Patent application title: INSECT MUSCLE ACTIN PROMOTER
Martha Koukidou (Abingdon, GB)
Sarah Scaife (Abingdon, GB)
Luke Alphey (Abingdon, GB)
IPC8 Class: AA01K67033FI
Class name: Multicellular living organisms and unmodified parts thereof and related processes method of using a transgenic nonhuman animal in an in vivo test method (e.g., drug efficacy tests, etc.)
Publication date: 2016-04-21
Patent application number: 20160106078
Provided is a gene expression system, suitable for expression in an
insect, comprising an insect muscle actin pro-moter operably linked to a
marker gene, which overcomes or ameliorates one or more of: cost of
rearing; amount of handling; errors in identification due to human error
or loss of marker by the insect; and health concerns related to the
effects of marker powders on workers in mass rearing facilities.
14. A polynucleotide expression system, comprising: a polynucleotide sequence encoding a fluorescent marker; and an insect muscle actin promoter operably linked to the polynucleotide sequence, wherein the insect muscle actin promoter is not an indirect flight muscle actin promotor, and wherein expression of the fluorescent marker of the polynucleotide expression system in an insect results in a phenotype that is visible to the naked eye when the insect is exposed to light.
15. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein the phenotype visible to the naked eye is detectable in at least two developmental stages selected from the group consisting of the egg, larval, pupal, and adult developmental stages of the insect.
16. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 15, wherein the phenotype is visible to the naked eye at the larval, pupal, and adult stages of the insect.
17. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein the fluorescent marker is expressed across at least two body segments of the insect.
18. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 17, wherein the body segments are selected from the group consisting of the head, thorax, and abdomen.
19. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein the polynucleotide expression system confers no substantial fitness disadvantage on the insect.
20. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein the fluorescent marker comprises green fluorescent protein (GFP), EGFP, ZsGreen, TurboGFP, AcGFPI, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), mCitrine, DsRed, DsRed2, DsRed-Express, DsRed monomer, mCherry, mStrawberry, mRaspberry, mPlum, AmCyan, CyPet, tdTomato, AsRed2, and/or E2-Crimson.
21. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein the insect muscle actin promoter is derived from an insect of the order Diptera or Lepidoptera.
22. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein the insect muscle actin promoter is derived from an insect of the family Culicidae, Drosophilidae, Tephritidae, or Bombycidae.
23. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein the insect muscle actin promoter is derived from Aedes aegypti (also known as Stegomyia aegyptae), Stegomyia albopicta (also known as Aedes albopictus), Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles gambiae, Medfly (Ceratitis capitata), Mexfly (Anastrepha ludens), Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), Olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa), Cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi), Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tyroni), Peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata), Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa), West Indian fruit fly (Anastrepha obliqua), codling moth (Cydia pomonella), silk worm (Bombyx mori), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), Navel Orange Worm (Amyelois transitella), Peach Twig Borer (Anarsia lineatella), rice stem borer (Tryporyza incertulas), a moth of the family Noctuidae, a moth of the subfamily Heliothinae, or Drosophila melanogaster.
24. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein the insect muscle actin promoter comprises the polynucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 5, or SEQ ID NO: 6, or a variant or mutant thereof.
25. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 24, wherein the variant or mutant has at least about 85%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, or at least about 99% sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 5, or SEQ ID NO: 6.
26. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein the insect in which the fluorescent marker is to be expressed is of the order Diptera or Lepidoptera.
27. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein the insect in which the fluorescent marker is to be expressed is of the family Culicidae, Tephritidae, or Bombycidae.
28. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein the insect in which the fluorescent marker is to be expressed is Aedes aegypti (also known as Stegomyia aegyptae), Stegomyia albopicta (also known as Aedes albopictus), Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles gambiae, Medfly (Ceratitis capitata), Mexfly (Anastrepha ludens), Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), Olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa), Cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi), Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tyroni), Peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata), Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa), West Indian fruit fly (Anastrepha obliqua), codling moth (Cydia pomonella), silk worm (Bombyx mori), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), Navel Orange Worm (Amyelois transitella), Peach Twig Borer (Anarsia lineatella), rice stem borer (Tryporyza incertulas), a moth of the family Noctuidae, or a moth of the subfamily Heliothinae.
29. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein the insect in which the fluorescent marker is to be expressed is a pest.
30. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein the insect in which the fluorescent marker is to be expressed is a beneficial insect.
31. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, further comprising an enhancer associated with the insect muscle actin promoter.
32. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, further comprising a 5' untranslated region (UTR) and/or a 3' UTR for the polynucleotide sequence.
33. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 32, wherein the 3' UTR is from an insect muscle actin gene.
34. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 33, wherein the 3' UTR is from the insect muscle actin gene of Mexfly (Anastrepha ludens).
35. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, further comprising a transgene, wherein expression of the fluorescent marker in the insect indicates the presence of the transgene or a trait associated with the transgene in the insect.
36. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, wherein expression of the fluorescent marker in the insect is inducible, repressible, and/or derepressible.
37. The polynucleotide expression system of claim 14, which is selected from the group consisting of construct #4014, #4143, #4247, #4133, #4676, #4705, #4751, and #4718.
38. An insect comprising, in its genome, the polynucleotide expression system of claim 14.
39. A method, comprising: transforming an insect with the polynucleotide expression system of claim 14.
40. A method of identifying a transgenic insect, comprising: exposing one or more insects to light of an excitation wavelength, and identifying a phenotype with the naked eye present in the one or more insects, thereby identifying the insect(s) as containing a polynucleotide expression system of claim 14 in its genome.
41. The method of claim 40, further comprising separating the identified insect(s) comprising the polynucleotide expression system in its genome from a population of insects.
42. The method of claim 41, wherein the identifying step and/or the separating step is automated.
43. The method of claim 40, wherein the polynucleotide expression system further comprises a transgene, wherein expression of the fluorescent marker in the insect indicates the presence of the transgene or a trait associated with the transgene in the insect.
44. The method of claim 43, wherein the transgene is a lethal gene or a gene, when expressed in the insect, results in sex separation, and the method further comprises monitoring the insect comprising the transgene in a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) program.
45. The method of claim 44, wherein the sex separation results from the group consisting of female elimination, insect lethality, and male sterility, due to the expression of the transgene.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to expression systems comprising a muscle actin promoter suitable for expression in insects.
BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION
 Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) (Dyck et al., 2005; Knipling, 1955) involves mass rearing and release of sterile insects in a given area. Sterile insects mate with their wild counterparts leading to a decrease in the wild population. SIT can be used to control the population of pests. Pests are detrimental to humans or human concerns such as agriculture or livestock production. Pests are often disease vectors, or simply put, they carry and spread disease. Examples of such pests include mosquitos of the genus Aedes, principally Aedes aegypti, which can spread the dengue virus, causing dengue fever, or the yellow fever virus causing yellow fever. Anopoheles mosquitos are responsible for spreading malaria. However, despite its environmental benefits, SIT has been used successfully for only a limited number of insect pests to date.
 Modern genetics can provide significant advances in current SIT programmes and may help in implementing pest management programmes that otherwise would not be possible. These advances include: a) improving the identification of released individuals, b) removing the need for radiation-sterilisation and c) providing automated sex-separation prior to release to eliminate females from the release population ("genetic sexing") (Alphey et al., 2008; Papathanos et al., 2009).
 Female lethal RIDL technology (female-specific Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal, fsRIDL) is highly effective in separating sexes and has been successfully tested in laboratory, greenhouse and semi-field experiments (WO 01/39599). The present application and our work on genetic male sterility (GB2500113 and WO2013/131920) provide resourceful additions to the current RIDL system but more importantly, they effectively and sustainably address the two remaining genetic advances (a) and b) respectively) discussed above.
 It is essential to be able to detect the presence of wild insects, even amongst overwhelming numbers of released sterile insects. This requires the released insects to be marked in some way, to distinguish them from wild type insects. Current marking techniques (Hagler and Jackson, 2001; Parker, 2005) mainly involve the use of coloured dyes in the larval diet that remains visible in the adults' tissues (e.g. codling moth, pink bollworm), or application of powder directly to the pupae (medfly). Although widely used, for example the Calco Red dietary dye for pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) moths (Graham and Mangum, 1971) and fluorescent powders marking the heads of adult medfly (Steiner, 1967), their application increases the cost of rearing, can increase the amount of handling required, and is prone to errors of interpretation (Hagler and Jackson, 2001; Hagler and Miller, 2002; Morrison et al., 2011; Robinson and Hendrichs, 2005).
 It is also possible that a fraction of released sterile insects will lose the marker after release (Hagler and Jackson, 2001; Hagler and Miller, 2002), which would mean that on recapture they may be counted among the wild and fertile insects in the traps. Such error would not have a significant impact where large numbers of wild insects are captured, but in programmes attempting to eradicate a pest and where the wild pest is relatively infrequently captured, the presence of one such insect might provoke a costly round of quarantine and exceptional interventions. Furthermore, there are health concerns related to the effects of the powder on workers in mass-rearing facilities.
