Patent application title: Carbon Dioxide Pellet Cooling Safety Helmet and a Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segment
Roger M. Kriesel (Fort Worth, TX, US)
IPC8 Class: AA41D13005FI
Class name: For wearer's head including energy-absorbing means by interior pads
Publication date: 2016-02-11
Patent application number: 20160037833
The invention is a reusable personal cooling apparatus that utilizes
exclusively pourable pellet forms of Carbon-Dioxide Pellets as an
expendable coolant. This coolant is placed in one or more compatibly
designed, refillable Coolant Chambers that are integrated into a wearable
garment that can be either a Hard-Shell Design (by example, an
impact-protection helmet) or a Soft-Shell Design (by example, a vest), or
a combination thereof. The Carbon-Dioxide Pellets are of machine
manufacture and high density. They enhance the conformability of the
Soft-Shell Design garment, promote ease of filling both garment designs
and make possible the application of the pellet form of coolant to rigid,
thin, curved structures like a helmet.
The application of vibration expedites the speed of filling the apparatus
and maximizes the fill volume by minimizing void formation within the
Coolant Chamber. The cooling effect is achieved through the process of
phase transition wherein solid carbon dioxide subliminates to
Carbon-Dioxide Vapor which in turn is vented toward the skin of the
individual wearing the garment. The ramifications are a versatile,
reusable, convenient and diversely configurable personal cooling
apparatus and a complementary coolant that function together to enhance
1. An article of apparel, comprising: a. at least one integrated coolant
chamber for the containment of pourable, solid carbon dioxide in the
general form of pellets or granules of predetermined size, b. said
coolant chamber can exist as either a rigid or flexible structure
integrated individually or in combination within the structure of said
article of apparel, c. said coolant chamber is constructed of a
substantially carbon-dioxide vapor-impermeable layer and a substantially
carbon-dioxide vapor-permeable layer that together provide for the
directional flow of carbon-dioxide vapor as a coolant, whereby unwanted
heat is conveniently and simply removed. 1. The article of apparel in
claim 1 wherein the integrated Coolant Chamber of the Hard-Shell Design
is formed within the expanded or Impact-Absorbing Foam Layer of a
protective helmet. 2. The article of apparel in claim 1 wherein the
integrated Coolant Chamber of the Soft-Shell Design is constructed of
Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Impermeable and Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Permeable
flexible composite fabrics. Both fabrics assembled with a repeating
pattern of offset rows of Spot Bonds that adhere the two fabric layers
together, whereby a consistent maximum thickness of said Coolant Chamber
is established and minimal obstruction to the placement of Carbon-Dioxide
Pellets is achieved. 3. The article of apparel in claim 1 wherein the
Coolant Chamber or chambers are refillable. 4. The article of apparel in
claim 1 wherein the integrated Coolant Chamber in the Hard-Shell Design
that is formed in the expanded or Impact-Absorbing Foam Layer of a
protective helmet has a single origin point at the highest part of the
helmet which branches into multiple, downward-sloping, smooth-surface,
Tubular-Shaped Channels that reach to the periphery of the helmet. 5. The
article of apparel in claim 1 wherein the integrated Coolant Chamber of
the Hard-Shell Design that is formed in the expanded or Impact-Absorbing
Foam Layer of a protective helmet has a Continuous-Vapor Slit penetrating
the inside surface of said foam, which is covered by any predetermined
combination of Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Permeable Fabric and Carbon-Dioxide
Vapor-Impermeable Fabric such that a defined passageway is provided for
Carbon-Dioxide Vapor to access the head of the person wearing the helmet
while solid carbon dioxide is simultaneously excluded. 6. The article of
apparel in claim 1 wherein the Continuous-Vapor Slit that penetrates the
expanded or Impact-Absorbing Foam Layer may comprise a continuous channel
or any predetermined interval and dimension of perforations. 7. The
article of apparel in claim 1 wherein the article of apparel is of a
Hard-Shell Design, commonly in the form of a Cooling and
Impact-Protection Safety Helmet, wherein a visual, audible, or
combination carbon-dioxide-exposure monitoring device is integrated or
removable, such that the wearer is alerted to a carbon dioxide exposure
event. 8. The article of apparel in claim 1 wherein the article of
apparel is of a Hard-Shell Design, in the form of a Cooling and
Impact-Protection Safety Helmet, wherein a silicone or similar raised,
continuous ridge or bead of a dense, yet conformable, substance is placed
on or through the internal Padded Comfort Liner so that it aligns and
contacts with the periphery of the face of the individual wearing said
Cooling and Impact-Protection Safety Helmet, such that said continuous
ridge forms a Continuous Vapor Dam, which serves as a barrier to carbon
dioxide vapor venting from the coolant chamber, restricting said vapor
from flowing toward the face of the individual wearing the helmet,
whereby said vapor present for respiratory aspiration is minimized. 9.
The article of apparel in claim 1 wherein the article of apparel is of a
Hard-Shell Design, in the form of a protective helmet, wherein any number
of the downward sloping coolant chamber Terminal Branches physically
connect to an external vent, whereby the coolant effect can be regulated.
