Patent application title: TARGETED ANTIMICROBIAL MOIETIES
The Regents Of The University Of California
Randal H. Eckert (Redondo Beach, CA, US)
Daniel K. Yarbrough (Los Angeles, CA, US)
Wenyuan Shi (Los Angeles, CA, US)
Wenyuan Shi (Los Angeles, CA, US)
Maxwell H. Anderson (Sequim, WA, US)
Maxwell H. Anderson (Sequim, WA, US)
Jian He (Los Angeles, CA, US)
Chris Kaplan (Los Angeles, CA, US)
Chris Kaplan (Los Angeles, CA, US)
Jee-Hyun Sim (Garden Grove, CA, US)
Jee-Hyun Sim (Garden Grove, CA, US)
THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
IPC8 Class: AA01N6300FI
Class name: Micro-organism destroying or inhibiting bacterium (e.g., bacillus, etc.) destroying or inhibiting streptococcus
Publication date: 2014-05-22
Patent application number: 20140142028
This invention provides novel targeted antimicrobial compositions. In
various embodiments chimeric moieties are provided comprising an
antimicrobial peptide attached to a peptide targeting moiety that binds a
bacterial strain or species.
1. A chimeric moiety, said moiety comprising: an effector attached to a
peptide targeting moiety the amino acid sequence of said targeting moiety
comprising the sequence GGSGSLSTFFRLFNRSFTQALGK (SEQ ID NO:60).
2. The chimeric moiety of claim 1, wherein the amino acid sequence of said targeting moiety is GGSGSLSTFFRLFNRSFTQALGK (SEQ ID NO:60).
3. The chimeric moiety of claim 1, wherein said effector comprises a moiety selected from the group consisting of a detectable label, an antimicrobial peptide, an antibiotic, and a photosensitizer.
4. The chimeric moiety of claim 1, wherein said effector comprises an antimicrobial peptide comprising the amino acid sequence of a peptide found in Table 2, Table 8, Table 9, or Table 10 or any antimicrobial peptide disclosed herein.
5. The chimeric moiety of claim 1, wherein said effector comprises an antibiotic found in Table 7.
15. The chimeric moiety of claim 1, wherein said targeting moiety is chemically conjugated to said effector.
16. The chimeric moiety of claim 15, wherein said targeting moiety is chemically conjugated to said effector via a linker.
17. The chimeric moiety of claim 15, wherein said targeting moiety is chemically conjugated to said effector via a linker comprising a polyethylene glycol (PEG).
18. The chimeric moiety of claim 15, wherein said targeting moiety is chemically conjugated to said effector via a non-peptide linker found in Table 11.
19. The chimeric moiety of claim 1, wherein said targeting moiety is linked directly to said effector.
20. The chimeric moiety of claim 1, wherein said targeting moiety is linked to said effector via a peptide linkage.
21. The chimeric moiety of claim 20, wherein the chimeric moiety is a fusion protein.
22. The chimeric moiety of claim 21, wherein said peptide linkage comprises a peptide linker found in Table 11.
23. The chimeric moiety of claim 20, wherein said chimeric moiety is functionalized with a polymer to increase serum halflife.
24. The chimeric moiety of claim 21, wherein said polymer comprises polyethylene glycol and/or a cellulose or modified cellulose.
25. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a chimeric moiety of claim 1 in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
26. The composition of claim 25, wherein said composition is formulated as a unit dosage formulation.
27. The composition of claim 25, wherein said composition is formulated for administration by a modality selected from the group consisting of intraperitoneal administration, topical administration, oral administration, inhalation administration, transdermal administration, subdermal depot administration, and rectal administration.
46. The chimeric moiety of claim 1, wherein said effector comprises a photosensitizing agent.
48. The chimeric moiety of claim 46, wherein said photosensitizing agent is an agent selected from the group consisting of a porphyrinic macrocycle, a porphyrin, a chlorine, a crown ether, an acridine, an azine, a phthalocyanine, a cyanine, a psoralen, and a perylenequinonoid.
49. The chimeric moiety of claim 46, wherein said photosensitizing agent is an agent shown in any of FIGS. 1-11.
50. The chimeric moiety of claim 46, wherein said photosensitizing agent is attached to said targeting peptide by a non-peptide linker.
51. The chimeric moiety of claim 46, wherein said photosensitizing agent is attached to said targeting peptide by a linker comprising a polyethylene glycol (PEG).
52. The chimeric moiety of claim 46, wherein said photosensitizing agent is attached to said targeting peptide by a non-peptide linker found in Table 11.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
 This application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/701,443, filed on Feb. 5, 2010, which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/150,287, filed Feb. 5, 2009; and to U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/224,825, filed Jul. 10, 2009, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety for all purposes.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT
 [Not Applicable]
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to novel targeting peptides, novel antimicrobial peptides, chimeric moieties comprising novel targeting and/or novel antimicrobial peptides and uses thereof.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 Antibiotic research at the industrial level was originally focused on the identification of refined variants of already existing drugs. This resulted example, in the development of antibiotics such as newer penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones.
 However, resistance to old and newer antibiotics among bacterial pathogens is evolving rapidly, as exemplified by extended beta-lactamase (ESBL) and quinolone resistant gram-negatives, multi-resistant gonococci, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE), penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP) and macrolide resistant pneumococci and streptococci (see, e.g., Panlilo et al. (1992) Infect. Control Hosp. EpidemioL., 13: 582-586; Morris et al. (1995) Ann Intern Med., 123: 250-259, and the like). An overuse, or improper use, of antibiotics is believed to be of great importance for triggering and spread of drug resistant bacteria. Microbes have, in many cases, adapted and are resistant to antibiotics due to constant exposure and improper use of the drugs.
 Drug resistant pathogens represent a major economic burden for health-care systems. For example, postoperative and other nosocomial infections will prolong the need for hospital care and increase antibiotic drug expenses. It is estimated that the annual cost of treating drug resistant infections in the United States is approximately $5 billion.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 In certain embodiments, novel targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) that specifically/preferentially bind to microorganisms (e.g., certain bacteria, yeasts, fungi, molds, viruses, algae, protozoa, and the like) are provided. The targeting moieties can be attached to effectors (e.g., detectable labels, drugs, antimicrobial peptides, etc.) to form chimeric constructs for specifically/preferentially delivering the effector to and/or into the target organism. In certain embodiments novel antimicrobial peptides that can be used to inhibit (e.g., kill and/or inhibit growth and/or proliferation) of certain microorganisms (e.g., certain bacteria, yeasts, fungi, molds, viruses, algae, protozoa, and the like) are provided. Any targeting moiety disclosed herein can be attached to any one or more effector disclosed herein. Any targeting moiety disclosed herein can be attached to any one or more antimicrobial peptide disclosed herein.
 In certain embodiments chimeric moieties are provided where the chimeric moieties comprise an effector attached to a peptide targeting moiety comprising or consisting of the amino acid sequence of a peptide found in Table 2 and/or Table 15. In certain embodiments the targeting peptide comprises or consists of amino acid or retro or inverso or retro-inverso sequence or beta sequence of a peptide found in Table 2 and/or Table 15. In certain embodiments the effector comprises a moiety selected from the group consisting of a detectable label, an antimicrobial peptide, an antibiotic, and a photosensitizer. In certain embodiments the effector comprises an antimicrobial peptide comprising the amino acid sequence of a peptide found in Table 2, and/or Table 8, and/or Table 9, and/or Table 10. In certain embodiments the effector comprises an antibiotic found in Table 7. In certain embodiments the effector comprises a photosensitizer. In certain embodiments the photosensitizer is selected from the group consisting of a porphyrinic macrocycle, a porphyrin, a chlorine, a crown ether, an acridine, an azine, a phthalocyanine, a cyanine, a psoralen, and a perylenequinonoid. In certain embodiments the photosensitizing agent is an agent shown in any of FIGS. 1-11.
 Also provided is a chimeric construct comprising a targeting moiety attached to an antimicrobial peptide where the antimicrobial peptide comprises or consists of the amino acid or retro or inverso or retro-inverso sequence of a peptide found in Table 2. In certain embodiments the targeting moiety is a peptide that comprises or consists of the amino acid or retro or inverso or retro-inverso or beta sequence of a peptide found in Table 2, and/or Table 3, and/or Table 4, and/or Table 6, and/or Table 15. In certain embodiments, the targeting moiety comprises an antibody (e.g., an antibody identified in Table 5). In certain embodiments the targeting moiety is chemically conjugated to the effector directly or via a linker. In certain embodiments the targeting moiety is chemically conjugated to the effector via a linker comprising a polyethylene glycol (PEG). In certain embodiments the targeting moiety is chemically conjugated to the effector via a non-peptide linker found in Table 11. In certain embodiments the where the targeting moiety is linked to the effector via a peptide linkage. In certain embodiments the chimeric construct is a fusion protein. In certain embodiments the linker is a peptide linker found in Table 11. In certain embodiments the chimeric moiety is functionalized with a polymer (e.g., polyethylene glycol, a cellulose, a modified cellulose, etc.) to increase serum halflife.
 Also provided are pharmaceutical compositions comprising the chimeric construct(s)/chimeric moieties described herein in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. In certain embodiments the composition is formulated as a unit dosage formulation. In certain embodiments the composition is formulated for administration by a modality selected from the group consisting of intraperitoneal administration, topical administration, oral administration, inhalation administration, transdermal administration, subdermal depot administration, and rectal administration.
 Also provided is an antimicrobial composition comprising an isolated antimicrobial moiety comprising or consisting of the amino acid sequence of a peptide found in Table 2. In certain embodiments the peptide comprises or consists of the amino acid or retro or inverso or retro-inverso sequence or beta sequence of a peptide found in Table 2. In certain embodiments the peptide is a peptide selected from the group consisting of a peptide consisting of the amino acid sequence of a peptide found in Table 2 comprising all L residues, a peptide consisting of the amino acid sequence of a peptide found in Table 2 comprising a peptide found in Table comprising all D residues, a peptide comprising the inverse of an amino acid sequence found in Table 2, a peptide comprising the retro-inverso form of a peptide found in Table 2, a peptide found in Table 2 comprising a conservative substitution, and a peptide found in Table 2 comprising a substitution of a naturally occurring amino acid with a non-naturally occurring amino acid. In certain embodiments the peptide comprises no more than 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 conservative substitutions.
 Also provided is a composition comprising an isolated targeting moiety comprising or consisting of the amino acid sequence of a peptide found in Table 2 or Table 15. In certain embodiments the peptide comprises or consists of the amino acid or retro or inverso or retro-inverso sequence or beta sequence of a peptide found in Table 2 or Table 15. In certain embodiments the peptide is a peptide selected from the group consisting of a peptide consisting of the amino acid sequence of a peptide found in Table 2 or Table 15 comprising all L residues, a peptide consisting of the amino acid sequence of a peptide found in Table 2 comprising a peptide found in Table comprising all D residues, a peptide comprising the inverse of an amino acid sequence found in Table 2 or Table 15, a peptide comprising the retro-inverso form of a peptide found in Table 2 or Table 15, a peptide found in Table 2 or Table 15 comprising a conservative substitution, and a peptide found in Table 2 or Table 15 comprising a substitution of a naturally occurring amino acid with a non-naturally occurring amino acid. In certain embodiments the peptide comprises no more than 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 conservative substitutions.
 In certain embodiments methods are provided for inhibiting the growth and/or proliferation of a microorganism and/or a biofilm comprising a microorganism. The methods typically involve contacting the microorganism or biofilm with a composition comprising an antimicrobial peptide comprising or consisting of the amino acid sequence of a peptide found in Table 2 (e.g., the amino acid or retro or inverso or retro-inverso sequence or beta sequence of a peptide found in Table 2); and/or contacting the microorganism or biofilm with a composition comprising an antimicrobial moiety attached to a targeting peptide comprising or consisting of the amino acid sequence of a peptide found in Table 2 (e.g., the amino acid or retro or inverso or retro-inverso sequence or beta sequence of a peptide found in Table 2). In certain embodiments the microorganism or biofilm is a bacterium or a bacterial film. In certain embodiments the targeting peptide is chemically conjugated to the antimicrobial peptide. In certain embodiments the targeting peptide is linked directly to the antimicrobial peptide. In certain embodiments the targeting peptide is linked to the antimicrobial peptide via a linker comprising a polyethylene glycol. In certain embodiments the targeting peptide is linked to the antimicrobial peptide via a non-peptide linkage in Table 11. In certain embodiments the targeting peptide is linked to the antimicrobial peptide via a peptide linkage. In certain embodiments the targeting peptide linked to the antimicrobial peptide is a fusion protein. In certain embodiments the linker is a peptide linker in Table 11.
 In various embodiments methods are provided for detecting a microorganism (e.g., bacteria, yeast, protozoan, virus, algae, fungi, etc.) or biofilm comprising the microorganism. The methods typically involve contacting the microorganism or biofilm with a composition comprising a detectable label attached to a targeting peptide comprising the amino acid sequence of a peptide comprising or consisting of the amino acid or retro or inverso or retro-inverso sequence of a peptide found in Table 2; and detecting the detectable label where the quantity and/or location of the detectable label is an indicator of the presence of the microorganism and/or biofilm film. In certain embodiments the microorganism or biofilm is a bacterium or a bacterial film. In certain embodiments the detectable label is a label selected from the group consisting of a radioactive label, a radio-opaque label, a fluorescent dye, a fluorescent protein, an enzymatic label, a colorimetric label, and a quantum dot.
 In certain embodiments compositions are also provided comprising a photosensitizing agent attached to a targeting peptide where the targeting peptide comprising or consisting of the amino acid or retro or inverso or retro-inverso sequence of a peptide found in Table 2 or Table 15. In certain embodiments the photosensitizing agent is an agent selected from the group consisting of a porphyrinic macrocycle, a porphyrin, a chlorine, a crown ether, an acridine, an azine, a phthalocyanine, a cyanine, a psoralen, and a perylenequinonoid. In certain embodiments the photosensitizing agent is an agent shown in any of FIGS. 1-11. In certain embodiments the photosensitizing agent is attached to the targeting peptide by a non-peptide linker. In certain embodiments photosensitizing agent is attached to the targeting peptide by a linker comprising a polyethylene glycol (PEG). In certain embodiments the photosensitizing agent is attached to the targeting peptide by a non-peptide linker found in Table 11.
 In certain embodiments methods are provided for inhibiting the growth or proliferation of a microorganism and/or a biofilm (e.g., a bacterium and/or a bacterial film), where the methods involve contacting the a microorganism and/or a biofilm with a composition comprising a photosensitizing agent attached to a targeting peptide as described herein. In certain embodiments the method further comprises exposing the microorganism or biofilm to a light source. In certain embodiments the microorganism is a microorganism selected from the group consisting of a bacterium, a yeast, a fungus, a protozoan, and a virus. In certain embodiments the biofilm comprises a bacterial film.
 In certain embodiments chimeric moieties are provided wherein the chimeric moiety comprises multiple targeting moieties attached to each other. In certain embodiments the targeting moieties are directly attached to each other. In certain embodiments the targeting moieties are attached to each other via a peptide linker. In certain embodiments the targeting moieties are attached to each other via a non-peptide linker. In certain embodiments chimeric moieties are provided wherein the chimeric moiety comprises multiple effectors attached to each other. In certain embodiments the effectors are directly attached to each other. In certain embodiments the effectors are attached to each other via a peptide linker. In certain embodiments the effectors are attached to each other via a non-peptide linker.
 In certain embodiments chimeric moieties are provided where the chimeric moiety comprises one or more targeting moieties attached to one or more effectors. In certain embodiments the chimeric moiety comprises one or more of the targeting moieties shown in Table 2, and/or Table 4 and/or Table 6, and/or Table 15 attached to a single effector. In certain embodiments the chimeric moiety comprises one or more effectors attached to a single targeting moiety. In certain embodiments the chimeric moiety comprises one or more effectors comprising one or more of the antimicrobial peptides shown in Table 2, and/or Table 8, and/or Table 9, and/or Table 10 attached to a single targeting moiety. In certain embodiments the chimeric moiety comprises multiple targeting moieties attached to multiple effectors.
 The term "peptide" as used herein refers to a polymer of amino acid residues typically ranging in length from 2 to about 50 residues. In certain embodiments the peptide ranges in length from about 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, or 11 residues to about 50, 45, 40, 45, 30, 25, 20, or 15 residues. In certain embodiments the peptide ranges in length from about 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 residues to about 15, 20 or 25 residues. Where an amino acid sequence is provided herein, L-, D-, or beta amino acid versions of the sequence are also contemplated as well as retro, inversion, and retro-inversion isoforms. Peptides also include amino acid polymers in which one or more amino acid residues is an artificial chemical analogue of a corresponding naturally occurring amino acid, as well as to naturally occurring amino acid polymers. In addition, the term applies to amino acids joined by a peptide linkage or by other, "modified linkages" (e.g., where the peptide bond is replaced by an α-ester, a β-ester, a thioamide, phosphonamide, carbomate, hydroxylate, and the like (see, e.g., Spatola, (1983) Chem. Biochem. Amino Acids and Proteins 7: 267-357), where the amide is replaced with a saturated amine (see, e.g., Skiles et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,496,542, which is incorporated herein by reference, and Kaltenbronn et al., (1990) Pp. 969-970 in Proc. 11th American Peptide Symposium, ESCOM Science Publishers, The Netherlands, and the like)).
 The term "residue"" as used herein refers to natural, synthetic, or modified amino acids. Various amino acid analogues include, but are not limited to 2-aminoadipic acid, 3-aminoadipic acid, beta-alanine (beta-aminopropionic acid), 2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, piperidinic acid, 6-aminocaproic acid, 2-aminoheptanoic acid, 2-aminoisobutyric acid, 3-aminoisobutyric acid, 2-aminopimelic acid, 2,4 diaminobutyric acid, desmosine, 2,2'-diaminopimelic acid, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, n-ethylglycine, n-ethylasparagine, hydroxylysine, allo-hydroxylysine, 3-hydroxyproline, 4-hydroxyproline, isodesmosine, allo-isoleucine, n-methylglycine, sarcosine, n-methylisoleucine, 6-n-methyllysine, n-methylvaline, norvaline, norleucine, ornithine, and the like. These modified amino acids are illustrative and not intended to be limiting.
 "β-peptides" comprise of "β amino acids", which have their amino group bonded to the β carbon rather than the α-carbon as in the 20 standard biological amino acids. The only commonly naturally occurring β amino acid is β-alanine.
 Peptoids, or N-substituted glycines, are a specific subclass of peptidomimetics. They are closely related to their natural peptide counterparts, but differ chemically in that their side chains are appended to nitrogen atoms along the molecule's backbone, rather than to the α-carbons (as they are in natural amino acids).
 The terms "conventional" and "natural" as applied to peptides herein refer to peptides, constructed only from the naturally-occurring amino acids: Ala, Cys, Asp, Glu, Glu, Phe, Gly, His, Ile, Lys, Leu, Met, Asn, Pro, Gln, Arg, Ser, Thr, Val, Trp, and Tyr. A compound of the invention "corresponds" to a natural peptide if it elicits a biological activity (e.g., antimicrobial activity) related to the biological activity and/or specificity of the naturally occurring peptide. The elicited activity may be the same as, greater than or less than that of the natural peptide. In general, such a peptoid will have an essentially corresponding monomer sequence, where a natural amino acid is replaced by an N-substituted glycine derivative, if the N-substituted glycine derivative resembles the original amino acid in hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, polarity, etc. Thus, for example, the following pairs of peptides would be considered "corresponding":
TABLE-US-00001 Ia. (SEQ ID NO: 1) Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe (Angiotensin II) and Ib. (SEQ ID NO: 2) Asp-Arg-Val*-Tyr-Ile*-His-Pro-Phe; IIa. (SEQ ID NO: 3) Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg (Bradykinin) and IIb: (SEQ ID NO: 4) Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe*-Ser*-Pro-Phe*-Arg; IIIa: (SEQ ID NO: 5) Gly-Gly-Phe-Met-Thr-Ser-Glu-Lys-Ser-Gln-Thr-Pro- Leu-Val-Thr (β-Endorphin); and IIIb: (SEQ ID NO: 6) Gly-Gly-Phe*-Met-Ser*-Ser-Glu-Lys*-Ser-Gln-Ser*- Pro-Leu-Val*-Thr.
In these examples, "Val*" refers to N-(prop-2-yl)glycine, "Phe*" refers to N-benzylglycine, "Ser*" refers to N-(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine, "Leu*" refers to N-(2-methylprop-1-yl)glycine, and "Ile*" refers to N-(1-methylprop-1-yl)glycine. The correspondence need not be exact: for example, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine may substitute for Ser, Thr, Cys, and Met. N-(2-methylprop-1-yl)glycine may substitute for Val, Leu, and Ile. Note in IIIa and IIIb above that Ser* is used to substitute for Thr and Ser, despite the structural differences: the sidechain in Ser* is one methylene group longer than that of Ser, and differs from Thr in the site of hydroxy-substitution. In general, one may use an N-hydroxyalkyl-substituted glycine to substitute for any polar amino acid, an N-benzyl- or N-aralkyl-substituted glycine to replace any aromatic amino acid (e.g., Phe, Trp, etc.), an N-alkyl-substituted glycine such as N-butylglycine to replace any nonpolar amino acid (e.g., Leu, Val, Ile, etc.), and an N-(aminoalkyl)glycine derivative to replace any basic polar amino acid (e.g., Lys and Arg).
 A "compound antimicrobial peptide" or "compound AMP" refers to a construct comprising two or more AMPs joined together. The AMPs can be joined directly or through a linker. They can be chemically conjugated or, where joined directly together or through a peptide linker can comprise a fusion protein.
 In certain embodiments, conservative substitutions of the amino acids comprising any of the sequences described herein are contemplated. In various embodiments one, two, three, four, or five different residues are substituted. The term "conservative substitution" is used to reflect amino acid substitutions that do not substantially alter the activity (e.g., antimicrobial activity and/or specificity) of the molecule. Typically conservative amino acid substitutions involve substitution one amino acid for another amino acid with similar chemical properties (e.g. charge or hydrophobicity). Certain conservative substitutions include "analog substitutions" where a standard amino acid is replaced by a non-standard (e.g., rare, synthetic, etc) amino acid differing minimally from the parental residue. Amino acid analogs are considered to be derived synthetically from the standard amino acids without sufficient change to the structure of the parent, are isomers, or are metabolite precursors. Examples of such "analog substitutions" include, but are not limited to, 1) Lys-Orn, 2) Leu-Norleucine, 3) Lys-Lys[TFA], 4) Phe-Phe[Gly], and 5) δ-amino butylglycine-ξ-amino hexylglycine, where Phe[gly] refers to phenylglycine (a Phe derivative with a H rather than CH3 component in the R group), and Lys[TFA] refers to a Lys where a negatively charged ion (e.g., TFA) is attached to the amine R group. Other conservative substitutions include "functional substitutions" where the general chemistries of the two residues are similar, and can be sufficient to mimic or partially recover the function of the native peptide. Strong functional substitutions include, but are not limited to 1) Gly/Ala, 2) Arg/Lys, 3) Ser/Tyr/Thr, 4) Leu/Ile/Val, 5) Asp/Glu, 6) Gln/Asn, and 7) Phe/Trp/Tyr, while other functional substitutions include, but are not limited to 8) Gly/Ala/Pro, 9) Tyr/His, 10) Arg/Lys/His, 11) Ser/Thr/Cys, 12) Leu/Ile/Val/Met, and 13) Met/Lys (special case under hydrophobic conditions). Various "broad conservative substations" include substitutions where amino acids replace other amino acids from the same biochemical or biophysical grouping. This is similarity at a basic level and stems from efforts to classify the original 20 natural amino acids. Such substitutions include 1) nonpolar side chains: Gly/Ala/Val/Leu/Ile/Met/Pro/Phe/Trp, and/or 2) uncharged polar side chains Ser/Thr/Asn/Gln/Tyr/Cys. In certain embodiments broad-level substitutions can also occur as paired substitutions. For example, any hydrophilic neutral pair [Ser, Thr, Gln, Asn, Tyr, Cys]+[Ser, Thr, Gln, Asn, Tyr, Cys] can may be replaced by a charge-neutral charged pair [Arg, Lys, His]+[Asp, Glu]. The following six groups each contain amino acids that are typical conservative substitutions for one another: 1) Alanine (A), Serine (S), Threonine (T); 2) Aspartic acid (D), Glutamic acid (E); 3) Asparagine (N), Glutamine (Q); 4) Arginine (R), Lysine (K), Histidine (H); 5) Isoleucine (I), Leucine (L), Methionine (M), Valine (V); and 6) Phenylalanine (F), Tyrosine (Y), Tryptophan (W).