 An example of a naturally occurring mutation that has been used as a genetic marker in operational SIT programmes is the white pupae (wp) mutation. It was first used in a small SIT trial in 1972-1973 against the Australian sheep blowfly (Lucilia cuprina) as a sex separation mechanism (Robinson, 2002) through male-linked chromosomal translocations.
 Following the successful sex separation of blowfly pupae based on pupal colour, the first medfly genetic sexing strains were constructed in 1984 by combining Y-autosome translocations developed by Robinson and van Heemert (1982) with the white pupae mutation (wp, located on chromosome 5) previously detected by Rossler (1979). However, these strains showed significant levels of genetic instability, which increased over time. As a result, some females could not be distinguished from the males and, consequently, an increasing number of females were released into the field (Franz, 2002).
 Genetic markers that result in a new phenotype can be useful, but these markers are recessive and therefore apparent only when an individual carries two copies of the allele; they are, therefore, not applicable in situations where released males mate with the native wild female pest population and the progeny is being monitored. Furthermore, for monitoring purposes, the marker must be visible in adults and more importantly it must also be apparent in insects caught in traps, which might have been dead for several weeks before being examined.
 Species-specific markers can be generated by isolating visible mutations in the species of interest, cloning the corresponding gene, and then rescuing the mutant phenotype by incorporating a wild-type copy of the gene through transformation. In fact the very first germ-line transformation of an insect; D. melanogaster (Rubin and Spradling, 1982) was possible due in large part to the availability of easily detectable eye colour markers that are the wild-type genes for mutated alleles affecting eye pigmentation. The first non-drosophilid transformation also took advantage of available eye colour markers. Loukeris et al. (Loukeris et al., 1995) identified Medfly transformants as phenotypic revertants of a white-eyed mutation carried by the recipient strain. However, this procedure is laborious and requires manipulation for each species separately, thus is not cost-effective. Moreover, phenotypic mutations have not been identified for all pest insects of interest, a fact that limits the potential use of an SIT approach to pest control.
 Germline transformation requires a selectable marker. Fluorescent proteins have been used for this purpose in the vast majority of transgenesis work on pest insects. Expression of these proteins, under the control of a suitable regulatory sequence, provides a readily distinguishable marker for the transgenic insect. From a SIT perspective, another key feature is that such markers are in-built and heritable (Alphey et al., 2008). For some species, full sterilisation by irradiation is achieved at a dose that compromises the performance of insects (Bakri et al., 2005). In SIT programmes against these species the preferred applied dose is not fully sterilising in order to minimise this effect, resulting in some fertile or partially fertile insects being released. The fact that dye or powder markers are not heritable leads to the possibility that recaptured progeny of such `sterile` insects with wild counterparts will be scored as wild.
 Examples of dominant, heritable fluorescent markers conferred through transgenesis can be found in Allen et al., 2004; Allen et al., 2001; Berghammer et al., 1999; Catteruccia et al., 2005; Catteruccia et al., 2000; Fraser, 2012; Handler and Harrell, 2001; Horn et al., 2002; Koukidou et al., 2006; Morrison et al., 2011; Peloquin et al., 2000; Perera et al., 2002; Pinkerton et al., 2000; Tamura et al., 2000). Fluorescent proteins that are widely used today as transformation markers and can be subsequently used as monitoring tools for the released insects in an SIT control programme, include the jellyfish GFP (Chalfie et al., 1994; Prasher et al., 1992), variants of this gene that result in enhanced green intensities and other colours (e.g., EGFP, cyan, yellow), and the coral, Discosoma striata, red fluorescent protein (DsRed or RFP) (Matz et al., 1999).
 Although variable between insects, broadly speaking, the life cycle stages of insects are egg to larva to pupa to adult. Strong expression of any fluorescent marker, at all developmental stages, but mainly at the adult stage, is highly desirable for the rationale of reliably tracking the released insects in the field. Moreover, it is desirable that expression is widespread across all body segments of an insect (the head, thorax and abdomen). Although a stably expressed fluorescent protein will naturally undergo the same degeneration process as any other protein following an insect's death in a monitoring trap, for instance, data indicates that initial stronger fluorescent expression will lead to enhanced sustainability of the fluorescence phenotype.
 A generic promoter that drives expression of a fluorescent protein should lead to ubiquitous tissue expression, therefore being readily visible under the appropriate excitation filters and presumably at all developmental stages. We have used such generic promoter-enhancer sequences with success in the past; for example, ie1-hr5, from baculovirus AcNPV which gives strong expression in Ceratitis capitata (Gong et al., 2005), Anastrepha ludens (Condon et al., 2007), Bactrocera oleae (Ant et al., 2012), Aedes aegypti (Fu et al, 2007), Aedes albopictus (Labbe et al, 2012), Pectinophora gossypiella (Li et al, 2012) and Plutella xylostella (Li et al, 2012).
 Unambiguous marker expression in insects has been also reported using the Drosophila melanogaster polyubiquitin promoter driving expression of the GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) in Drosophila melanogaster and Anastrepha suspensa (Handler and Harrell, 2001; Handler and Harrell, 1999). Polyubiquitin is a highly conserved gene found in most organisms and is active in all cells. However, in many insects (especially Medfly), it gives only weak or diffuse fluorescence, and if the strength was to be increased, may result in toxicity.
 An artificial promoter containing three binding sites for Pax-6 homodimers in front of a TATA box (3xP3) has also been used with success as a driver for an enhanced GFP variant (EGFP) expression in the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Berghammer et al., 1999) and other insects. It expresses most strongly from the brain, eyes, and ocelli in adults but transgenic animals were also identified as larvae and pupae. However, the restricted spatial expression of this marker makes it potentially ineffective for field monitoring purposes, as trapped insects may lose significant parts of their bodies in a trap, resulting in misidentification and mis-recording of the caught insects in a control programme. Pinkerton et al. (Pinkerton et al., 2000) have reported the use of EGFP under the control of the Actin5C promoter of Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic marker for the transformation of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Actin5C is a cytoplasmic actin which, like polyubiquitin, is expressed in all or most cells. EGFP expression was clearly visible in embryos and larvae. Strongest expression in late-stage embryos was seen in sections of the gut, a result that was expected when using the exon 1 proximal promoter of the actin5C gene (Burn et al., 1989). Expression of EGFP was also very clear in pupae, consistent with an increase in cell division during this life stage. Expression levels in adults varied from strong throughout the entire animal to lines where fluorescence was limited to the gonads. These differences are indicative of position effects between the different lines with the expression of the transgene being reduced except in those tissues in which there is a high level of cell division. This is potentially limiting for the use of this promoter as a monitoring tool and advocates the development of a substantial number of strains.
 Tamura et al. (2000) investigated the feasibility of the GAL4/UAS system in conjunction with piggyBac vector-mediated germ-line transformation for targeted gene expression. B. mori cytoplasmic actin A3 (BmA3) was used to drive the GAL4 gene, GFP was used as the reporter. The same authors showed that the expression of the GFP was much higher using the GAL4/UAS system than the GFP expression obtained with BmA3 alone.
 Concerns have been raised regarding the use of such markers in the field due to the potential fitness penalties they may induce in the recipient strain (Catteruccia et al., 2003; Irvin et al., 2004).
 Accordingly, it is highly desirable to use a promoter that, on the one hand, is able to drive strong expression of a fluorescent protein (at most developmental stages) while, on the other, simultaneously poses only minimal, or no, deleterious effects to the general health and well-being of the insect strain (i.e. conferring no or little fitness disadvantage). Identification of such a promoter sequence has been challenging as evidenced by the failures seen in the prior art to date. A genetic strain comprising an expression system with such a promoter will also overcome the problems associated with current methods of insect identification using dyes and powders which are hazardous to workers and also prone to misidentification.
 We have now, surprisingly, discovered that an expression system comprising a promoter that, in combination with a functional protein, such as a fluorescent marker, is both tissue specific and not generally limited to a given body segment, seems to confer no apparent fitness disadvantage on insect strains transformed with the system. Moreover, the promoter overcomes the disadvantages of existing methods that use dyes and powders to monitor insects. The disadvantages overcome or ameliorated by the present system include one or more of increased cost of rearing, increased amount of handling, errors in identification due to human error or loss of marker by the insect, and health concerns related to the effects of the powders on workers in mass rearing facilities. Furthermore, as the markers are non-heritable, re-captured progeny will be counted as wild-type.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 Surprisingly, expression of marker proteins, such as fluorescent proteins, under the control of a muscle actin promoter has been found to be so strong that transgenic individuals are easily recognizable to the naked eye at all larval, pupal and, in some cases, adult stages.
 Surprisingly, a further advantage is that, despite the strong expression of the marker protein, such as a fluorescent protein, no adverse effects of the transgene were observed in any of the transgenic strains.
 Thus, in a first aspect, the present invention provides a gene expression system, suitable for expression in an insect, comprising an insect muscle actin promoter operably linked to a marker gene.
 The marker gene preferably encodes a fluorescent protein.