2. A new use of Carbon-Dioxide Pellets, comprising: a. the poured placement of pourable forms of Carbon-Dioxide Pellets into a compatible article of apparel, said article of apparel comprising a Hard-Shell, Soft-Shell or a combination of the two designs, b. said Carbon-Dioxide Pellets are machine-manufactured, commonly by, but not limited to, extrusion, to a size and shape that permits their poured placement within said compatible article of apparel, c. said article of apparel being configured in the form of not less than a safety helmet, vest, hat, scarf, jacket, or seat cover, whereby, unwanted heat is conveniently removed through the donning of the article of apparel. 10. The new use of Carbon-Dioxide Pellets of claim 2 wherein their poured placement into the compatible article of apparel is optionally accomplished more efficiently through the application of manual, mechanical or electromechanical forms of vibration, said vibration having the effect of reducing the occurrence of obstructions and voids during said poured placement event. 11. The new use of solid carbon dioxide pellets of claim 2 wherein the integrated coolant chamber of the hard shell design is formed within the expanded or Impact-Absorbing Foam Layer of a protective helmet. 12. The new use of solid carbon dioxide pellets of claim 2 wherein the integrated Coolant Chamber of the Soft-Shell Design is constructed of flexible Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Impermeable and Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Permeable Composite Fabrics utilizing a repeating pattern of offset Spot Bonds placed in rows to adhere the two fabric layers together, whereby, a consistent maximum thickness of said Coolant Chamber is established and minimal obstruction to the placement of Carbon-Dioxide Pellets within is achieved. 13. The new use of Carbon-Dioxide Pellets of claim 2 wherein the article of apparel contains at least one integrated design element that minimizes resistance to the poured placement of said Carbon-Dioxide Pellets. 14. The new use of Carbon-Dioxide Pellets of claim 2 wherein the integrated Coolant Chamber of the Hard-Shell Design that is formed in the expanded or Impact-Absorbing Foam Layer of a protective helmet has a Continuous-Vapor Slit penetrating the internal surface of said foam, said slit which is covered by a predetermined combination of Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Permeable and Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Impermeable Composite Fabric, such that a route of access for Carbon-Dioxide Vapor to the head of the person wearing the helmet is defined, while Carbon-Dioxide Pellets are simultaneously excluded. 15. The solid carbon dioxide pellets of claim 2 being machine manufactured to a predetermined optimum density to achieve the complete filling of said article of apparel while simultaneously achieving a desired level of cooling capacity.
3. A method of removing unwanted heat from an entity, comprising: a. An article of apparel configured to hold solid carbon dioxide in the form of pourable pellets or granules, in close proximity to the surface of the entity wearing said article of apparel, b. said article of apparel may consist of a Hard-Shell, Soft-Shell or combination of the two shell designs which contains one or more coolant chambers integrated to said article of apparel, c. said Coolant Chamber or chambers being constructed with minimally obstructive, smooth surfaces that promote the ease by which said pellets or granules are placed by pouring into said Coolant Chamber or chambers, d. said Coolant Chamber or chambers being constructed in a manner that provides a substantially Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Impermeable layer and a substantially Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Permeable layer that together provide for a directional flow of Carbon-Dioxide Vapor toward the surface of the entity wearing said article of apparel, e. said pellets or granules within said coolant chamber or chambers undergo characteristic phase transition from solid to vapor, whereby, unwanted body heat is removed by a simple, easily refillable article of apparel. 16. The method of removing unwanted heat from an entity of claim 3 wherein the article of apparel is of a Hard-Shell Design, commonly in the form of a full face Cooling and Impact-Protection Safety Helmet, wherein a visual, audible, or combination Carbon-Dioxide-Exposure Monitor or Indicator is integrated or removable, such that the wearer is alerted to a carbon-dioxide-exposure event. 17. The method of removing unwanted heat from an entity of claim 3 wherein the article of apparel is refillable and thereby reusable.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
 This application claims the benefit of the following non-provisional patent applications:
 U.S. Ser. No. 14/288,613, filed 28 May 2014--Abandoned
 U.S. Ser. No. 13/944,033, filed 17 Jul. 2013--Abandoned
FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH
 Not Applicable
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 This application material relates to the field of endeavor of personal comfort cooling apparel.
 The following table lists prior art that appears relevant:
TABLE-US-00001 U.S. Patents Patent Number Issue Date Patentee 3,950,789 Apr. 20, 1976 Konz and Duncan 4,738,119 Apr. 19, 1988 Zafred 2,731,808 Jan. 24, 1956 Stark 3,000,190 Sep. 19, 1961 Stark 2,963,881 Dec. 13, 1960 Stark 2012/0260409A1 Oct. 18, 2012 Ben Yair 2,563,933 Aug. 14, 1951 Hipps and Kupjack
 The realm of personal cooling apparel devices is extensive and includes both Soft and Hard-Shell designs. Desirable attributes of a practical personal cooling garment include safety, simple design, simple operation, independent operation, that which is free of ancillary components, low bulk, conformable, dry, comfortable, possessing a high heat-removal capacity, easily replenished, of long cooling duration, utilizing a readily available coolant, and cost effective in manufacture and ease of preparation for use. The problems with the current state of the prior art in personal cooling garments is that few such articles effectively combine these desirable attributes. This new-application apparatus provides a means of achieving many of the desirable attributes of a personal cooling garment conveniently and economically.