 In certain embodiments, targeting peptides, antimicrobial peptides, and/or STAMPs compromising at least 80%, preferably at least 85% or 90%, and more preferably at least 95% or 98% sequence identity with any of the sequences described herein are also contemplated. The terms "identical" or percent "identity," refer to two or more sequences that are the same or have a specified percentage of amino acid residues that are the same, when compared and aligned for maximum correspondence, as measured using one of the following sequence comparison algorithms or by visual inspection. With respect to the peptides of this invention sequence identity is determined over the full length of the peptide. For sequence comparison, typically one sequence acts as a reference sequence, to which test sequences are compared. When using a sequence comparison algorithm, test and reference sequences are input into a computer, subsequence coordinates are designated, if necessary, and sequence algorithm program parameters are designated. The sequence comparison algorithm then calculates the percent sequence identity for the test sequence(s) relative to the reference sequence, based on the designated program parameters. Optimal alignment of sequences for comparison can be conducted, e.g., by the local homology algorithm of Smith & Waterman (1981) Adv. Appl. Math. 2: 482, by the homology alignment algorithm of Needleman & Wunsch (1970) J. Mol. Biol. 48: 443, by the search for similarity method of Pearson & Lipman (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 85: 2444, by computerized implementations of these algorithms (GAP, BESTFIT, FASTA, and TFASTA in the Wisconsin Genetics Software Package, Genetics Computer Group, 575 Science Dr., Madison, Wis.), or by visual inspection.
 The term "specificity" when used with respect to the antimicrobial activity of a peptide indicates that the peptide preferentially inhibits growth and/or proliferation and/or kills a particular microbial species as compared to other related and/or unrelated microbes. In certain embodiments the preferential inhibition or killing is at least 10% greater (e.g., LD50 is 10% lower), preferably at least 20%, 30%, 40%, or 50%, more preferably at least 2-fold, at least 5-fold, or at least 10-fold greater for the target species.
 "Treating" or "treatment" of a condition as used herein may refer to preventing the condition, slowing the onset or rate of development of the condition, reducing the risk of developing the condition, preventing or delaying the development of symptoms associated with the condition, reducing or ending symptoms associated with the condition, generating a complete or partial regression of the condition, or some combination thereof.
 The term "consisting essentially of" when used with respect to an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) or AMP motif as described herein, indicates that the peptide or peptides encompassed by the library or variants, analogues, or derivatives thereof possess substantially the same or greater antimicrobial activity and/or specificity as the referenced peptide. In certain embodiments substantially the same or greater antimicrobial activity indicates at least 80%, preferably at least 90%, and more preferably at least 95% of the anti microbial activity of the referenced peptide(s) against a particular bacterial species (e.g., S. mutans).
 The term "porphyrinic macrocycle" refers to a porphyrin or porphyrin derivative. Such derivatives include porphyrins with extra rings ortho-fused, or orthoperifused, to the porphyrin nucleus, porphyrins having a replacement of one or more carbon atoms of the porphyrin ring by an atom of another element (skeletal replacement), derivatives having a replacement of a nitrogen atom of the porphyrin ring by an atom of another element (skeletal replacement of nitrogen), derivatives having substituents other than hydrogen located at the peripheral (meso-, β-) or core atoms of the porphyrin, derivatives with saturation of one or more bonds of the porphyrin (hydroporphyrins, e.g., chlorins, bacteriochlorins, isobacteriochlorins, decahydroporphyrins, corphins, pyrrocorphins, etc.), derivatives obtained by coordination of one or more metals to one or more porphyrin atoms (metalloporphyrins), derivatives having one or more atoms, including pyrrolic and pyrromethenyl units, inserted in the porphyrin ring (expanded porphyrins), derivatives having one or more groups removed from the porphyrin ring (contracted porphyrins, e.g., corrin, corrole) and combinations of the foregoing derivatives (e.g. phthalocyanines, porphyrazines, naphthalocyanines, subphthalocyanines, and porphyrin isomers). Certain porphyrinic macrocycles comprise at least one 5-membered ring.
 As used herein, an "antibody" refers to a protein consisting of one or more polypeptides substantially encoded by immunoglobulin genes or fragments of immunoglobulin genes. The recognized immunoglobulin genes include the kappa, lambda, alpha, gamma, delta, epsilon and mu constant region genes, as well as myriad immunoglobulin variable region genes. Light chains are classified as either kappa or lambda. Heavy chains are classified as gamma, mu, alpha, delta, or epsilon, which in turn define the immunoglobulin classes, IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD and IgE, respectively.
 A typical immunoglobulin (antibody) structural unit is known to comprise a tetramer. Each tetramer is composed of two identical pairs of polypeptide chains, each pair having one "light" (about 25 kD) and one "heavy" chain (about 50-70 kD). The N-terminus of each chain defines a variable region of about 100 to 110 or more amino acids primarily responsible for antigen recognition. The terms variable light chain (VL) and variable heavy chain (VH) refer to these light and heavy chains respectively.
 Antibodies exist as intact immunoglobulins or as a number of well characterized fragments produced by digestion with various peptidases. Thus, for example, pepsin digests an antibody below the disulfide linkages in the hinge region to produce F(ab)'2, a dimer of Fab which itself is a light chain joined to VH--CH1 by a disulfide bond. The F(ab)'2 may be reduced under mild conditions to break the disulfide linkage in the hinge region thereby converting the (Fab')2 dimer into an Fab' monomer. The Fab' monomer is essentially an Fab with part of the hinge region (see, Fundamental Immunology, W. E. Paul, ed., Raven Press, N.Y. (1993), for a more detailed description of other antibody fragments). While various antibody fragments are defined in terms of the digestion of an intact antibody, one of skill will appreciate that such Fab' fragments may be synthesized de novo either chemically or by utilizing recombinant DNA methodology. Thus, the term antibody, as used herein also includes antibody fragments either produced by the modification of whole antibodies or synthesized de novo using recombinant DNA methodologies, including, but are not limited to, Fab'2, IgG, IgM, IgA, scFv, dAb, nanobodies, unibodies, and diabodies.
 In certain embodiments antibodies and fragments of the present invention can be bispecific. Bispecific antibodies or fragments can be of several configurations. For example, bispecific antibodies may resemble single antibodies (or antibody fragments) but have two different antigen binding sites (variable regions). In various embodiments bispecific antibodies can be produced by chemical techniques (Kranz et al. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 78: 5807), by "polydoma" techniques (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,474,893), or by recombinant DNA techniques. In certain embodiments bispecific antibodies of the present invention can have binding specificities for at least two different epitopes, at least one of which is an epitope of a microbial organism. The microbial binding antibodies and fragments can also be heteroantibodies. Heteroantibodies are two or more antibodies, or antibody binding fragments (e.g., Fab) linked together, each antibody or fragment having a different specificity.
 The term "STAMP" refers to Specifically Targeted Anti-Microbial Peptides. An MH-STAMP is a STAMP bearing two or more targeting domains (i.e., a multi-headed STAMP).
 In various embodiments the amino acid abbreviations shown in Table 1 are used herein.
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 1 Amino acid abbreviations. Abbreviation Name 3 Letter 1 Letter Alanine Ala A βAlanine (NH2--CH2--CH2--COOH) βAla Arginine Arg R Asparagine Asn N Aspartic Acid Asp D Cysteine Cys C Glutamic Acid Glu E Glutamine Gln Q Glycine Gly G Histidine His H Homoserine Hse -- Isoleucine Ile I Leucine Leu L Lysine Lys K Methionine Met M Methionine sulfoxide Met (O) -- Methionine methylsulfonium Met (S--Me) -- Norleucine Nle -- Phenylalanine Phe F Proline Pro P Serine Ser S Threonine Thr T Tryptophan Trp W Tyrosine Tyr Y Valine Val V episilon-aminocaproic acid Ahx J (NH2--(CH2)5--COOH) 4-aminobutanoic acid gAbu (NH2--(CH2)3--COOH) tetrahydroisoquinoline-3- O carboxylic acid Lys(N(epsilon)-trifluoroacetyl) K[TFA] α-aminoisobutyric acid Aib B
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1 shows some illustrative porphyrins (compounds 92-99) suitable for use as targeting moieties and/or antimicrobial effectors.
 FIG. 2 shows some illustrative porphyrins (compounds 100-118) suitable for use as targeting moieties and/or antimicrobial effectors.
 FIG. 3 shows some illustrative porphyrins (in particular phthalocyanines) (compounds 119-128) suitable for use as targeting moieties and/or antimicrobial effectors.
 FIG. 4 illustrates the structures of two phthalocyanines, Monoastral Fast Blue B and Monoastral Fast Blue G suitable for use as targeting moieties and/or antimicrobial effectors.
 FIG. 5 illustrates certain azine photosensitizers suitable for use as targeting moieties and/or antimicrobial effectors in the compositions and methods described herein.
 FIG. 6 shows illustrative cyanine suitable for use as targeting moieties and/or antimicrobial effectors in the compositions and methods described herein.
 FIG. 7 shows illustrative psoralen (angelicin) photosensitizers suitable for use as targeting moieties and/or antimicrobial effectors in the compositions and methods described herein.
 FIG. 8 shows illustrative hypericin and the perylenequinonoid pigments suitable for use as targeting moieties and/or antimicrobial effectors in the compositions and methods described herein.
 FIG. 9 shows illustrative acridines suitable for use as targeting moieties and/or antimicrobial effectors in the compositions and methods described herein.
 FIG. 10 illustrates the structure of the acridine Rose Bengal.
 FIG. 11 illustrates various crown ethers suitable for use as targeting moieties and/or antimicrobial effectors in the compositions and methods described herein.
 FIG. 12 schematically shows some illustrative configurations for chimeric constructs described herein. A: Shows a single targeting moiety T1 attached to a single effector E1 by a linker/spacer L. B: Shows multiple targeting moieties T1, T2, T3 attached directly to each other and attached by a linker L to a single effector E1. In various embodiments T1, T2, and T3, can be domains in a fusion protein. C: Shows multiple targeting moieties T1, T2, T3 attached to each other by linkers L and attached by a linker L to a single effector E1. In various embodiments T1, T2, and T3, can be domains in a fusion protein. D: Shows a single targeting moiety T1 attached by a linker L to multiple effectors E1, E2, and E3 joined directly to each other. E: Shows a single targeting moiety T1 attached by a linker L to multiple effectors E1, E2, and E3 joined to each other by linkers L. F: Shows multiple targeting moieties joined directly to each other and by a linker L to multiple effectors joined to each other by linkers L. G: Shows multiple targeting moieties joined to each other by linkers L and by a linker L to multiple effectors joined to each other by linkers L. In various embodiments T1, T2, and T3, and/or E1, E2, and E3 can be domains in a fusion protein. H: Illustrates a branched configuration where multiple targeting moieties are linked to a single effector. I: Illustrates a dual branched configuration where multiple targeting moieties are linked to multiple effectors. J: Illustrates a branched configuration where multiple targeting moieties are linked to multiple effectors where the effectors are joined to each other in a linear configuration.
 FIG. 13 illustrates various MH-STAMPs used in Example 1. The design, sequence, and observed mass (m/z) for M8(KH)-20 (SEQ ID NO:7), BL(KH)-20 (SEQ ID NO:8), and M8(BL)-20 (SEQ ID NO:9.
 FIGS. 14A and 14B show HPLC and MS spectra of M8(KH)-20. The quality of the completed MH-STAMP was analyzed by HPLC (FIG. 14A) and MALDI mass spectroscopy (FIG. 14B). At UV absorbance 215 nm (260 and 280 nm are also plotted), a single major product was detected by HPLC (* retention volume 11.04 mL). After fraction collection, the correct mass (m/z) for single-charged M8(KH)-20, 4884.91 (marked by *), was observed for this peak. Y-axis: 14A, mAU miliabsorbance units; 14B, percent intensity.
 FIG. 15A-15E show growth inhibitory activity of MH-STAMPs. Monocultures of S. mutans (FIG. 15A); P. aeruginosa (FIG. 15B); S. epidermidis (FIG. 15C); S. aureus (FIG. 15D); or E. coli (FIG. 15E); were treated with peptides (as indicated in the figure) for 10 min. Agent was then removed and fresh media returned. Culture recovery was measured over time (OD600). Plots represent the average of at least 3 independent experiments with standard deviations.
 FIG. 16 illustrates the selective activity of dual-targeted and single-targeted MH-STAMPs in mixed culture. A mixture of P. aeruginosa (Pa), S. mutans (Sm), E. coli (Ec), and S. epidermidis (Se) planktonic cells were mixed with MH-STAMPs (as indicated in the figure) and treated 24 h. After incubation, cfu/mL of remaining constituent species were quantitated after plating to selective media. * indicates under 200 surviving cfu/mL recovered.
 FIG. 17 depicts the results of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays, conducted against S. mutans and a panel of bacteria, including two oral streptococci, S. sanguinis and S. sobrinus, to gauge Library 1 STAMP antimicrobial activity and S. mutans-selectivity.
 FIG. 18 shows the results of MIC assays utilizing targeting peptide 2--1 conjugated to one of five AMPs, RWRWRWF (2c-4), FKKFWKWFRRF (B-33), IKQLLHFFQRF (B-38), RWRRLLKKLHHLLH (α-11), LQLLKQLLKLLKQF (a-7); attached at the C- or N-terminus, and a linker selected from L1, SGG (L2), L3 and LC. MIC assays were conducted against a panel of bacteria, including S. mutans (S. mu), S. gordonii (S. gor), S. sanguinis (S. san), and S. mitis (S. mit), to gauge differences in activity between attaching the targeting peptide to the C- or N-terminus of the AMP region or differences in activity between the linker used.
 FIG. 19 shows the killing kinetics of selected peptides against oral streptococci. All tested bacteria, (A) S. mitis (Smit), (B) S. gordonii (Sgor), (C) S. sanguinis (Ssan), and (D) S. mutans (Smut), were treated with peptide solutions at 25 m/mL for 30 s to 2 h and survivors plated. Data represent an average of three independent experiments.
 FIG. 20 illustrates the inhibitory activity of STAMPs against S. mutans biofilms. S mutans monoculture biofilms were grown and exposed to a 25 m/mL of STAMP, unmodified parental AMP or oral antiseptic (for 1 min), washed, and replenished with fresh medium. Biofilm recovery was monitored after 4 h by A600. Data represent an average of three experiments.
 In various embodiments this invention is based on the development of a method for the rapid identification and synthesis of small peptides from sequenced genomes for the purposes of quickly screening these molecules for diverse biological activities. Previously, small secreted peptides had to be identified by direct collection (purification of spent microbial growth medium or biological tissue/fluid), or by identification through differential microarray analysis or as a by-product of genetic operon characterization. Both are multi-step processes that terminate at peptide identification; several separate enterprises are required to synthesize or sequence any peptides for characterization. Additionally, because of their small size and lack of protein domain homologies, small peptides are frequently overlooked when describing biological systems, though many organisms contain numerous peptide-sized open reading frames (ORFs).
 Genomic sequence analysis tools already in the public domain and high-throughput solid phase peptide chemistry were used to rapidly identify and synthesize biologically active peptides. Using sequences and sometimes annotated genomes, genomes were scanned, by hand or with a search algorithm, for ORFs predicted to encode peptides of less than for example, 50-60 amino acids (ignoring small tRNA ORFs or other well characterized genes).
 Once noted, these peptides were batch synthesized on a multiplex peptide synthesizer, yielding 5-10 mg of each peptide that could readily be screened for biological activity (e.g., binding activity and/or antimicrobial activity.
 Accordingly, in certain embodiments, this invention pertains to the identification of novel peptides (see, e.g., Table 2) that specifically or preferentially bind particular microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) and/or that have antimicrobial activity. In certain embodiments these peptides can be attached to effectors (e.g., drugs, labels, etc.) and used as targeting moieties thereby providing a chimeric moiety that preferentially or specifically delivers the effector to a target microorganism, a population of target microorganisms, a microbial film comprising the target microorganism(s), a biofilm comprising the target microorganism(s), and the like.
 In certain embodiments these peptides can be exploited for their antimicrobial activity to inhibit the growth or proliferation of a microorganism and/or to inhibit the formation and/or growth of a biofilm comprising the microorganism. These antimicrobial peptides can be used alone, in conjunction with other agents (e.g., antibacterial agents), and/or they can be coupled to a targeting moiety to provide a chimeric moiety that preferentially directs the antimicrobial peptide to a target tissue and/or to a target organism (e.g., a bacterium, a population of target microorganisms, a microbial film, a biofilm, and the like).
 In certain embodiments the antimicrobial peptides and/or the chimeric moieties described herein can be formulated with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier to form a pharmacological composition.
 The amino acid sequences of illustrative peptides of this invention having antimicrobial and/or targeting activity against methicillin resistant Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, and/or Treponema denticola is shown in Table 2. As with the other peptides described herein, it will be recognized that these peptides can comprise all "L" form residues, all "D" form residues, mixtures of "L" and "D" residues, and beta peptide sequences. It will also be appreciated in addition to the D-form and L-form and beta-peptide sequences this invention also contemplates retro and retro-inverso forms of each of these peptides. In retro forms, the direction of the sequence is reversed. In inverse forms, the chirality of the constituent amino acids is reversed (i.e., L form amino acids become D form amino acids and D form amino acids become L form amino acids). In the retro-inverso form, both the order and the chirality of the amino acids is reversed. Thus, for example, a retro form of the of the peptide Smu11 (MKNLIETVEKFLTYSDEKLEELAKKNQALREEISRQKSK, SEQ ID NO:11) has the sequence KSKQRSIEERLAQNKKALEELKEDSYTLFKEVTEILNKM (SEQ ID NO:10). Where the Smu11 peptide comprises all L amino acids, the inverse form will comprise all D amino acids and the retro-inverso (retro-inverse) form will have the sequence of SEQ ID NO:10 and comprise all D form amino acids. Also contemplated are peptides having the amino acid sequences or retro amino acid sequences of the peptides in Table 2 (or the other tables shown herein) and comprising one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten conservative substitutions, but retaining substantially the same binding and/or antimicrobial activity. Also contemplated are peptides having the amino acid sequences or retro amino acid sequences of the peptides in Table 2 (or other tables herein) and comprising one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten deletions, but retaining substantially the same binding and/or antimicrobial activity.
 In various embodiments, chimeric moieties comprising one or more of the targeting peptides found in Table 2 attached to one or more effectors (e.g., antimicrobial peptides as described herein) are contemplated. In various embodiments, one or more of the antimicrobial peptides found in Table 2 used as effectors or attached to one or more targeting moieties (e.g., targeting peptides, targeting antibodies, and the like) to form chimeric moieties are contemplated.
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 2 Peptides having antimicrobial and/or targeting activity against one or more of the following: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Treponema denticola. SEQ ID Amino Acid Sequence ID NO Smu11 MKNLIETVEKFLTYSDEKLEELAKKNQALREEISRQKSK 11 Smu.18 GGRAGRIKKLSQKEAEPFEN 12 Smu41 MFIRSKLRRVDFSGVRRGNKHFLLDKLLITLVK 13 Smu68 MSALFYDTLAAIWISIAGVDARWGH 14 Smu150 GGKVSGGEAVAAIGICATASAAIGGLAGATLVTPYCVGTWGLI 15 RSH Smu151 DKQAADTFLSAVGGAASGFTYCASNGVWHPYILAGCAGVGA 16 VGSVVFPH Smu223c GGKYLFLASKTKEYFKSHFREIMIDV 17 Smu225c MFISFVDCIQNIEKIEKELLKIGITDIQINQDAGWLY 18 Smu277 YLTEIEGEGLGLGICLGLVGFAGGFAHGVVQGAGVGTAIEPGY 19 GTIIGALVDGVGQDLIYGGAGFAAGYSL Smu283 GGFDVKGVAASYLAMGTAALGGLACTTPVGAVLYLGAEVCA 20 GAAVIYYGAN Smu299c GGGLYDGANGYAYRDSQGHWAYKVTKTPAQALTDVVVNSW 21 ASGAASFAAYA Smu390 GGRSSYNGFSKICFLKIEHFGSYSYQGR 22 Smu423 GGGMIRCALGTAGSAGLGFVGGMGAGTVTLPVVGTVSGAAL 23 GGWSGAAVGAATFC Smu427 MEKTYHIDGLKCQGCADNVTKRFSELKKVNDVKVDLDKKEV 24 RITGNPSKWSLKRALKGTNYELGAEI Smu444 MSVGMGVIERGSFDFSASAILQKRETKCLKNKPFT 25 Smu451 MKMRAGQVVFIYKLILVLLFYVLQKLFDLKKGCF 26 Smu529 MLPDSALDERIKGRVSAKNSSLLSALIKKLALIIFIG 27 Smu616 GGVATYGAATMGLCAVSGPIGWGLGGAYLLTCAAAGGMIGY 28 GAATLD Smu750c MLSNVLSRSVVSPNVDIPNSMVILSPLLISISNYH 29 Smu812 MAILTFFMALLFTYLKEKAQILYWPLFLHLMFYFVTA 30 Smu1018 MNTNDLLQAFELMGLGMAGVFIVLGILYIVAELLIKIFPVNN 31 Smu1047c MVHLFSFVKLIYYDIMKYSIEEKVFFESPVGEIIQ 32 Smu1131c GGYATAKLTQTKPTMPKNVKKGTPPKGAPEDTPPNGNSNDSS 33 QSDSDSDSNSSNTNSNSSITNG Smu1231c MDKKRVIERIKSFSLRDEVIHFGELCIYWGK 34 Smu1232c GGKNKLVMSDLRQQVTDMGFVNVKTYINSGNLFFQSDCPRAN 35 ISSRFEQFFADHYPFV Smu1358 MNNAYRWFFRLTLADNMHRFTTYGKEWQLSFPK 36 Smu1359 MKLAGIEKKINLSKRRKLYLENSSLLINYVKVNMSY 37 Smu1368 MTEILNFLIAVHDDRKNWKIKHCLSNSSFDFLCSPDSSR 38 Smu1369 MPVQKALHVVSAYATDLGICYDQVVTVMIREVKTQLYQIY 39 Smu1372c GGSYQQVYSWVRKFKKDGINGLLDRRGKGLESKLISVVMVAI 40 VLRPV Smu1504c GGMSSGWLSDDFWLKSAIPLLKKRLAKWNETL 41 Smu1505c MAYSLTFQNPNDNLTDEEVAKYMEKITKALTEKIGAEVR 42 Smu1719c MNTFLWILLVIIALLAGLVGGTFIARKQMEKYLEENPPLNEDVI 43 RNMMSQMGQKPSEAKVQQVVRQMNKQQKAAKAKAKKKK Smu1750c MIFNRRKFFQYFGLSKEAMVEHIQPFILDIWQIHLF 44 Smu1752c GGWLNAISLYGRIG 45 Smu1768c GGHKQLVIEPLVSQNDQLSLIESLSGILSDSETVDVKDYRSERK 46 EERLKKYESLT Smu1808c MTTTQKTYLHIIRELENQDIDLIMRSLTSLT 47 Smu1813 MPMTYCGSPRRTDLAVITDEELGQTLEVINHWPRNV 48 Smu1882c GGATDGEIIANRMLQGKATKGEITMYTWNIIQNGWVNSLVSW 49 GIGGYNSSIGYSAQGNRGFSNYPYDVSMDSDNSSSSSNTTGGY VNYNQSFNSGW Smu1889c GGLAGAGTGAAVSAPAAEGGGLGPIAGAAIGWDLGAISGAGL 50 GWANFCQ Smu1895c GGMTWAEIGAIVGATIGSFYIPNPVIVPFRVR 51 Smu1896c GGFGWDSIWRGFKCVAGTAGTIGTGALGGSATGGLTLPIIGHV 52 SGGIIGGISGAGVGIASFC Smu1899 MLSISQRTDRVIVMDKGKIIEEGTHSELIAANGFYHHLFNK 53 Smu1902c GGAFYQRKENVISLDPREWLGFNVTEK 54 Smu1903c GGNIFEYFLE 55 Smu1905c GGGRAPRCAALVGASIYDGLAVVGDPVGVAMAAGTIAAGSFC 56 Smu1906c GGCSWKGADKAGFSGGVGGLIGAGGNPVGGVLGIAGGLDAY 57 GELVGGN Smu1907 MEQNILNGSYFVLNGKNAKFLLEIDKLTLPDKLATLPVPHQVR 58 Smu1914c GGGRGWNCAAGIALGAGQGYMATAGGTAFLGPYAIGTGAFG 59 AIAGGIGGALNSCG Smu1915 GGSGSLSTFFRLFNRSFTQALGK 60 Smu1948 GGVFSVLKHTTWPTRKQSWHDFISILEYSAFFALVIFIFDKLLTL 61 GLAELLKRF Smu1968c GGSVLGKHALFILLKAGFKAYELAGAFEGWKGMHLPTEKC 62 Smu1972c GGLVMNDETIYLFTYENGQISYEEDKRDCSKNV 63 Smu2105 MRFLKDELSVSVRLQEKSIEALPFRTKIEIEIESDNQIKTL 64 Smu2106c GGASGEKILEKLIHERKCQLTQNRQIVLKTDLNNLMKDFYK 65 Smu2121c GGIILAKAADLAEIERIISEDPFKINEIANYDIIEFCPTKSSKAFEK 66 VLK
Uses of Targeting Moieties.
