and thus cleans the wound. It creates an optimal wound environment for faster regeneration of granulation tissue.
 The complex durably inhibits free radicals, which are capable of damaging cells.
 The complex is capable of absorbing exudate, especially proteins, from the wound and neutralizing it. In this way microorganisms are deprived of the nutritional basis.
 The invention will be described in more detail by the following examples.
 The solutions prepared in the following examples are suitable for the spraying of textile materials, foams, etc. of the most diverse materials, such as, for example, polyester, cotton, polyacrylonitrile, glass fibers, polyurethane, etc. The fixation of the cyclodextrin derivatives takes place by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the respective surface.
 It is not permissible to exceed the cited concentrations substantially, since otherwise intensive gel formation sets in and reaction solution can no longer be sprayed onto textile materials.
Reaction with Carrageenan (Fluka)
 1 g Carrageenan is dissolved together with 2 g monochlorotriazenyl-β-cyclodextrin (Wacker) in 200 water. The solution is heated to 90° C. and a solution of sodium hydroxide (15 g/L) is slowly added dropwise until a pH of 11 to 12 is established. After one hour, the solution is cooled and neutralized with hydrochloric acid.
 Corresponding cyclodextrin derivatives were prepared with the following polysaccharides:
 The cyclodextrin derivatives synthesized in this example do not have any kind of biostatic effects. The biostatic action of the finish can be determined by means of the formazan test (F. P. Altman, Progr. Histochem. Cytochem. 9 (1976); W. Oppermann, R. Gutmann, S. Schmitt, E. Held-Fohn, Textilveredelung 37, 19 (2003)).
 In order to prepare cyclodextrin derivatives with both protein-adsorptive and biostatic properties, the following cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesized.
Reaction with Guar and Triethylenetetramine (Fluka)
 1 g guar is dissolved together with two 2 g monochlorotriazenyl-β-cyclodextrin in 200 mL water. The solution is heated to 90° C. and a solution of triethylenetetramine (1 g/L) is slowly added dropwise until a pH of 11 to 12 is established. After one hour, the solution is cooled and neutralized with hydrochloric acid.
 After the spraying of the solution onto a woven polyester fabric, this is dried at room temperature. An inhibition of the growth of 80% is measured by means of the formazan test.
 Correspondingly, further protein-adsorptive cyclodextrin derivatives with biostatic properties were prepared:
Water-soluble starch/polyethylenimine (Lupasol®, BASF), inhibition 53% Tragacanth/triethylenetetramine, inhibition 82% Carrageenan/triethylenetetramine, inhibition 0% Carrageenan/spermine (Fluka), inhibition 10% Guar/diethylenetriamine (Fluka), inhibition 20% Guar/1,2-diaminopropane (Fluka), inhibition 34%
Examples of the Finishing of Textile Materials
 A) The solutions prepared in Examples 1 and 2 are sprayed onto a woven fabric of cotton and dried at elevated temperature (40 to 80° C.). The cyclodextrins on the woven fabric surface can be detected in each sample by means of a basic phenolphthalein solution. If one drop of this violet solution is placed on the woven cotton fabric, then a decolorization takes place due to the complex formation between the cyclodextrin and the phenolphthalein.
 For the detection of the protein binding, commercial protein powder is used. After an immersion in the protein solution, for several minutes, of the samples, which had been sprayed with the solutions prepared in Examples 1 and 2 and dried, the textile is carefully rinsed off with distilled water. Thereafter the textile samples are immersed in dilute aqueous sodium hydroxide solution and a couple of drops of copper sulfate solution are added. A staining of the samples is observed, which may be attributed to the presence of proteins.
 B) The solutions prepared in Examples 1 and 2 are sprayed onto a woven fabric of polyester and dried. The detection of the presence of cyclodextrin and the binding of protein powder were performed correspondingly and yielded analogous results.