 Prior art in the field of personal cooling with carbon dioxide has been limited to the application of block, clumps, liquid and gas forms of carbon dioxide. Such endeavors were limited in practicality and application, in part, by the inherent characteristics of the respective forms of carbon dioxide selected. In my review of prior art, it is significant to note that no prior art was discovered that specified carbon dioxide pellets as an integral design component to a Soft-Shell Garment or Hard-Shell Helmet.
 In Konz' and Duncan's U.S. Pat. No. 3,950,789A design, their personal cooling apparatus was limited to an upper-body garment. They illustrate block dry ice and refer to dry ice as the intended fill material. Their garment cools primarily by convection associated with the sublimation process of the contained dry ice. A multiplicity of insulated and carbon-dioxide-vapor permeable pockets hold the dry-ice blocks onto the garment. Varying the quantity of these pockets, their size, fill quantity, placement, permeability and bias toward vertical or horizontal elongation serve to define the garment's heat-removal capacity and pattern. A nonvapor-permeable external layer of the garment directs the carbon-dioxide vapor toward the skin whereby the unwanted heat is removed. Snug wrist bands and a tight waist band minimize cooling vapor loss, and adjustable dry-ice pocket openings further regulate the cooling effect.
 Limitations inherent to Konz and Duncan's design include the need for multiple and varied configurations of coolant blocks and their associated containment pockets. This limitation is overcome by this new-application apparatus which typically uses one coolant fabric segment of sufficient dimensions to cover the entire area to be cooled. Though anticipated to occur infrequently, multiple coolant fabric segments may be utilized in the construction of more complex garments. The limited area of Konz' and Duncan's dry-ice containment pockets dictates a higher quantity of them to achieve consistent cooling. Increasing the quantity of pockets increases the time it takes to load and prepare the garment for use. Unless the dry-ice containment pockets are the same dimension, the corresponding dry ice blocks will need to be specifically fitted to their respective pockets. Identification of the multiple blocks would also be appropriate to lessen the time needed to load and prepare each garment for use.
 Though providing substantial cooling capacity, block forms of dry ice limit the conformability of the garment to the wearer and concentrate the cooling to the block's proximity. The conformability of Konz' and Duncan's garment would likely be constrained by the rigidity of the dry-ice blocks and, thereby, negatively impact both the effective cooling area and consistency of heat removal.
 In contrast, the Soft-Shell Design of this new-application apparatus maintains a nearly uniform thickness of coolant coverage and high conformability as a result of its flexibility and the pourable consistency of the carbon-dioxide pellet fill. These attributes maximize the effective cooling area and consistency of heat removal. Potentially of greater significance is that this new-application apparatus defines a Soft and Hard-Shell Garment integrating, typically, one fill port to access one coolant chamber to place one coolant of consistent size to a consistent thickness. These provisions combine to vastly reduce the time required to prepare a garment for use. Konz and Duncan made no provision for cooling a rigid structure like a safety helmet, and it appears the fitment of a plurality of dry-ice blocks to a helmet employing their multiple-pocket system would be impractical and likely negate much of the impact-protection function of the helmet.
 In prior art, U.S. Pat. No. 4,738,119A, Zafred details a cooling garment employing a replaceable supply of liquid carbon dioxide that is placed by means of a pressure-reducing valve, manifold, and a plurality of tubes within the garment fabric. The liquid carbon dioxide flows into the plurality of tubes where a portion of it becomes solid carbon dioxide. The subsequent sublimation of the carbon dioxide produces carbon-dioxide vapor that traverses the vapor permeable portions of the garment fabric to reach the skin surface where it absorbs unwanted heat. Zafred's garment is reusable and detachable from its carbon-dioxide source upon filling and, thereby, functions independently.
 Zafred's design is limited in cooling capacity by several factors. First, the garment provides only partial coverage of the skin surface area due to the redundant free space present between the plurality of tubes within the garment fabric channels. Second, the carbon-dioxide solid formed within the garment while coupled to a liquid carbon-dioxide supply appears to occur at ambient atmospheric pressure and, thereby, is of low density. Moreover, the presence of tubing, a distribution manifold, and a valve add complexity and potentially limit the flexibility and comfort of the garment.
 In contrast, this new-application apparatus employs no tubing, valve or manifold. The uniformity of cooling achievable in Zafred's design is questioned. To deliver uniform cooling throughout the garment, the transformation process of carbon-dioxide liquid to carbon-dioxide solid occurring during the filling process, likely, needs to occur uniformly and in totality throughout the plurality of tubes. The flexible and collapsible qualities of the plurality of tubes, a restrictive-supply-valve orifice, and multiple manifold ports comprise a scenario susceptible to obstruction. As solid carbon dioxide forms, it may clump, shift or stick in a manner that blocks the distal portions of the tube space from uniformly filling with solid carbon dioxide. Such an occurrence would reduce the fill capacity of the garment, consequently diminishing its effectiveness.
 To overcome the aforementioned limitations of Zafred's soft-shell design, this new-application apparatus utilizes a flexible coolant fabric that provides a gap-free, monolithic coverage of the target skin surface. The use of compatibly designed, machine-manufactured, mechanically compressed carbon-dioxide pellets assures a dense, uniform cooling medium. This higher-density coolant is capable of extended cooling duration and ease of consolidation during placement within the flexible coolant chamber. The application of vibration during the carbon-dioxide-pellet fill process to achieve rapid and complete filling is a means of maximizing the functionality of the garment.