 When exploited for their targeting activity, the novel targeting peptides described herein (see, e.g., Table 2) can be used to preferentially or specifically deliver an effector to a microorganism (e.g., a bacterium, a fungus, a protozoan, a yeast, an algae, etc.), to a bacterial film comprising the microorganism, to a biofilm comprising the microorganism, and the like. Where the effector comprises an epitope tag and/or a detectable label, binding of the targeting moiety provides an indication of the presence and/or location, and/or quantity of the target (e.g., target microorganism). Thus targeting moieties are thus readily adapted for use in in vivo diagnostics, and/or ex vivo assays. Moreover, because of small size and good stability, the microorganism binding peptides are well suited for microassay systems (e.g., microfluidic assays (Lab on a Chip), microarray assays, and the like).
 In certain embodiments the microorganism binding peptides (targeting peptides) can be attached to an effector that has antimicrobial activity (e.g., an antimicrobial peptide, an antibacterial and/or antifungal, a vehicle that contains an antibacterial or antifungal, etc. In various embodiments these chimeric moieties can be used in vivo, or ex vivo to preferentially inhibit or kill the target organism(s).
 In certain embodiments the targeting peptides can be used in various pre-targeting protocols. In pre-targeting protocols, a chimeric molecule is utilized comprising a primary targeting species (e.g. a microorganism-binding peptide) that specifically binds the desired target (e.g. a bacterium) and an effector that provides a binding site that is available for binding by a subsequently administered second targeting species. Once sufficient accretion of the primary targeting species (the chimeric molecule) is achieved, a second targeting species comprising (i) a diagnostic or therapeutic agent and (ii) a second targeting moiety, that recognizes the available binding site of the primary targeting species, is administered.
 An illustrative example of a pre-targeting protocol is the biotin-avidin system for administering a cytotoxic radionuclide to a tumor. In a typical procedure, a monoclonal antibody targeted against a tumor-associated antigen is conjugated to avidin and administered to a patient who has a tumor recognized by the antibody. Then the therapeutic agent, e.g., a chelated radionuclide covalently bound to biotin, is administered. The radionuclide, via its attached biotin is taken up by the antibody-avidin conjugate pretargeted at the tumor. Examples of pre-targeting biotin/avidin protocols are described, for example, in Goodwin et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,863,713; Goodwin et al. (1988) J. Nucl. Med. 29: 226; Hnatowich et al. (1987) J. Nucl. Med. 28: 1294; Oehr et al. (1988) J. Nucl. Med. 29: 728; Klibanov et al. (1988) J. Nucl. Med. 29: 1951; Sinitsyn et al. (1989) J. Nucl. Med. 30: 66; Kalofonos et al. (1990) J. Nucl. Med. 31: 1791; Schechter et al. (1991) Int. J. Cancer 48:167; Paganelli et al. (1991) Cancer Res. 51: 5960; Paganelli et al. (1991) Nucl. Med. Commun. 12: 211; Stickney et al. (1991) Cancer Res. 51: 6650; and Yuan et al. (1991) Cancer Res. 51:3119.
 It will be recognized that the tumor-specific antibody used for cancer treatments can be replaced with a microorganism binding peptide of the present invention and similar pre-targeting strategies can be used to direct labels, antibiotics, and the like to the target organism(s).
 Three-step pre-targeting protocols in which a clearing agent is administered after the first targeting composition has localized at the target site also have been described. The clearing agent binds and removes circulating primary conjugate which is not bound at the target site, and prevents circulating primary targeting species (antibody-avidin or conjugate, for example) from interfering with the targeting of active agent species (biotin-active agent conjugate) at the target site by competing for the binding sites on the active agent-conjugate. When antibody-avidin is used as the primary targeting moiety, excess circulating conjugate can be cleared by injecting a biotinylated polymer such as biotinylated human serum albumin. This type of agent forms a high molecular weight species with the circulating avidin-antibody conjugate which is quickly recognized by the hepatobiliary system and deposited primarily in the liver.
 Examples of these protocols are disclosed, e.g., in PCT Application No. WO 93/25240; Paganelli et al. (1991) Nucl. Med. Comm., 12: 211-234; Oehr et al. (1988) J. Nucl. Med., 29: 728-729; Kalofonos et al. (1990) J. Nucl. Med., 31: 1791-1796; Goodwin et al. (1988) J. Nucl. Med., 29: 226-234; and the like).
 These applications of microorganism binding peptides of this invention are intended to be illustrative and not limiting. Using the teaching provided herein, other uses will be recognized by one of skill in the art.
Uses of Antimicrobial Peptides.
 When exploited for their antimicrobial activity, the novel antimicrobial peptides described herein (see, e.g., Table 2) can be used to inhibit the growth and/or proliferation of a microbial species and/or the growth or proliferation of a biofilm comprising the microbial species. In various embodiments the peptides can be formulated individually, in combination with each other, in combination with other antimicrobial peptides, and/or in combination with various antibacterial agents to provide antimicrobial reagents and/or pharmaceuticals.
 In various embodiments, the antimicrobial peptides described herein can be formulated individually, in combination with each other, in combination with other antimicrobial peptides, and/or in combination with various antibiotic (e.g., antibacterial) agents in "home healthcare" formulations. Such formulations include, but are not limited to toothpaste, mouthwash, tooth whitening strips or solutions, contact lens storage, wetting, or cleaning solutions, dental floss, toothpicks, toothbrush bristles, oral sprays, oral lozenges, nasal sprays, aerosolizers for oral and/or nasal application, wound dressings (e.g., bandages), and the like.
 In various embodiments the antimicrobial peptides described herein can be formulated individually, in combination with each other, in combination with other antimicrobial peptides, and/or in combination with various antibiotic (e.g., antibacterial) agents in various cleaning and/or sterilization formulations for use in the home, workplace, clinic, or hospital.
 In certain embodiments the antimicrobial peptides described herein are attached to one or more targeting moieties to specifically and/or to preferentially deliver the peptide(s) to a target (e.g. a target microorganism, biofilm, bacterial film, particular tissue, etc.).
 Other possible uses of the targeting and/or antimicrobial peptides disclosed herein include, but are not limited to biofilm dispersal, biofilm retention, biofilm formation, anti-biofilm formation, cell agglutination, induction of motility or change in motility type, chemoattractant or chemorepellent, extracellular signal for sporogenesis or other morphological change, induction or inhibition of virulence gene expression, utilized as extracellular scaffold, adhesin or binding site, induction or suppression of host immune response, induction or suppression of bacterial/fungal antimicrobial molecule production, quorum-sensing, induction of swarming behavior, apoptosis or necrosis inducing in eukaryotic cells, affecting control of or inducing the initiation of cell cycle in eukaryotes, in archaea or prokaryotes, induces autolysis or programmed cell death, inhibition of phage/virus attachment or replication, evasion of innate immunity, induction or inhibition of genetic transformation or transduction competence, induction or inhibition of pilus-mediated conjugation, induction or inhibition of mating behavior in bacteria and fungi, induction or inhibition of nodule formation or metabolic compartmentalization, metal, ion, or nutrient binding, acquisition or inhibition of metal, ion, or nutrient binding and acquisition, and the like.
 These applications of the peptides described herein are intended to be illustrative and not limiting. Using the teaching provided herein, other uses will be recognized by one of skill in the art.
Design and Construction of Chimeric Moieties.
 In various embodiments this invention provides chimeric moieties comprising one or more targeting moieties attached to one or more effectors. The targeting moieties are typically selected to preferentially bind to a target microorganism (e.g., bacteria, virus, fungi, yeast, alga, protozoan, etc.), or group of microorganisms (e.g., gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria, particular genus, particular species, etc.) In certain embodiments the targeting moiety comprises one or more of the targeting peptides shown in Table 2, and/or Table 4 and/or Table 6. In certain embodiments the targeting moiety comprises non-peptide moieties (e.g., antibodies, receptor, receptor ligand, lectin, and the like).
 The effector typically comprises one or more moieties whose activity is to be delivered to the target microorganism(s), and/or to a biofilm comprising the target microorganism(s), and/or to a cell or tissue comprising the target microorganism(s), and the like. In certain embodiments the targeting moiety comprises one or more antimicrobial peptide(s) as described herein (see, e.g., antimicrobial peptides in Table 2, and/or Table 8, and/or Table 9, and/or Table 10), an antibiotic (including, but not limited to a steroid antibiotic) (see, e.g., Table 7), a detectable label, a porphyrin, a photosensitizing agent, an epitope tag, a lipid or liposome, a nanoparticle, a dendrimer, and the like.
 In certain embodiments one or more targeting moieties are attached to a single effector (see, e.g. FIG. 12). In certain embodiments one or more effectors are attached to a single targeting moiety. In certain embodiments multiple targeting moieties are attached to multiple effectors. The targeting moietie(s) can be attached directly to the effector(s) or through a linker. Where the targeting moiety and the effector comprise peptides the chimeric moiety can be a fusion protein.
 Targeting Moieties.
 In various embodiments this invention provides targeting moieties that preferentially and/or specifically bind to a microorganism (e.g., a bacterium, a fungus, a yeast, etc.). One or more such targeting moieties can be attached to one or more effectors to provide chimeric moieties that are capable of delivering the effector(s) to a target (e.g., a bacterium, a fungus, a yeast, a biofilm comprising the bacterium or fungus or yeast, etc.).
 In various embodiments, targeting moieties include, but are not limited to peptides that preferentially bind particular microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi, yeasts, protozoa, algae, viruses, etc.) or groups of such microorganisms, antibodies that bind particular microorganisms or groups of microorganisms, receptor ligands that bind particular microorganisms or groups of microorganisms, porphyrins (e.g., metalloporphyrins), lectins that bind particular microorganisms or groups of microorganisms, and the like. As indicated, it will be appreciated that references to microorganisms or groups of microorganism include bacteria or groups of bacteria, viruses or groups of viruses, yeasts or groups of yeasts, protozoa or groups of protozoa, viruses or groups of viruses, and the like.
 Targeting Peptides.
 In certain embodiments the chimeric constructs described herein comprise a targeting moiety that is or comprises a targeting peptide. Typically the targeting peptides bind particular bacteria, and/or fungi, and/or yeasts, and/or algae, and/or viruses and/or bind particular groups of bacteria, and/or groups of fungi, and/or groups of yeasts, and/or groups of algae. The targeting peptides provided can be used to effectively deliver one or more effectors to or into a target microorganism. Illustrative targeting peptides include, but are not limited to the targeting peptides found in Table 2.
 Other suitable targeting peptides include the peptides that have been identified as binding to particular target organisms as shown in Table 4 and/or Table 4.
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 3 Illustrative list of novel targeting peptides. SEQ ID ID Target(s) Targeting Peptide Sequence NO 1T-1 S. mutans YVNYNQSFNSGW 67 1T-2 S. mutans NIFEYFLE 68 S. sanguinis S. gordonii S. mitis S. oralis V. atypica Lactobacillus casei Saliva-derived biofilms 1T-3 S. mutans VLGIAGGLDAYGELVGGN 69 S. gordonii 1T-4 S. mutans LDAYGELVGGN 70 S. gordonii S. sanguinis S. oralis V. atypica L. casei 1T-5 S. mutans LGPIAGAAIGWDLGAISGAGL 71 S. sanguinis GWANFCQ 1T-6 S. mutans KFINGVLSQFVLERK 72 1T-7 Myxococcus xanthus SQRIIEPVKSPQPYPGFSVS 73 1T-8 M. xanthus FSVAACGEQRAVTFVLLIEDLI 74 1T-9 M. xanthus WAWAESPRCVSTRSNIHALAF 75 RVEVAALT 1T-10 M. xanthus SPAGLPGDGDEA 76 1T-11 S. mutans RISE 77 S. epidermidis P. aeruginosa 1T-12 Corynebacterium FGNIFKGLKDVIETIVKWTAAK 78 xerosis Corynebacterium striatum S. epidermidis S. mutans 1T-13 S. aureus FRSPCINNNSLQPPGVYPAR 79 S. epidermidis P. aeruginosa 1T-14 S. mutans ALAGLAGLISGK 80 S. aureus S. epidermidis C. xerosis 1T-15 S. mutans DVILRVEAQ 81 1T-16 P. aeruginosa IDMR 82 1T-17 S. mutans NNAIVYIS 83 1T-18 S. aureus YSKTLHFAD 84 S. epidermidis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-19 S. aureus PGAFRNPQMPRG 85 S. epidermidis P. aeruginosa 1T-20 S. mutans PALVDLSNKEAVWAVLDDHS 86 P. aeruginosa 1T-21 S. mutans YVEEAVRAALKKEARISTEDTP 87 P. aeruginosa VNLPSFDC 1T-22 S. epidermidis VPLDDGTRRPEVARNRDKDRED 88 P. aeruginosa 1T-23 S. mutans PALVDLSNKEAVWAVLDDHS 89 P. aeruginosa 1T-24 P. aeruginosa EEAEEKLAEVSQAVKRLVR 90 1T-25 S. aureus VGLDVSVLVLFFGLQLLSVLLG 91 S. epidermidis AMIR C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-26 S. mutans LTILPTTFFAIIVPILAVAFIAYSG 92 S. aureus FKIKGIVEHKDQW S. epidermidis Corynebacterium jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-27 S. mutans ALFVSLEQFLVVVAKSVFALCH 93 S. aureus SGTLS S. epidermidis C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-28 P. aeruginosa VSRDEAMEFIDREWTTLQPAG 94 KSHA 1T-29 S. mutans GSVIKKRRKRMSKKKHRKMLR 95 S. aureus RTRVQRRKLGK S. epidermidis C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-30 S. aureus GKAKPYQVRQVLRAVDKLETR 96 S. epidermidis RKKGGR C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-31 S. mutans NATGTDIGEVTLTLGRFS 97 P. aeruginosa 1T-32 S. mutans VSFLAGWLCLGLAAWRLGNA 98 1T-33 S. aureus VRTLTILVIFIFNYLKSISYKLKQ 99 S. epidermidis PFENNLAQSMISI C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-34 S. aureus AFWLNILLTLLGYIPGIVHAVYI 100 S. epidermidis IAKR C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-35 P. aeruginosa EICLTLVFPIRGSYSEAAKFPVPI 101 HIVEDGTVELPK 1T-36 S. aureus VYRHLRFIDGKLVEIRLERK 102 S. epidermidis C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-37 S. mutans YIVGALVILAVAGLIYSMLRKA 103 S. aereus S. epidermidis C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-38 S. mutans VMFVLTRGRSPRPMIPAY 104 S. aereus S. epidermidis C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-39 S. mutans FGFCVWMYQLLAGPPGPPA 105 P. aeruginosa 1T-40 S. mutans QRVSLWSEVEHEFR 106 P. aeruginosa 1T-41 S. mutans KRGSKIVIAIAVVLIVLAGVWVW 107 S. aureus S. epidermidis C. jeikeium C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-42 S. aureus TVLDWLSLALATGLFVYLLVA 108 S. epidermidis LLRADRA C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-43 C. jeikium DRCLSVLSWSPPKVSPLI 109 P. aeruginosa 1T-44 S. mutans DPALADFAAGMRAQVRT 110 S. aureus S. epidermidis C. jeikeium C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-45 S. aureus WTKPSFTDLRLGFEVTLYFANR 111 S. epidermidis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-46 S. aureus FSFKQRVMFRKEVERLR 112 S. epidermidis C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-47 S. mutans VIKISVPGQVQMLIP 113 S. epidermidis P. aeruginosa 1T-48 S. aureus KLQVHHGRATHTLLLQPPLCA 114 S. epidermidis PGTIR C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-49 S. aureus SLVRIHDQQPWVTRGAFIDAAR 115 S. epidermidis TCS C. jeikeium P. aeruginosa 1T-50 P. aeruginosa HSDEPIPNILFKSDSVH 116 1T-51 S. aureus GKPKRMPAEFIDGYGQALLAGA 117 P. aeruginosa 1T-52 S. aureus DEYPAKLPLSDKGATEPRRH 118 C. xerosis P. aeruginosa 1T-53 P. aeruginosa SDILAEMFEKGELQTLVKDAA 119 AKANA 1T-54 S. epidermidis RWVSCNPSWRIQ 120 C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-55 C. xerosis NHKTLKEWKAKWGPEAVESW 121
P. aeruginosa ATLLG 1T-56 C. xerosis LALIGAGIWMIRKG 122 P. aeruginosa 1T-57 P. aeruginosa RLEYRRLETQVEENPESGRRPM 123 RG 1T-58 P. aeruginosa CDDLHALERAGKLDALLSA 124 1T-59 S. aureus AVGNNLGKDNDSGHRGKKHR 125 S. epidermidis KHKHR P. aeruginosa 1T-60 S. aureus YLTSLGLDAAEQAQGLLTILKG 126 S. epidermidis C. jeikeium C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-61 P. aeruginosa HATLLPAVREAISRQLLPALVP 127 RG 1T-62 S. epidermidis GCKGCAQRDPCAEPEPYFRLR 128 P. aeruginosa 1T-63 S. aureus EPLILKELVRNLFLFCYARALR 129 S. epidermidis C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-64 S. aureus QTVHHIHMHVLGQRQMHWPPG 130 S. epidermidis C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-65 S. mutans HARAAVGVAELPRGAAVEVEL 131 S. aureus IAAVRP S. epidermidis C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-66 S. mutans DTDCLSRAYAQRIDELDKQYA 132 S. aureus GIDKPL S. epidermidis C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-67 S. aureus GQRQRLTCGRVSGCSEGPSREA 133 S. epidermidis AR C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-68 S. mutans GGTKEIVYQRG 134 S. aureus C. jeikeium C. xerosis C. striatum P. aeruginosa 1T-69 S. mutans ILSQEADRKKLF 135 P. aeruginosa 1T-70 S. aureus NRQAQGERAHGEQQG 136 C. jeikeium P. aeruginosa 1T-71 P. aeruginosa KIDTNQWPPNKEG 137 1T-72 P. aeruginosa EPTDGVACKER 138 1T-73 Streptococcus GWWEELLHETILSKFKITKALE 139 pneumoniae LPIQL 1T-74 S. pneumoniae DIDWGRKISCAAGVAYGAIDG 140 CATTV 1T-75 S. pneumoniae GVARGLQLGIKTRTQWGAATG 141 AA 1T-76 S. pneumoniae EMRLSKFFRDFILWRKK 142 1T-77 S. pneumoniae EMRISRIILDFLFLRKK 143 1T-78 S. pneumoniae FFKTIFVLILGALGVAAGLYIEK 144 NYIDK 1T-79 S. pneumoniae FGTPWSITNFWKKNFNDRPDF 145 DSDRRRY 1T-80 S. pneumoniae GGNLGPGFGVIIP 146 1T-81 S. pneumoniae AIATGLDIVDGKFDGYLWA 147 1T-82 S. pneumoniae FGVGVGIALFMAGYAIGKDLR 148 KKFGKSC 1T-83 S. pneumoniae QKPRKNETFIGYIQRYDIDGNG 149 YQSLPCPQN 1T-84 S. pneumoniae FRKKRYGLSILLWLNAFTNLVN 150 SIHAFYMTLF 1T-85 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, VMASLTWRMRAASASLPTHSR 151 P. gingivalis TDA S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-86 S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarious HRKNPVLGVGRRHRAHNVA 152 1T-87 S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis EAVGQDLVDAHHP 153 1T-88 Unanalyzed GRLVLEITADEVKALGEALAN 154 AKI 1T-89 S. mitis, S. mutans HEDDKRRGMSVEVLGFEVVQH 155 EE 1T-90 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, RNVIGQVL 156 S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-91 S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, TSVRPGAAGAAVPAGAAGAA 157 S. sanguinis GAGWRWP 1T-92 S. mitis, S. mutans GQDEGQRRAGVGEGQGVDG 158 1T-93 S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, AMRSVNQA 159 S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-94 S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis DQVAHSGDMLVQARRRDS 160 1T-95 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, GHLLRVGGRVGGVGGVAGAC 161 S. oralis, S. sanguinis AQPFGGQ 1T-96 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, VAGACAQPFGGQ 162 S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-97 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, GVAERNLDRITVAVAIIWTITIV 163 P. gingivalis GLGLVAKLG S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-98 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, VRSAKAVKALTAAGYTGELVN 164 P. gingivalis VSGGMKAWLGQ S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-99 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, MKAWLGQ 165 S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-100 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans LDPLEPRIAPPGDRSHQGAPAC 166 HRDPLRGRSARDAER 1T-101 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis RLRVGRATDLPLTSFAVGVVR 167 S. epidermidis, NLPDAPAH S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-102 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, WKRLWPARILAGHSRRRMRW 168 P. gingivalis MVVWRYFAAT S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-103 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, AQFYEAIITGYALGAGQRIGQL 169 P. gingivalis S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-104 S. mitis RAVAAHLQGRHHGHQVRRQR 170 HGQR 1T-105 S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, GEGLPPPVLHLPPPRMSGR 171 S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis 1T-106 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, DALRRSRSQGRRHR 172 S. oralis, S. salivarious 1T-107 A. naeslundii S. epidermidis, SPVPRFTAVGGVSRGSP 173 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-108 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, WGPLGPERPLW 174 S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-109 A. naeslundii S. epidermidis, VTTNVRQGAGS 175 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-110 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis LAAKTAVCVGRAFM 176 S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-111 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, GRLSRREEDPATSIILLRGAYR 177 P. gingivalis MAVF S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-112 S. gordonii SDNDGKLILGTSQ 178 1T-113 S. mitis HGAHQRTGQRLHHHRGRTVSG 179 CRQNPVAGVDPDEHR 1T-114 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis RQAPGPGLVTITAACSAPGSRSR 180 S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-115 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, LLIERFSNHH 181 P. gingivalis S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-116 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis MILHRRRDR 182 S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-117 S. mutans GPGVVGPAPFSRLPAHALNL 183 1T-118 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, TASPPAPSDQGLRTAFPATLLIA 184 P. gingivalis LAALARISR
S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-119 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, SPATQKAPTRAQPSRAPVQDC 185 S. oralis GDGRPTAAPDDVERLSPR 1T-120 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, DVRDRVDLAGADLCAAHATR 186 P. gingivalis S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-121 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, FAKETGFGIGGAQEGWWIIADI 187 S. oralis, S. salivarious, YGPNPF S. sanguinis 1T-122 S. mitis GAIPDPVTHRVDWEEDHQTRP 188 SR 1T-123 S. gordonii LVRRNAVAGRSDGLAGAEQLD 189 LVRLQGVL 1T-124 S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis LFDERNKIA 190 1T-125 S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, DAITGGNPPLSDTDGLRP 191 S. mutans, S. oralis 1T-126 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans QGLARPVLRRIPL 192 1T-127 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, YDPVPKRKNKNSEGKREE 193 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-128 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis SGSAIRMLEIATKMLKR 194 S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-129 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis YDKYIKYLSIQPPFIVYFI 195 S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-130 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, QKIIDMSKFLFSLILFIMIVVIYI 196 P. gingivalis GKSIGGYSAIVSSIMLELDTVLY S. epidermidis, NKKIFFIYK S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-131 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, DEVWKMLGI 197 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-132 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, YSKKLFEYFYFIIFILIRYLIFYKI 198 P. gingivalis IQNKNYYINNIAYN S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-133 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis YFIKDDNEALSKDWEVIGNDL 199 S. epidermidis, KGTIDKYGKEFKVR S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-134 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, SRLVREIKKKCRKS 200 P. gingivalis S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-135 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis FESLLPQATKKIVNNKGSKINKIF 201 S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-136 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, ELLTQIRLALLYSVNEW 202 P. gingivalis, S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-137 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, PLNFYRAVKENRLPLSEKNIND 203 P. gingivalis FTNIKLKVSPKLINLLQESSIFY S. epidermidis, NFSPKKRNTN S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-138 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, YPNEYCIFLENLSLEELKEIKAI 204 P. gingivalis NGETLNLEEIINERKNLKD S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-139 A. naeslundii S. gordonii, AVAGAAVGALLGNDARSTAV 205 S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis GAAIGGALGAGAGELTKNK 1T-140 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, IKGTIAFVGEDYVEIRVDKGVK 206 P. gingivalis LTFRKSAIANVINNNQQ S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-141 F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis KKFIILLFILVQGLIFSATKTLSD 207 S. epidermidis, IIAL S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-142 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, FTQGIKRIVLKRLKED 208 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-143 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, MPKRHYYKLEAKALQFGLPFA 209 P. gingivalis YSPIQLLK S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-144 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, IIELHPKSWTQDWRCSFL 210 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-145 S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis VEAGKRNISLENIEKISKGLGISI 211 SELFKYIEEGEDKIG 1T-146 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, RNSADNQTKIDKIRIDISLWDE 212 P. gingivalis, HLNIVKQGK T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-147 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, GVENRRFYERDVSKVSMMTSE 213 P. gingivalis, AVAPRGGSK T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-148 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, IVELDDTTILERALSMLGEANA 214 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-149 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, SVRAVKPIDETVARHFPGDFIVN 215 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-150 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, YINRRLKKAFSDADIKEAPAEF 216 P. gingivalis, YEELRRVQYV T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-151 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, SVRAVKPIDEIVAWHFPGDFIVN 217 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-152 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, YVSADESAYNHIVTDDIPLADR 218 P. gingivalis RIEAVQQ S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-153 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, YIACPGYFY 219 P. gingivalis S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-154 P. gingivalis YFSFLEIVGMARR 220 1T-155 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, LKLAFGVYPFQAMSQSDTAVS 221 P. gingivalis ERNVLWR S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-156 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, GRFQISIRGEEKSKVKVQGKGT 222 P. gingivalis, FTDRNTT T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-157 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, RRFRKTTENREKSKNKKAVLG 223 P. gingivalis, LSTTSTASY T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-158 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, WENKPSPLGSIKKLQGLVYRLI 224 P. gingivalis GYRHFWV S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-159 P. gingivalis IFSLHHFALICSEMGTFAVSKRA 225 KYKWEVL 1T-160 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, AQYKYINKLLN 226 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-161 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, NKVLQVEVMWDGSVVGRPAG 227 P. gingivalis VISIKSSKKG S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-162 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, QKAKEESDRKAAVSYNGFHRV 228 P. gingivalis, NVVSIPK T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-163 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, MENILIYIPMVLSPFGSGILLFLG 229 P. gingivalis KDRRYML S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans,