 C) Instead of woven fabrics of cotton and polyester, woven fabrics of polyacrylonitrile, other synthetic and regenerative fibrous materials, foams of polyurethanes and the like are also suitable. The procedure corresponds to that described under A), the results correspond to the results obtained there.
Cyclodextrin Derivatives with Reactive Anchor Groups
 Suitable cyclodextrin derivatives are described in the corresponding patent literature. The preparation of monochlorotriazine-substituted β-cyclodextrin is known from DE 44 29 229 and of further cyclodextrin derivatives with one or more reactive anchor groups from DE 101 55 781.
 A binding of cyclodextrin to fibrous materials is also possible by the use of bifunctional or polyfunctional reagents, such as via diisocyanates and the like (W. Volz, Anti-Smell Finishes in Textile Processing, Textilveredelung 38, 17 (2003)), or by the use of dimethylureas and similar compounds, such as are also used for crease-resistant finishing of cellulosic materials (H.-J. Burschmann, D. Knittel, E. Schollmeyer: Crease-resistant finishing of cotton in the presence of cyclodextrins for incorporation of fragrances, Melliand Textilbiler. 72, 198 (1991)).
Finishing of Textile Materials with Cyclodextrin and Antiseptics
 Especially chlorhexidine and polyhexanide in aqueous solution are used as antiseptics.
 Three finishing variants with cyclodextrin derivatives, which are bound to the textile by ionic or hydrophobic interactions, are presented:
 A) The textile material or the foam is finished with cyclodextrins. For this purpose, an aqueous solution of a cyclodextrin derivative (see above) or an aqueous solution of a cyclodextrin substituted with polyvinylamine or polyethylenimine (approx. 3% cyclodextrin content) is sprayed onto the material to be finished. An aqueous solution of the antiseptic (0.08 to 0.22% PHMB; 0.1 to 0.15% betaine) is sprayed simultaneously, wherein both solutions must have a pH of 5 to 7, since otherwise the formation of a precipitate takes place.
 B) The textile material or the foam is finished with cyclodextrins. For this purpose, an aqueous solution of a cyclodextrin derivative (see above) or an aqueous solution of a cyclodextrin substituted with polyvinylamine or polyethylenimine (approx. 3% cyclodextrin content) with a pH of 5 to 7 is sprayed onto the material to be finished and dried. Then an aqueous solution of the antiseptic (0.1% PHMB; 0.1% betaine) is sprayed. The application of both solutions may also be performed by means of a padding machine.
 C) A mixture of the cyclodextrin derivative (see above) or of a cyclodextrin substituted with polyvinylamine or polyethylenimine and of the antiseptic is prepared in aqueous solution by mixing both components (equimolar, preferably 0.001 to 0.01 mol/L), wherein the aqueous phase must have a pH of 5 to 7, in order to prevent the formation of an insoluble precipitate. The resulting aqueous solution is sprayed onto the textile material or is applied onto the textile material or the foam by an application by means of a padding machine.
Finishing Variant with a Cyclodextrin Derivative with a Reactive Group
 A woven cotton fabric is immersed in an aqueous solution of monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin (sodium salt, 20-100 g/L) (Cavasol® W7 MCT, Wacker-Chemie GmbH), which has been adjusted to a pH of 4 to 6 with acetic acid (60%). Then the fabric is quetched on a padding machine (liquor uptake approx. 70%). Thereafter the fabric is predried at 80° C. for 10 minutes and then fixed at 160° C. for 7 minutes. Then an aqueous solution of the antiseptic (0.1% PHMB) is sprayed on or applied by an application by means of a padding machine. At the same time or subsequently, the betaine is applied from aqueous solution (0.1% betaine).
 The FIGURE schematically shows a cyclodextrin molecule with polyhexamide loading and an anchor group, which mechanically anchors the cyclodextrin onto a textile fiber.
Patent applications by Hans-JÜrgen Buschmann, Kempen DE
Patent applications in class Dressings
Patent applications in all subclasses Dressings