 In prior art, U.S. Pat. No. 3,000,190A by Stark, a complex, large, refrigeration-headwear apparatus is linked with a soft-shell-body refrigeration garment utilizing solid carbon dioxide and potentially other refrigerant combinations. Stark's apparatus is represented as having dual functionality. It is for cooling a person when used as a garment or, when separated from the garment, suitable to cool a confined space. This apparatus is stated to embody improvements to his prior U.S. Pat. No. 2,731,808. Most notable is the addition of enhanced cooling capacity within the headwear portion.
 Stark's apparatus of U.S. Pat. No. 3,000,190A is deemed the most applicable of his designs to base a comparison. Stark employs one or more refrigerant holding compartments located on the head, shoulders, or chest. In the helmet design, he describes two helmet covers, one within the other. The coolant is contained within the helmet in an aluminum-finned chamber. Multiple fins within the coolant container act as baffles to maintain the positioning of the coolant despite any movement of the wearer's head and to function as heat exchangers essential to support two cooled air pathways. The provision of two air pathways, up to a five-pound-capacity coolant container, insulation, and a circumferentially finned aluminum heat exchanger dictate an ungainly size to his apparatus. Furthermore, the helmet employs a suspension headpiece to maintain an adjustable air gap between the head and the helmet wherein cooled air is routed, presumably, by vapor pressure and density from the coolant-container heat-exchange surfaces. Stark details the upward and downward flow of ambient air and carbon-dioxide vapor through the apparatus to deliver cooling a significant distance from its source. A visor is placed in front of the face to contain and direct cooled air over the face. The coolant compartments employ multiple refrigerant-regulating devices, condensation drain tubes, absorbent fabrics, insulating fabrics, a metallic band, and finned heat exchangers that separate the individual helmet covers. The soft-shell portion of his design employs an insulating garment that is held a distance away from the skin by ribs to maintain an essential air space in which the carbon dioxide vapor is fed from a separate container or containers. Vapor pressure and temperature-related vapor density are apparently relied on to adequately disperse the cooling effect to the garment periphery.
 Limitations imposed by Stark's design include the use of the carbon-dioxide gas as an intermediate refrigerant, serving, in part, to chill atmospheric air, which, in turn, removes unwanted heat. The provision of, not one, but two air streams adds bulk, inefficient heat transfer, weight, and complexity to the function and manufacture of his apparatus. The maintenance of an air gap above the head and need to stabilize the apparatus during high-motion activities was likely an impetus to provide additional spring support and securing devices to the upper torso. Stark outlines the addition of these securing spring devices as improvements over his prior patent. These devices may solve the dilemma of securing the apparatus to the head; however, they add additional weight and hinder upper-body and head motion.
 Limitations associated with the soft-garment component of his patent include the need for an air gap maintained by plastic ribs, which contribute bulk. The location of coolant compartments on the shoulders and chest isolates the source of carbon-dioxide vapor from the garment periphery. The coolant container's distance from the garment periphery, convection currents within the garment, air currents resulting from garment movement, and the reliance on vapor pressure and vapor weight as the distribution force for the coolant effect are deemed substantial obstacles to the effective operation of Stark's design.
 Stark's design details the maintenance of a sizeable air gap under the garment which appears to dictate reliance only upon the dry ice for cooling. Concurrent benefit from evaporation, conduction, perspiration, and wicking appear largely excluded due to the air-gap-imposed isolation of the body within the garment.
 Significant improvements over Stark's designs are offered by this new-application apparatus. The foremost improvement is simplicity in design. One simple configuration Coolant Chamber is employed and integrated entirely within the existing structure of a safety helmet or garment. The Hard-Shell design offers dual functionality as a personal cooling apparatus and safety helmet. It requires no intricate metal fins, bands, regulators, or associated heat exchange components.
 The heat-exchange function of this new-application apparatus, in its Hard-Shell Design, is derived primarily by direct application of the carbon-dioxide vapor to the skin surface. Conduction of cooling through the flexible-fabric coolant chamber of the Soft Shell Design or, the Padded Comfort Liner of the Hard Shell Design, to a lesser degree, aid the cooling effect. The use of dense, machine-manufactured carbon-dioxide pellets combined with a form-fitting Coolant Chamber collectively function to streamline the appearance, weight, and function of both Hard-Shell and Soft-Shell Garments to a level unachievable by Stark's designs.
 Stark's U.S. Pat. No. 2,963,881A is an extension of application of his helmet design set forth in U.S. Pat. No. 2,731,808 to include making it portable, attachable, and capable of functioning independent of a garment. It is identified here due to its embodiment of design elements shared in his other patents that have been addressed in the preceding paragraphs.
 Ben Yair's Heat Protection Suit Patent US20120260409 details a garment with insulated pockets placed on an inner and outer suit. The pockets are selectively opened or closed as a means of regulating the cooling effect. Additional methods of cooling regulation are addressed that include employing different numbers of pockets, varying their size, placement, and opening or closing. Multiple plies, insulation, pockets, and stitching are design aspects of the carbon-dioxide-containing pockets. Specific reference is made to a plate of dry ice. In Ben Yair's design, carbon-dioxide vapor escapes through the manually opened pocket of the individual or multiple dry-ice containers.