S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-164 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, KKSHSQGKRKLKDLNSAYKID 230 P. gingivalis NQLHYALR S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-165 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, CYDSFDFSIFVTFANRMKLSVGS 231 P. gingivalis S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-166 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, AQSAGQIKRKSKVRIHV 232 P. gingivalis S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-167 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, SRMSEHSPAGLVFEVGPMDKG 233 P. gingivalis SFIILDSYHPTVKK S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-168 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, ELHRIMSTEKIGAVTKMNFDTA 234 P. gingivalis PIMSILPIDIYPKEVGIGS S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-169 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, FARVRRLHQNRILTQPLTNLKY 235 P. gingivalis CLRQPIYSD S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-170 P. gingivalis AYGKVFSMDIMLSENDKLIVLR 236 ISHHSAWH 1T-171 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, SVRAVKPIDKTVARHFPGDFIVN 237 P. gingivalis S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-172 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, FEGLKNLLGDDII 238 P. gingivalis S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-173 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, LFRKEDQEHVLL 239 P. gingivalis S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-174 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, SGGSDTDGSSSGEPGSHSGDL 240 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-175 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, GEPGSHSGDL 241 P. gingivalis, S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-176 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis PVGDIMSGFLRGANQPRFLLDH 242 S. epidermidis, ISFGS S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-177 P. gingivalisS. gordonii, GTNVPTQILGYSREERFDYEPA 243 S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, PEQR S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-178 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, LLASHPERLSLGVFFVYRVLHL 244 P. gingivalis LLENT S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-179 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, TCYPLIQRKTDRAYEA 245 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-180 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, VVFGGGDRLV 246 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-181 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, YGKESDP 247 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-182 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, LTASICRQWNDNSTPYQR 248 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-183 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, PLRSFVAEKAEHAFRVVRIADF 249 P. gingivalis DFGHS S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-184 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, ALLVLNLLLMQFFFGKNM 250 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-185 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, HYHFLLEFGFHKGDYLE 251 P. gingivalis, T. denticolaS. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-186 S. sanguinis LAKKNQALREEISRQKSK 252 1T-187 S. sanguinis RAGRIKKLSQKEAEPFEN 253 1T-188 S. sanguinis HRKDVYKK 254 1T-189 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis FIRSKLRRVDFSGVRRGNKHFL 255 LDKLLITLVK 1T-190 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, IQIIVNAFVEKDKTGAVIEVLYA 256 P. gingivalis SNNHEKVKAKYEELVAIS S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-191 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis SALFYDTLAAIWISIAGVDARW 257 GH 1T-192 S. sanguinis ILVLLALQVELDSKFQY 258 1T-193 S. sanguinis LMIFDKHANLKYKYGNRSFGV 259 EAIM 1T-194 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis LAGATLVTPYCVGWGLIRSH 260 1T-195 Unanalyzed AASGFTYCASNGVWHPY 261 1T-196 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis KPEKEKLDTNTLMKVVNKALS 262 LFDRLLIKFGA 1T-197 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, TEILNFLITVCADRENWKIKHG 263 P. gingivalis LSDSVLLIFFARFTGAEYW S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-198 P. gingivalisS. epidermidis, MPVSKKRYMLSSAYATALGIC 264 S. gordonii, YGQVATDEKESEITAIPDLLDY S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, LSVEEYLL S. sanguinis 1T-199 S. sanguinis RAGRIKKLSQKEAEPFEN 265 1T-200 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum MRFKRFDRDYALSGDNVFEVL 266 S. epidermidis, TASCDVIERNLSYREMCGLMQ S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-201 S. sanguinis KRKHENVIVAEEMRVIKN 267 1T-202 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, LCRLEKLCKQFLRQDKVVTYY 268 P. gingivalis LMLPYKRAIEAFYQELKERS S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-203 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, YPFCLATVDHLPEGLSVTDYER 269 P. gingivalis VQRLVSQFLLNKEER S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-204 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis KYLFLASKTKEYFKSHFREIMI 270 DV 1T-205 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, FISFVDCIQNIEKIEKELLKIGIT 271 P. gingivalis DIQINQDAGWLY S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-206 S. sanguinis AGFAAGYSL 272 1T-207 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis SPLEKYGTGSMTALTFLLGCCL 273 LVLSKKSR 1T-208 Unanalyzed KRKRWAILTLFLAGLGAVGIVL 274 ATF 1T-209 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis WSGAAVGAATFC 275 1T-210 S. sanguinis SVGMGVIERGSFDFSASAILQK 276 RETKCLKNKPFT 1T-211 S. sanguinis AEPIIKVTEG 277 1T-212 S. sanguinis LLSALIKKLALIIFIG 278 1T-213 S. sanguinis AYLLTCAAAGGMIGYGAATLD 279 1T-214 S. sanguinis MIGYGAATLD 280 1T-215 S. sanguinis VCFKDISVFLSPFRGQEVLFCG 281 KAKHSLIYVIGT 1T-216 S. sanguinis FFLNVIAIRIPHF 282 1T-217 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis MLSNVLSRSVVSPNVDIPNSMV 283 ILSPLLISISNYH 1T-218 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis KLIFAALGLVFLLIGLRDSRSK 284 1T-219 S. sanguinis RNINVSATFITEKSLV 285
1T-220 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, AILTFFMALLFTYLKEKAQILY 286 P. gingivalis WPLFLHLMFYFVTA S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-221 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, DIGRIIGKKGRTITAIRSIVYSVP 287 P. gingivalis TQGKKVRLVIDEK S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-222 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis RIEASLISAIMFSMFNAIVKFLQK 288 1T-223 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, NQKMEINSMTSEKEKMLAGHF 289 P. gingivalis HNEANFAVIFKYSLFYNFF S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-224 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, VHLFSFVKLIYYDIMKYSIEEK 290 P. gingivalis VFFESPVGEIIQ S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-225 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, RRSLGNSASFAEWIEYIRYLHYI 291 P. gingivalis IRVQFIHFFSKNKKI S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-226 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum KLQEKQIDRNFERVSGYSTYRA 292 S. epidermidis, VQAAKAKEKGFISLEN S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-227 S. sanguinis RFEQFFADHYPFV 293 1T-228 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, IFKLFEEHLLYLLDAFYYSKIFR 294 P. gingivalis RLKQGLYRRKEQPYTQDLFRM S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-229 S. gordonii, S. oralis, S. sanguinis LLINYVKVNMSY 295 1T-230 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, EFLEKFKVLKQPRKANNISKNR 296 P. gingivalis VAMIFLTIHKSRGFLSSPY S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-231 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, FDFLCSPDSSR 297 S. oralis, S. salivarious 1T-232 S. sanguinis AYSLTFQNPNDNLTDEEVAKY 298 MEKITKALTEKIGAEVR 1T-233 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis TDQELEHLIVTELESKRLDFTYS 299 S. epidermidis, KDITEFFDEAFPEYDQNY S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-234 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, DNFYLILKMEERGKSKKTSQTR 300 P. gingivalis GFRAFFDIIRKKIKKEDGK S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-235 S. sanguinis GWLSDDFWLKSAIPLLKKRLA 301 KWNETL 1T-236 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, PVQKALHVVSAYATDLGICYD 302 P. gingivalis QVVTVMIREVKTQLYQIY S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-237 S. sanguinis EDPVPNHFTLRRNKKEKPSKS 303 1T-238 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, IFNRRKFFQYFGLSKEAMVEHI 304 P. gingivalis QPFILDIWQIHLF S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-239 A. naeslundii S. gordonii, ADDLLNKRLTDLIMENAETVK 305 S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, TIDLDNSD S. sanguinis 1T-240 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, VILGNGISNIAQTLGQLPNIAW 306 P. gingivalis VWIYMVLIAALLEESNVC S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-241 S. sanguinis TQKTYLHIIRELENQDIDLIMRS 307 LTSLT 1T-242 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis KQVQNTTLIICGTVLLGILFKSY 308 LKSQKSV 1T-243 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis SENIARFAAAFENEQVVSYAR 309 S. epidermidis, WFRRSWRGSGSSSRF S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-244 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis MTWAEIGAIVGATIGSFYIPNPV 310 S. epidermidis, IVPFRVR S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-245 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis IIGGISGAGVGIASFC 311 1T-246 S. sanguinis ISGAGVGIASFC 312 1T-247 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, LSISQRTDRVIVMDKGKIIEEGT 313 P. gingivalis HSELIAANGFYHHLFNK S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-248 S. sanguinis IGGALNSCG 314 1T-249 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis VFSVLKHTTWPTRKQSWHDFIS 315 ILEYSAFFALVIFIFDKLLTLGLA ELLKRF 1T-250 S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis LVQGDTILIENHVGTPVKDDGK 316 DCLIIREADVLAVVND 1T-251 S. mitis, S. oralis, S. sanguinis LVMNDETIYLFTYENGQISYEE 317 DKRDCSKNV 1T-252 F. nucleatum, S. sanguinis MKKNLKRFYALVLGFIIGCLFV 318 SILIFIGY 1T-253 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, KTKESLTQQEKKFLKDYDRKS 319 P. gingivalis LHHFRDILTYCFILDKLTNK S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-254 S. sanguinis RFLKDELSVSVRLQEKSIEALPF 320 RTKIEIEIESDNQIKTL 1T-255 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, LFIVEYKDKASVPGEIDNTYVE 321 P. gingivalis SYTYSDILTEKTLIRYFD S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-256 S. sanguinis KGKSLMPLLKQINQWGKLYL 322 1T-257 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, IILAKAADLAEIERIISEDPFKIN 323 P. gingivalis EIANYDIIEFCPTKSSKAFEKVLK S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-258 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, TINIDDKVLDYLKKINSKAITID 324 P. gingivalis, LIGCAS T. denticola, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis 1T-259 F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis, EKLKKILLKLAVCGKAWYTL 325 T. denticola, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-260 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis NILYFIHDENQWEPQKAEIFRG 326 S. epidermidis, SIKHCAWLSS S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-261 F. nucleatum S. mutans, SFEKNKIENNLKIAQAYIYIKPK 327 S. oralis S. sanguinis PRICQA 1T-262 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, LSLPLIVLTKSI 328 P. gingivalis S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-263 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, FIAVSFTGNPATFKLVIGCKADN 329 P. gingivalis S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-264 S. sanguinis LEGKFYMAEDFDKTPECFKDYV 330 1T-265 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, GMFENLLMINFQIMNDLKIEIV 331 P. gingivalis VKDRICAV S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-266 S. sanguinis RAGTWLVVDEIR 332 1T-267 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, RIKEERKNRSYKFFIWRLFDEK 333 P. gingivalis, TGFI T. denticola, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis S. sanguinis 1T-268 F. nucleatum S. mutans, PITPKKEKCGLGTYAPKNPVFS 334 S. oralis S. sanguinis KSRV 1T-269 F. nucleatum S. mutans, PLYVAAVEKINTAKKH 335 S. oralis S. sanguinis 1T-270 F. nucleatum S. mutans, VHEFDIQKILQNR 336 S. oralis S. sanguinis 1T-271 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, FLIQKFLLIKTFPPYRKKYVVIV 337 P. gingivalis SQTGTA S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-272 F. nucleatum S. mutans, QLAPIDKQLKAVKKIAFYESES 338 S. oralis S. sanguinis TAAKAVTVA 1T-273 F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis, YNEPNYKWLESYKIYKQRCED 339 T. denticola, RTGMYYTEET S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis 1T-274 F. nucleatum S. mutans, ETTTEINAIKLHRIKQRSPQGTR 340 S. oralis S. sanguinis RVN 1T-275 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, QVLKNFSISRRYKINNPFFKILL 341
P. gingivalis, FIQLRTL T. denticola, S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-276 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, ILTLLILGSIGFFILKIKLKLGRF 342 P. gingivalis S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-277 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, IYYMRFVNKPLEKTFFKI 343 P. gingivalis, T. denticola S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-278 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, SINSSAGIQPHCLSSSFVLRTKH 344 P. gingivalis, CFY S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-279 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, FVLRTKHCFY 345 P. gingivalis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-280 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, TNNKNKVIIKAIKFKNKDFINL 346 P. gingivalis, DLFIYRR T. denticola S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-281 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, KYEKLTKENLFIRNSGNMCVFI 347 P. gingivalis YFLFFG S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-282 F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis, ISLVFPAYT 348 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-283 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, LCTKLEDKQRGRIPAELFIISPIK 349 P. gingivalis, ILERNDAL T. denticola, S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-284 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, FQYYFSLKRV 350 P. gingivalis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-285 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, FFPYYLADFYKQLKFLNEYQT 351 P. gingivalis, KNKDKVVEFK S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-286 S. sanguinis LGFFNNKADLVKADTERDNRM 352 SSLKIKDL 1T-287 P. gingivalis, T. denticola KGYPLPFQYRLNNH 353 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-288 F. nucleatum, S. gordonii, RWVGGEPSADIYLSAKDTKT 354 S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-289 F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis, EPSADIYLSAKDTKT 355 S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguinis 1T-290 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, IINQLNLILLRLMEILIL 356 P. gingivalis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-291 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, DMKIIKLYIKILSFLFIKYCNKK 357 P. gingivalis, LNSVKLKA T. denticola, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis 1T-292 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, IINQLNLILLRLMEILIL 358 P. gingivalis S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-293 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, HVEDCFLLSNARTTAIHGRANP 359 P. gingivalis ARGEPRTRSE S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-294 T. denticola YDKIADGVFKIGKRGVL 360 1T-295 S. mitis, S. salivarious, KYKLKKIIL 361 S. sanguinis 1T-296 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, EYSQQSFKAKPCSERGVLSP 362 P. gingivalis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-297 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, RSLRLNNALTKLPKLWYNRIKE 363 T. denticola, AFYAYNDYDK S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis 1T-298 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, ILNKKPKLPLWKLGKNYFRRF 364 P. gingivalis, YVLPTFLA T. denticola S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-299 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum SMLTSFLRSKNTRSLKMYKDV 365 S. epidermidis, HF S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-300 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, PLIISKAQIKMSGDILGSCFKLF 366 P. gingivalis YLRPFF S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-301 F. nucleatum, S. gordonii, SKLPRVLDASLKL 367 S. sanguinis 1T-302 A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis IIIILPKIYLVCKTV 368 S. epidermidis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-303 A. naeslundii, F. nucleatum, LDYENMDCKKRIRI 369 P. gingivalis, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. salivarious, S. sanguinis 1T-304 P. gingivalis STAGEASRRTASEASRRTAAKL 370 RG TT-305 F. nucleatum ARNALNMRDVPVDAAIIGIIDG 371 MDEE TT-306 F. nucleatum KILNEAEGKLLKVIEKNGEIDIE 372 EI TT-307 F. nucleatum NGDKKAKEELDKWDEVIKELN 373 IQF TT-308 F. nucleatum GLVIIPNLIALIILFSQVRQQTKD 374 YFSNPKLSSR TT-309 F. nucleatum EPLPLTKYDKKDTEMKKVFKEI 375 LAGKVGYEKEEE TT-310 F. nucleatum TKLKKNNKLLSAKKENTLHTK 376 DK TT-311 S. mutans, S. sobrinus AIFDAMHNL 377
 As described above, in certain embodiments of the present invention, the targeting moiety can comprise targeting peptide capable of binding, specifically binding, or preferentially binding to a microorganism, e.g., a target microbial organism. In one embodiment, the targeting peptide be identified via screening peptide libraries. For example, a phage display peptide library can be screened against a target microbial organism or a desired antigen or epitope thereof. Any peptide identified through such screening can be used as a targeting peptide for the target microbial organism. Illustrative additional targeting peptides are shown in Table 4.
TABLE-US-00005 TABLE 4 Additional illustrative targeting moieties. Targeting Moiety/ SEQ ID Organism Structure/sequence NO LPSB-1 RGLRRLGRRGLRRLGR 378 Phob-1 KPVLPVLPVLPVL 379 LPSB-2 VLRIIRIAVLRIIRIA 380 LPTG-1 LPETGGSGGSLPETG 381 α-1 RAHIRRAHIRR 382 ANION-1 DEDEDDEEDDDEEE 383 PHILIC-1 STMCGSTMCGSTMCG 384 SA5.1/S. aureus VRLPLWLPSLNE 385 SA5.3/S. aureus ANYFLPPVLSSS 386 SA5.4/S. aureus SHPWNAQRELSV 387 SA5.5/S. aureus SVSVGMRPMPRP 388 SA5.6/S. aureus WTPLHPSTNRPP 389 SA5.7/S. aureus SVSVGMKPSPRP 390 SA5.8/S. aureus SVSVGMKPSPRP 391 SA5.9/S. aureus SVPVGPYNESQP 392 SA5.10/S. aureus WAPPLFRSSLFY 393 SA2.2/S. aureus WAPPXPXSSLFY 394 SA2.4/S. aureus HHGWTHHWPPPP 395 SA2.5/S. aureus SYYSLPPIFHIP 396 SA2.6/S. aureus HFQENPLSRGGEL 397 SA2.7/S. aureus FSYSPTRAPLNM 398 SA2.8/S. aureus SXPXXMKXSXXX 399 SA2.9/S. aureus VSRHQSWHPHDL 400 SA2.10/S. aureus DYXYRGLPRXET 401 SA2.11/S. aureus SVSVGMKPSPRP 402 S. aureus/Consensus V/Q/H-P/H-H-E-F/Y-K/H-H/A-L/H-X-X-K/R-P/L 403 DH5.1/E. coli KHLQNRSTGYET 404 DH5.2/E. coli HIHSLSPSKTWP 405 DH5.3/E. coli TITPTDAEMPFL 406 DH5.4/E. coli HLLESGVLERGM 407 DH5.5/E. coli HDRYHIPPLQLH 408 DH5.6/E. coli VNTLQNVRHMAA 409 DH5.7/E. coli SNYMKLRAVSPF 410 DH5.8/E. coli NLQMPYAWRTEF 411 DH5.9/E. coli QKPLTGPHFSLI 412 CSP/S. mutans SGSLSTFFRLFNRSFTQALGK 413 CSPC18/S. mutans LSTFFRLFNRSFTQALGK 414 CSPC16/S. mutans TFFRLFNRSFTQALGK 415 CSPM8/S. mutans TFFRLFNR 416 KH/Pseudomonas spp KKHRKHRKHRKH 417 (US 2004/0137482) cCF10 LVTLVFV 418 AgrD1 YSTCDFIM 419 AgrD2 GVNACSSLF 420 AgrD3 YINCDFLL 421 NisinA ITSISLCTPGCKTGALMGCNMRTATCIICSIIIVSK 422 PlnA KSSAYSLQMGATAIKQVKKLFKKWGW 423 S3L1-5 WWYNWWQDW 424 Penetratin RQIKIWFWNRRMKWKK* 425 Tat EHWSYCDLRPG 426 Pep-1N KETWWETWWTEW 427 Pep27 MRKEFHNVLSSGQLLADKRPARDYNRK 428 HABP35 LKQKIKHVVKLKVVVKLRSQLVKRKQN 429 HABP42 (all D) STMMSRSHKTRSHHV 430 HABP52 GAHWQFNALTVRGGGS 431 Hi3/17 KQRTSIRATEGCLPS 432 α-E. coli peptide QEKIRVRLSA 433 Salivary Receptor QLKTADLPAGRDETTSFVLV* 434 Adhesion Fragment S1 (Sushi frag.) GFKLKGMARISCLPNGQWSNFPPKCIRECAMVSS 435 (LPS binding) S3 (Sushi frag.) HAEHKVKIGVEQKYGQFPQGTEVTYTCSGNYFLM 436 (LPS binding) MArg.1 AMDMYSIEDRYFGGYAPEVG 437 (Mycoplasma infected cell line binding peptide BPI fragment 1 ASQQGTAALQKELKRIKPDYSDSFKIKH 438 (LPS binding) 6,376,462 BPI fragment 2 SSQISMVPNVGLKFSISNANIKISGKWKAQKRFLK 439 (LPS binding) 6,376,462 BPI fragment 3 VHVHISKSKVGWLIQLFHKKIESALRNK 440 (LPS binding) 6,376,462 LBP fragment 1 AAQEGLLALQSELLRITLPDFTGDLRIPH 441 (LPS binding) 6,376,462 LBP fragment 2 HSALRPVPGQGLSLSISDSSIRVQGRWKVRKSFFK 442 (LPS binding) 6,376,462 LBP fragment 3 VEVDMSGDLGWLLNLFHNQIESKFQKV 443 (LPS binding) 6,376,462 B. anthracis spore ATYPLPIR 444 binding (WO/1999/036081) Bacillus spore binding peptides of 5-12 amino acids containing the sequence 445 (WO/1999/036081) Asn-His-Phe-Leu peptides of 5-12 amino acids containing the sequence 446 Asn-His-Phe-Leu-Pro Thr-Ser-Glu-Asn-Val-Arg-Thr (TSQNVRT) 447 A peptide of formula Thr-Tyr-Pro-X-Pro-X-Arg 448 (TYPXPXR) where X is a Ile, Val or Leu. A peptide having the sequence TSQNVRT. 449 A peptide having the sequence TYPLPIR 450 LPS binding peptide 1 TFRRLKWK 451 (6,384,188) LPS BP 2 (6,384,188) RWKVRKSFFKLQ 452 LPS BP 3 (6,384,188) KWKAQKRFLKMS 453 Pseudomonas pilin KCTSDQDEQFIPKGCSK 454 binding peptide (5,494,672) Patents and patent publications disclosing the referenced antibodies are identified in the table.
 In certain embodiments the targeting moieties can comprise other entities, particularly when utilized with an antimicrobial peptide as described, for example, in Table 2. Illustrative targeting moieties can include a polypeptide, a peptide, a small molecule, a ligand, a receptor, an antibody, a protein, or portions thereof that specifically interact with a target microbial organism, e.g., the cell surface appendages such as flagella and pili, and surface exposed proteins, lipids and polysaccharides of a target microbial organism.
 Targeting Antibodies.
 In certain embodiments the targeting moieties can comprise one or more antibodies that bind specifically or preferentially a microorganism or group of microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi, yeasts, protozoa, viruses, algae, etc.). The antibodies are selected to bind an epitope characteristic or the particular target microorganism(s). In various embodiments such epitopes or antigens are typically is gram-positive or gram-negative specific, or genus-specific, or species-specific, or strain specific and located on the surface of a target microbial organism. The antibody that binds the epitope or antigen can direct an anti-microbial peptide moiety or other effector to the site. Furthermore, in certain embodiments the antibody itself can provide anti-microbial activity in addition to the activity provided by effector moiety since the antibody may engage an immune system effector (e.g., a T-cell) and thereby elicit an antibody-associated immune response, e.g., a humoral immune response.
 Antibodies that bind particular target microorganisms can be made using any methods readily available to one skilled in the art. For example, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,231,857 (incorporated herein by reference) three monoclonal antibodies, i.e., SWLA1, SWLA2, and SWLA3 have been made against S. mutans. Monoclonal antibodies obtained from non-human animals to be used in a targeting moiety can also be humanized by any means available in the art to decrease their immunogenicity and increase their ability to elicit anti-microbial immune response of a human. Illustrative microorganisms and/or targets to which antibodies may be directed are shown, for example, in Tables 5.
 Various forms of antibody include, without limitation, whole antibodies, antibody fragments (e.g., (Fab')2, Fab', etc.), single chain antibodies (e.g., scFv), minibodies, Di-miniantibody, Tetra-miniantibody, (scFv)2, Diabody, scDiabody, Triabody, Tetrabody, Tandem diabody, VHH, nanobodies, affibodies, unibodies, and the like.
 Methods of making such antibodies are well known to those of skill in the art. In various embodiments, such methods typically involve providing the microorganism, or a component thereof for use as an antigen to raise an immune response in an organism or for use in a screening protocol (e.g., phage or yeast display).
 For example, polyclonal antibodies are typically raised by one or more injections (e.g. subcutaneous or intramuscular injections) of the target microorganism(s) or components thereof into a suitable non-human mammal (e.g., mouse, rabbit, rat, etc.).
