Patent application title: GUIDEWIRES FOR PERFORMING IMAGE GUIDED PROCEDURES
Isaac J. Kim (San Jose, CA, US)
Eric Goldfarb (Belmont, CA, US)
Tom T. Vo (Mountain View, CA, US)
Robert K. Deckman (San Bruno, CA, US)
Robert K. Deckman (San Bruno, CA, US)
IPC8 Class: AA61B1900FI
Class name: Diagnostic testing detecting nuclear, electromagnetic, or ultrasonic radiation with means for determining position of a device placed within a body
Publication date: 2014-07-17
Patent application number: 20140200444
Guidewires and methods useable in conjunction with image guidance systems
to facilitate performance of diagnostic or therapeutic tasks at locations
within the bodies of human or animal subjects.
1. A guidewire device for use with an image guidance system, said
guidewire comprising: an elongate guidewire shaft having a proximal end
and a distal end; a sensor located on or in said shaft, said sensor being
detectable by an image guidance system for real time determination of the
location of the sensor within a subject's body; first electrical contacts
located on the shaft at or near its proximal end; wires extending between
the sensor and the contacts; and a hub member that is disposable on and
removable from the guidewire shaft, said hub member having second
electrical contacts that electrically couple to said first electrical
contacts when the hub member is disposed on said guidewire shaft.
2. A guidewire according to claim 1 wherein the hub member has a recess within which the proximal end of the guidewire is inserted.
3. A guidewire device according to claim 2 wherein the first electrical contacts are at spaced apart locations on a portion of the guidewire that becomes inserted into the recess and wherein the second electrical contacts are located within the recess at spaced apart locations such that the first and second contacts become electrically coupled when the proximal end of the guidewire is inserted into the recess.
4. A guidewire device according to claim 3 wherein the recess has an abutment surface against which the guidewire abuts to prevent further advancement of the guidewire into the recess.
5. A guidewire device according to claim 4 wherein the first and second contacts are spaced, relative to the abutment surface, such that when the guidewire is abutting against the abutment surface, the first and second contacts will be juxtapositioned and electrically coupled to one another.
6. A guidewire device according to claim 1 wherein the sensor is an electromagnetic coil located at or near the distal end of the guidewire shaft.
7. A guidewire device according to claim 6 wherein the electromagnetic coil is housed within a distal portion of the guidewire shaft.
8. A guidewire device according to claim 1 wherein the electromagnetic coil is positioned within a housing, said housing being positioned within the distal portion of the shaft.
9. A guidewire device according to claim 8 wherein the electromagnetic housing has a helical configuration.
10. A guidewire device according to claim 9 wherein the distal portion comprises a helical coil having a lumen extending therethrough and wherein the housing is screwed into the lumen of the helical coil.
11. A guidewire device according to claim 10 further comprising a plug member that closes the distal end of the lumen of the helical wire coil, distal to the housing.
12. A guidewire device according to claim 11 wherein the plug member is formed of substantially nonferromagnetic material.
13. A guidewire device according to claim 1 further comprising an outer cover on the distal portion of the guidewire shaft.
14. A guidewire device according to claim 13 wherein the outer cover is formed of substantially nonferromagnetic material.
15. A guidewire device according to claim 13 wherein the outer cover comprises heat shrunk plastic.
16. A guidewire device according to claim 13 wherein the outer cover is on the guidewire shaft from just distal the first electrical contacts to the distal tip and is a material selected from the group consisting of parylene, Teflon and silicone.
17. A guidewire device according to claim 1 wherein the guidewire shaft comprises a core wire having a distal portion, a mid-portion and a proximal portion, said sensor being located on or in the distal portion.
18. A guidewire device according to claim 17 wherein the first electrodes comprise proximal and distal electrode bands on the proximal portion of the guidewire shaft, said electrode bands being formed of electrically conductive material.
19. A guidewire device according to claim 18 further comprising insulator bands formed of material that is substantially electrically insulating, an insulator band being positioned on either side of each electrode band.