 Limitations imposed by Ben Yair's design include one vapor passageway out of each pocket of origin and placement of the dry-ice-containing pockets on a belt located on the torso of the suit, which isolates the coolant from the periphery of the suit. To effectively cool the periphery of the suit, a continuous supply of carbon dioxide vapor must diffuse a substantial distance from each pocket of origin. In the absence of a vapor-flow-producing apparatus, the adequate cooling of the suit periphery by vapor pressure alone is deemed conjecture.
 Further challenges to the function of his design include the relative heavy weight of the carbon-dioxide vapor and a chimney effect of trapping the warmer carbon-dioxide vapor in the higher portions of the suit. The likely result of these factors would be inconsistent cooling due to temperature stratification of the carbon-dioxide vapor within the suit. Furthermore, because the garment illustrated is body-encompassing and the carbon-dioxide vapor encapsulated between the two layers of the suit, supplemental heat removal by means of conduction, sweating, or convection is minimized. Adjustment of cooling capacity is limited to the manual opening and closing of the dry-ice pockets, the method of which, when the garment is being worn, is not addressed. The accessing of multiple pockets of a donned internal garment is envisioned as cumbersome and compromising to the integrity of the cooling process.
 In contrast to Ben Yair's design, this new-application apparatus accomplishes Soft-Shell Garment cooling by delivery of the carbon-dioxide vapor through many uniformly spaced perforation channels positioned directly over the target surface to be cooled. The individual Segment-based coverage allows the integration of Ancillary Cooling Fabrics at the periphery or between multiple Segments. These Ancillary Fabrics enhance the overall cooling capacity by facilitating conduction and perspiration wicking, aided by evaporation. The relative snugness or looseness to which this new-application Soft Shell Design Garment is worn provides the means of cooling adjustment. The cooling capacity of this new-application apparatus is predetermined by the volume of carbon-dioxide pellet fill and coolant Fabric Segment coverage. An additional improvement offered by this new-application apparatus is its ease of integration to a Hard-Shell Helmet. Such a helmet could serve a dual function of cooling and impact protection.
 Hipps' and Kupjack's U.S. Pat. No. 2,563,933 details a flexible container for dry ice or ice substitute. The container is for preserving and dispersing the cold and allowing escape of vapor from within. They detail lumps or blocks of dry ice as the coolant and note that projections of dry ice pose an obstacle to dispersion of the cooling effect and comfort. To overcome this functional challenge, their design incorporates a metallic cloth within the coolant container to conduct the cooling effect to a larger area than could likely be achieved with just the lumps or blocks of dry ice. Insulation serves a dual purpose of regulating cooling effect and aiding comfort by padding the dry-ice projections. Various sizes and shapes of the container are noted. Significant components include an outer cover, metallic mesh, open-mesh closure, insulating-fabric lining, and insulating container and zipper. The adjustment of the zipper is noted as the means for regulating passage of vapor out of the container.
 Limitations imposed by Hipps' and Kupjack's design include poor compatibility of the selected cooling medium to fit their container. Lumps or blocks of dry ice are specified. This factor resulted in unwanted bulk combined with poor conformability of their container to the contours of the body. This required insulation and padding of the container to minimize discomfort to the wearer. These obstacles impede the uniform dispersion of cooling effect. Hipps' and Kupjack apparently addressed this challenge by the addition of a supplemental metallic cloth and an insulation layer. The metallic cloth conceivably served to enhance dispersing the cooling effect through conduction of the cold from the carbon-dioxide lump and carbon-dioxide block dense areas of their container to the surrounding lower-density areas. This metallic cloth and insulation adds to the weight, bulk, and manufacturing steps. The provision of one zippered opening to the coolant container required manual adjustment of the cooling vapor flow. Depending upon the placement of a container or multiple containers within a garment, this adjustment process would likely be cumbersome and imprecise in effect.
 In contrast to Hipps' and Kupjack's design, this new-application apparatus offers significant improvements; specifically, the carbon-dioxide pellets are substantially uniform in size and shape, thereby, not producing bulges or projections that protrude through the containment vessel. Additionally, the containment vessel is compatibly designed to take advantage of the carbon-dioxide pellet's pourable quality and propensity to consolidate under vibration that is applied during the fill process. These qualities virtually eliminate uneven distribution of the cooling medium within the containment vessel. Finally, the cooling effect is uniform, preset, and automatic. These attributes are due to the provision of a uniform pattern of perforation channels within the flexible fabric segment whereby the carbon-dioxide cooling vapor interacts with the target surface. Cooling capacity is predetermined by the carbon-dioxide pellet capacity and coverage area of the Flexible Fabric Segment. Finally, this new-application apparatus is alternatively suited to Hard-Shell Garments, a use not envisioned by Hipps' and Kupjack.