 If desired, the immunizing microorganism or antigen derived therefrom can be administered with or coupled to a carrier protein by conjugation using techniques that are well-known in the art. Such commonly used carriers which are chemically coupled to the peptide include keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), thyroglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and tetanus toxoid. The coupled peptide is then used to immunize the animal (e.g. a mouse or a rabbit).
 The antibodies are then obtained from blood samples taken from the mammal. The techniques used to develop polyclonal antibodies are known in the art (see, e.g., Methods of Enzymology, "Production of Antisera With Small Doses of Immunogen: Multiple Intradermal Injections", Langone, et al. eds. (Acad. Press, 1981)). Polyclonal antibodies produced by the animals can be further purified, for example, by binding to and elution from a matrix to which the peptide to which the antibodies were raised is bound. Those of skill in the art will know of various techniques common in the immunology arts for purification and/or concentration of polyclonal antibodies, as well as monoclonal antibodies see, for example, Coligan, et al. (1991) Unit 9, Current Protocols in Immunology, Wiley Interscience).
 In certain embodiments the antibodies produced will be monoclonal antibodies ("mAb's"). The general method used for production of hybridomas secreting mAbs is well known (Kohler and Milstein (1975) Nature, 256:495
 Antibody fragments, e.g. single chain antibodies (scFv or others), can also be produced/selected using phage display and/or yeast display technology. The ability to express antibody fragments on the surface of viruses that infect bacteria (bacteriophage or phage) or yeasts makes it possible to isolate a single binding antibody fragment, e.g., from a library of greater than 1010 nonbinding clones. To express antibody fragments on the surface of phage (phage display) or yeast, an antibody fragment gene is inserted into the gene encoding a phage surface protein (e.g., pIII) and the antibody fragment-pIII fusion protein is displayed on the phage surface (McCafferty et al. (1990) Nature, 348: 552-554; Hoogenboom et al. (1991) Nucleic Acids Res. 19: 4133-4137).
 Since the antibody fragments on the surface of the phage or yeast are functional, phage bearing antigen binding antibody fragments can be separated from non-binding phage by antigen affinity chromatography (McCafferty et al. (1990) Nature, 348: 552-554). Depending on the affinity of the antibody fragment, enrichment factors of 20 fold-1,000,000 fold are obtained for a single round of affinity selection.
 Human antibodies can be produced without prior immunization by displaying very large and diverse V-gene repertoires on phage (Marks et al. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 222: 581-597.
 In certain embodiments, nanobodies can be used as targeting moieties. Methods of making VhH (nanobodies) are also well known to those of skill in the art. The Camelidae heavy chain antibodies are found as homodimers of a single heavy chain, dimerized via their constant regions. The variable domains of these camelidae heavy chain antibodies are referred to as VHH domains or VHH, and can be either used per se as nanobodies and/or as a starting point for obtaining nanobodies. Isolated VHH retain the ability to bind antigen with high specificity (see, e.g., Hamers-Casterman et al. (1993) Nature 363: 446-448). In certain embodiments such VHH domains, or nucleotide sequences encoding them, can be derived from antibodies raised in Camelidae species, for example in camel, dromedary, llama, alpaca and guanaco. Other species besides Camelidae (e.g. shark, pufferfish) can produce functional antigen-binding heavy chain antibodies, from which (nucleotide sequences encoding) such naturally occurring VHH can be obtained, e.g. using the methods described in U.S. Patent Publication US 2006/0211088.
 In various embodiments, for use in therapy, human proteins are preferred, primarily because they are not as likely to provoke an immune response when administered to a patient. Comparisons of camelid VHH with the VH domains of human antibodies reveals several key differences in the framework regions of the camelid VHH domain corresponding to the VH/VL interface of the human VH domains. Mutation of these human residues to VHH resembling residues has been performed to produce "camelized" human VH domains that retain antigen binding activity, yet have improved expression and solubility.
 Libraries of single VH domains have also been derived for example from VH genes amplified from genomic DNA or from mRNA from the spleens of immunized mice and expressed in E. coli (Ward et al. (1989) Nature 341: 544-546) and similar approaches can be performed using the VH domains and/or the VL domains described herein. The isolated single VH domains are called "dAbs" or domain antibodies. A "dAb" is an antibody single variable domain (VH or VL) polypeptide that specifically binds antigen. A "dAb" binds antigen independently of other V domains; however, as the term is used herein, a "dAb" can be present in a homo- or heteromultimer with other VH or VL domains where the other domains are not required for antigen binding by the dAb, i.e., where the dAb binds antigen independently of the additional VH or VL domains.
 As described in U.S. Patent Publication US 2006/0211088 methods are known for the cloning and direct screening of immunoglobulin sequences (including but not limited to multivalent polypeptides comprising: two or more variable domains--or antigen binding domains--and in particular VH domains or VHH domains; fragments of VL, VH or VHH domains, such as CDR regions, for example CDR3 regions; antigen-binding fragments of conventional 4-chain antibodies such as Fab fragments and scFv's, heavy chain antibodies and domain antibodies; and in particular of VH sequences, and more in particular of VHH sequences) that can be used as part of and/or to construct such nanobodies.
 Methods and procedures for the production of VHH/nanobodies can also be found for example in WO 94/04678, WO 96/34103, WO 97/49805, WO 97/49805 WO 94/25591, WO 00/43507 WO 01/90190, WO 03/025020, WO 04/062551, WO 04/041863, WO 04/041865, WO 04/041862, WO 04/041867, PCT/BE2004/000159, Hamers-Casterman et al. (1993) Nature 363: 446; Riechmann and Muyldermans (1999) J. Immunological Meth., 231: 25-38; Vu et al. (1997) Molecular Immunology, 34(16-17): 1121-1131; Nguyen et al. (2000) EMBO J., 19(5): 921-930; Arbabi Ghahroudi et al. (19997) FEBS Letters 414: 521-526; van der Linden et al. (2000) J. Immunological Meth., 240: 185-195; Muyldermans (2001) Rev. Molecular Biotechnology 74: 277-302; Nguyen et al. (2001) Adv. Immunol. 79: 261, and the like, which are all incorporated herein by reference.
 In certain embodiments the antibody targeting moiety is a unibody. Unibodies provide an antibody technology that produces a stable, smaller antibody format with an anticipated longer therapeutic window than certain small antibody formats. In certain embodiments unibodies are produced from IgG4 antibodies by eliminating the hinge region of the antibody. Unlike the full size IgG4 antibody, the half molecule fragment is very stable and is termed a uniBody. Halving the IgG4 molecule left only one area on the UniBody that can bind to a target. Methods of producing unibodies are described in detail in PCT Publication WO2007/059782, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety (see, also, Kolfschoten et al. (2007) Science 317: 1554-1557).
 Affibody molecules are class of affinity proteins based on a 58-amino acid residue protein domain, derived from one of the IgG-binding domains of staphylococcal protein A. This three helix bundle domain has been used as a scaffold for the construction of combinatorial phagemid libraries, from which Affibody variants that target the desired molecules can be selected using phage display technology (see, e.g., Nord et al. (1997) Nat. Biotechnol. 15: 772-777; Ronmark et al. (2002) Eur. J. Biochem., 269: 2647-2655.). Details of Affibodies and methods of production are known to those of skill (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,831,012 which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).
 It will also be recognized that antibodies can be prepared by any of a number of commercial services (e.g., Berkeley antibody laboratories, Bethyl Laboratories, Anawa, Eurogenetec, etc.).
 Illustrative antibodies that bind various microorganisms are shown in Table 5.
TABLE-US-00006 TABLE 5 Illustrative antibodies that bind target microorganisms. Source Antibody 7,195,763 Polyclonal/monoclonal binds specific Gram(+) cell wall repeats 6,939,543 Antibodies against G(+) LTA 7,169,903 Antibodies against G(+) peptidoglycan 6,231,857 Antibody against S. mutans (Shi) 5,484,591 Gram(-) binding antibodies US 2007/0231321 Diabody binding to Streptococcus surface antigen I/II US 2003/0124635 Antibody against S. mutans US 2006/0127372 Antibodies to Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus casei US 2003/0092086 Antibody to S. sobrinus
 In addition, antibodies (targeting moieties) that bind other microorganisms can readily be produced using, for example, the methods described above.
 In certain embodiments porphyrins, or other photosensitizing agents, can be used as targeting moieties in the constructs described herein. In particular, metalloporphyrins, particularly a number of non-iron metalloporphyrins mimic heme in their molecular structure and are actively accumulated by bacteria via high affinity heme-uptake systems. The same uptake systems can be used to deliver antibiotic-porphyrin and antibacterial-porphyrin conjugates. Illustrative targeting porphyrins suitable for this purpose are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,066,628 and shown herein, for example, in FIGS. 1 and 2.
 For example, certain artificial (non-iron) metalloporphyrins (MPs) (Ga-IX, Mn-IX,) are active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and acid-fast bacilli (e.g., Y. enterocolitica, N. meningitides, S. marcescens, E. coli, P. mirabills, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, Ps. aeruginosa, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, F. menigosepticum, S. aureus, B. subtilis, S. pyogenes A, E. faecalis, M. smegmatis, M. bovis, M. tuber., S. crevisiae) as described in Tables 1-5 of U.S. Pat. No. 6,066,628. These MPs can be used as targeting moieties against these microorganisms.
 Similarly, some MPs are also growth-inhibitory against yeasts, indicating their usefulness targeting moieties to target Candida species (e.g., Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. pillosus, C. glabrata, etc.) and other mycoses including but not limited to those caused by as Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, Histoplasma, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and the like.
 Porphyrins, and other photosensitizers, also have antimicrobial activity. Accordingly, in certain embodiments, the porphyrins, or other photosensitizers, can be used as effectors (e.g., attached to targeting peptides as described herein). In various embodiments the porphyrins or other photosensitizers can provide a dual functionality, e.g., as a targeting moiety and an antimicrobial and can be attached to a targeting peptide and/or to an antimicrobial peptide as described herein.
 Illustrative porphyrins and other photosensitizers are shown in FIGS. 1-11 and described in more detail in the discussion of effectors below.
 In certain embodiments, pheromones from microorganisms can be used as targeting moieties. Illustrative pheromones from bacteria and fungi are shown in Table 6. In certain embodiments, chimeric moieties are contemplated comprising a targeting moiety comprising or consisting of the amino acid sequence (or retro or retro-inverso or beta) sequence of a peptide shown in Table 6 attached to one or more of the peptides shown in Table 2.
TABLE-US-00007 TABLE 6 Illustrative bacterial and fungal pheromones utilizable as targeting moieties. Bacterial Pheromones Locus tag Product Sequence SEQ ID gi|1041118|dbj|BAA11198.1| iPD1 [Enterococcus MKQQKKHIAALLF 455 faecalis] ALILTLVS gi|1113947|gb|AAB35253.1| iAM373sex pheromone SIFTLVA 456 inhibito [Enterococcus faecalis, Peptide, 7 aa] gi|115412|sp|P13268.1|CAD1_ENTFA Sex pheromone CAD1 LFSLVLAG 457 gi|116406|sp|P11932.1|CIA_ENTFA Sex pheromone cAM373 AIFILAS 458 (Clumping-inducing agent) (CIA) gi|117240|sp|P13269.1|CPD1_ENTFA Sex pheromone cPD1 FLVMFLSG 459 gi|12056953|gb|AAG48144.1|AF322594_1 putative peptide DSIRDVSPTFNKIRR 460 pheromone PrcA WFDGLFK [Lactobacillus paracasei] gi|123988|sp|P24803.1|IAD1_ENTFA Sex pheromone inhibitor MSKRAMKKIIPLIT 461 determinant precursor LFVVTLVG (iAD1) gi|126362994|emb|CAM35812.1| precursor of pheromone KDEIYWKPS 462 peptide ComX [Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42] gi|1587088|prf||2205353A pheromone YSTCDFIM 463 gi|15900442|ref|NP_345046.1| peptide pheromone BlpC GLWEDLLYNINRY 464 [Streptococcus AHYIT pneumoniae TIGR4] gi|1617436|emb|CAA66791.1| competence pheromone DIRHRINNSIWRDIF 465 [Streptococcus gordonii] LKRK gi|1617440|emb|CAA66786.1| competence pheromone DVRSNKIRLWWEN 466 [Streptococcus gordonii] IFFNKK gi|18307870|gb|AAL67728.1|AF456134_2 ComX pheromone PTTREWDG 467 precursor [Bacillus mojavensis] gi|18307874|gb|AAL67731.1|AF456135_2 ComX pheromone LQIYTNGNWVPS 468 precursor [Bacillus mojavensis] gi|29377808|ref|NP_816936.1| sex pheromone inhibitor MSKRAMKKIIPLIT 469 determinant [Enterococcus LFVVTLVG faecalis V583] gi|3342125|gb|AAC27522.1| putative pheromone GAGKNLIYGMGYG 470 [Enterococcus faecium] YLRSCNRL gi|41018893|sp|P60242.1|CSP1_STRPN Competence-stimulating EMRLSKFFRDFILQ 471 peptide type 1 precursor RKK (CSP-1) gi|57489126|gb|AAW51333.1| PcfP [Enterococcus WSEIEINTKQSN 472 faecalis] gi|57489152|gb|AAW51349.1| PrgT [Enterococcus HISKERFEAY 473 faecalis] gi|58616083|ref|YP_195761.1| UvaF [Enterococcus KYKCSWCKRVYTL 474 faecalis] RKDHRTAR gi|58616111|ref|YP_195802.1| PcfP [Enterococcus WSEIEINTKQSN 475 faecalis] gi|58616132|ref|YP_195769.1| PrgQ [Enterococcus MKTTLKKLSRYIA 476 faecalis] VVIAITLIFI gi|58616137|ref|YP_195772.1| PrgT [Enterococcus HISKERFEAY 477 faecalis] gi|6919848|sp|O33689.1|CSP_STROR Competence-stimulating DKRLPYFFKHLFSN 478 peptide precursor (CSP) RTK gi|6919849|sp|O33666.1|CSP2_STRMT Competence-stimulating EMRKPDGALFNLF 479 peptide precursor (CSP) RRR gi|6919850|sp|O33668.1|CSP3_STRMT Competence-stimulating EMRKSNNNFFHFL 480 peptide precursor (CSP) RRI gi|6919851|sp|O33672.1|CSP1_STRMT Competence-stimulating ESRLPKIRFDFIFPR 481 peptide precursor (CSP) KK gi|6919852|sp|O33675.1|CSP4_STRMT Competence-stimulating EIRQTHNIFFNFFKRR 482 peptide precursor (CSP) gi|6919853|sp|O33690.1|CSP2_STROR Competence-stimulating DWRISETIRNLIFPR 483 peptide precursor (CSP) RK gi|999344|gb|AAB34501.1| cOB1bacterial sex VAVLVLGA 484 pheromone [Enterococcus faecalis, Peptide, 8 aa] gi|18307878|gb|AAL67734.1|AF456136_2 ComX pheromone FFEDDKRKSFI 485 precursor [Bacillus subtilis] gi|18307882|gb|AAL67737.1|AF456137_2 ComX pheromone FFEDDKRKSFI 486 precursor [Bacillus subtilis] gi|28272731|emb|CAD65660.1| accessory gene regulator MKQKMYEAIAHLF 487 protein D, peptide KYVGAKQLVMCC pheromone precursor VGIWFETKIPDELRK [Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1] gi|28379890|ref|NP_786782.1| accesory gene regulator MKQKMYEAIAHLF 488 protein D, peptide KYVGAKQLVMCC pheromone precursor VGIWFETKIPDELRK [Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1] gi|57489105|gb|AAW51312.1| PrgF [Enterococcus VVAYVITQVGAIRF 489 faecalis] gi|58616090|ref|YP_195779.1| PrgF [Enterococcus VVAYVITQVGAIRF 490 faecalis] gi|58616138|ref|YP_195762.1| PrgN [Enterococcus LLKLQDDYLLHLE 491 faecalis] RHRRTKKIIDEN gi|57489117|gb|AAW51324.1| PcfF [Enterococcus EDIKDLTDKVQSLN 492 faecalis] ALVQSELNKLIKRK DQS gi|57489119|gb|AAW51326.1| PcfH [Enterococcus WFLDFSDWLSKVP 493 faecalis] SKLWAE gi|58616102|ref|YP_195792.1| PcfF [Enterococcus EDIKDLTDKVQSLN 494 faecalis] ALVQSELNKLIKRK DQS gi|58616104|ref|YP_195794.1| PcfH [Enterococcus WFLDFSDWLSKVP 495 faecalis] SKLWAE Fungi 496 gi|1127585|gb|AAA99765.1| mfa1 gene product MLSIFAQTTQTSAS 497 EPQQSPTAPQGRDN GSPIGYSSCVVA gi|1127592|gb|AAA99771.1| mfa2 gene product MLSIFETVAAAAPV 498 TVAETQQASNNEN RGQPGYYCLIA gi|11907715|gb|AAG41298.1| pheromone precursor PSLPSSPPSLLPPLPL 499 MFalpha1D LKLLATRRPTLVG [Cryptococcus neoformans MTLCV var. neoformans] gi|13810235|emb|CAC37424.1| M-factor precursor Mfm1 MDSMANSVSSSSV 500 [Schizosaccharomyces VNAGNKPAETLNK pombe] TVKNYTPKVPYMC VIA gi|14269436|gb|AAK58071.1|AF378295_1 peptide mating pheromone MDTFTYVDLAAVA 501 precursor Bbp2-3 AAAVADEVPRDFE [Schizophyllum DQITDYQSYCIIC commune] gi|14269440|gb|AAK58073.1|AF378297_1 peptide mating pheromone SNVHGWCVVA 502 precursor Bbp2-1 [Schizophyllum commune] gi|1813600|gb|AAB41859.1| pheromone precursor NTTAHGWCVVA 503 Bbp1(1) [Schizophyllum commune] gi|24940428|emb|CAD56313.1| a-pheromone MQPSTVTAAPKDK 504 [Saccharomyces TSAEKKDNYIIKGV paradoxus] FWDPACVIA gi|27549492|gb|AAO17258.1| pheromone phb3.1 GPTWWCVNA 505 [Coprinopsis cinerea] gi|27549494|gb|AAO17259.1| pheromone phb3.2 SGPTWFCIIQ 506 [Coprinopsis cinerea] gi|27752314|gb|AAO19469.1| pheromone protein a FTAIFSTLSSSVASK 507 precursor [Cryptococcus TDAPRNEEAYSSG neoformans var. grubii] NSP gi|2865510|gb|AAC02682.1| MAT-1 pheromone MFSIFAQPAQTSVS 508 [Ustilago hordei] ETQESPANHGANP GKSGSGLGYSTCV VA gi|3023372|sp|P78742.1|BB11_SCHCO RecName: Full = Mating- NTTAHGWCVVA 509 type pheromone BBP1(1); Flags: Precursor gi|3025079|sp|P56508.1|SNA2_YEAST RecName: Full = Protein SDDNYGSLA 510 SNA2 gi|37626077|gb|AAQ96360.1| pheromone precursor Phb3 NGLTFWCVIA 511 B5 [Coprinopsis cinerea] gi|37626081|gb|AAQ96362.1| pheromone precursor PSWFCVIA 512 Phb3.2 B45 [Coprinopsis cinerea] gi|37626083|gb|AAQ96363.1| pheromone precursor ASWFCTIA 513 Phb3.1 B47 [Coprinopsis cinerea] gi|37961432|gb|AAP57503.1| Ste3-like pheromone PHHKIANASDKRR 514 receptor [Thanatephorus RMYFEIFMCAVL cucumeris] gi|400250|sp|P31962.1|MFA1_USTMA RecName: Full = A1- MLSIFAQTTQTSAS 515 specific pheromone; EPQQSPTAPQGRDN AltName: Full = Mating GSPIGYSSCVVA factor A1 gi|400251|sp|P31963.1|MFA2_USTMA RecName: Full = A2- MLSIFETVAAAAPV 516 specific pheromone; TVAETQQASNNEN AltName: Full = Mating RGQPGYYCLIA factor A2 gi|41209131|gb|AAR99617.1| lipopeptide mating SLTYAWCVVA 517 pheromone precursor Bap2(3) [Schizophyllum commune] gi|41209146|gb|AAR99650.1| lipopeptide mating TSMAHAWCVVA 518 pheromone precursor
Bap3(2) [Schizophyllum commune] gi|41209149|gb|AAR99653.1| lipopeptide mating GYCVVA 519 pheromone precursor Bbp2(8) [Schizophyllum commune] gi|46098187|gb|EAK83420.1| MFA1_USTMA A1- MLSIFAQTTQTSAS 520 SPECIFIC PHEROMONE EPQQSPTAPQGRDN (MATING FACTOR A1) GSPIGYSSCVVA [Ustilago maydis 521] gi|546861|gb|AAB30833.1| M-factor mating MDSMANTVSSSVV 521 pheromone NTGNKPSETLNKT [Schizosaccharomyces VKNYTPKVPYMCV pombe] IA gi|5917793|gb|AAD56043.1|AF184069_1 pheromone Mfa2 MFSLFETVAAAVK 522 [Ustilago hordei] VVSAAEPEHAPTNE GKGEPAPYCIIA gi|6014618|gb|AAF01424.1|AF186389_1 Phb3.2.42 [Coprinus LTWFCVIA 523 cinereus] gi|68266363|gb|AAY88882.1| putative pheromone LREKRRRRWFEAF 524 receptor STE3.4 MGFGL [Coprinellus disseminatus] gi|71012805|ref|XP_758529.1| A1-specific pheromone MLSIFAQTTQTSAS 525 [Ustilago maydis 521] EPQQSPTAPQGRDN GSPIGYSSCVVA gi|72414834|emb|CAI59748.1| mating factor a1.3 MDALTLFAPVSLG 526 [Sporisorium reilianum] AVATEQAPVDEER PNRQTFPWIGCVVA gi|72414854|emb|CAI59758.1| mating factor a2.1 MFIFESVVASVQAV 527 [Sporisorium reilianum] SVAEQDQTPVSEG RGKPAVYCTIA gi|1127587|gb|AAA99767.1| rba1 gene product PWMSLLFSFLALLA 528 LILPKLSKDDPLGL TRQPR gi|151941959|gb|EDN60315.1| pheromone-regulated ASISLIMEGSANIEA 529 membrane protein VGKLVWLAAALPL [Saccharomyces cerevisiae AFI YJM789] gi|3025095|sp|Q07549.1|SNA4_YEAST Protein SNA4 ARNVYPSVETPLLQ 530 GAAPHDNKQSLVE SPPPYVP gi|73921293|sp|Q08245.3|ZEO1_YEAST RecName: Full = Protein FLKKLNRKIASIFN 531 ZEO1; AltName: Full = Zeocin resistance protein 1 gi|74644573|sp|Q9P305.3|IGO2_YEAST RecName: Full = Protein DSISRQGSISSGPPP 532 IGO2 RSPNK
 Any of a wide number of effectors can be coupled to targeting moieties as described herein to preferentially deliver the effector to a target organism and/or tissue. Illustrative effectors include, but are not limited to detectable labels, small molecule antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, porphyrins or other photosensitizers, epitope tags/antibodies for use in a pretargeting protocol, microparticles and/or microcapsules, nanoparticles and/or nanocapsules, "carrier" vehicles including, but not limited to lipids, liposomes, dendrimers, cholic acid-based peptide mimics or other peptide mimics, steroid antibiotics, and the like.
 Detectable Labels.
 In certain embodiments chimeric moieties are provided comprising a targeting moiety (e.g. as described in Table 2) attached directly or through a linker to a detectable label. Such chimeric moieties are effective for detecting the presence and/or quantity, and/or location of the microorganism(s) to which the targeting moiety is directed. Similarly these chimeric moieties are useful to identify cells and/or tissues and/or food stuffs and/or other compositions that are infected with the targeted microorganism(s).
 Detectable labels suitable for use in such chimeric moieties include any composition detectable by spectroscopic, photochemical, biochemical, immunochemical, electrical, optical, or chemical means. Illustrative useful labels include, but are not limited to, biotin for staining with labeled streptavidin conjugates, avidin or streptavidin for labeling with biotin conjugates fluorescent dyes (e.g., fluorescein, texas red, rhodamine, green fluorescent protein, and the like, see, e.g., Molecular Probes, Eugene, Oreg., USA), radiolabels (e.g., 3H, 125I, 35S, 14C, 32P, 99Tc, 203Pb, 67Ga, 68Ga, 72As, 111In, .sup.113mIn, 97Ru, 62Cu, 641Cu, 52Fe, 52mMn, 51Cr, 186Re, 188Re, 77As, 90Y, 67Cu, 169Er, 121Sn, 127Te, 142Pr, 143Pr, 198Au, 199Au, 161Tb, 109Pd, 165Dy, 149Pm, 151Pm, 153Sm, 157Gd, 159Gd, 166Ho, 172Tm, 169Yb, 175Yb, 177Lu, 105Rh, 111Ag, and the like), enzymes (e.g., horse radish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and others commonly used in an ELISA), various colorimetric labels, magnetic or paramagnetic labels (e.g., magnetic and/or paramagnetic nanoparticles), spin labels, radio-opaque labels, and the like. Patents teaching the use of such labels include, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,817,837; 3,850,752; 3,939,350; 3,996,345; 4,277,437; 4,275,149; and 4,366,241.