20. A guidewire device according to claim 17 wherein the distal portion is more flexible than the mid-portion.
 This application is a continuation in part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/16,118 entitled Methods and Devices for Performing Procedures Within the Ear, Nose, Throat and Paranasal Sinuses filed Apr. 26, 2005, which is a continuation in part of 1) U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/829,917 entitled "Devices, Systems and Methods for Diagnosing and Treating Sinusitis and Other Disorders of the Ears, Nose and/or Throat" filed on Apr. 21, 2004, 2) U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/912,578 entitled "Implantable Device and Methods for Delivering Drugs and Other Substances to Treat Sinusitis and Other Disorders" filed on Aug. 4, 2004, 3) U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/944,270 entitled "Apparatus and Methods for Dilating and Modifying Ostia of Paranasal Sinuses and Other Intranasal or Paranasal Structures" filed on Sep. 17, 2004 and 4) U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/037,548 entitled "Devices, Systems and Methods For Treating Disorders of the Ear, Nose and Throat" filed Jan. 18, 2005, the entireties of each such parent application being expressly incorporated herein by reference.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates generally to methods and devices for medical treatment and more particularly to guidewires adapted for use with electromagnetic image guidance systems and their method of manufacture and use.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 Image-guided surgery (IGS) is a technique wherein a computer is used to obtain a real-time correlation of the location of an instrument that has been inserted into a patient's body to a set of preoperatively obtained images (e.g., a CT or MRI scan) so as to superimpose the current location of the instrument on the preoperatively obtained images. In a typical IGS procedure, a digital tomographic scan (e.g., CT or MRI) of the operative field is obtained prior to surgery. A specially programmed computer is then used to convert the digital tomographic scan data into a digital map. During surgery, special instruments having sensors (e.g., electromagnetic coils that emit electromagnetic fields) mounted thereon are used to perform the procedure while the sensors send data to the computer indicating the current position of each surgical instrument. The computer correlates the data it receives from the instrument-mounted sensors with the digital map that was created from the preoperative tomographic scan. The tomographic scan images are displayed on a video monitor along with an indicator (e.g., cross hairs or an illuminated dot) showing the real time position of each surgical instrument relative to the anatomical structures shown in the scan images. In this manner, the surgeon is able to know the precise position of each sensor-equipped instrument without being able to actually view that instrument at its current location within the body.
 Examples of commercially available electromagnetic IGS systems that have been used in ENT and sinus surgery include the ENTrak Plus® and InstaTrak ENT® systems available from GE Medical Systems, Salt Lake City, Utah. Other examples of electromagnetic image guidance systems that may be modified for use in accordance with the present invention include but are not limited to those available from Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc., Louisville, Colo., Biosense-Webster, Inc., Diamond Bar, Calif. and Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, Wash.
 When applied to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) the use of Image guidance systems allows the surgeon to achieve more precise movement and positioning of the surgical instruments than can be achieved by viewing through an endoscope alone. This is so because a typical endoscopic image is a spatially limited, 2 dimensional, line-of-sight view. The use of image guidance systems provides a real time, 3 dimensional view of all of the anatomy surrounding the operative field, not just that which is actually visible in the spatially limited, 2 dimensional, direct line-of-sight endoscopic view. As a result, image guidance systems are frequently used during performance of FESS, especially in cases where normal anatomical landmarks are not present, in revision sinus surgeries or wherein the surgery is performed to treat disease that abuts the skull base extends into the frontal or sphenoid sinus, dehiscent lamina papyracea and/or orbital pathology.
 Additionally, a procedure for balloon dilation of the ostia of paranasal sinuses has been developed, wherein a guidewire is advanced into a diseased paranasal sinus and a balloon catheter is then advanced over the guidewire to dilate the ostium of that paranasal sinus, thereby improving drainage from the diseased sinus (Balloon Sinuplasty® system, Acclarent, Inc., Menlo Park, Calif.). Parent application Ser. No. 11/16,118 describes a variety of sensor equipped devices including sensor equipped guidewires that are useable in performance of the procedure using Balloon Sinuplasty® tools under image guidance in conjunction with an IGS system.