SUMMARY OF INVENTION
 This new-application pertains to an apparatus for personal cooling that forms an integral part of an article of apparel. The apparatus utilizes a carbon-dioxide-pellet-based cooling system that overcomes many of the limitations of prior designs. It is adaptable to Hard and Soft-Shell Garment Designs. The Hard-Shell Design is conducive to integration within a safety helmet thereby permitting the helmet to function in the dual roles of cooling and impact protection. The Soft-Shell Design utilizes one or more "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segments" to perform targeted cooling. This functional unit, the Fabric Segment, is flexible and capable of being manufactured into a diversity of patterns, capacities, and thicknesses, as the application dictates. All Segment varieties are conveniently refillable, typically, from a single fill port. Once filled with Carbon Dioxide Pellets, the garment, with integrated Fabric Segment functions independent of any external apparatus. This new-application apparatus may be applied to an article of apparel that combines both the Hard and Soft-Shell Design aspects.
 Unlike any prior art design, this new-application apparatus utilizes carbon-dioxide pellets rather than block form or pressurized gaseous carbon dioxide. The Carbon-Dioxide Pellets enhance conformability of the garment and thereby increase design freedom, permitting adaptation to hats, vests, helmets, scarves, pants, blankets, seat covers, etc. Conversely, block dry ice offers limited adaptability to varied shapes. The conformability of the "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segment" to the target skin surface effectively increases the skin surface area that can be cooled.
 Consequently, this carbon-dioxide-pellet-based personal cooling apparatus offers cooling consistency that should exceed that of block carbon dioxide designs. Integrated to a Hard or Soft Shell Garment, this new-application apparatus minimizes bulk and does not require attachment or removal over another garment.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1 and FIG. 2: Comprehensive image depicting a Hard and a Soft-Shell Design.
 FIG. 3 Three-quarter view Hard-Shell Helmet Design: Depicts the Hard-Shell Helmet Design features listed in the specification.
 FIG. 4 Three-quarter view cutaway Hard-Shell Helmet Design: Depicts additional clarification of the Hard-Shell Helmet Design features.
 FIG. 5 Hard Shell Helmet Design side view cut-away: Depicts additional clarification of the Hard-Shell Helmet Design features.
 FIG. 6 Coolant chamber cut-away: Depicts a portion of a typical Hard-Shell Helmet Design Coolant-Chamber branch, clarifying the appearance and orientation of the adjacent design features.
 FIG. 7 Soft-Shell Garment Design: Depicts an overview of the external design features of a Soft-Shell Design vest.
 FIG. 8 Soft-Shell Design Segment: Depicts the external design elements of the "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segment". The functional unit of the Soft-Shell Design as applicable to a vest.
 FIG. 9 Progression of Assembly by Addition of Ancillary Fabric: Depicts the progressive forming of the Soft-Shell Design Segment to the vest garment.
 FIG. 10 "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segment". 45 Degree Cut View: Depicts positional relationship of Spot Bonds in offset rows and columns. Additionally it provides section view reference points and details by number, the Spot Bond columns referenced in the section views.
 Fabric Segment Section Views (FIG. 11, FIG. 12, FIG. 13, and FIG. 14):
 FIG. 11 depicts a horizontal section of an empty Soft Shell Segment taken at any row of Spot Bonds.
 FIG. 12 depicts a horizontal section of a full Soft Shell Fabric Segment taken at the section level of even-numbered Spot Bond columns.
 FIG. 13 depicts a horizontal section of a full Soft-Shell Fabric Segment taken at the section level of odd numbered Spot Bond columns.
 FIG. 14 depicts a horizontal section of a full Soft-Shell Fabric Segment at a level halfway between two adjacent rows of Spot Bonds. The line of sight for all sections is looking down into the Coolant Chamber. The Coolant Chamber is expanded to its maximum contour to facilitate detail. Section Views FIGS. 12, 13 and 14 are stacked on the page in the same sequence they are depicted in FIG. 10. The numbers correspond to the respective vertical columns of spot bonds and refer back to the X-axis numbers listed on FIG. 10.
 FIG. 15 Soft-Shell-Garment Composite Fabrics: Depicts the composition and orientation of the composite fabric layers of the Soft-Shell Design Coolant Chamber.
 DRAWING REFERENCE NUMERALS 100 Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 101 Carbon-Dioxide Vapor 210 Cooling and Impact-Protection Safety Helmet 220 Tubular-Shaped Channels 230 Impact-Absorbing Foam Layer 240 Hard-Shell Coolant Chamber 250 Helmet Exterior Shell 252 Helmet Interior 260 Fill Port 260A Fill Cap 270 Terminal Branches 270A Blind Terminal Branch 270B Loop Terminal Branch 270C Venting Terminal Branch 280 Continuous-Vapor Slit 290 Carbon-Dioxide-Vapor Permeable Fabric 292 Vapor Containment Dam 293 Air Vents 294 Single-Use Carbon-Dioxide-Exposure Indicator 295 Continuous Carbon-Dioxide-Exposure Monitor 296 Padded Comfort liner 310 "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segment" 320 Thermal-Insulating Flexible Composite Fabrics 320A Carbon-Dioxide-Vapor Permeable Composite Fabric 320B Carbon-Dioxide-Vapor Impermeable Composite Fabric 322A Carbon-Dioxide-Vapor Impermeable Insulation Material 322B Carbon-Dioxide-Vapor Permeable Insulation Material 324 Carrier Fabric 326 Ancillary Fabric 330 Soft-Shell Coolant Chamber 340 Spot Bonds 350 Fill Port 350A Fill Cap
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
FIG. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6
 The Carbon-Dioxide Pellet cooling apparatus is a reusable personal cooling apparatus typically functioning as a Hard-Shell helmet (FIG. 1) or integrated into a Soft-Shell Garment (FIG. 2). All embodiments utilize carbon dioxide in the form of dry-ice pellets 100 to achieve the removal of unwanted heat.