 It will be recognized that fluorescent labels are not to be limited to single species organic molecules, but include inorganic molecules, multi-molecular mixtures of organic and/or inorganic molecules, crystals, heteropolymers, and the like. Thus, for example, CdSe--CdS core-shell nanocrystals enclosed in a silica shell can be easily derivatized for coupling to a biological molecule (Bruchez et al. (1998) Science, 281: 2013-2016). Similarly, highly fluorescent quantum dots (zinc sulfide-capped cadmium selenide) have been covalently coupled to biomolecules for use in ultrasensitive biological detection (Warren and Nie (1998) Science, 281: 2016-2018).
 In various embodiments spin labels are provided by reporter molecules with an unpaired electron spin which can be detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Illustrative spin labels include organic free radicals, transitional metal complexes, particularly vanadium, copper, iron, and manganese, and the like. Exemplary spin labels include, for example, nitroxide free radicals.
 Means of detecting such labels are well known to those of skill in the art. Thus, for example, where the label is a radioactive label, means for detection include a scintillation counter or photographic film as in autoradiography. Where the label is a fluorescent label, it may be detected by exciting the fluorochrome with the appropriate wavelength of light and detecting the resulting fluorescence, e.g., by microscopy, visual inspection, via photographic film, by the use of electronic detectors such as charge coupled devices (CCDs) or photomultipliers and the like. Similarly, enzymatic labels may be detected by providing appropriate substrates for the enzyme and detecting the resulting reaction product. Finally, simple colorimetric labels may be detected simply by observing the color associated with the label.
 In certain embodiments chimeric moieties are provided comprising a targeting moiety (e.g. as described in Table 2) attached directly or through a linker to a small molecule antibiotic and/or to a carrier (e.g., a lipid or liposome, a polymer, etc.) comprising a small molecule antibiotic (e.g., an antibiotics shown in Table 7).
TABLE-US-00008 TABLE 7 Illustrative antibiotics for use in the chimeric moieties described herein. Class Generic Name Brand Name Aminoglycosides Amikacin Amikin Gentamicin Garamycin Kanamycin Kantrex Neomycin Netilmicin Netromycin Streptomycin Tobramycin Nebcin Paromomycin Humatin Carbacephem Loracarbef Lorabid Carbapenems Ertapenem Invanz Doripenem Finibax Imipenem/Cilastatin Primaxin Meropenem Merrem Cephalosporins Cefadroxil Duricef (First generation) Cefazolin Ancef Cefalotin or Cefalothin Keflin Cefalexin Keflex Cephalosporins Cefaclor Ceclor (Second Cefamandole Mandole generation) Cefoxitin Mefoxin Cefprozil Cefzil Cefuroxime Ceftin, Zinnat Cephalosporins Cefixime Suprax (Third generation) Cefdinir Omnicef Cefditoren Spectracef Cefoperazone Cefobid Cefotaxime Claforan Cefpodoxime Ceftazidime Fortaz Ceftibuten Cedax Ceftizoxime Ceftriaxone Rocephin Cephalosporins Cefepime Maxipime (Fourth generation) Cephalosporins Ceftobiprole (Fifth generation) Glycopeptides Teicoplanin Vancomycin Vancocin Macrolides Azithromycin Zithromax Clarithromycin Biaxin Dirithromycin Erythromycin Erythocin, Erythroped Roxithromycin Troleandomycin Telithromycin Ketek Monobactams Aztreonam Penicillins Amoxicillin Novamox, Amoxil Ampicillin Azlocillin Carbenicillin Cloxacillin Dicloxacillin Flucloxacillin Floxapen Mezlocillin Meticillin Nafcillin Oxacillin Penicillin Piperacillin Ticarcillin Polypeptides Bacitracin Colistin Polymyxin B Quinolones Mafenide Prontosil (archaic) Sulfacetamide Sulfamethizole Sulfanilimide (archaic) Sulfasalazine Sulfisoxazole Trimethoprim Trimethoprim- Bactrim Sulfamethoxazole (Co- trimoxazole) (TMP-SMX) Tetracyclines Demeclocycline Doxycycline Vibramycin Minocycline Minocin Oxytetracycline Terracin Tetracycline Sumycin Cationic steroid squalamine antibiotics CSA-8 CSA-11 CSA-13 CSA-15 CSA-25 CSA-46 CSA-54 CSA-90 CSA-97 Others Arsphenamine Salvarsan Chloramphenicol Chloromycetin Clindamycin Cleocin Lincomycin Ethambutol Fosfomycin Fusidic acid Fucidin Furazolidone Isoniazid Linezolid Zyvox Metronidazole Flagyl Mupirocin Bactroban Nitrofurantoin Macrodantin, Macrobid Platensimycin Pyrazinamide Quinupristin/Dalfopristin Syncercid Rifampin or Rifampicin Tinidazole
 Porphyrins and Non-Porphyrin Photosensitizers.
 In certain embodiments, porphyrins and other photosensitizers can be used as targeting moieties and/or as effectors in the methods and compositions of this invention. A photosensitizer is a drug or other chemical that increases photosensitivity of the organism (e.g., bacterium, yeast, fungus, etc.). As targeting moieties the photosensitizers (e.g., porphyrins) are preferentially uptaken by the target microorganisms and thereby facilitate delivery of the chimeric moiety to the target microorganism.
 As effectors, photosensitizers can be useful in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). In various embodiments PACT utilizes photosensitizers and light (e.g., visible, ultraviolet, infrared, etc.) in order to give a phototoxic response in the target organism(s), often via oxidative damage.
 Currently, the major use of PACT is in the disinfection of blood products, particularly for viral inactivation, although more clinically-based protocols are used, e.g. in the treatment of oral infection or topical infection. The technique has been shown to be effective in vitro against bacteria (including drug-resistant strains), yeasts, viruses, parasites, and the like.
 Attaching a targeting moiety (e.g., a targeting peptide as shown in Table 2) to the photosensitizer, e.g., as described herein, provides a means of specifically or preferentially targeting the photosensitizer(s) to particular species or strains(s) of microorganism.
 A wide range of photosensitizers, both natural and synthetic are known to those of skill in the art (see, e.g., Wainwright (1998) J. Antimicrob. Chemotherap. 42: 13-28). Photosensitizers are available with differing physicochemical make-up and light-absorption properties. In various embodiments photosensitizers are usually aromatic molecules that are efficient in the formation of long-lived triplet excited states. In terms of the energy absorbed by the aromatic-system, this again depends on the molecular structure involved. For example: furocoumarin photosensitizers (psoralens) absorb relatively high energy ultraviolet (UV) light (c. 300-350 nm), whereas macrocyclic, heteroaromatic molecules such as the phthalocyanines absorb lower energy, near-infrared light.
 Illustrative photosensitizers include, but are not limited to porphyrinic macrocyles (especially porphyrins, chlorines, etc., see, e.g., FIGS. 1 and 2). In particular, metalloporphyrins, particularly a number of non-iron metalloporphyrins mimic heme in their molecular structure and are actively accumulated by bacteria via high affinity heme-uptake systems. The same uptake systems can be used to deliver antibiotic-porphyrin and antibacterial-porphyrin conjugates. Illustrative targeting porphyrins suitable for this purpose are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,066,628 and shown herein in FIGS. 1 and 2.
 For example, certain artificial (non-iron) metalloporphyrins (MPs) (Ga-IX, Mn-IX,) are active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and acid-fast bacilli (e.g., Y enterocolitica, N. meningitides, S. marcescens, E. coli, P. mirabills, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, Ps. aeruginosa, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, F. menigosepticum, S. aureus, B. subtilis, S. pyogenes A, E. faecalis, M. smegmatis, M. bovis, M. tuber., S. crevisiae) as described in Tables 1-5 of U.S. Pat. No. 6,066,628. These MPs can be used as targeting moieties against these microorganisms.
 Similarly, some MPs are also growth-inhibitory against yeasts, indicating their usefulness targeting moieties to target Candida species (e.g., Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. pillosus, C. glabrata, etc.) and other mycoses including but not limited to those caused by as Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, Histoplasma, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and the like.
 Other photosensitizers include, but are not limited to cyanines (see, e.g., FIG. 6) and phthalocyanines (see, e.g., FIG. 4), azines (see, e.g., FIG. 5) including especially methylene blue and touidine blue, hypericin (see, e.g., FIG. 8), acridines (see, e.g., FIG. 9) including especially Rose Bengal (see, e.g., FIG. 10), crown ethers (see, e.g., FIG. 11), and the like.
 In certain embodiments the photosensitizers are toxic or growth inhibitors without light activation. For example, some non-iron metalloporphyrins (MPs) (see, e.g., FIGS. 1 and 2 herein) possess a powerful light-independent antimicrobial activity. In addition, haemin, the most well known natural porphyrin, possesses a significant antibacterial activity that can augmented by the presence of physiological concentrations of hydrogen peroxide or a reducing agent.
 Typically, when activated by light, the toxicity or growth inhibition effect is substantially increased. Typically, they generate radical species that affect anything within proximity. In certain embodiments to get the best selectivity from targeted photosensitizers, anti-oxidants can be used to quench un-bound photosensitizers, limiting the damage only to cells where the conjugates have accumulated due to the targeting peptide. The membrane structures of the target cell act as the proton donors in this case.
 In typical photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) the targeted photosensitizer is "activated by the application of a light source (e.g., a visible light source, an ultraviolet light source, an infrared light source, etc.). PACT applications however need not be limited to topical use. Regions of the mouth, throat, nose, sinuses are readily illuminated. Similarly regions of the gut can readily be illuminated using endoscopic techniques. Other internal regions can be illumined using laparoscopic methods or during other surgical procedures. For example, in certain embodiments involving the insertion or repair or replacement of an implantable device (e.g., a prosthetic device) it contemplated that the device can be coated or otherwise contacted with a chimeric moiety comprising a targeting moiety attached to a photosensitizer as described herein. During the surgical procedure and/or just before closing, the device can be illuminated with an appropriate light source to activate the photosensitizer.
 The targeted photosensitizers and uses thereof described herein are illustrative and not to be limiting. Using the teachings provided herein, other targeted photosensitizers and uses thereof will be available to one of skill in the art.
 Antimicrobial Peptides.
 In certain embodiments the chimeric moieties described herein include one or more antimicrobial peptides (e.g., certain peptides shown in Table 2 and/or Table 10) as effectors. Thus, for example, in certain embodiments, where the peptides described in Table 2 are exploited for their targeting ability, chimeric moieties are contemplated comprising one or more of the targeting peptides of Table 2 attached to one or more of the antimicrobial peptides of Table 10. In certain embodiments chimeric moieties are contemplated comprising one or more of the targeting peptides of Table 2 attached to one or more of the antimicrobial peptides of Table 2. In certain embodiments chimeric moieties are contemplated comprising other targeting moieties (e.g., porphyrins, antibodies, etc.) attached to one or more of the antimicrobial peptides of Table 2.
 Antimicrobial peptides (also called host defense peptides) are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response and are found among all classes of life. Unmodified, these peptides are potent, broad spectrum antibiotics which demonstrate potential as novel therapeutic agents. Antimicrobial peptides have been demonstrated to kill Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (including strains that are resistant to conventional antibiotics), mycobacteria (including Mycobacterium tuberculosis), enveloped viruses, and fungi.
 Naturally-occurring antimicrobial peptides are typically short peptides, generally between 12 and 50 amino acids. These peptides often include two or more positively charged residues provided by arginine, lysine or, in acidic environments, histidine, and frequently a large proportion (generally >50%) of hydrophobic residues (see, e.g., Papagianni et al. (2003) Biotechnol Adv 21: 465; Sitaram and Nagaraj (2002) Curr Pharm Des 8: 727; Dun et al. (2006) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758: 1408-1425).
 Frequently the secondary structures of these molecules follow 4 themes, including i) α-helical, ii) β-stranded due to the presence of 2 or more disulfide bonds, iii) β-hairpin or loop due to the presence of a single disulfide bond and/or cyclization of the peptide chain, and iv) extended. Many of these peptides are unstructured in free solution, and fold into their final configuration upon partitioning into biological membranes. The ability to associate with membranes is a definitive feature of antimicrobial peptides although membrane permeabilisation is not necessary. These peptides have a variety of antimicrobial activities ranging from membrane permeabilization to action on a range of cytoplasmic targets.
 The modes of action by which antimicrobial peptides kill bacteria is varied and includes, but is not limited to disrupting membranes, interfering with metabolism, and targeting cytoplasmic components. In many cases the exact mechanism of killing is not known.
 In various embodiments one or more antimicrobial peptides are used alone (e.g., as broad spectrum antimicrobials) and/or are provided as effectors attached to one or more targeting moieties thereby providing a narrower spectrum (directed) antimicrobial. In certain embodiments one or more antimicrobial peptides are provided as effectors attached to one or more targeting moieties and/or one or more effectors thereby providing a component of a multiple effector composition/strategy.
 Suitable antimicrobial peptides for this use include, but are not limited to the antimicrobial peptides found in Table 2, and/or Table 9, and/or Table 10.
TABLE-US-00009 TABLE 8 Novel antimicrobial peptides. ID Structure/sequence SEQ ID NO K-1 GLGRVIGRLIKQIIWRR 533 K-2 VYRKRKSILKIYAKLKGWH 534 K-3 AFYQRKENVISLDPREWLGFNVTEK 535 K-4 DKKRVIERIKSFSLRDEVIHFGELCIYWGK 536 K-5 RSSYNGFSKICFLKIEHFGSYSYQGR 537 K-6 WLNAISLYGRIG 538 K-7 NYRLVNAIFSKIFKKKFIKF 539 K-8 KIL K FLF K KVF 540 K-9 FI RK FLK KW LL 541 K-10 KLFKFLRKHLL 542 K-11 KIL K FLF K QVF 543 K-12 KIL K KLF K FVF 544 K-13 GIL K KLF T KVF 545 K-14 L R K FL H K LF 546 K-15 L R KNL R WLF 547 K-16 FI RK FLQ KLHL 548 K-17 FTRKFLKFLHL 549 K-18 KKFKKFKVLKIL 550 K-19 LLKLLKLKKLKF 551
 In certain embodiments peptides that induce alterations in phenotype or other biological activities can also be used as antimicrobial effector moieties. Illustrative alternative peptides are shown in Table 9.
TABLE-US-00010 TABLE 9 Novel growth phenotype-inducing or peptides with other activities. SEQ ID ID Organism, effect Structure/sequence NO G-1 S. mutans: Ca2+ bindng DSSQSDSDSDSNSSNTNSNSSITNG 552 G-2 S. mutans: biofilm LPGTLHIQAEFPVQLEAGSLIQIFD 553 structure G-3 S. mutans: biofilm LACTTPVGAVLYLGAEVCAGAAVI 554 structure YYGAN G-4 S. mutans: EIPIQLANDLANYYDISLDSIFFW 555 Biofilm structure G-5 M. xanthus: RDMTVAGKRPNFLIITTDEE 556 Altered cell morphology G-6 M. xanthus: NTSIVCAVTFAPIKEVPLLWRAGLT 557 Altered cell morphology LRSRQS G-7 M. xanthus: QAKVEREVERDLVYTLRRLCDPSG 558 Altered cell morphology SERTK G-8 S. mutans: PRMIDIISFHGCHGDHQVWTDPQAT 559 Altered biofilm structure ALPR
 Other illustrative antimicrobial peptides include, but are not limited to the AMPs of Table 10.