 There remains a need in the art for the development of improved sensor equipped instruments and devices for use in IGS procedures.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention provides guidewires having sensors (e.g., electromagnetic coils that detect or emit electromagnetic energy and radiofrequency devices that emit or detect radiofrequency energy like antennas) and removable proximal hubs that interface with an IGS system. The guidewires of one embodiment of the present invention are useable in conjunction with electromagnetic IGS systems such that the IGS system may be used to track the real time position of the guidewire within the body of a human or animal subject.
 In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a guidewire device for use with an image guidance surgery system, Such guidewire device generally comprises a) an elongate guidewire shaft having a proximal end and a distal end, b) a sensor located on or in said shaft, such sensor being operative to emit energy that may be used by an image guidance system for real time determination of the location of the sensor within a subject's body, c) first electrical contacts located on the shaft at or near its proximal end, d) wires extending between the sensor and the contacts and e) a connector hub member that is disposable on and removable from the guidewire shaft, such hub member having second electrical contacts that electrically couple to the first electrical contacts on the guidewire when the hub member is disposed on said guidewire shaft. In this manner, the hub member facilitates delivery of current to the sensor and the sensor emits a field which is used by the image guidance system to ascertain the position of the guidewire within the subject's body. After the guidewire has been advanced to its intended position, the hub member is removed from the guidewire, thereby allowing other devices (e.g., catheters and the like) to be advanced over the guidewire and used to perform diagnostic or therapeutic task(s). In some embodiments, the guidewire may be less than 110 centimeters in length (e.g., approximately 100 centimeters) and may be transnasally insertable to a location within the ear, nose, throat or paranasal sinus of the subject. In some embodiments, a polymer layer (e.g., heat shrunk polymer film) may be formed on a portion of the guidewire to facilitate grasping of the guidewire during use but such polymer layer may cover less than the entire length of the guidewire.
 Further in accordance with the invention, there is provided a method for using an image guidance system to determine the location of a guidewire within the body of a human or animal subject, such method comprising the steps of; (A) inserting into the body of the subject a guidewire that has i) a distal portion, ii) a sensor positioned on or in the distal portion , ii) a proximal portion and iv) first electrical contacts located on the proximal portion, said first electrical contacts being connected to the sensor; (B) inserting the proximal portion of the guidewire into a connector hub that has second electrical contacts such that the second electrical contacts of the connector hub become electrically coupled to the first electrical contacts of the guidewire; (C) passing electrical energy through the sensor to cause the sensor to emit a field; and (D) using the image guidance system to determine the location of the field emitted by the sensor and to correlate said location to stored anatomical image data, thereby ascertaining the location of the guidewire within the body. After the guidewire has been placed in an intended position within the body, the connector hub is removed and a second device (e.g., a catheter) is advanced over the guidewire. Such second device is then used to perform a therapeutic or diagnostic task within the subject's body.
 Further aspects, details and embodiments of the present invention will be understood by those of skill in the art upon reading the following detailed description of the invention and the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1 shows a guidewire of one embodiment of the present invention being used in conjunction with an IGS system to perform a transnasal procedure.
 FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view of one embodiment of a guidewire of the present invention.
 FIG. 2A is a cross sectional view through line 2A-2A of FIG. 2.
 FIG. 2B is a cross sectional view through line 2B-2B of FIG. 2.
 FIG. 2C is a cross sectional view through line 2C-2C of FIG. 2.
 FIG. 3 is a side view of one embodiment of a sensor housing of the guidewire of FIG. 2.
 FIG. 3A is a perspective view of a sensor assembly comprising the sensor housing of FIG. 3 with an electromagnetic sensor coil and related packaging mounted therein.
 FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of a proximal hub device that is attachable to and detachable from the proximal end of a sensor-equipped guidewire of the present invention.
 FIG. 4A is a longitudinal sectional view of the proximal hub device of FIG. 4 attached to the guidewire of FIG. 2.
 The following detailed description, the drawings and the above-set-forth Brief Description of the Drawings are intended to describe some, but not necessarily all, examples or embodiments of the invention. The contents of this detailed description, the accompanying drawings and the above-set-forth brief descriptions of the drawings do not limit the scope of the invention or the scope of the following claims, in any way.