 The Hard-Shell Helmet Design embodiment would commonly exist as part of a Cooling and Impact-Protection Safety Helmet 210. The manner and process of making the Cooling and Impact-Protection Safety Helmet 210 would involve the placement of a molded or cut labyrinth of Tubular-Shaped Channels 220 within the motorcycle helmet's rigid polystyrene or other Impact-Absorbing Foam Layer 230. This labyrinth of Tubular-Shaped Channels 220, hereafter called the "Coolant Chamber" 240, would originate at one location, the highest point of the helmet, where it penetrates through the Helmet Exterior 250. This origin point serves as the Fill Port 260. Multiple extensions of the Coolant Chamber 240, hereafter called Terminal Branches 270, extend downward and away from the Fill Port 260, thereby, encircling much of the helmet. The Coolant Chamber Terminal Branches 270 are characteristically round and smooth and always sloped downward. The Coolant Chamber Terminal Branches 270 are further differentiated into Blind 270A, Loop 270B, or Venting 270C, based upon the configuration of their termination at the helmet periphery.
 The Coolant Chamber 240 is placed to a uniform depth within the Impact-Absorbing Foam Layer 230 of the Helmet 210. A small, Continuous Vapor Slit 280 extends through the Impact-Absorbing Foam Layer 230 that encases the Coolant Chamber 240 connecting it to the Helmet Interior 252. This Continuous Vapor Slit 280 provides a pathway for Carbon-Dioxide Vapor 101 produced by the sublimation of the Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 100 within the Coolant Chamber 240 to exit the Coolant Chamber 240. This Continuous-Vapor Slit 280 targets the Carbon-Dioxide-Vapor 101 cooling effect toward the wearer. At all locations where the Continuous-Vapor Slit 280 penetrates the Impact-Absorbing Foam Layer, 230, an overlying Carbon-Dioxide-Vapor Permeable Fabric 290 is placed that prevents spillage of the Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 100 while simultaneously ensuring passage of the Carbon-Dioxide Vapor 101.
 On the surface of the helmet's Padded Comfort Liner 296, where it contacts the perimeter of the wearer's face, a raised silicone or similar conformable material is placed in a continuous bead to form a Vapor-Containment Dam 292. When the helmet is donned, the Vapor-Containment Dam 292 contacts the face and extends from the bottom of one side of the face across the forehead and down the opposite side of the face. The Vapor-Containment Dam 292 serves as a safety feature to minimize the flow of Carbon-Dioxide Vapor 101 across the face, thereby, reducing the amount of Carbon-Dioxide Vapor 101 aspirated by the wearer.
Operation:--FIG. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6
 The manner and process of using the Cooling and Impact Protection Safety Helmet 210 embodiment is achieved by means of the placement of suitably sized Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 100, most commonly derived from the extrusion process, into the Coolant Chamber 240. The exact process of use involves the removal of an access cover, called the Fill Cap 260A, from the Fill Port 260 at the origin point of the Coolant Chamber 240. This is followed by pouring the Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 100 through the Fill Port 260 into the Coolant Chamber 240. Vibration of the Cooling and Impact Protection Safety Helmet 210 by mechanically or hand applied means is applied until the Coolant Chamber 240 is full.
 When the Coolant Chamber 240 is full, the Fill Cap 260A is reinstalled. The vibration serves to maximize the volume of Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 100 placed during the filling process by minimizing the formation of blockages and voids that may result from clumping together of the Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 100 within the Coolant Chamber 240. Consequently, the concurrent application of vibration serves to increase the Carbon-Dioxide Pellet 100 consolidation.
 Immediately upon the filling of the Cooling and Impact-Protection Safety Helmet's 210 Coolant Chamber 240, with Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 100, the cooling effect commences. The phase change of the Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 100 to Carbon-Dioxide Vapor 101 provides the heat removal. The Carbon-Dioxide Vapor vents out of the Coolant Chamber 240 through the Continuous-Vapor Slit 280, toward the wearer's head. Airflow through and around the Cooling and Impact-Protection Safety Helmet 210 removes the heat-laden Carbon-Dioxide Vapor 101. Opening or closing of the Air Vents 293 that merge with the Tubular Shaped Channels 220 of the Coolant Chamber 240 provides some control of the heat-removal rate.
 The placement and activation of either a Onetime Carbon-Dioxide-Exposure Indicator 294 or Electronic Continuous-Carbon-Dioxide-Exposure Monitor 295 within the visual field of the individual wearing the helmet would serve as a safety feature. This safety feature would alarm visually or audibly to indicate an unhealthy carbon-dioxide-exposure event.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
FIG. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
 The Soft-Shell Design FIG. 2 embodiment of the Carbon-Dioxide Pellet cooling apparatus would typically consist of a vest, scarf, hat, or virtually any other wearable configuration. The "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segment" 310 is the essential functional unit of all Soft-Shell Design variants. Each "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segment" 310 is optimized in shape, volume, and orientation within the garment. These considerations define performance aspects of the garment relating to the coverage area, conformability, ease of assembly, and reliability in operation and filling.