 It is preferable that the muscle actin promoter is from Mexfly. In the alternative, it is preferable that the muscle actin promoter is from Aedes aegypti or Bombyx mori. Preferably, the muscle actin promoter comprises SEQ ID NOS: 1, 5 or 6. The muscle actin promoter, most preferably from Mexfly, Aedes aegypti, or Bombyx mori, may be used in any insect, most preferably insects of the order Diptera or Lepidoptera. Further preferred examples are provided below. In one embodiment, it is preferred that promoter is from a member of the same family that the target insect (insect of interest) belongs to: e.g. Bombyx mori muscle actin in pink bollworm; or Medfly muscle actin in another Tephritid, for example.
 In one embodiment, it is preferable that a gene expression system of the invention is capable of expression in insects of the order Diptera. In another embodiment, it is preferable that a system is capable of expression in the order Lepidoptera. Other preferred orders in which it systems of the present invention are preferred to be capable of expression include the Diptera, Culicidae and Tephritids, all of which are particularly preferred. It will be appreciated that any one system of the present invention may be capable of expression in all, some, or one, of the orders exemplified above. A preferred system is expressible in all of the orders exemplified.
 In a further aspect, the gene expression system described herein may be used to monitor transgenic insects. For example, it may be used to monitor transgenic insects in SIT programmes and as such, it is preferable that the gene expression system is used in pest insects, as defined above.
 In a further aspect, there is provided a method of expressing a marker gene in an insect. Preferably, the method comprises transforming the insect with the present expression system. This may also be applied to be a method of transforming an insect.
 Also provided is a method of insect identification, or quality control, comprising expressing the marker gene, via the present expression system, in insects. The preferred insects are described herein.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
 The accompanying Figures serve to illustrate the present invention.
 FIG. 1 shows the DNA sequence of the Mexfly Muscle actin promoter and 5'UTR region used in construct #4014;
 FIG. 2 is a plasmid map of #4104;
 FIG. 3 shows the DNA sequence of the Bombyx mori muscle action promoter (BmA1) fragment (SEQ ID NO: 5);
 FIG. 4 is a plasmid map of #4143;
 FIG. 5 is a plasmid map of #4247;
 FIG. 6 shows the DNA sequence of Aedes aegypti muscle actin promoter fragment (SEQ ID NO: 6);
 FIG. 7 is a plasmid map of #4133;
 FIG. 8 shows the DNA sequence of 5' UTR (including truncated intron in lower case) of #4133 (SEQ ID NO: 14);
 FIG. 9 shows the DNA sequence of ZsGreen of #4133 (SEQ ID NO: 18);
 FIG. 10 shows the DNA sequence of DsRed 2 of #4014 (SEQ ID NO: 19);
 FIG. 11 shows the DNA sequence of Sv40 3' UTR (SEQ ID NO: 20); and
 FIG. 12 shows the DNA sequence of Mexfly muscle actin 3' UTR (SEQ ID NO: 21).
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 Systems of the present invention may be used in order to express any suitable marker protein. For the sake of convenience, such marker proteins will frequently be referred to as fluorescent proteins herein, but it will be appreciated that any such reference includes reference to all suitable marker proteins, unless otherwise apparent from the context.
 Expression of a fluorescent protein is desirable for several applications including (i) identification of transgenics in the process of transformation, (ii) identifying the presence of the transgene in laboratory strains and experiments, (iii) identifying the presence of the transgene in released insects and their descendants, e.g. following trapping.
 The expression should be strong so as to be readily scored, e.g. against background, or in older specimens (e.g. which have been dead for some time before scoring). The expression should ideally be in most, or all, body parts and developmental stages, so that presence can be determined in all or most life cycle stages and in incomplete or damaged specimens. Yet expression, especially strong expression, may impose undesirable fitness penalties, such as those driven by cytoplasmic actin promoters, as explained above, or weak expression. Accordingly, it is desirable to restrict expression to a single tissue. This should improve fitness unless the tissue happens to be particularly sensitive to expression.
 Muscle fits the above criteria. Muscle promoters make strong candidates for such expression given that muscle tissue is ample in any organism both spatially and temporally. Furthermore, it is possible to systematically identify, by homology, highly expressed muscle-specific proteins, which are the structural proteins of muscles. We have identified such a muscle promoter and shown that it does indeed give very strong, clear expression of a fluorescent reporter in two tephritid fruit flies, and in moths, Plutella xylostella and pink bollworm. Moths in general, and these species in particular, are a preferred target insect in which the system is expressed.
 It is preferred to distinguish between muscle actin and non-muscle, or cytoplasmic actin, which is found in essentially every cell and which, therefore, tends to have much broader expression in terms of tissue and cell types. A further benefit of tissue-specific expression, rather than constitutive expression, is that expression in different tissues can, in principle, be scored independently. Moreover, it is preferred to distinguish between muscle actin and indirect flight muscle actin (Allen M L, Christensen B M 2004). Expression of indirect flight muscle actin is substantially restricted to the indirect flight muscle. Consequently, it is expressed in fewer body regions, essentially just the thorax, and in fewer developmental stages, being late larvae, pupae and possibly through into adults, than `conventional` muscle actins. As noted above, restricted spatial expression markers make it ineffective for field monitoring purposes, as trapped insects may lose significant part of their bodies in a trap, resulting in misidentification and recording of the caught insects in a control programme.
 Accordingly, in some embodiments, the indirect flight muscle actin is excluded, especially Act88F from Drosophila.
 There are various muscle actin promoters in some insects, so the invention preferably provides those that express across at least two, and preferably 3, or even all, life cycle stages, which is clearly an advantage for detection, for instance. Thus, any two of egg, larval, pupal or adult expression is preferred, and preferably consecutive stages. In addition to, or in combination with, any of theses, it is also preferred that that expression is across at least two and preferably all body segments of an insect, being the head, thorax and abdomen. It is particularly preferred that the expression is seen in all, or at least the abdomen and/or thorax, body sections in adults.
 Surprisingly, despite widespread and strong expression of the fluorescent protein conferred by the muscle actin promoter, we have found that no fitness disadvantage was conferred on the transgenic insect. Thus, the gene expression system of the present application obviates the need for the use of dyes or powders and alleviates the disadvantages associated with these methods, including those of adverse health effects on the handlers and the possibilities of human error.
 As such, it is preferred that expression of the marker gene, e.g. a fluorescent protein, under the control of the muscle actin promoter is sufficiently strong that the transgenic individuals are easily recognizable. This is particularly the case if they are recognisable by the naked eye. Ideally, this will be at all, or two or 3, of the larval, pupal and, in some cases, adult stages. It is also preferred that the expression, preferably strong expression, of the marker gene, such as fluorescent protein, confers little or no fitness disadvantage, preferably such that little or no the effects of the transgene are observed in any of the transgenic strains.
 Actin is a globular multi-functional protein that forms microfilaments. It is present in all eukaryotic cells at high concentrations. In muscle fibres, actin comprises 20% of total cellular protein by weight. Actin has been one of the most highly conserved proteins throughout evolution, because it interacts with a large number of other proteins. It has 80.2% sequence conservation at the nucleotide level between Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and 95% conservation of the primary structure of the protein product. Although most yeasts have only a single actin gene, higher eukaryotes, in general, express several isoforms of actin encoded by a family of related genes. Mammals have at least six actin isoforms coded by separate genes, which are divided into three classes, alpha, beta and gamma, according to their isoelectric points. In general, alpha actins are found in muscle, whereas beta and gamma isoforms are prominent in non-muscle cells. Although the amino acid sequences and in vitro properties of the isoforms are highly similar, these isoforms cannot completely substitute for one another in vivo (Perrin and Ervasti, 2010).
 Considering the high expression of muscle actin in eukaryotic organisms, indicative of strong promoter sequences, and the conserved nature of the genes involved, we decided to identify and utilise these promoters as potential transformation markers with reliable field properties; i.e. sustainable fluorescent expression in dead tissue. To this end, the muscle actin promoter from the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, was identified and isolated as described in the example below. It should be noted that there will often be more than one muscle actin gene in an insect genome. A person skilled in the art would recognise that any variant of the muscle actin promoter may be used with the gene expression system described herein.
 The marker may also be considered to be a reporter.
 The gene expression system may also comprise further genes (i.e. polynucleotide sequences for expression, e.g. of a transgene), the expression of the marker serving to indicate the presence of that transgene or its associated trait in an individual. This may be used as an indicator of successful transformation, or of the inheritance of the transgene in the progeny of a transformant (i.e. in an insect line).
 Expression of the marker protein can be used to allow the assessment of the degree of inclusion of a transgene, or other effector, into the population. This has several advantages, including that, like any such marker, it identifies the presence of the transgene, so one can follow inheritance. The more tightly the marker is linked to the trait of interest e.g. a lethal system, the less likely it is that mutations occur which inactivate one but not the other. In practice, though, if the marker and transgene are on the same inserted DNA segment, then this is extremely unlikely in any case.
 The polynucleotides making up the present expression system may be DNA, RNA or a mixture of both.