System Useable For Transnasal Image-Guided Procedures
 With reference to FIG. 1, there is shown a guidewire 10 of the present invention inserted through a transnasal guide catheter 14 into the nose of a subject. A connector hub 12 of the present invention is disposed on the proximal end of the guidewire 10. The connector hub is connected by a cable 100 to an image guidance system 16. This image guidance system generally includes a video monitor 18 and a computer 20. The manner in which these components of the system operate will be discussed in further detail herebelow.
 The guidewire device 10, and certain components thereof, are shown in detail in FIGS. 2-3A. In the particular embodiment shown, the guidewire 10 comprises a flexible outer coil 49 having a core wire system 50 extending therethrough. This guidewire 10 includes a distal portion 30, a mid-portion 32 and a proximal portion 34. In general, the outer coil 49 is a flexible structure and the core wire system 50 serves to impart column strength (e.g., "pushability"), torquability, and regionally varying degrees of rigidity to the guidewire 10.
 In an embodiment suitable for certain transnasal applications, the outer coil 49 may be formed of stainless steel wire or other alloys 56 of approximately 0.005 to 0.007 inches diameter, disposed in a tight helical coil so as to form a tubular structure that has a lumen 58 (as shown in FIG. 2B) and has an outer diameter of approximately 0.035 inches, The core wire system 50 extends through lumen 58 of helical outer coil 49 and a sensor assembly 60 (shown in detail in FIG. 3A) is mounted within the distal end of lumen 58, as explained fully herebelow.
 The core wire system 50 comprises a distal core wire segment 50d, a proximal core wire segment 50p and a transitional core wire segment 50t. The proximal core wire segment 50p is affixed (e.g., soldered or otherwise attached) to the outer coil 49 at locations L (FIG. 2). In this particular example, the distal core wire segment 50d is approximately two to approximately four centimeters in length and is formed of stainless steel wire having an outer diameter of approximately 0.006 to approximately 0.008 inches and Its distal portion may optionally be swaged or compressed to a generally flattened configuration, thereby rendering that distal portion more flexible in one plane (e.g., up and down) than In the opposite plane (e.g., side to side), in accordance with techniques known in the art of guidewire manufacture. The proximal end of distal core wire segment 50d is round (i.e., not swaged or flattened) and is integral with the distal end of the transitional core wire segment 50t. In this example, the transitional core wire segment 50t comprises a tapered region on the distal end of proximal wire segment 50p. The proximal core wire segment 50p is formed of stainless steel wire having an outer diameter of approximately 0.010 to approximately 0.013 inches and the transitional core wire segment 50t tapers from the approximately 0.010 to approximately 0.013 inch diameter at its proximal end to the approximately 0.006 to approximately 0.008 inch diameter at its distal end where it attaches to the distal core wire segment 50d. Since the distal core wire segment 50d is smaller in cross sectional dimension than the proximal core wire segment 50d, the distal portion 30 of the guidewire 10 is more flexible than the mid-portion 32.
 The sensor assembly 60 is mounted within the distal portion 30 of the guidewire. The sensor assembly 60 comprises a housing 62 that is laser cut from thin walled tubing made of stainless steel or other alloy. The housing 62 is cut to form a helical side wall 42 and a cylindrical distal part 40. An electromagnetic coil 71 (FIG. 2A) is affixed by adhesive (e.g., epoxy), melted polymer or a combination of these within the housing 62, and lead wires 70 extend from the electromagnetic coil 71, out of the proximal end of the sensor housing 62, as seen in FIG. 3A. After the electromagnetic coil has been placed and secured within the sensor housing 62, an end plug 44 is inserted into the distal part 40 of the sensor housing 62.
 The sensor assembly 60 us then screwed into the distal end of the outer coil 49 causing the helical side wall 42 of sensor housing 62 to become frictionally engaged with adjacent convolutions of the outer coil 49.
 The lead wires 70a and 70b pass through the lumen 58 of outer coil 49 into the proximal portion 34 where they are connected to contacts 80a and 80b respectively. Contacts 80a and 80b comprise bands of electrically conductive material that extends around coil 49, as seen in FIGS. 2 and 2C. Insulators 82 (e.g., bushings formed of electrically insulating material such as PEBAX, adhesive, polyimide or a combination of these) are disposed on either side of each contact 80a, 80b. A proximal seal member 88 is disposed at the proximal end of the guidewire 10 and the proximal end of the proximal core wire segment 50p is received within such seal member 88.