 The manner and process of making the Soft shell design is explained for a vest. Each "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segment" 310 may embody a single or multiple Fill Ports 350 located at or toward the highest point of the garment. Multiple Fill Ports 350 or multiple "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segments" 310 would likely be required for more complex garment designs. In the vest configuration illustrated, a single Fill Port 350 would be located at the center back of the collar.
 The construction of the "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segment" 310 is accomplished through the mating of two Thermal-Insulating Flexible Composite Fabrics 320A and 320B to form a single Coolant Chamber 330. The fabric layer that is oriented to the internal surface of the garment is the Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Permeable Composite Fabric 320A. The opposing fabric layer that is oriented to the external surface of the garment is the Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Impermeable Composite Fabric 320B. With exception to the presence of a Fill Port 350 and Fill Cap 350A these two composite fabrics are of identical pattern and are positioned opposite one another in a mirror image in preparation for assembly.
 The Carrier-Fabric 324 layer of both Thermal-Insulating Flexible Composite Fabrics 320A and 320B forms the external surface of the finished "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segment" 310. The Thermal-Insulating Flexible Composite Fabrics 320A and 320B are subsequently bonded together at their edges and at small evenly spaced, repeating intervals in the form of a stitch, spot application of adhesive or a weld, hereafter called Spot Bonds 340, which occur throughout the garment. The Spot Bonds 340 are placed in a series of rows with each row offset one half the distance between the Spot Bonds 340 of the prior row. This repeating offset of the rows of spot bonds 340 forms a crisscross pattern throughout the "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segment" 310. This crisscross pattern serves the purpose of establishing and maintaining a uniform maximum thickness of the Coolant Chamber 330 against the weight of the Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 100 placed within the Coolant Chamber 330. Changing the spacing and thereby, the total quantity of the Spot Bonds 340 changes the maximum volume of the finished Coolant Chamber 330. The small size and offset interval of the Spot Bonds 340 serve to minimize obstruction to the inflow of Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 100 during the filling process.
 The determination of the maximum volume of the finished, "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segment" 310 is defined at the time of manufacture. The maximum volume of the Coolant Chamber 330 is a function of stretch capability of the Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Permeable Composite Fabric 320A, Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Impermeable Composite Fabric 320B, and the tension applied to these two fabrics when they are bonded together. Greater tension minimizes the Coolant Chamber 330 volume. Conversely, lower tension maximizes the Coolant Chamber 330 volume resulting in greater cooling, conformability, performance, and comfort.
 High thermal insulating capabilities of both the Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Permeable Composite Fabric 320A and the Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Impermeable Composite Fabric 320B prevent freeze injury to the wearer that may otherwise result from the close proximity of the Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 100 to the skin. This insulation quality also functions to control the heat-removal rate. The Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Impermeable Composite Fabric 320A and Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Permeable Composite Fabric 320B that are fused together to form the "Flexible Carbon Dioxide Pellet Containment and Vapor Diffusion Fabric Segment 310 may be constructed in multiple ways. One possible method envisioned is the use of a thin layer of closed cell extruded polystyrene foam as the Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Impermeable Insulation Material 322A FIG. 15 and a mechanically perforated layer of the same material to form the opposing Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Permeable Insulation Material 322B. In both instances, these polystyrene foam layers are individually bonded to a Carrier Fabric 324 FIG. 15 that provides strength and comfort while facilitating the garment manufacturing process.
Operation:--FIG. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
 The use of the Soft-Shell Design 300 embodiment involves orienting the garment with the Fill Port 350 at the highest vertical position. The Fill Port 350 is accessed by removal of the Fill Cap 350A. The Coolant Chamber 330 is then filled with suitably sized Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 101 by means of gravity and vibration assistance. The Fill Cap 350A is then placed in the Fill Port 350 and the garment is donned. Carbon-Dioxide Vapor 101 produced by the sublimation of Carbon-Dioxide Pellets 100 within the Coolant Chamber 330 escapes through the Carbon-Dioxide Vapor-Permeable Insulation Material 322B and overlying Carrier Fabric 324 toward the garment interior, whereby it absorbs heat. Subsequently, the heat-laden Carbon-Dioxide Vapor 101 diffuses out of the garment.
CONCLUSION, RAMIFICATIONS, AND SCOPE
 Thus, the reader is informed that at least one embodiment of the carbon-dioxide coolant apparatus provides a more effective, convenient, compact, reusable, and simple means of integrating carbon-dioxide-based cooling to a garment. The material described herein contains multiple specificities; however, these details should not be interpreted as limitations on the potential breadth of application but as several embodiments. Additional possible embodiments envisioned include application of the material to hats, scarves, seat covers, blankets, welding helmets, fire and high heat safety helmets. Hybrid garments; those which possess both the rigid and flexible embodiments described herein, are also a potential application. Therefore, the scope should be established by the claims and not the embodiments discussed herein.
Patent applications in class By interior pads
Patent applications in all subclasses By interior pads