 The system may be inducible or it may be repressible. Suitable examples exist in the art, including GAL4-UAs or the tet-on or tet-off systems, described for instance in our RIDL PCT publication mentioned hereinabove. Expression of the marker gene may therefore be induced or de-repressed, for instance by removal of tetracycline from the environment, such as the diet, of the insect.
 In a further aspect, a method of quality control is hereby provided, comprising expressing the present expression system in a target group of individuals and determining whether those individuals meet expected criteria such as size, number, developmental stage or localisation. For instance, if the marker gene is a reporter such as a fluorescent protein, then the individuals where expression from the system occurs will become visible under suitable wavelengths of light. This method may further comprise inducing or de-repressing expression of the present expression, for instance as mentioned above, so that the individuals where expression from the system has been induced or de-repressed will become visible under suitable wavelengths of light.
 Although cytoplasmic actin promoters have been used in the past as transformation markers (see above and below), this is the first use of a muscle actin promoter being used for a similar purpose. Furthermore, we have successfully utilised the same plasmid, #4014, FIG. 2, in two different Tephritids; the Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata, and the Olive fly, B. oleae, with similar transgenic insect phenotypes and levels of DsRed2 expression. To our surprise, expression of the DsRed2 fluorescent protein under the Mexfly muscle actin promoter is so strong that transgenic individuals are easily recognizable by the naked eye at all larval, pupal and in some cases adult stages. Moreover, despite the strong DsRed2 expression, no adverse effects of the transgene have been encountered in any of the lines we have generated so far; strains have been kept in our laboratories for more than 2 years. OX4676 was also used in both species.
 We have tested Medfly adults containing either the IE1-Hr5 or polyubiquitin promoter sequences driving fluorescent proteins, in various simulated trapping conditions, under a number of different temperature and humidity environments, and found that although both markers express well in dead tissue for a week, the accuracy of identification between a transgenic and wild type insects drops considerably after longer periods on a trap. However, fluorescence was identified accurately in the same experiment, after a month in a trap, in Medfly individuals carrying the Mexfly-muscle actin promoter--DsRed2 plasmid, #4014, FIG. 2. Furthermore, in the latter case, Medflies did not require removal from the trap, which is usually required, as commonly used yellow sticky traps exhibit quite a strong colouring under various excitation filters.
 Owing to the conserved nature of the actin genes, similar, or the same, muscle actin promoters may be used other insects, for example Lepidoptera, coleopterans and mosquito species, with minimal genetic manipulation. We have also isolated a muscle actin promoter from Bombyx mori, and have prepared a gene expression system comprising the same. This gene expression system was tested in Pink Bollworm (Example 5). The results were comparable to Medfly individuals transformed with #4014 construct. Moreover, we have also isolated a muscle actin promoter from Aedes aegypti based on homology to published genome sequence.
 Particularly preferred is a muscle actin promoter from Bombyx Mori or Aedes Aegypti, and most preferably from Mexfly.
 A muscle actin promoter from other species may also be used and, in some embodiments, the origin of the promoter will tally with the species in which it is expressed (i.e. the species to be transformed). In other embodiments, a muscle actin promoter from one species may be used for expression of the fluorescent protein in another species. That other species may be in the same class (i.e. another insect), but more preferably in the same order or family, and most preferably in the same genus as the organism to be transformed.
 As such, a muscle actin promoter may be isolated from any insect, preferably from the order Diptera or the order Lepidoptera.
 More preferably, the muscle actin promoter may be from a Culicidae and, most preferably, from a mosquito, preferably from the genera Stegomyia, Aedes, Anopheles or Culex. Particularly preferred are Stegomyia aegyptae, also known as Aedes aegypti, Stegomyia albopicta (also known as Aedes albopictus), Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles gambiae.
 It is also preferable that the muscle actin promoter is from a Tephritid, preferably from Medfly (Ceratitis capitata), preferably from Mexfly (Anastrepha ludens), preferably from Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), Olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa), Cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi), Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tyroni), Peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata) Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa) or West Indian fruit fly (Anastrepha oblique). Medfly (Ceratitis capitata), Mexfly (Anastrepha ludens), or Olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) are particularly preferred.
 Within Lepidoptera, moths are particularly preferred, including codling moth (Cydia pomonella), and the silk worm (Bombyx mori), the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), the Navel Orange Worm (Amyelois transitella), the Peach Twig Borer (Anarsia lineatella) and the rice stem borer (Tryporyza incertulas), also the noctuid moths, especially Heliothinae.
 The muscle actin promoter is also preferably from Drosphila melanogaster. Most preferably, it is that provided in SEQ ID NOS: 5 or 6 and most preferably SEQ ID NO: 1 or variants of any thereof.
 Gene expression systems of the present invention, comprising a muscle actin promoter from the any of the above organisms, may be expressed in a range of insects.
 It is preferred that the gene expression system is capable of expression in Dipterans and most preferably Tephritids, Medfly (Ceratitis capitata), Mexfly (Anastrepha ludens), preferably Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), Olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa), Cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi), Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tyroni), Peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata) Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa) or West Indian fruit fly (Anastrepha obliqua).
 Where a list of options is provided herein, such as the list of insect types in which it is preferred that the systems of the present invention can be expressed, it will be appreciated that the present invention contemplates each member of that list individually, as well as being part of that group.
 It is also particularly preferred that the gene expression system is capable of expression in a mosquito, preferably from the genera Stegomyia, Aedes, Anopheles or Culex. Particularly preferred are Stegomyia aegyptae, also known as Aedes aegypti, Stegomyia albopicta (also known as Aedes albopictus), Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles gambiae.
 Expression in Lepidoptera is also preferred, especially moths, including codling moth (Cydia pomonella), and the silk worm (Bombyx mori), the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), the Navel Orange Worm (Amyelois transitella), the Peach Twig Borer (Anarsia lineatella) and the rice stem borer (Tryporyza incertulas), also the noctuid moths, especially Heliothinae.
 In a further aspect, expression may be in a beneficial insect. A beneficial insect, in the context of the present invention, is, for example, a pollinator and/or is a predator or parasitoid, parasite suitable for controlling agricultural or horticultural pests. Especially preferred are bees, including honeybees, bumblebees and other pollinators. Some bees are pollinators, whilst others are predators or act as parasites. Thus, predatory or parasitic bees and wasps may also be preferred beneficials. Another preferred group of beneficials are ladybugs. The preferred beneficial can also be selected from the group consisting of: Minute Pirate Bugs; Big Eyed Bugs; Assassin Bugs; Damsel Bugs; Mealybug Destroyer; Soldier Beetle; Green Lacewing; predatory mites, e.g. Amblyseius swirskii, Phytoseulius persimilis, Typhlodromus pyri and Amblyseius fallacis, Syrphid Fly; Tachinid Fly; Ichneumon wasps, e.g. Aphidius spp., Aphelinid Wasps, e.g. Encarsia spp. and Trichogramma wasps.
 It is particularly preferred that the gene expression system comprises a muscle actin promoter from Bombyx mori or Aedes aegypti, and most preferably from Mexfly, and can be expressed in any of the above insects.
 However, it will also be appreciated that any combination of the various promoters discussed herein can be used in any of the insects discussed herein. One particularly preferred example is the use of a muscle actin promoter from Bombyx mori or Aedes aegypti, and most preferably from Mexfly in Tephritids, especially fruit flies. Another particularly preferred example is the use of a muscle actin promoter from Bombyx mori or Aedes aegypti, and most preferably from Mexfly in mosquitoes, especially Aedes, including Aedes aegypti. Another particularly preferred example is the use of a muscle actin promoter from Bombyx mori or Aedes aegypti, and most preferably from Mexfly in moths, especially Bombyx mori or Plutella xylostella.
 Another particularly preferred example is the use of a muscle actin promoter from Bombyx mori or Aedes aegypti, and most preferably from Mexfly in Medfly (Ceratitis capitata). Another particularly preferred example is the use of a muscle actin promoter from Bombyx mori or Aedes aegypti, and most preferably from Mexfly in Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae). Another particularly preferred example is the use of a muscle actin promoter from Bombyx mori or Aedes aegypti, and most preferably from Mexfly in Pink Bollworm.
 The insect in which the present system is expressed may be referred to as a transformant, or may be considered to be the progeny thereof, or as a host. The insect may be a pest, for instance a disease vector, for instance a mosquito species that may carry the malarial parasite or act as a vector for dengue fever, or an agricultural pest, for instance moths or flies, especially fruit flies.
 The system described herein is suitable for expression in an insect, but it will be understood that this may also be preferably referred to as "capable of expression in" or "adapted to or having the ability to express in an insect". It is preferable that insects are transformed with the gene expression system by injection into embryos.
 Plasmids, or other suitable vectors, may be used as vehicles for the expression systems of the present invention, and may be introduced into the population by any suitable transformation means known in the art.
 A promoter is typically understood to be a region of DNA sufficient to initiate transcription of a gene, and should preferably include features such as promoter elements such as transcription factor and RNA polymerase binding sites. It may comprise further regulatory elements such as enhancers, and extended regions of DNA for 5' and 3' UTRs which enhance expression of the gene. The skilled person would be able to assess which features are necessary for improved expression of the gene. A particularly preferred 3' UTR is the 3' UTR of the muscle actin gene from Anastrepha ludens.