TABLE-US-00011 TABLE 10 Other illustrative antimicrobial peptides. AP numbers refer to ID in antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.php). SEQ ID Effector Structure/Sequence No AP00274 1BH4, Circulin A GIPCGESCVWIPCISAALGCSCKNKVC 560 (CirA, plant YRN cyclotides, XXC, ZZHp) AP00036 1BNB, Beta-defensin 1 DFASCHTNGGICLPNRCPGHMIQIGICF 561 (cow) RPRVKCCRSW AP00047 1BNB, Bovine GPLSCGRNGGVCIPIRCPVPMRQIGTC 562 neutrophil beta-defensin FGRPVKCCRSW 12 (BNBD-12, cow) AP00428 1C01, MiAMP1 SAFTVWSGPGCNNRAERYSKCGCSAI 563 (Macadamia integrifolia HQKGGYDFSYTGQTAALYNQAGCSG antimicrobial peptide 1, VAHTRFGSSARACNPFGWKSIFIQC plant) AP00154 1CIX, Tachystatin A2 YSRCQLQGFNCVVRSYGLPTIPCCRGL 564 (Horseshoe crabs, TCRSYFPGSTYGRCQRY Crustacea, BBS) AP00145 1CW5, VNYGNGVSCSKTKCSVNWGQAFQER 565 Carnobacteriocin B2 YTAGINSFVSGVASGAGSIGRRP (CnbB2, class IIA bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00153 1CZ6, Androctonin RSVCRQIKICRRRGGCYYKCTNRPY 566 (scorpions) AP00152 1D6X, Tritrpticin VRRFPWWWPFLRR 567 (synthetic) AP00201 1D7N, Mastoparan INLKALAALAKKIL 568 (insect) AP00140 1D9J, CecropinA- KWKLFKKIGIGKFLHSAKKF 569 Magainin2 hybrid (synthetic) AP00178 1DFN, human alpha DCYCRIPACIAGERRYGTCIYQGRLW 570 Defensin HNP-3 AFCC (human neutrophil peptide-3, HNP3, human defensin, ZZHh) AP01153 1DQC, Tachycitin YLAFRCGRYSPCLDDGPNVNLYSCCS 571 (horseshoe crabs, FYNCHKCLARLENCPKGLHYNAYLK Crustacea, BBS) VCDWPSKAGCT AP00437 1DUM, Magainin 2 GIGKYLHSAKKFGKAWVGEIMNS 572 analog (synthetic) AP00451 1E4S, Human beta DHYNCVSSGGQCLYSACPIFTKIQGTC 573 defensin 1 (HBD-1, YRGKAKCCK human defensin) AP00149 1EWS, Rabbit kidney MPCSCKKYCDPWEVIDGSCGLFNSKY 574 defensin 1 (RK-1) ICCREK AP00141 1F0E, CecropinA- KWKLFKKIPKFLHSAKKF 575 Magainin2 Hybrid (P18, synthetic) AP00142 1F0G, CecropinA- KLKLFKKIGIGKFLHSAKKF 576 Magainin2 Hybrid (synthetic) AP00143 1F0H, CecropinA- KAKLFKKIGIGKFLHSAKKF 577 Magainin2 Hybrid (synthetic) AP00524 1FD4, Human beta GIGDPVTCLKSGAICHPVFCPRRYKQI 578 defensin 2 (HBD-2, GTCGLPGTKCCKKP human defensin, ZZHh) AP00438 1FJN, Mussel Defensin GFGCPNNYQCHRHCKSIPGRCGGYCG 579 MGD-1 GWHRLPCTCYRCG AP00155 1FRY, SMAP-29 RGLRRLGRKIAHGVKKYGPTVLRIIRI 580 (SMAP29, sheep AG cathelicidin) AP00150 1G89, Indolicidin (cow ILPWKWPWWPWRR 581 cathelicidin, BBN, ZZHa) AP00156 1GR4, Microcin J25, VGIGTPISFYGGGAGHVPEYF 582 linear (MccJ25, bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00151 1HR1, Indolicidin P to ILAWKWAWWAWRR 583 A mutant (synthetic) AP00196 1HU5, Ovispirin-1 KNLRRIIRKIIHIIKKYG 584 (synthetic) AP00197 1HU6, Novispirin G10 KNLRRIIRKGIHIIKKYG 585 (synthetic) AP00198 1HU7, Novispirin T7 KNLRRITRKIIHIIKKYG 586 (synthetic) AP00445 1HVZ, Monkey RTD-1 GFCRCLCRRGVCRCICTR 587 (rhesus theta-defensin-1, minidefensin-1, animal defensin, XXC, BBS, lectin, ZZHa) AP00103 1i2v, Heliomicin variant DKLIGSCVWGAVNYTSDCNGECLLRG 588 (Hel-LL, synthetic) YKGGHCGSFANVNCWCET AP00216 1ICA, Phormia defensin ATCDLLSGTGINHSACAAHCLLRGNR 589 A (insect defensin A) GGYCNGKGVCVCRN AP01224 1Jo3, Gramicidin B VGALAVVVWLFLWLW 590 (bacteria) AP01225 1jo4, Gramicidin C VGALAVVVWLYLWLW 591 (bacteria) AP00191 1KFP, Gomesin (Gm, ECRRLCYKQRCVTYCRGR 592 Spider, XXA) AP00283 1KJ6, Huamn beta GIINTLQKYYCRVRGGRCAVLSCLPKE 593 defensin 3 (HBD-3, EQIGKCSTRGRKCCRRKK human defensin, ZZHh) AP00147 1KV4, Moricin (insect, AKIPIKAIKTVGKAVGKGLRAINIASTA 594 silk moth) NDVFNFLKPKKRKA AP00227 1L4V, Sapecin (insect, ATCDLLSGTGINHSACAAHCLLRGNR 595 flesh fly) GGYCNGKAVCVCRN AP01161 1L9L, Human GRDYRTCLTIVQKLKKMVDKPTQRSV 596 granulysin (huGran) SNAATRVCTRGRSRWRDVCRNFMRR YQSRVIQGLVAGETAQQICEDLRLCIP STGPL AP00026 1LFC, Lactoferricin B FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAF 597 (LfcinB, cow, ZZHa) AP00193 1M4F, human LEAP-1 DTHFPICIFCCGCCHRSKCGMCCKT 598 (Hepcidin 25) AP00499 1MAG, Gramicidin A VGALAVVVWLWLWLW 599 (gA, bacteria) AP00403 1MM0, Termicin ACNFQSCWATCQAQHSIYFRRAFCDR 600 (termite defensin, insect SQCKCVFVRG defensin) AP00194 1MMC, Ac-AMP2 VGECVRGRCPSGMCCSQFGYCGKGP 601 (plant defensin, BBS) KYCGR AP01206 1MQZ, Mersacidin CTFTLPGGGGVCTLTSECIC 602 (bacteria) AP00429 1NKL, Porcine NK- GYFCESCRKIIQKLEDMVGPQPNEDTV 603 Lysin (pig) TQAASQVCDKLKILRGLCKKIMRSFL RRISWDILTGKKPQAICVDIKICKE AP00633 log7, Sakacin P/ KYYGNGVHCGKHSCTVDWGTAIGNI 604 Sakacin 674 (SakP, GNNAAANWATGGNAGWNK class IIA bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00195 1PG1, Protegrin 1 RGGRLCYCRRRFCVCVGR 605 (Protegrin-1, PG-1, pig cathelicidin, XXA, ZZHa, BBBm) AP00928 1PXQ, Subtilosin A NKGCATCSIGAACLVDGPIPDFEIAGA 606 (XXC, class I TGLFGLWG bacteriocin, Gram- positive bacteria) AP00480 1Q71, Microcin J25 VGIGTPIFSYGGGAGHVPEYF 607 (cyclic MccJ25, class I microcins, bacteriocins, Gram-negative bacteria, XXC; BBP) AP00211 1RKK, Polyphemusin I RRWCFRVCYRGFCYRKCR 608 (crabs, Crustacea) AP00430 1T51, IsCT (Scorpion) ILGKIWEGIKSLF 609 AP00731 1ut3, Spheniscin-2 SFGLCRLRRGFCARGRCRFPSIPIGRCS 610 (Sphe-2, penguin RFVQCCRRVW defensin, avian defensin) AP00013 1VM5, Aurein 1.2 GLFDIIKKIAESF 611 (frog) AP00214 1WO1, Tachyplesin I KWCFRVCYRGICYRRCR 612 (crabs, Crustacea, XXA, ZZHa) AP00644 1xc0, Pardaxin 4 GFFALIPKIISSPLFKTLLSAVGSALSSS 613 (Pardaxin P-4, Pardaxin GGQE P4, Pa4, flat fish) AP00493 1XKM, Distinctin (two NLVSGLIEARKYLEQLHRKLKNCKV 614 chains for stability and transport? frog) AP00420 1XV3, Penaeidin-4d HSSGYTRPLRKPSRPIFIRPIGCDVCYGI 615 (penaeidin 4, shrimp, PSSTARLCCFRYGDCCHL Crustacea) AP00035 1YTR, Plantaricin A KSSAYSLQMGATAIKQVKKLFKKWGW 616 (PlnA, bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00166 1Z64, Pleurocidin (fish) GWGSFFKKAAHVGKHVGKAALTHYL 617 AP00780 1Z6V, Human GRRRRSVQWCAVSQPEATKCFQWQR 618 lactoferricin NMRKVRGPPVSCIKRDSPIQCIQA AP00549 1ZFU, Plectasin (fungi, GFGCNGPWDEDDMQCHNHCKSIKGY 619 fungal defensin) KGGYCAKGGFVCKCY AP00177 1ZMH, human alpha CYCRIPACIAGERRYGTCIYQGRLWAF 620 Defensin HNP-2 CC (human neutrophil peptide-2, HNP2, human defensin, ZZHh) AP00179 1ZMM, human alpha VCSCRLVFCRRTELRVGNCLIGGVSFT 621 Defensin HNP-4 YCCTRVD (human neutrophil peptide-4, HNP4, human defensin) AP00180 1ZMP, human alpha QARATCYCRTGRCATRESLSGVCEISG 622 Defensin HD-5 (HD5, RLYRLCCR human defensin) AP00181 1ZMQ, human alpha STRAFTCHCRRSCYSTEYSYGTCTVM 623 Defensin HD-6 (HD6, GINHRFCCL human defensin) AP00399 1ZRW, Spinigerin HVDKKVADKVLLLKQLRIMRLLTRL 624
(insect, termite) AP01157 1ZRX, Stomoxyn RGFRKHFNKLVKKVKHTISETAHVAK 625 (insect) DTAVIAGSGAAVVAAT AP00637 2A2B, Curvacin A/ ARSYGNGVYCNNKKCWVNRGEATQS 626 sakacin A (CurA, SakA, IIGGMISGWASGLAGM class IIA bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00558 2B68, Cg-Def GFGCPGNQLKCNNHCKSISCRAGYCD 627 (Crassostrea gigas AATLWLRCTCTDCNGKK defensin, oyster defensin, animal defensin) AP01154 2B9K, LCI (bacteria) AIKLVQSPNGNFAASFVLDGTKWIFKS 628 KYYDSSKGYWVGIYEVWDRK AP01005 2DCV, Tachystatin B1 YVSCLFRGARCRVYSGRSCCFGYYCR 629 (BBS, horseshoe crabs) RDFPGSIFGTCSRRNF AP01006 2DCW, Tachystatin B1 YITCLFRGARCRVYSGRSCCFGYYCR 630 (BBS, horseshoe crabs) RDFPGSIFGTCSRRNF AP00275 2ERI, Circulin B (CirB, CGESCVFIPCISTLLGCSCKNKVCYRN 631 plant cyclotides, XXC, GVIP ZZHp) AP00707 2f3a, LLAA (LL-37- RLFDKIRQVIRKF 632 derived aurein 1.2 analog, retro-FK13, synthetic) AP00708 2fbs, FK-13 (FK13, FKRIVQRIKDFLR 633 NMR-discovered LL-37 core peptide, XXA, ZZHs, synthetic) AP00088 2G9L, Gaegurin-4 GILDTLKQFAKGVGKDLVKGAAQGV 634 (Gaegurin 4, frog) LSTVSCKLAKTC AP01011 2G9P, Latarcin 2a GLFGKLIKKFGRKAISYAVKKARGKH 635 (Ltc2a, BBM, spider) AP00612 2GDL, Fowlicidin-2 LVQRGRFGRFLRKIRRFRPKVTITIQGS 636 (chCATH-2, bird ARFG cathelicidin, chicken cathelicidin, BBL) AP00402 2GL1, VrD2 (Vigna KTCENLANTYRGPCFTTGSCDDHCKN 637 radiata defensin 2, plant KEHLRSGRCRDDFRCWCTRNC defensin, mung bean) AP00285 2GW9, Cryptdin-4 GLLCYCRKGHCKRGERVRGTCGIRFL 638 (Crp4, animal defensin, YCCPRR alpha, mouse) AP00613 2hfr, Fowlicidin-3 RVKRFWPLVPVAINTVAAGINLYKAI 639 (chCATH-3, bird RRK cathelicidin, chicken cathelicidin) AP01007 2JMY, CM15 KWKLFKKIGAVLKVL 640 (Synthetic) AP00728 2jni, Arenicin-2 (marine RWCVYAYVRIRGVLVRYRRCW 641 polychaeta, BBBm) AP00473 2jos, Piscidin 1 (fish) FFHHIFRGIVHVGKTIHRLVTG 642 AP01151 2JPJ, Lactococcin G-a GTWDDIGQGIGRVAYWVGKALGNLS 643 (chain a, class IIb DVNQASRINRKKKH bacteriocin, bacteria. For chain b, see info) AP00757 2jpy, Phylloseptin-H2 FLSLIPHAINAVSTLVHHF 644 (PLS-H2, Phylloseptin- 2, PS-2) (XXA, frog) AP00546 2jq0, Phylloseptin-1 FLSLIPHAINAVSAIAKHN 645 (Phylloseptin-H1, PLS- H1, PS-1, XXA, frog) AP00758 2jq1, Phylloseptin-3 FLSLIPHAINAVSALANHG 646 (Phylloseptin-H3, PLS- H3, PS-3) (XXA, frog) AP00727 2jsb, Arenicin-1 (marine RWCVYAYVRVRGVLVRYRRCW 647 polychaeta, BBBm) AP00592 2k10, Ranatuerin-2CSa GILSSFKGVAKGVAKDLAGKLLETLK 648 (frog) CKITGC AP00485 2K38, Cupiennin 1a GFGALFKFLAKKVAKTVAKQAAKQG 649 (spider) AKYVVNKQME AP00310 2K6O, Human LL-37 LLGDFFRKSKEKIGKEFKRIVQRIKDFL 650 (LL37, human RNLVPRTES cathelicidin; released by proteinase 3 from its precursor in neutrophils; FALL-39; BBB, BBM, BBP, BBW, BBD, BBL, ZZHh) AP00199 2LEU, Leucocin A KYYGNGVHCTKSGCSVNWGEAFSAG 651 (LeuA, class IIa VHRLANGGNGFW bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00144 2MAG, Magainin 2 GIGKFLHSAKKFGKAFVGEIMNS 652 (frog) AP00146 2MLT, Melittin (insect, GIGAVLKVLTTGLPALISWIKRKRQQ 653 ZZHa) AP01010 2PCO, Latarcin 1 (Ltc1, SMWSGMWRRKLKKLRNALKKKLKG 654 BBM, spider) EK AP00176 2PM1, human alpha ACYCRIPACIAGERRYGTCIYQGRLW 655 Defensin HNP-1 AFCC (human neutrophil peptide-1, HNP1, human defensin, ZZHh) AP01158 2RLG, RP-1 (synthetic) ALYKKFKKKLLKSLKRL 656 AP00102 8TFV, Thanatin (insect) GSKKPVPIIYCNRRTGKCQRM 657 AP00995 A58718, Carnocin UI49 GSEIQPR 658 (bacteria) AP01002 AAC18827, Mutacin III KSWSLCTPGCARTGSFNSYCC 659 (mutacin 1140, bacteria) AP00987 ABI74601, Arasin 1 SRWPSPGRPRPFPGRPKPIFRPRPCNCY 660 (Crustacea) APPCPCDRW AP01000 CAA63706, variacin GSGVIPTISHECHMNSFQFVFTCCS 661 (lantibiotic, class I bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00361 O15946, Lebocin 4 DLRFWNPREKLPLPTLPPFNPKPIYID 662 (insect, silk moth) MGNRY AP00343 O16825, Andropin VFIDILDKMENAIHKAAQAGIGIAKPIE 663 (insect, fruit fly) KMILPK AP00417 O17513, Ceratotoxin D SIGTAVKKAVPIAKKVGKVAIPIAKAV 664 (insect, fly) LSVVGQLVG AP00435 O18494, Styelin C (sea GWFGKAFRSVSNFYKKHKTYIHAGLS 665 squirt, tunicate, XXA) AATLL AP00330 O18495, Styelin D (Sea GWLRKAAKSVGKFYYKHKYYIKAA 666 squirt, tunicate, XXA) WQIGKHAL AP00331 O18495, Styelin E (Sea GWLRKAAKSVGKFYYKHKYYIKAA 667 squirt, tunicate, XXA) WKIGRHAL AP01001 O54329, Mutacin II NRWWQGVVPTVSYECRMNSWQHVF 668 (lantibiotic, mutacin H- TCC 29B, J-T8, class I bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00342 O81338, Antimicrobial AKCIKNGKGCREDQGPPFCCSGFCYR 669 peptide 1 (plant) QVGWARGYCKNR AP00373 O96059, Moricin 2 AKIPIKAIKTVGKAVGKGLRAINIASTA 670 (insect) NDVFNFLKPKKRKH AP00449 P01190, Melanotropin SYSMEHFRWGKPV 671 alpha (Alpha-MSH) AP00187 P01376, VVCACRRALCLPRERRAGFCRIRGRIH 672 CORTICOSTATIN III PLCCRR (MCP-1, rabbit neutrophil peptide 1, NP-1) (animal defensin, alpha-defensin, rabbit) AP00188 P01377, VVCACRRALCLPLERRAGFCRIRGRIH 673 CORTICOSTATIN IV PLCCRR (MCP-2, rabbit neutrophil defensin 2, NP-2, animal defensin, rabbit) AP00049 P01505, Bombinin GIGALSAKGALKGLAKGLAEHFAN 674 (toad) AP00139 P01507, Cecropin A KWKLFKKIEKVGQNIRDGIIKAGPAVA 675 (insect, ZZHa) VVGQATQIAK AP00128 P01509, Cecropin B KWKIFKKIEKVGRNIRNGIIKAGPAVA 676 (insect, silk moth) VLGEAKAL AP00131 P01511, Cecropin D WNPFKELERAGQRVRDAIISAGPAVA 677 (insect, moth) TVAQATALAK AP00136 P01518, Crabrolin FLPLILRKIVTAL 678 (insect, XXA) AP00183 P04142, Cecropin B RWKIFKKIEKMGRNIRDGIVKAGPAIE 679 (insect) VLGSAKAI AP00448 P04205, Mastoparan M INLKAIAALAKKLL 680 (MP-M, insect, XXA) AP00234 P06833, SDEKASPDKHHRFSLSRYAKLANRLA 681 Seminalplasmin (SPLN, NPKLLETFLSKWIGDRGNRSV calcium transporter inhibitor, caltrin, cow) AP00314 P07466, Rabbit VFCTCRGFLCGSGERASGSCTINGVRH 682 neutrophil peptide 5 TLCCRR (NP-5, animal defensin, alpha-defensin) AP00189 P07467, Rabbit VSCTCRRFSCGFGERASGSCTVNGVR 683 neutrophil peptide 4 HTLCCRR (NP-4) AP00186 P07468, GRCVCRKQLLCSYRERRIGDCKIRGV 684 CORTICOSTATIN II RFPFCCPR (Rabbit neutrophil peptide 3b (NP-3b, rabbit) AP00185 P07469, ICACRRRFCPNSERFSGYCRVNGARY 685 CORTICOSTATIN I VRCCSRR (rabbit) AP00217 P07469, Rabbit GICACRRRFCPNSERFSGYCRVNGAR 686 neutrophil defensin 3a YVRCCSRR (NP-3a, animal defensin, alpha- defensin) AP00067 P07493, Bombolitin II SKITDILAKLGKVLAHV 687 (insect, bee) AP00068 P07494, Bombolitin III IKIMDILAKLGKVLAHV 688 (insect, bee) AP00069 P07495, Bombolitin IV INIKDILAKLVKVLGHV 689 (insect, bee) AP00070 P07496, Bombolitin V INVLGILGLLGKALSHL 690 (insect, bee)
AP00236 P07504, Pyrularia KSCCRNTWARNCYNVCRLPGTISREIC 691 thionin (Pp-TH, plant) AKKCDCKIISGTTCPSDYPK AP00230 P08375, Sarcotoxin IA GWLKKIGKKIERVGQHTRDATIQGLGI 692 (insect, flesh AQQAANVAATAR AP00231 P08376, Sarcotoxin IB GWLKKIGKKIERVGQHTRDATIQVIG 693 (insect, flesh VAQQAANVAATAR AP00232 P08377, Sarcotoxin IC GWLRKIGKKIERVGQHTRDATIQVLGI 694 (insect, flesh AQQAANVAATAR AP00066 P10521, Bombolitin I IKITTMLAKLGKVLAHV 695 (insect, bee) AP00206 P10946, Lantibiotic WKSESLCTPGCVTGALQTCFLQTLTC 696 subtilin (class I NCKISK bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00312 P11477, Cryptdin-2 LRDLVCYCRARGCKGRERMNGTCRK 697 (Crp2, animal defensin, GHLLYMLCCR alpha, mouse) AP00205 P13068, Nisin A ITSISLCTPGCKTGALMGCNMKTATC 698 (lantibiotic, class I HCSIHVSK bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00215 P14214, Tachyplesin II RWCFRVCYRGICYRKCR 699 (crabs, Crustacea) AP00212 P14216, Polyphemusin RRWCFRVCYKGFCYRKCR 700 II (crabs, Crustacea, XXA, ZZHa. Derivatives: T22) AP00134 P14661, Cecropin P1 SWLSKTAKKLENSAKKRISEGIAIAIQ 701 (pig) GGPR AP00011 P14662, Bactericidin B2 WNPFKELERAGQRVRDAVISAAPAVA 702 (insect) TVGQAAAIARG AP00032 P14663, Bactericidin B- WNPFKELERAGQRVRDAIISAGPAVA 703 3 (insect) TVGQAAAIARG AP00033 P14664, Bactericidin B- WNPFKELERAGQRVRDAIISAAPAVA 704 4 (insect) TVGQAAAIARG AP00034 P14665, Bactericidin B- WNPFKELERAGQRVRDAVISAAAVAT 705 5P (insect) VGQAAAIARG AP00125 P14666, Cecropin RWKIFKKIEKVGQNIRDGIVKAGPAV 706 (insect, silk moth) AVVGQAATI AP00002 P15450, ABAECIN YVPLPNVPQPGRRPFPTFPGQGPFNPKI 707 (insect, honeybee) KWPQGY AP00505 P15516, human Histatin DSHAKRHHGYKRKFHEKHHSHRGY 708 5 (ZZHs; derivatives Dh-5) AP00520 P15516, human Histatin 3 DSHAKRHHGYKRKFHEKHHSHRGYR 709 SNYLYDN AP00523 P15516, human Histatin 8 KFHEKHHSHRGY 710 AP00226 P17722, Royalisin VTCDLLSFKGQVNDSACAANCLSLGK 711 (insect, honeybee) AGGHCEKVGCICRKTSFKDLWDKRF AP00213 P18252, Tachyplesin III KWCFRVCYRGICYRKCR 712 (horseshoe crabs, Crustacea) AP00233 P18312, Sarcotoxin ID GWIRDFGKRIERVGQHTRDATIQTIAV 713 (insect, flesh AQQAANVAATLKG AP00207 P19578, Lantibiotic TAGPAIRASVKQCQKTLKATRLFTVS 714 PEP5 (class I CKGKNGCK bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00009 P19660, BACTENECIN RFRPPIRRPPIRPPFYPPFRPPIRPPIFPPI 715 5 (bac5, cow RPPFRPPLGPFP cathelicidin) AP00010 P19661, BACTENECIN RRIRPRPPRLPRPRPRPLPFPRPGPRPIP 716 7 (bac7, cow RPLPFPRPGPRPIPRPLPFPRPGPRPIPRPL cathelicidin) AP00200 P21564, Mastoparan B LKLKSIVSWAKKVL 717 (MP-B, insect, XXA) AP00005 P21663, Andropin VFIDILDKVENAIHNAAQVGIGFAKPF 718 (insect, fly) EKLINPK AP00008 P22226, Cyclic RLCRIVVIRVCR 719 dodecapeptide (cow cathelicidin) AP01205 P23826, Lactocin S STPVLASVAVSMELLPTASVLYSDVA 720 (XXD3, bacteria) GCFKYSAKHHC AP00239 P24335, XPF (the GWASKIGQTLGKIAKVGLKELIQPK 721 xenopsin precursor fragment, African clawed frog) AP00235 P25068, Bovine tracheal NPVSCVRNKGICVPIRCPGSMKQIGTC 722 antimicrobial peptide VGRAVKCCRKK (TAP, cow) AP00418 P25230, CAP18 (rabbit GLRKRLRKFRNKIKEKLKKIGQKIQGF 723 cathelicidin, BBL) VPKLAPRTDY AP00203 P25403, Mj-AMP1 QCIGNGGRCNENVGPPYCCSGFCLRQ 724 (MjAMP1, plant PGQGYGYCKNR defensin) AP00202 P25404, Mj-AMP2 CIGNGGRCNENVGPPYCCSGFCLRQP 725 (MjAMP2, plant NQGYGVCRNR defensin) AP00138 P28310, Cryptdin-3 LRDLVCYCRKRGCKRRERMNGTCRK 726 (Crp3, animal defensin, GHLMYTLCCR alpha, mouse) AP00184 P28794, MBP-1 (plant) RSGRGECRRQCLRRHEGQPWETQEC 727 MRRCRRRG AP00050 P29002, Bombinin-like GIGASILSAGKSALKGLAKGLAEHFAN 728 peptide 1 (BLP-1, toad) AP00051 P29003, Bombinin-like GIGSAILSAGKSALKGLAKGLAEHFAN 729 peptide 2 (BLP-2, toad) AP00052 P29004, Bombinin-like GIGAAILSAGKSALKGLAKGLAEHF 730 peptide 3 (BLP-3, XXA, toad) AP00053 P29005, Bombinin-like GIGAAILSAGKSIIKGLANGLAEHF 731 peptide 4 (BLP-4, toad) AP00634 P29430, Pediocin PA-1/ KYYGNGVTCGKHSCSVDWGKATTCII 732 AcH (PedPA1, class IIA NNGAMAWATGGHQGNHKC bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00204 P29559, Nisin Z ITSISLCTPGCKTGALMGCNMKTATC 733 (lantibiotic, class I NCSIHVSK bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00130 P29561, Cecropin C GWLKKLGKRIERIGQHTRDATIQGLGI 734 (insect, fly) AQQAANVAATAR AP00001 P31107, GLWSKIKEVGKEAAKAAAKAAGKAA 735 ADENOREGULIN LGAVSEAV (Dermaseptin B2, Dermaseptin-B2, DRS- B2, DRS B2, frog) AP00228 P31529, Sapecin B LTCEIDRSLCLLHCRLKGYLRAYCSQQ 736 (insect, flesh fly) KVCRCVQ AP00229 P31530, Sapecin C ATCDLLSGIGVQHSACALHCVFRGNR 737 (insect, flesh fly) GGYCTGKGICVCRN AP00218 P32195, Protegrin 2 RGGRLCYCRRRFCICV 738 (PG-2, pig cathelicidin) AP00219 P32196, Protegrin 3 RGGGLCYCRRRFCVCVGR 739 (PG-3, pig cathelicidin) AP00073 P32412, Brevinin-1E FLPLLAGLAANFLPKIFCKITRKC 740 (frog) AP00080 P32414, Esculentin-1 GIFSKLGRKKIKNLLISGLKNVGKEVG 741 (frog) MDVVRTGIDIAGCKIKGEC AP00074 P32423, Brevinin-1 FLPVLAGIAAKVVPALFCKITKKC 742 (frog) AP00075 P32424, Brevinin-2 GLLDSLKGFAATAGKGVLQSLLSTAS 743 (frog) CKLAKTC AP00175 P34084, Macaque DSHEERHHGRHGHHKYGRKFHEKHH 744 histatin (M-Histatin 1, SHRGYRSNYLYDN primate, monkey) AP00006 P35581, Apidaecin IA GNNRPVYIPQPRPPHPRI 745 (insect, honeybee) AP00007 P35581, Apidaecin IB GNNRPVYIPQPRPPHPRL 746 (insect, honeybee) AP00414 P36190, Ceratotoxin A SIGSALKKALPVAKKIGKIALPIAKAA 747 (insect, fly) LP AP00415 P36191, Ceratotoxin B SIGSAFKKALPVAKKIGKAALPIAKAA 748 (insect, fly) LP AP00172 P36193, Drosocin GKPRPYSPRPTSHPRPIRV 749 (insect) AP00170 P37362, Pyrrhocoricin VDKGSYLPRPTPPRPIYNRN 750 (insect) AP00635 P38577, Mesentericin KYYGNGVHCTKSGCSVNWGEAASAG 751 Y105 (MesY105, class IHRLANGGNGFW IIA bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00636 P38579, AISYGNGVYCNKEKCWVNKAENKQA 752 Carnobacteriocin BM1 ITGIVIGGWASSLAGMGH (CnbBM1, PiscV1b, class IIA bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00209 P39080, Peptide PGQ GVLSNVIGYLKKLGTGALNAVLKQ 753 (frog) AP00513 P39084, Ranalexin FLGGLIKIVPAMICAVTKKC 754 (frog) AP00071 P40835, Brevinin-1EA FLPAIFRMAAKVVPTIICSITKKC 755 (frog) AP00072 P40836, Brevinin-1EB VIPFVASVAAEMQHVYCAASRKC 756 (frog) AP00076 P40837, Brevinin-2EA GILDTLKNLAISAAKGAAQGLVNKAS 757 (frog) CKLSGQC AP00077 P40838, Brevinin-2EB GILDTLKNLAKTAGKGALQGLVKMA 758 (frog) SCKLSGQC AP00078 P40839, Brevinin-2EC GILLDKLKNFAKTAGKGVLQSLLNTA 759 (frog) SCKLSGQC AP00079 P40840, Brevinin-2ED GILDSLKNLAKNAGQILLNKASCKLSG 760 (frog) QC AP00081 P40843, Esculentin-1A GIFSKLAGKKIKNLLISGLKNVGKEVG 761 (frog) MDVVRTGIDIAGCKIKGEC AP00082 P40844, Esculentin-1B GIFSKLAGKKLKNLLISGLKNVGKEVG 762 (frog) MDVVRTGIDIAGCKIKGEC AP00083 P40845, Esculentin-2A GILSLVKGVAKLAGKGLAKEGGKFGL 763 (frog) ELIACKIAKQC AP00084 P40846, Esculentin-2B GIFSLVKGAAKLAGKGLAKEGGKFGL 764 (ES2B_RANES, frog) ELIACKIAKQC AP00299 P46156, Chicken GRKSDCFRKSGFCAFLKCPSLTLISGK 765