 The proximal portion 34 of the guidewire 10 is configured to be inserted into the connector hub 14. The guidewire distal of the electrical contacts can be coated with parylene, Teflon or silicone.
Connector Hub Device
 One possible example of the construction of connector hub 14 is shown in FIGS. 4 and 4A. This embodiment of the connector hub 14 comprises a molded plastic housing 90 having an opening 92 in its distal end. Although not shown in the drawing, a retaining mechanism such as a twist lock Tuohy-Borst silicone valve grip mechanism can be located in opening 92. Such a mechanism can be used to selectively grip the guidewire. The opening 92 leads to a guidewire receiving recess 94 having first and second spring electrodes 96a, 96b disposed at spaced apart locations that correspond to the linear distance between the midpoints of contacts 80a, 80b of the guidewire 10. Wires 98 connect spring electrodes 96a, 96b to cable 100.
 The guidewire receiving recess 94 terminates at its proximal end in an abutment surface 101. As seen in FIG. 4A, the proximal portion 34 of guidewire 10 is inserted through opening 92 and is advanced into recess 94 until the proximal end of the guidewire abuts against abutment surface 101, at which point, spring electrode 96a will be touching contact 80a and spring electrode 96b will be touching contact 80b. With the guidewire so inserted within connector hub 14 and cable 100 connected to the image guidance system, electrical energy from the image guidance system 16 is delivered to the electromagnetic coil 71 mounted in the distal portion 30 of guidewire 10. This enables real time tracking of the location of the guidewire's distal portion 30 within the subject's body.
 After the guidewire 10 has been navigated (whether with the aid of a guide 14) to a specific position within the subject's body, the connector hub 14 may be removed from the proximal end of the guidewire and a device (e.g., a balloon catheter, lavage catheter, endoscope or various other working devices) may then be advanced over the guidewire.
 In some embodiments, an outer layer 84 may be selectively disposed on a portion of the guidewire 10 to facilitate gripping and rotating of the guidewire by an operator's gloved hand. In the embodiment shown, this outer layer 84 extends over a proximal segment (e.g., approximately 15 centimeters) of the mid-portion 32 of outer coil 49. When so positioned, the outer layer 84 will be positioned on only the part of the guidewire that is typically grasped by the operator during use. Thus, this outer layer 84 does not impart additional rigidity to other regions of the guidewire 10. This is particularly useful in applications, such as the transnasal application shown in FIG. 1, where the guidewire 10 extends on an upward angle as it exits the body. In such cases, added rigidity will cause the guidewire to protrude more in the upward direction rather than curving downwardly so as to be more easily handled by the operator.
 It is to be appreciated that the specific embodiment shown in the drawings is merely one example of how the guidewire 10 and connector hub 14 may be constructed. Many other variations are possible. For example, in some other embodiments, the outer coil 49 of the guidewire 10 may not extend over the mid-portion 32. Rather, the mid-portion 32 may be constructed of a core wire within a cable wire tube, a polymer overlamination, a hypotube, a braided polymer tube, or a helical coil.
 It is to be further appreciated that the invention has been described hereabove with reference to certain examples or embodiments of the invention but that various additions, deletions, alterations and modifications may be made to those examples and embodiments without departing from the intended spirit and scope of the invention. For example, any element or attribute of one embodiment or example may be incorporated into or used with another embodiment or example, unless to do so would render the embodiment or example unsuitable for its intended use. All reasonable additions, deletions, modifications and alterations are to be considered equivalents of the described examples and embodiments and are to be included within the scope of the following claims.
Patent applications by Eric Goldfarb, Belmont, CA US
Patent applications by Isaac J. Kim, San Jose, CA US
Patent applications by Robert K. Deckman, San Bruno, CA US
Patent applications by Tom T. Vo, Mountain View, CA US
Patent applications by ACCLARENT, INC.
Patent applications in class With means for determining position of a device placed within a body
Patent applications in all subclasses With means for determining position of a device placed within a body