 When a muscle actin promoter is referred to as being "isolated from", "taken from" or simply "from" a particular species, it will be understood that it does not necessarily mean that the particular DNA is derived from an organism belonging to that species.
 Instead, it will be understood that it means that the DNA sequence is largely, or completely, identical to that found in the genome of the wildtype of that species. The extraction or isolation may have occurred in the past and may have been used in the transformation of the host insect's ancestors.
 The gene expression system comprises a muscle actin promoter "operably linked" to a marker gene. In this context, it will be understood that this means that the promoter is suitable or capable of driving transcription of the marker gene. It is generally preferred that they are situated substantially adjacent each other and not separated by more than 3 or 4 kbp.
 By "gene" herein is meant principally a sequence encoding an effector. In this case, the effector is largely a protein so as to function as a marker, as required, generally so as to express a detectable marker. Preferably, the marker is a protein, which confers a detectable change in phenotype of the insect.
 A marker gene is a gene used to determine if a nucleic acid sequence has successfully transformed an organism such that it is being expressed. The nucleic acid sequence may, for example, encode a functional protein which causes sterility in an insect. The marker gene may be considered as a screening marker as opposed to a selectable marker, which may protect the organism from a selective agent that would normally kill it or prevent its growth, such antibiotic. A marker for screening will cause the cells containing the marker gene to appear different to those that, for instance, have not been transformed or which do not contain the transgene. A preferred example of a screening marker is a fluorescent protein, such as GFP.
 As such, it is preferable that the marker gene of the expression system described herein encodes a fluorescent protein. It is particularly preferred that the fluorescent protein is a green fluorescent protein (GFP), ZsGreen, TurboGFP, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), mCitrine, DsRed, DsRed2, mCherry, AmCyan, CyPet and other members of the GFP-like protein super-family. These proteins are typically derived from marine invertebrates, e.g. anemones, and when expressed emit fluorescence after exposure to bright light of a specific excitation wavelength. Fluorescent proteins are widely used for transgenic research purposes.3
 In the red spectrum any of the following are preferred: DsRed-Express, tdTomato, DsRed monomer, AsRed2, mstrawberry, mcherry, mRaspberry, E2-Crimson, or mPlum.
 In the green spectrum, either of the following is preferred: EGFP, AcGFP1.
 The marker gene may encode other proteins manifesting a phenotype which varies depending on the level of expression. This has the advantage of allowing qualitative or quantitative analysis for screening.
 Where reference to a particular nucleotide sequence is made, it will be understood that this includes reference to any mutant or variant thereof, having substantially equivalent biological activity thereto. Preferably, the mutant or variant has at least 85%, preferably at least 90%, preferably at least 95%, preferably at least 99%, preferably at least 99.9%, and most preferably at least 99.99% sequence identity with the reference sequences.
 We therefore report a unique marker system and methods for simple and reliable monitoring of released insects in the field that confers significant cost benefits to a SIT control pest programme and requires minimal training of personnel. Released males may also be identified by farmers and workers in the field with the use of a portable lamp with the appropriate excitation wavelengths, eliminating the need for the traps to be transferred to a laboratory facility for careful examination and identification of the trapped insects. Also, the use of such a marker allows for the development of a highly accurate, automated detection and monitoring system based on computer software, which is able to detect the phenotype conferred by the marker gene of the expression system.
 Mexfly Muscle Actin
 Mounier et al (1992) compared the sequences of insect muscle and cytoplasmic actins and identified Bm A1 (from Bombyx mori), Dm Act57A and Dm Act87E (both from Drosophila melanogaster) as muscle actins. The cDNA sequences of these 3 genes were aligned using CLUSTALW, and the following degenerate primers designed:
TABLE-US-00001 364) BmA1degF (SEQ ID NO: 2) GATGTGYGACGAYGATGTTMG 365) BmA1degR (SEQ ID NO: 3) CTTCTCSAGGGANGTGGAGGCG
which amplify a 718 bp product. These primers were used for PCR on Mexfly adult female cDNA using Phusion polymerase. The resulting PCR product was cloned and sequenced. The sequence (confirmed by BLAST comparison to GenBank sequences) was extended by 5' and 3' RACE in order to obtain the complete mRNA sequence.
 The promoter sequences was isolated from the coding sequence of the Mexfly Muscle actin gene using
TABLE-US-00002 454) MexmufIRn (SEQ ID NO: 4) CATTRTCAACRACCARAGCAGCA 454) MexmuFIRn (SEQ ID NO: 7) CAGCAACATCRTCGTCGCACATC
in adaptor-mediated PCR as follows:
 Mexfly genomic DNA was digested with ClaI, BamHI and SphI restriction enzymes. It was ligated to adaptors consisting of an appropriate sticky end for ligation to the digested DNA and primer annealing sites for primers:
TABLE-US-00003 222) PRIMER: (SEQ ID NO: 8) GTGTAGCGTGAAGACGACAGAA 223) MID (SEQ ID NO: 9) GACGACAGAAAGGGCGTGGTG.
PCR was carried out on these templates using 222) Primer and 453) MexmuFIR. The resulting PCR product was diluted 1 in 100 then used as a template for nested PCR using primers 223) MID and 454) MexmuFIRn. These PCR products were cloned using the TOPO PCR cloning kit (invitrogen) and sequenced.
TABLE-US-00004 464) MexmuAcRn2 (SEQ ID NO: 10) TCACACCGCGCTCATCGTCA 465) MexmuAcRn3 (SEQ ID NO: 11) CACGTTAATGTTGAGCTGCATGG 466) MexmuAcRn4 (SEQ ID NO: 12) ATCCGAGCGAGTCAGCAACAAC
were designed from this sequence to use on the same ligated DNA templates using Primer and mid primers as before. This extended the promoter sequence further.
 A 2.2 kb sequence incorporating the promoter and 5'UTR (untranslated region) (FIG. 1) were cloned in front of the start ATG codon of DsRed2 fluorescent protein (FIG. 10), in a plasmid (#4104, FIG. 2) also containing piggy bac transposon ends and the transformation marker, Hr5IE1-zsgreen. #4104 contains MexMuAc promoter driving DsRed2 fluorescent protein; known transformation marker, Hr5IE1-zsgreen; piggybac ends for transformation into insect cells; Sv40 3' UTR sequence (FIG. 11), bacterial origin of replication (puC ori) and ampicillin resistance gene (bla (amp[R])) for growth and selection in Escherichia coli.
 Regarding FIG. 2, OX4676 was used in both species. Others were used for both olive fly and medfly with the single difference that we used 4-ended piggybac constructs for medfly and single ended piggybac constructs for olive fly. Despite the different numbers, all constructs utilised the exact same sequences relating to the transformation marker.
 This is the first demonstration of DsRed2 expression under the Mexfly muscle actin promoter. The plasmid utilises a green fluorescent protein (ZsGreen; clontech) under a generic promoter-enhancer sequence; Hr5-IE1 as a transformation marker. As we did not know at that stage whether the isolated DNA sequence upstream of the Mexfly muscle actin gene served as an adequate promoter sequence to drive DsRed2 expression, even more so in another Tephritid; Ceratitis capitata, we thought it best to utilise a promoter sequence known to function well previously to drive the expression of a different fluorescent protein; ZsGreen in order to identify transformed individuals. Both markers utilised the bi-directional SV40 3' UTR previously functional in a number of different insect species.
 530 pre-blastoderm Medfly embryos were injected with a piggybac transposon-transposase mix (600:300 ng/μl, respectively). 260 G0 adults were back-crossed to wild type of the opposite sex, in pools of 10. Progeny was collected and screened for the presence of both fluorescent proteins. 8 independent insertion events were generated. All lines exhibited green fluorescence under the appropriate excitation wavelength as expected. Furthermore, all lines displayed a strong red expression in all muscle tissue under the appropriate wavelength. Fluorescence was clearly detectable in all developmental stages. No recordable differences were observed among siblings of the same strain, indicating a uniform and ubiquitous expression. Red expression was so strong in most of the strains analysed that a pink hue was clearly visible at mid-late larval and early-mid pupal stages with naked eye; that is transformed individuals were evident with 100% accuracy without the need of a standard microscope equipped with the appropriate excitation filters for the fluorescent protein used (DsRed2 in this particular case), a standard procedure for fluorescent screening. Adult colouration was not apparent in any of these strains. Nevertheless, all adults--at all ages--displayed a strong red expression when examined under a suitable microscope. Two of these strains were tested in parallel with other Medfly strains utilising Hr5-IE1 and polyubiquitin promoter sequences driving expression of DsRed2, for dead tissue fluorescence sustainability under various trapping methods and simulated environmental conditions and clearly outperformed existing markers.
 #4014 Medfly strains have been continuously reared in our premises for over 40 generations without an observable fitness penalty in adult longevity, female egg fecundity, embryo hatching or pupal recovery.
 Subsequent sperm-lethal constructs (#4676, #4705 #4751 and #4718) (GB2500113 and WO2013/131920) used the Mexfly muscle actin 3'UTR (FIG. 12), which resulted in stronger expression. Therefore, one way of making the Bombyx muscle actin promoter stronger, may be to incorporate its 3'UTR into the construct.
 #4751 (PB-MexMActPro-DsR-tetO21-Prota-SG4-mCh-SG4-FokI-CcBTubPro-tTAV2-Cci-tTAV- 3)
 Given the desirable properties of the Mexfly muscle actin promoter as a transformation marker and monitoring tool, we decided to further utilise this promoter in conjunction with our newly developed sperm lethal technology (GB2500113) In this instance and in all examples following, we have utilised the 3' UTR of the muscle actin gene from Anastrepha ludens. Plasmid #4751 was injected in preblastoderm Medfly embryos as described above. Two different transformation events were attained. Both strains displayed robust red fluorescence under a suitable microscope and a "light red" phenotype clearly visible with naked eye at larval and pupal stages. In one of the two strains, visible colouration was apparent even at the adult stage, irrespective of the dark exoskeleton processed by this species. This may indicate an improved expression of the fluorescent protein possibly through utilisation of its own UTR sequence. As before, no detrimental effects were observed in either strain for any rearing parameter.
 OX4676 (PB-Mex-mActin-DsRed-tra-ubi-ZsGreen1)
 In most cases, an insect male has the capacity of mating more than one female whilst females of most species usually mate only once in their lifetime. This means that one could exploit double, triple or even multiple the amount of females, compared to the amount of males, in mass-rearing cages to increase egg yield and therefore production of males for release in a cost-effective manner. This is in operation in Medfly mass-rearing factories today, utilising the white pupae mutation associated with the TSL (temperature sensitive lethal) sexing strains; females are white as pupae compared to males that display the "normal" brown pupal phenotype. Nevertheless, the white pupae mutation or any other phenotypic mutation that can be used in a similar way has to be isolated, characterised and cloned separately for all insect pests that SIT can be applied to, a laborious and costly procedure.
 Development of differential fluorescent expression in males and females is a far less strenuous, affordable and thus widely applicable way of achieving similar outcomes in a number of different insect species of interest, with none or minimal manipulation among species. To investigate this possibility, we have developed construct #4676 where the Mexfly muscle actin promoter drives expression of DsRed2 in males and females but also drives expression of ZsGreen in females only. For female specificity, we have utilised the same sex specific alternative splicing described and patented prior to this experiment (PCT/GB2007/000488). Insertion of a cassette exon from the C. capitata transformer gene between the DsRed2 and ZsGreen DNA sequences means that the ZsGreen transcript is disrupted in male splice variants but not in the female-specific ones.
 This construct has been injected in Medfly and Olive fly pre-blastoderm embryos. 4 independent insertion events were generated in Medfly and 7 in olive fly. Males and females of all strains--both species--exhibited the red fluorescent phenotype, while females only of all strains displayed the green fluorescent phenotype under the appropriate excitation filters. In other words, transposition of this construct to two different Tephritids resulted in the expected phenotype. Nevertheless, none of the strains displayed the strong fluorescent expression seen previously with this promoter. This could be the result of a very long and thus unstable transcript being produced which may comprise expression levels. Furthermore, green fluorescence was sometimes hard to detect in females of some strains--especially in Medfly, possibly due to positional effects.
 #4705 (PB MexMActPro-DsR-tetO21-Prota-mCh-FokI-CcBTubPro-tTAV2)
 This is a single piggybac construct utilising our novel "sperm lethal" technology discussed in Example 2 in combination with our unique transformation marker promoter from A. ludens. The transposon was co-injected with piggybac transposase mRNA (600: 500 ng/μl) into preblastoderm olive fly embryos. Ten independent transgenic strains were generated all displaying a very strong and ubiquitous fluorescent phenotype under a suitable microscope and different hues of red colouring in larvae and pupae.
 Bombyx mori Muscle Actin
 BmA1 promoter was identified by BLAST of the published coding sequence against the published Bombyx mori genomic sequence (whole genome sequencing project: http://silkbase.ab.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp/cgi-bin/index.cgi). A 2.58 kb fragment 5' of the gene was amplified as the promoter fragment, from Bombyx mori genomic DNA (FIG. 3).
 Using plasmid DNA amplified and purified by Midiprep or MaxiPrep, DNA mixes were prepared to a final concentration of 500 ng/μl and 300 ng/μl of construct and helper plasmid (making piggybac transposase), respectively, after final re-suspension in injection buffer. 1467 embryos were injected with this construct (#4143, FIG. 4), resulting in 238 survivors and 1 line. The green fluorescence was observed in transgenic insects.
 Construct #4143 (FIG. 4) consists of Bombyx mori BMA1 muscle actin promoter driving zsgreen fluorescent protein; known transformation marker Baculovirus OPIE2 promoter driving DsREd2; PB transposon ends for transformation into insects; bacterial origin of replication (pUC ori) and ampicillin resistance gene (bla AmpR) for growth and selection in E. coli.
 Construct #4247 was also injected (FIG. 5). The only difference between this and #4143 (FIG. 4) is that there are an extra 340 nucleotides at the beginning of the promoter (5' end) and it also includes 66 bp comprising the 5'UTR at the 3' end of the promoter (which should make the promoter much more efficient). 1945 embryos were injected with this construct resulting in 588 survivors.
 Aedes aegypti Muscle Actin
 Similarly, the published genome sequence from Aedes aegypti (http://aaegypti.vectorbase.org/) was searched using BLAST for homology to the Mexfly Muscle actin gene. This identified Aedes Actin1 as the muscle actin gene. This gene has a large intron in the 5'UTR (FIG. 8), which was truncated in the construct (#4133, FIG. 7). The promoter (FIG. 6) was amplified in two fragments using the following primer pairs:
TABLE-US-00005 723) AemuAcproAscF (SEQ ID NO: _13) GGCGCGCCGTTCGAGCAGTAGACCCACCAACC 724) AemuAcintSphR (SEQ ID NO: _14) GCATGCTATGCCTTAGGAAGCCCTGCCG 725) AemuAcintSphF (SEQ ID NO: _15) GCATGCCGTATATCGAGTGGCAAGCTCGAAG 726) AemuAcproNheR (SEQ ID NO: _16) GCTAGCCAACCGTCTATTCGCATAGTACAATTCC.
 SEQ ID NO: 1--MexFly muscle actin promoter and 5' UTR region used in construct #4014
 SEQ ID NO: 2--BmA1degF Primer
 SEQ ID NO: 3--BmA1degR Primer
 SEQ ID NO: 4--453) MexmufIR
 SEQ ID NO: 5--Bombyx mori muscle actin promoter
 SEQ ID NO: 6--Aedes aegypti muscle actin promoter
 SEQ ID NO: 7--454) MexmuFIRn
 SEQ ID NO: 8--222) PRIMER
 SEQ ID NO: 9--223) MID
 SEQ ID NO: 10--464) MexmuAcRn2
 SEQ ID NO: 11--465) MexmuAcRn3
 SEQ ID NO: 12--466) MexmuAcRn4
 SEQ ID NO: 13--723) AemuAcproAscF
 SEQ ID NO: 14--724) AemuAcintSphR
 SEQ ID NO: 15--725) AemuAcintSphF
 SEQ ID NO: 16--726) AemuAcproNheR
 SEQ ID NO: 17--5'UTR (including truncated intron in lower case) of #4133
 SEQ ID NO: 18--DNA sequence for ZsGreen of #4133
 SEQ ID NO: 19--DNA sequence for DsRed2 of #4014
 SEQ ID NO: 20--Sv40 3' UTR Sequence
 SEQ ID NO: 21--Mexfly muscle actin 3' UTR sequence
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2112244DNAAnastrepha ludens 1gacccttgtg ccccctgcat attttgattt attttaagct gaactagttc tacattttca 60aacttagcgc agctcataca tgtacatatc tatatatgta agtatgtatg tatatacgtt 120cgtgtgcatg tgcagtgtgc atgcactgtg cgcaataaaa cctgctggaa ctcatttaca 180aagcaaaaaa ttattctttc ccatcgatta cagcattaaa atcagcgtaa gtatgtaaac 240acgccccatt taagaatcca aaaatacttg cactccattt ccatagtgca gccaaatgca 300tggctatttg tgtgtattta atgtatgcat atatgttcgt atatttgtat gtatgaattt 360atgactttat attcaactcc actaaaaatt gcttttcacc attcggtggg tattcacaca 420ttttttacat atatttcata tatcaacgct ccagaaatgc cgcttgtttt actccaaaag 480gatgcggtgt gccggaaatt aagaaatcct gctgtccagc caatttatgt atgccactgg 540aacggcaata acgcgtggcc atgtaaacaa atgtgggatc aacaagcaaa acgctggcca 600agcaaagaaa ttggttagag aacaaaaata aaaagaaaca agcaattcga aagctatcat 660ctcaacaaca attacagcaa caatacgagc aaagcgcgca gatcaaagtg gcagcacctc 720gaaaaatcca cagaggtggc aacatggaga tgaccaaaaa tagaaatgtt taacacacag 780aaaaaggcgc caacaacaaa acaacgtcat aaagtattca acgaaggtgc tgagcgcctc 840tacatgcacg tacatacaca caaaaacata aaaattccta cattatgata catacataca 900tacataggtg cttacaagtg tacctacata tttattagta tccaatacat acaaatgcaa 960atttagatac cagtgcgtgg gggccgccac agctgagcga gagcaatacg caatgtgaga 1020gcaccagcaa ccgaaaatat atatttaata aacatatttg aaaaattaaa tgttcgaaaa 1080tagaatattc aaaatatatt ttgtttgaaa agcgacaaaa tgatcaccgt ccggatctat 1140tgaagcgcct gacaatgcgt gcaaaaggga tagcgattgc gtcagtatgc gcggcaataa 1200acctcaaaca cttcatatct ctccctccac acacaacccg aaaagatcgc gcgaagcaag 1260acgaggaatt caacaaacaa tagcaacaac acatctgcaa tgcttgtata ttgaatataa 1320atttgttaaa gaaatttcgt gcgcacccca ccacagcatc cccattatgg tgagcgctta 1380atagcagccg acataacgtt gacgcggcag ccttgcctta tacggcgctt ttggagcgct 1440tttagtgggg agccgtacca attgccatgg aatatatata tttgtatgta tgtatgtatg 1500tatgcacaaa caaacccgat gatgccgaac taaacgcgag caatctgtga gatcagcgaa 1560cagcgagcag cgaataacga gcgaaccacc caacaaagtg attatgatca ttgctgtgac 1620gctatgacgc cacggctcgc ttcgttcgtg ggctgagtgg ggtgcttcag tgcgcaggag 1680cacgatcgtt gttgctgact cgctcggatg cgcgcacatc gttttccatg cagctcaaca 1740ttaacgtgtg ggtgtgtatg cgtatatacg gcatatgacg atgagcgcgg tgtgatgggt 1800ctatttttag tggcgttgaa aaatcgtaaa cacaacgaat ccctctttga tgtgaacgta 1860ttggtgttgc cgctattatc tgtcattgta tcagtggatc ggtgtatcgg tgttttcgtg 1920ttggcggtgg aggtgagaca tttgttggag cgttgcgggt gtgtggggac gtgaagcgac 1980gtgaatgcct aatgttggct attgccgaag aattttttgg atttgttaag tgatcaacat 2040gaaaagtgta gttttaagtt gattggtata aaatcggctg gtagtagcca aggcacttta 2100gtcagtcagt tgtgttccaa agcgttcaga acacattgcc atatttcttt acttatttct 2160tcttgctcgt ggttaaaaaa cacaaaactc agacaaaatg tgtgacgatg aggttgctgc 2220tttggtcgtt gataatggtc cggt 2244221DNAArtificial SequenceBmA1degF Primer 2gatgtgygac gaygatgttm g 21322DNAArtificial SequenceBmA1degF Primer 3cttctcsagg gangtggagg cg 22423DNAArtificial SequenceSynthetic 4cattrtcaac raccaragca gca 2352582DNABombyx mori 5gccataggac atgacactgt ggaagtaact aaagtaaact aaacgagccg tgtccgcatt 60tgttaacatt ctaatttttt ttactgcgta tgctgcagag ctaagcttac tcgccaattt 120atgaatatga ggtccccact gcagtttgga gtccactgtt ataccaagaa atacggttga 180ctcaacaagc tccaatgatt cctcagaaac aattacatta ctatctactt gtctcacatt 240taaagatgat ttaatacatt ttaaagtaaa tttaatacat ttcgttatta tttaatttta 300acgttatttt taatttaata cattgcggca tcacaattta ttgcttacgt ttccattgat 360aaataaaccg taatgtatga gtagtattgt cgattgcatc gttcaatgcg cagatcgcct 420gctagcggta ttggcatgca atcggatcaa tgaatcaatt gcaggtcaca gggcggttaa 480atttaactcg acttgtcacc ggctaactgc atccgtggtg aagttcaatg tttgttttga 540tactaaatcc gtttgttatg ttcattactt aaactccata tctatatatt aataggtgaa 600ggaaaaactt tgtacccctt tttacgaaaa ttgcgcggac ggatgagtat gaaatttctc 660acacttaaag agaatataga gaaggagtgc acaatgctaa tatatttttt aaatattcga 720taaaagatac tttaaatcaa taaagaaaca attacacgca ctaccatgta gttgacacac 780acacatataa tactctttgt ttattgcact gaagtattgt caaacttttg ttattgctta 840aagtctgtag tcaaattgag aataggttag tattgtttat ctttaatatt acgagtattt 900ttctatagtg tagtcttggc gaaatctgta acaataggac cataataatg ttgaaactta 960taattcaatt aattatagtc gaatttcgac tactgcagga ccactagtat aaataattat 1020atgaaaataa attaacatga tccattatta cgagaaaaac acacacacta catgatgcta 1080agtaaagctt agaaatgccg tcacccattt tgagagctaa cgtggttgac atctccgcgg 1140ctctacagcc cacctgacgc gggctctcct gtcgcgactc tacgatggcg tggagacggt 1200aaccgcttac ggtggtgagt tagttaagtt tgccaacgac gacaatcaac attttcagat 1260aaagaaacat atgtacttgc agtaaagtaa agttatacat tcgatgcgat ttgaacacat 1320gtaaacatgt aacaaaaagt aggatgtttt ttgactggcc cgcagctccc gtgggactaa 1380gctgttactt tgagacatga ggtcaatgtc tgaattgtat gatacagttt acaggctccc 1440tcactcctca aatacggatg catgttatgt atacgagacc tttaaaaatt tccgtaacta 1500ctgtagatag agtgttctga acacacgctg acaggcagga atcctaccta cttcagcccc 1560ccagggttca tgggttctgg cttaacatta gatgtgccac ctgcacaccg ttctatttaa 1620actgaaaaat aaaattttag gcgaacgaca ccatccagtg aaatgatttg caataagcac 1680ttcttatatg ccacgttact gtacatcata tatttttacc ccacatcagg gttaactcta 1740cataggtaca taatatcact acatagtata aaacagagtc gctttctctg tccctatatc 1800cctatgtatg cttaaatctt taaaactacg caacggattt ttatgcggtt gtttataata 1860gatagagtga ttgaagagca aggtttatat gtataataac atccattaaa tagtggagaa 1920atcaataata aattacagtt tccgaagcga agcgagggcg gatcgctagt aatattatta 1980ttttttttgc tggaaactat gcgtgttttt tcaaataata tatatttctt ttgggttgtt 2040accaactcca attacatatc aggcgtcatt aaaaaatact acggaatttt gtggtctgaa 2100taatatgtag gtattgatat taagcattgg tcatgttgtc tgattttaat gctttttatt 2160tatttataat gtattgaatt cttagttatt atcagtttga agaattacaa aagtcaaata 2220cctaaataaa atctatattt tttattcgca ttgtacatat ttctgaactc taagtacggt 2280cgagcgcggc gcccatcgcc cgcaatggct cgcggcgcgc tcaaatcttt tcgcgattta 2340atctgttttt aaccaatttt cggtgcaaaa tattattgaa caataatcca aatctgttat 2400ttatttatac agtaagttcg ttagacaggt aagttagtgt aattgtgtac atttcgcgtg 2460tattatcgaa cgcgatcgtg gagaggcggg ggcgacccgg ctcgccttgt atggagcgcg 2520gccgcggctc acgcgcgtcc tatataagaa accggcgccg ggaaccgccg cactcgcagt 2580cc 258261768DNAAedes aegypti 6gttcgagcag tagacccacc aaccatagaa gtgattaaag aggctgttag tcagctgaag 60aactgcagct gggaaggacg agatccctgt caaacttctc aaacacgaaa gtcctccgag 120tatttctgaa ggtataggag ggcgaagaaa tgcccaccgg ctggtttgaa gaaaaaacac 180agactggagt gcaacaatta caaaaggata acagtgctca attcagcgta caaaatactg 240tcgggcatct tgtcgaatag attgctcgag gagttaatcg tcgacgaata ccacgctggt 300ttttgtgagg gctgctcgac aacggaccag atgtttacct tacgaatgac cttagataac 360atccaggagt ttagcttgca gagtcaccat ctgtttattg atttcaaggc ggcgcacgat 420tcaatgagaa gaaatgagct gtggcagata atgtctgaac atggttttcc gacgaaattg 480atcaggctga tacgtgcaac atgctccttg gctttgcgga cgatatggac cttattggaa 540tcggtcgaag atcagcgaag gaggccttcg tgcatcttga gagggagacg gattggcctt 600actattaatt ctacccaaac aacaaatatg gtagatagag gtaggcctag tggtgctggt 660actgaggtaa tctttgatgg ggatgtgttt gaagttatcg aagatttagt ttatttcgaa 720gcacttgtga catgtgacaa tgacgtttct cgcgaaataa aaagacgtgt tggggctgcg 780aatagggcgt tttacggact acgtaaccaa cttaagtcct gcaacttgca aacggaaaca 840aaattcatcc tgtatgaaac aatgattcgc ccgatggctc tcctcgggca caaagcacgg 900acattgaaag aagcagaccg acacttacag gtcaaataca tctatgcaac agaacttgat 960tctcaactta tgagcacttt catagttata aaaattgaga gctttcttca tcaactaaca 1020attttcgcat gtgtatgttg ctctggaaag tcgagtaaat ttccaattcg aaaaaattct 1080cgaccggtgg gattcgaacc cacgagcctt tccttggtct tgctgaatag ctgtgaacgg 1140tgaacgcacc gctacagcta tttgcacttt tctcgttttt tttttttcaa aatcccaatg 1200aaaatccttc aaaatgttgc acttcaattt ttgtacgttc tttgctcatg atgtaaattt 1260catttgattt aatcactaat ttattgcttc caacatgagc aatttttcga taaaaatgta 1320ttccggaaac atgttcgcaa tacttgtcgc acaactaaga aaagtaacag gtgaaacatt 1380ctctaatgat gctttcttgc gcgtgtgacg tcgcgacgac gacggcggcg gttcttctaa 1440ccgtttttgg caaaccgtca cgtcctgaaa agcggctacc cagtcacgca gcgcggcgga 1500ggcaaaggta aaacactaca gctcggtcag ggatgagtaa ggacgagata aattaaaaat 1560atgagaaatt cgtctcccag tcatgtttat tttagctcga aagtgagcga ttccttcccc 1620gcgtggctgc gtcgtgtttt gttgtgatca attccaagtt tgggatcacg ggaagagcga 1680gagagaaaga gttcgcgaga atttcagcac caaattggta ttagatagtg tcatgtgcac 1740cgtatataaa ctttgagccc aaccgcca 1768723DNAArtificial SequenceSynthetic 7cagcaacatc rtcgtcgcac atc 23822DNAArtificial SequencePrimer 8gtgtagcgtg aagacgacag aa 22921DNAArtificial SequenceSynthetic 9gacgacagaa agggcgtggt g 211020DNAArtificial SequenceSynthetic 10tcacaccgcg ctcatcgtca 201123DNAArtificial SequenceSynthetic 11cacgttaatg ttgagctgca tgg 231222DNAArtificial SequenceSynthetic 12atccgagcga gtcagcaaca ac 221332DNAArtificial SequenceSynthetic 13ggcgcgccgt tcgagcagta gacccaccaa cc 321428DNAArtificial SequenceSynthetic 14gcatgctatg ccttaggaag ccctgccg 281531DNAArtificial SequenceSynthetic 15gcatgccgta tatcgagtgg caagctcgaa g 311634DNAArtificial SequenceSynthetic 16gctagccaac cgtctattcg catagtacaa ttcc 3417793DNAArtificial Sequence5 prime UTR (including truncated intron in lower case) of number 4133 17cggcattcat tctagttccg aaaccgtttg ccgtgccacg tgttcgcgat cgttctcatt 60cgatcggagt gactgccgtt tgaggattag tgtgtgcaga agaaaccaac ggatagaagt 120tcctttttgt gtgagtgtca ttggcctttg atggataatt aatgtggaaa tgattggata 180tggtgtacta actgcattga ataaaatatt acataatgtg agaaagactc gaacaatgta 240aattacgaaa atgaaaattg caaagatgaa acagttgaac gcttgaatga agagtacgtg 300gagtgattca acaatgcaat atttaacatt gaacaaatct acaaaagtga ataatacgtt 360aaaaaaaata agaatgcaat ggacgatttg gttgaagttt gacaaacaac atcaaatcgg 420cagggcttcc taaggcatag catgccgtat atcgagtggc aagctcgaag ataccatatg 480ctctggaaag tcgataaaat ttcctactag aaaagatcct cggctcgtgg gattcgaatc 540cacgaccctc agcttcataa agaattctta ttttatacac aatgaagtaa aatttgtgtg 600catacttcaa aattgtcttt gaagtgtagt tagtcattcc aacgttatca tattgtaata 660ttatttatac taatctttaa agcacaaata ccatggtcca tatcggaaat tggcatacat 720atggcatatg atataatgcc actaggttcc taacaaggga attgtactat gcgaatagac 780ggttggctag cat 79318702DNAArtificial SequenceDNA sequence for ZsGreen of number 4133 18atggcccagt ccaagcacgg cctgaccaag gagatgacca tgaagtaccg catggagggc 60tgcgtggacg gccacaagtt cgtgatcacc ggcgagggca tcggctaccc cttcaagggc 120aagcaggcca tcaacctgtg cgtggtggag ggcggcccct tgcccttcgc cgaggacatc 180ttgtccgccg ccttcatgta cggcaaccgc gtgttcaccg agtaccccca ggacatcgtc 240gactacttca agaactcctg ccccgccggc tacacctggg accgctcctt cctgttcgag 300gacggcgccg tgtgcatctg caacgccgac atcaccgtga gcgtggagga gaactgcatg 360taccacgagt ccaagttcta cggcgtgaac ttccccgccg acggccccgt gatgaagaag 420atgaccgaca actgggagcc ctcctgcgag aagatcatcc ccgtgcccaa gcagggcatc 480ttgaagggcg acgtgagcat gtacctgctg ctgaaggacg gtggccgctt gcgctgccag 540ttcgacaccg tgtacaaggc caagtccgtg ccccgcaaga tgcccgactg gcacttcatc 600cagcacaagc tgacccgcga ggaccgcagc gacgccaaga accagaagtg gcacctgacc 660gagcacgcca tcgcctccgg ctccgccttg ccctccggac tc 70219675DNAArtificial SequenceDNA sequence for DsRed2 of number 4014 19atggcctcct ccgagaacgt catcaccgag ttcatgcgct tcaaggtgcg catggagggc 60accgtgaacg gccacgagtt cgagatcgag ggcgagggcg agggccgccc ctacgagggc 120cacaacaccg tgaagctgaa ggtgaccaag ggcggccccc tgcccttcgc ctgggacatc 180ctgtcccccc agttccagta cggctccaag gtgtacgtga agcaccccgc cgacatcccc 240gactacaaga agctgtcctt ccccgagggc ttcaagtggg agcgcgtgat gaacttcgag 300gacggcggcg tggcgaccgt gacccaggac tcctccctgc aggacggctg cttcatctac 360aaggtgaagt tcatcggcgt gaacttcccc tccgacggcc ccgtgatgca gaagaagacc 420atgggctggg aggcctccac cgagcgcctg tacccccgcg acggcgtgct gaagggcgag 480acccacaagg ccctgaagct gaaggacggc ggccactacc tggtggagtt caagtccatc 540tacatggcca agaagcccgt gcagctgccc ggctactact acgtggacgc caagctggac 600atcacctccc acaacgagga ctacaccatc gtggagcagt acgagcgcac cgagggccgc 660caccacctgt tcctg 67520228DNASimian virus 40 20taagatacat tgatgagttt ggacaaacca caactagaat gcagtgaaaa aaatgcttta 60tttgtgaaat ttgtgatgct attgctttat ttgtaaccat tataagctgc aataaacaag 120ttaacaacaa caattgcatt cattttatgt ttcaggttca gggggaggtg tgggaggttt 180tttaaagcaa gtaaaacctc tacaaatgtg gtatggctga ttatgatc 22821655DNAAnastrepha ludens 21gtcttttgat tgtgaaagat ggtgaaatgc gttgatgcaa acatatgcca acaacaacag 60cagcagcaac atcaacaata acaacaactc tgcaaatagc cagcacaact gctcagactt 120cgtgcaacga acaccaataa ccagcataac aaataccact acgcattcga gaactgcaat 180tacaacaaca aaagaggcat taatagcaac aacaaaaatg agagtgcatg ctaattccaa 240caaaagcaaa aactacagat atcaacaagg taatgagaat tcaacaaatg caataaatgg 300cgcttccagt agcgaaagag aaggacacaa aaacaaaacc aaatatataa agaaagcaat 360ctctgaggaa atgcccatga gcgccatcta gcaattgaat cgctttacgt tgcatttgca 420tgtgaacatt tttaattata tttctttttc tggattttat acaataaaat gcgtgtaaaa 480ctgaaattta taaatttaac taacagaata tcaaaggaaa attatgaaaa tgtagaaaaa 540aattattaaa aattactaaa atccaaacaa atgaacatca aataattcac taataagagc 600taattaagta aacatctttc cattgactaa ccaaggcaaa aatactaaaa gtaaa 655
Patent applications by Luke Alphey, Abingdon GB
Patent applications by Oxitec Limited
Patent applications in class METHOD OF USING A TRANSGENIC NONHUMAN ANIMAL IN AN IN VIVO TEST METHOD (E.G., DRUG EFFICACY TESTS, ETC.)
Patent applications in all subclasses METHOD OF USING A TRANSGENIC NONHUMAN ANIMAL IN AN IN VIVO TEST METHOD (E.G., DRUG EFFICACY TESTS, ETC.)