gallinacin 1 (Gal 1, CSRFYLCCKRIW avian beta-defensin, bird) AP00300 P46157, Gallinacin 1 GRKSDCFRKNGFCAFLKCPYLTLISGK 766 alpha (avian beta- CSRFHLCCKRIW defensin, Bird), AP00298 P46158, Chicken LFCKGGSCHFGGCPSHLIKVGSCFGFR 767 gallinacin 2 (Gal 2, SCCKWPWNA avian beta-defensin, bird) AP00037 P46160, Beta-defensin 2 VRNHVTCRINRGFCVPIRCPGRTRQIG 768 (cow) TCFGPRIKCCRSW AP00038 P46161, Beta-defensin 3 QGVRNHVTCRINRGFCVPIRCPGRTRQ 769 (cow) IGTCFGPRIKCCRSW AP00039 P46162, Beta-defensin 4 QRVRNPQSCRWNMGVCIPFLCRVGM 770 (cow) RQIGTCFGPRVPCCRR AP00040 P46163, Beta-defensin 5 QVVRNPQSCRWNMGVCIPISCPGNMR 771 (cow) QIGTCFGPRVPCCRRW AP00041 P46164, Beta-defensin 6 QGVRNHVTCRIYGGFCVPIRCPGRTR 772 (cow) QIGTCFGRPVKCCRRW AP00042 P46165, Beta-defensin 7 QGVRNFVTCRINRGFCVPIRCPGHRRQ 773 (cow) IGTCLGPRIKCCR AP00043 P46166, Beta-defensin 8 VRNFVTCRINRGFCVPIRCPGHRRQIG 774 (cow) TCLGPQIKCCR AP00044 P46167, Beta-defensin 9 QGVRNFVTCRINRGFCVPIRCPGHRRQ 775 (cow) IGTCLAPQIKCCR AP00045 P46168, Beta-defensin QGVRSYLSCWGNRGICLLNRCPGRMR 776 10 (cow) QIGTCLAPRVKCCR AP00046 P46169, Beta-defensin GPLSCRRNGGVCIPIRCPGPMRQIGTC 777 11 (cow) FGRPVKCCRSW AP00048 P46171, Bovine beta- SGISGPLSCGRNGGVCIPIRCPVPMRQI 778 defensin 13 (cow) GTCFGRPVKCCRSW AP00350 P48821, Enbocin PWNIFKEIERAVARTRDAVISAGPAVR 779 (insect, moth) TVAAATSVAS AP00173 P49112, GNCP-2 RCICTTRTCRFPYRRLGTCLFQNRVYT 780 (Guinea pig neutrophil FCC cationic peptide 2) AP00369 P49930, PMAP-23 RIIDLLWRVRRPQKPKFVTVWVR 781 (PMAP23, pig cathelicidin) AP00370 P49931, PMAP-36 VGRFRRLRKKTRKRLKKIGKVLKWIP 782 (PMAP36, pig PIVGSIPLGCG cathelicidin) AP00371 P49932, PMAP-37 GLLSRLRDFLSDRGRRLGEKIERIGQKI 783 (PMAP37, pig KDLSEFFQS cathelicidin) AP00220 P49933, Protegrin 4 RGGRLCYCRGWICFCVGR 784 (PG-4, pig cathelicidin) AP00221 P49934, Protegrin 5 RGGRLCYCRPRFCVCVGR 785 (PG-5, pig cathelicidin) AP00346 P50720, Hyphancin IIID RWKIFKKIERVGQNVRDGIIKAGPAIQ 786 (Fall webworm, insect) VLGTAKAL AP00347 P50721, Hyphancin IIIE RWKFFKKIERVGQNVRDGLIKAGPAI 787 (Fall webworm, insect) QVLGAAKAL AP00348 P50722, Hyphancin IIIF RWKVFKKIEKVGRNIRDGVIKAGPAI 788 (Fall webworm, insect) AVVGQAKAL AP00349 P50723, Hyphancin IIIG RWKVFKKIEKVGRHIRDGVIKAGPAIT 789 (Fall webworm, insect) VVGQATAL AP00281 P51473, mCRAMP GLLRKGGEKIGEKLKKIGQKIKNFFQK 790 (mouse cathelicidin; LVPQPEQ derivatives: CRAMP 18) AP00366 P54228, BMAP-27 GRFKRFRKKFKKLFKKLSPVIPLLHLG 791 (BMAP27, cow cathelicidin, ZZHs, derivatives BMAP-18 and BMAP-15) AP00367 P54229, BMAP-28 GGLRSLGRKILRAWKKYGPIIVPIIRIG 792 (BMAP28, cow cathelicidin) AP00450 P54230, Cyclic RICRIIFLRVCR 793 dodecapeptide (sheep cathelicidin) AP00359 P54684, Lebocin 1/2 DLRFLYPRGKLPVPTPPPFNPKPIYIDM 794 (insect, silk moth) GNRY AP00360 P55796, Lebocin 3 DLRFLYPRGKLPVPTLPPFNPKPIYIDM 795 (insect, silk moth) GNRY AP00307 P55897, Buforin I (toad) AGRGKQGGKVRAKAKTRSSRAGLQF 796 PVGRVHRLLRKGNY AP00308 P55897, Buforin II TRSSRAGLQFPVGRVHRLLRK 797 (toad) AP00240 P56226, Caerin 1.1 GLLSVLGSVAKHVLPHVVPVIAEHL 798 (frog, ZZHa) AP00241 P56227, Caerin 1.2 GLLGVLGSVAKHVLPHVVPVIAEHL 799 (frog) AP00242 P56228, Caerin 1.3 GLLSVLGSVAQHVLPHVVPVIAEHL 800 (frog) AP00243 P56229, Caerin 1.4 GLLSSLSSVAKHVLPHVVPVIAEHL 801 (frog) AP00244 P56230, Caerin 1.5 GLLSVLGSVVKHVIPHVVPVIAEHL 802 (frog) AP00245 P56231, Caerin 1.6 GLFSVLGAVAKHVLPHVVPVIAEK 803 (frog) AP00246 P56232, Caerin 1.7 GLFKVLGSVAKHLLPHVAPVIAEK 804 (frog) AP00249 P56233, Caerin 2.1 GLVSSIGRALGGLLADVVKSKGQPA 805 (frog) AP00250 P56234, Caerin 2.2 GLVSSIGRALGGLLADVVKSKEQPA 806 (frog) AP00251 P56236, Caerin 2.4 GLVSSIGKALGGLLADVVKTKEQPA 807 (frog) AP00252 P56236, Caerin 2.5 GLVSSIGRALGGLLADVVKSKEQPA 808 (frog) AP00253 P56238, Caerin 3.1 GLWQKIKDKASELVSGIVEGVK 809 (frog) AP00254 P56238, Caerin 3.2 GLWEKIKEKASELVSGIVEGVK 810 (frog) AP00255 P56240, Caerin 3.3 GLWEKIKEKANELVSGIVEGVK 811 (frog) AP00256 P56241, Caerin 3.4 GLWEKIREKANELVSGIVEGVK 812 (frog) AP00257 P56242, Caerin 4.1 GLWQKIKSAAGDLASGIVEGIKS 813 (frog) AP00258 P56243, Caerin 4.2 GLWQKIKSAAGDLASGIVEAIKS 814 (frog) AP00259 P56244, Caerin 4.3 GLWQKIKNAAGDLASGIVEGIKS 815 (frog) AP00434 P56249, Frenatin 3 GLMSVLGHAVGNVLGGLFKS 816 (frog) AP00272 P56386, Murine beta- DQYKCLQHGGFCLRSSCPSNTKLQGT 817 defensin 1 (mBD-1, CKPDKPNCCKS mouse) AP00368 P56425, BMAP-34 GLFRRLRDSIRRGQQKILEKARRIGERI 818 (BMAP34, cow KDIFRG cathelicidin) AP00273 P56685, Buthinin SIVPIRCRSNRDCRRFCGFRGGRCTYA 819 (Sahara scorpion) RQCLCGY AP00282 P56872, SIPCGESCVFIPCTVTALLGCSCKSKVC 820 Cyclopsychotride A YKN (CPT, plant cyclotides, XXC) AP00094 P56917, Temporin A FLPLIGRVLSGIL 821 (XXA, frog) AP00096 P56918, Temporin C LLPILGNLLNGLL 822 (XXA, frog) AP00097 P56920, Temporin E VLPIIGNLLNSLL 823 (XXA, frog) AP00098 P56921, Temporin F FLPLIGKVLSGIL 824 (XXA, frog) AP00100 P56923, Temporin K LLPNLLKSLL 825 (XXA, frog) AP00295 P56928, eNAP-2 (horse) EVERKHPLGGSRPGRCPTVPPGTFGHC 826 ACLCTGDASEPKGQKCCSN AP00101 P57104, Temporin L FVQWFSKFLGRIL 827 (XXA, frog) AP00095 P79874, Temporin B LLPIVGNLLKSLL 828 (XXA, frog) AP00099 P79875, Temporin G FFPVIGRILNGIL 829 (XXA, frog) AP00413 P80032, Coleoptericin SLQGGAPNFPQPSQQNGGWQVSPDLG 830 (insect) RDDKGNTRGQIEIQNKGKDHDFNAG WGKVIRGPNKAKPTWHVGGTYRR AP00396 P80054, PR-39 (PR39, RRRPRPPYLPRPRPPPFFPPRLPPRIPPG 831 pig cathelicidin) FPPRFPPRFP AP00182 P80154, Insect defensin GFGCPLDQMQCHRHCQTITGRSGGYC 832 SGPLKLTCTCYR AP00444 P80223, Corticostatin GICACRRRFCLNFEQFSGYCRVNGAR 833 VI (CS-VI) (animal YVRCCSRR defensin, rabbit) AP00208 P80230, Peptide 3910 RADTQTYQPYNKDWIKEKIYVLLRRQ 834 (pig) AQQAGK AP00157 P80277, Dermaseptin- ALWKTMLKKLGTMALHAGKAALGA 835 S1 (Dermaseptin S1, AADTISQGTQ DRS S1, DRS-S1, frog) AP00158 P80278, Dermaseptin- ALWFTMLKKLGTMALHAGKAALGA 836 S2 (Dermaseptin S2, AANTISQGTQ DRS S2, DRS-S2, frog) AP00159 P80279, Dermaseptin- ALWKNMLKGIGKLAGKAALGAVKKL 837 S3 (Dermaseptin S3, VGAES DRS S3, DRS-S3, frog) AP00160 P80280, Dermaseptin- ALWMTLLKKVLKAAAKALNAVLVG 838 S4 (Dermaseptin S4, ANA DRS S4, DRS-S4, frog) AP00161 P80281, Dermaseptin- GLWSKIKTAGKSVAKAAAKAAVKAV 839 S5 (Dermaseptin S5, TNAV DRS S5, DRS-S5, frog)
AP00293 P80282, Dermaseptin- AMWKDVLKKIGTVALHAGKAALGA 840 B1 (DRS-B1, DRS B1, VADTISQ frog) AP00264 P80389, Chicken GRKSDCFRKSGFCAFLKCPSLTLISGK 841 Heterophil Peptide 1 CSRFYLCCKRIR (CHP1, bird, animal) AP00265 P80390, Chicken GRKSDCFRKNGFCAFLKCPYLTLISGL 842 Heterophil Peptide 2 CSFHLC (CHP2, bird, animal) AP00266 P80391, Turkey GKREKCLRRNGFCAFLKCPTLSVISGT 843 Heterophil Peptide 1 CSRFQVCC (THP1, turkey) AP00267 P80392, Turkey LFCKRGTCHFGRCPSHLIKVGSCFGFR 844 Heterophil Peptide 2 SCCKWPWDA (THP2, bird, anaimal) AP00269 P80393, Turkey LSCKRGTCHFGRCPSHLIKGSCSGG 845 Heterophil Peptide 3 (THP3, bird, animal) AP00085 P80395, Gaegurin-1 SLFSLIKAGAKFLGKNLLKQGACYAA 846 (Gaegurin 1, frog) CKASKQC AP00086 P80396, Gaegurin-2 GIMSIVKDVAKNAAKEAAKGALSTLS 847 (Gaegurin 2, frog) CKLAKTC AP00087 P80397, Gaegurin-3 GIMSIVKDVAKTAAKEAAKGALSTLS 848 (Gaegurin 3, frog) CKLAKTC AP00089 P80399, Gaegurin-5 FLGALFKVASKVLPSVFCAITKKC 849 (Gaegurin 5, frog) AP00090 P80400, Gaegurin-6 FLPLLAGLAANFLPTIICKISYKC 850 (Gaegurin 6, frog) AP00362 P80408, Metalnikowin I VDKPDYRPRPRPPNM 851 (insect) AP00363 P80409, Metalnikowin VDKPDYRPRPWPRPN 852 IIA (insect) AP00364 P80410, Metalnikowin VDKPDYRPRPWPRNMI 853 IIB (insect) AP00365 P80411, Metalnikowin VDKPDYRPRPWPRPNM 854 III (insect) AP00632 P80569, Piscicolin 126/ KYYGNGVSCNKNGCTVDWSKAIGIIG 855 Piscicocin Via NNAAANLTTGGAAGWNKG (PiscV1a, Pisc126, class IIA bacteriocin, bacteria) AP01003 P80666, Mutacin B- FKSWSFCTPGCAKTGSFNSYCC 856 Ny266 (bacteria) AP00276 P80710, Clavanin A VFQFLGKIIHHVGNFVHGFSHVF 857 (urochordates, sea squirts, and sea pork, tunicate) AP00277 P80711, Clavanin B VFQFLGRIIHHVGNFVHGFSHVF 858 (Sea squirt, tunicate) AP00278 P80712, Clavanin C VFHLLGKIIHHVGNFVYGFSHVF 859 (Sea squirt, tunicate) AP00279 P80713, Clavanin D AFKLLGRIIHHVGNFVYGFSHVF 860 (Sea squirt, tunicate) AP00280 P80713, Clavanin D LFKLLGKIIHHVGNFVHGFSHVF 861 (Sea squirt, tunicate) AP00294 P80930, eNAP-1 (horse) DVQCGEGHFCHDQTCCRASQGGACC 862 PYSQGVCCADQRHCCPVGF AP00400 P80952, Skin peptide YPPKPESPGEDASPEEMNKYLTALRH 863 tyrosine-tyrosine (skin- YINLVTRQRY PYY, SPYY, frog) AP00091 P80954, Rugosin A GLLNTFKDWAISIAKGAGKGVLTTLS 864 (frog) CKLDKSC AP00092 P80955, Rugosin B SLFSLIKAGAKFLGKNLLKQGAQYAA 865 (frog) CKVSKEC AP00093 P80956, Rugosin C GILDSFKQFAKGVGKDLIKGAAQGVL 866 (frog) STMSCKLAKTC AP00392 P81056, Penaeidin-1 YRGGYTGPIPRPPPIGRPPLRLVVCAC 867 (shrimp, Crustacea) YRLSVSDARNCCIKFGSCCHLVK AP00393 P81057, Penaeidin-2a YRGGYTGPIPRPPPIGRPPFRPVCNACY 868 (shrimp, Crustacea) RLSVSDARNCCIKFGSCCHLVK AP00394 P81058, Penaeidin-3a QVYKGGYTRPIPRPPPFVRPLPGGPIGP 869 (shrimp, Crustacea) YNGCPVSCRGISFSQARSCCSRLGRCC HVGKGYS AP00247 P81251, Caerin 1.8 GLFKVLGSVAKHLLPHVVPVIAEK 870 (frog) AP00248 P81252, Caerin 1.9 GLFGVLGSIAKHVLPHVVPVIAEK 871 (frog, ZZHa) AP00126 P81417, Cecropin A GGLKKLGKKLEGVGKRVFKASEKAL 872 (insect, mosquito) PVAVGIKALG AP00169 P81437, Formaecin 2 GRPNPVNTKPTPYPRL 873 (insect, ants) AP00168 P81438, Formaecin 1 GRPNPVNNKPTPHPRL 874 (insect, ants) AP00296 P81456, Fabatin-1 LLGRCKVKSNRFHGPCLTDTHCSTVC 875 (plant defensin) RGEGYKGGDCHGLRRRCMCLC AP00297 P81457, Fabatin-2 LLGRCKVKSNRFNGPCLTDTHCSTVC 876 (plant defensin) RGEGYKGGDCHGLRRRCMCLC AP01215 P81463, European FVPYNPPRPYQSKPFPSFPGHGPFNPKI 877 bumblebee abaecin QWPYPLPNPGH (insect) AP01214 P81464, Apidaecin GNRPVYIPPPRPPHPRL 878 (insect) AP00440 P81465, defensin VTCFCRRRGCASRERHIGYCRFGNTIY 879 HANP-1 (hamster) RLCCRR AP00441 P81466, defensin CFCKRPVCDSGETQIGYCRLGNTFYRL 880 HANP-2 (hamster) CCRQ AP00442 P81467, defensin VTCFCRRRGCASRERLIGYCRFGNTIY 881 HANP-3 (hamster) GLCCRR AP00439 P81468, defensin VTCFCKRPVCDSGETQIGYCRLGNTF 882 HANP-4 (hamster) YRLCCRQ AP00328 P81469, Styelin A (Sea GFGKAFHSVSNFAKKHKTA 883 squirt, tunicate, XXA) AP00329 P81470, Styelin B (Sea GFGPAFHSVSNFAKKHKTA 884 squirt, tunicate, XXA) AP00492 P81474, Misgurin (fish) RQRVEELSKFSKKGAAARRRK 885 AP00165 P81485, Dermaseptin- ALWKNMLKGIGKLAGQAALGAVKTL 886 B3 (Dermaseptin B3, VGAE DRS-B3, DRS B3, frog) AP00163 P81486, Dermaseptin- ALWKDILKNVGKAAGKAVLNTVTDM 887 B4 (Dermaseptin B4, VNQ DRS-B4, DRS B4, DRS-TR1, IRP, frog) AP00162 P81487, Dermaseptin- GLWNKIKEAASKAAGKAALGFVNEMV 888 B5 (Dermaseptin B5, DRS-B5, DRS B5, frog) AP00164 P81488, Dermaseptin- ALWKTIIKGAGKMIGSLAKNLLGSQA 889 B9 (Dermaseptin B9, QPES DRS-B9, DRS DRG3, frog) AP00167 P81565, Phylloxin GWMSKIASGIGTFLSGMQQ 890 (phylloxin-B1, PLX-B1, XXA, frog) AP00291 P81568, Defensin D5 MFFSSKKCKTVSKTFRGPCVRNAN 891 (So-D5) (plant defensin) AP00290 P81569, Defensin D4 MFFSSKKCKTVSKTFRGPCVRNA 892 (So-D4) (plant defensin) AP00289 P81570, Defensin D3 GIFSSRKCKTVSKTFRGICTRNANC 893 (So-D3) (plant defensin) AP00288 P81572, Defensin D1 TCESPSHKFKGPCATNRNCES 894 (So-D1) (plant defensin) AP00292 P81573, Defensin D7 GIFSSRKCKTPSKTFKGYCTRDSNCDT 895 (So-D7) (plant defensin) SCRYEGYPAGD AP00270 P81591, Pn-AMP QQCGRQASGRLCGNRLCCSQWGYCG 896 (PnAMP, plant STASYCGAGCQSQCRS defensin) AP00412 P81592, Acaloleptin A1 SLQPGAPNVNNKDQPWQVSPHISRDD 897 (insect) SGNTRTDINVQRHGENNDFEAGWSK VVRGPNKAKPTWHIGGTHRW AP00433 P81605, human SSLLEKGLDGAKKAVGGLGKLGKDA 898 Dermcidin (DCD-1) VEDLESVGKGAVHDVKDVLDSV AP00332 P81612, Mytilin A GCASRCKAKCAGRRCKGWASASFRG 899 (Blue mussel) RCYCKCFRC AP00333 P81613, Mytilin B SCASRCKGHCRARRCGYYVSVLYRG 900 (Blue mussel) RCYCKCLRC AP00334 P81613, Moronecidin FFHHIFRGIVHVGKTIHKLVTG 901 (fish) AP00351 P81835, Citropin 1.1 GLFDVIKKVASVIGGL 902 (amphibian, frog) AP00352 P81840, Citropin 1.2 GLFDIIKKVASVVGGL 903 (amphibian, frog) AP00353 P81846, Citropin 1.3 GLFDIIKKVASVIGGL 904 (amphibian, frog) AP00338 P81903, Histone H2B- PDPAKTAPKKGSKKAVTKA 905 1(HLP-1) (fish) AP00271 P82018, ChBac5 (Goat RFRPPIRRPPIRPPFNPPFRPPVRPPFRPP 906 cathelicidin) FRPPFRPPIGPFP AP00316 P82027, Uperin 2.1 GIVDFAKKVVGGIRNALGI 907 (amphibian, toad) AP00317 P82028, Uperin 2.2 GFVDLAKKVVGGIRNALGI 908 (amphibian, toad) AP00318 P82029, Uperin 2.3 GFFDLAKKVVGGIRNALGI 909 (amphibian, toad) AP00319 P82030, Uperin 2.4 GILDFAKTVVGGIRNALGI 910 (amphibian, toad) AP00320 P82031, Uperin 2.5 GIVDFAKGVLGKIKNVLGI 911 (amphibian, toad) AP00323 P82032, Uperin 3.1 GVLDAFRKIATVVKNVV 912 (amphibian, toad) AP00326 P82035, Uperin 4.1 GVGSFIHKVVSAIKNVA 913 (amphibian, toad) AP00321 P82039, Uperin 2.7 GIIDIAKKLVGGIRNVLGI 914 (amphibian, toad) AP00322 P82040, Uperin 2.8 GILDVAKTLVGKLRNVLGI 915 (amphibian, toad) AP00324 P82042, Uperin 3.5 GVGDLIRKAVSVIKNIV 916
(amphibian, toad) AP00325 P82042, Uperin 3.6 GVIDAAKKVVNVLKNLP 917 (amphibian, toad) AP00327 P82050, Uperin 7.1 GWFDVVKHIASAV 918 (amphibian, frog) AP00260 P82066, Maculatin 1.1 GLFVGVLAKVAAHVVPAIAEHF 919 (XXA, frog, ZZHa) AP00261 P82067, Maculatin 1.2 GLFVGLAKVAAHNNPAIAEHFQA 920 (XXA, frog) AP00262 P82068, Maculatin 2.1 GFVDFLKKVAGTIANVVT 921 (frog) AP00263 P82069, Maculatin 3.1 GLLQTIKEKLESLESLAKGIVSGIQA 922 (frog) AP00345 P82104, Caerin 1.10 GLLSVLGSVAKHVLPHVVPVIAEKL 923 (frog) AP00456 P82232, Brevinin-1T VNPIILGVLPKFVCLITKKC 924 (frog) AP00459 P82233, Brevinin-1TA FITLLLRKFICSITKKC 925 (frog) AP00457 P82234, Brevinin-2TC GLWETIKNFGKKFTLNILHKLKCKIGG 926 (frog) GC AP00458 P82235, Brevinin-2TD GLWETIKNFGKKFTLNILHNLKCKIGG 927 (frog) GC AP00397 P82238, Salmocidin 2A SGFVLKGYTKTSQ 928 (fish, trout) AP00398 P82239, Salmocidin 2B AGFVLKGYTKTSQ 929 (fish, trout) AP00055 P82282, Bombinin H1 IIGPVLGMVGSALGGLLKKI 930 (frog) AP00056 P82284, Bombinin H4 LIGPVLGLVGSALGGLLKKI 931 (frog, XXA, XXD) AP00057 P82285, Bombinin H5 IIGPVLGLVGSALGGLLKKI 932 (frog, XXD) AP00419 P82286, Bombinin-like GIGASILSAGKSALKGFAKGLAEHFAN 933 peptides 2 (amphibian, toad) AP00137 P82293, Cryptdin-1 LRDLVCYCRTRGCKRRERMNGTCRK 934 (Crp1, animal defensin, GHLMYTLCCR alpha, mouse) AP00443 P82317, defensin ACYCRIPACLAGERRYGTCFYMGRV 935 RMAD-2 (monkey) WAFCC AP00012 P82386, Aurein 1.1 GLFDIIKKIAESI 936 (amphibian, frog) AP00014 P82388, Aurein 2.1 GLLDIVKKVVGAFGSL 937 (amphibian, frog) AP00015 P82389, Aurein 2.2 GLFDIVKKVVGALGSL 938 (amphibian, frog) AP00016 P82390, Aurein 2.3 GLFDIVKKVVGAIGSL 939 (XXA, amphibian, frog) AP00017 P82391, Aurein 2.4 GLFDIVKKVVGTIAGL 940 (XXA, amphibian, frog) AP00018 P82392, Aurein 2.5 GLFDIVKKVVGAFGSL 941 (XXA, amphibian, frog) AP00019 P82393, Aurein 2.6 GLFDIAKKVIGVIGSL 942 (XXA, amphibian, frog) AP00020 P82394, Aurein 3.1 GLFDIVKKIAGHIAGSI 943 (XXA, amphibian, frog) AP00021 P82395, Aurein 3.2 GLFDIVKKIAGHIASSI 944 (XXA, amphibian, frog) AP00022 P82396, Aurein 3.3 GLFDIVKKIAGHIVSSI 945 (XXA, amphibian, frog) AP00376 P82414, Ponericin G1 GWKDWAKKAGGWLKKKGPGMAKA 946 (ants) ALKAAMQ AP00377 P82415, Ponericin G2 GWKDWLKKGKEWLKAKGPGIVKAA 947 (ants) LQAATQ AP00378 P82416, Ponericin G3 GWKDWLNKGKEWLKKKGPGIMKAA 948 (ants) LKAATQ AP00379 P82417, Ponericin G4 DFKDWMKTAGEWLKKKGPGILKAA 949 (ants) MAAAT AP00380 P82418, Ponericin G5 GLKDWVKIAGGWLKKKGPGILKAAM 950 (ants) AAATQ AP00381 P82419, Ponericin G6 GLVDVLGKVGGLIKKLLP 951 (ants) AP00382 P82420, Ponericin G7 GLVDVLGKVGGLIKKLLPG 952 (ants) AP00383 P82421, Ponericin L1 LLKELWTKMKGAGKAVLGKIKGLL 953 (ants) AP00384 P82422, Ponericin L2 LLKELWTKIKGAGKAVLGKIKGLL 954 (ants) AP00386 P82423, Ponericin W1 WLGSALKIGAKLLPSVVGLFKKKKQ 955 (ants) AP00387 P82424, Ponericin W2 WLGSALKIGAKLLPSVVGLFQKKKK 956 (ants) AP00388 P82425, Ponericin W3 GIWGTLAKIGIKAVPRVISMLKKKKQ 957 (ants) AP00389 P82426, Ponericin W4 GIWGTALKWGVKLLPKLVGMAQTKKQ 958 (ants) AP00390 P82427, Ponericin W5 FWGALIKGAAKLIPSVVGLFKKKQ 959 (ants) AP00391 P82428, Ponericin W6 FIGTALGIASAIPAIVKLFK 960 (ants) AP00303 P82651, Tigerinin-1 FCTMIPIPRCY 961 (frog) AP00304 P82652, Tigerinin-2 RVCFAIPLPICH 962 (frog) AP00305 P82653, Tigerinin-3 RVCYAIPLPICY 963 (frog) AP00301 P82656, Hadrurin GILDTIKSIASKVWNSKTVQDLKRKGI 964 (scorpion) NWVANKLGVSPQAA AP00113 P82740, GLLSGLKKVGKHVAKNVAVSLMDSL 965 RANATUERIN 1T KCKISGDC (frog) AP00114 P82741, SMLSVLKNLGKVGLGFVACKINKQC 966 RANATUERIN 1 (Ranatuerin-1, frog) AP00115 P82742, GLFLDTLKGAAKDVAGKLEGLKCKIT 967 RANATUERIN 2 GCKLP (Ranatuerin-2, frog) AP00116 P82780, GFLDIINKLGKTFAGHMLDKIKCTIGT 968 RANATUERIN 3 CPPSP (Ranatuerin-3, frog) AP00117 P82819, FLPFIARLAAKVFPSIICSVTKKC 969 RANATUERIN 4 (Ranatuerin-4, frog) AP00405 P82821, FISAIASMLGKFL 970 RANATUERIN 6 (frog) AP00406 P82822, FLSAIASMLGKFL 971 RANATUERIN 7 (frog) AP00407 P82823, FISAIASFLGKFL 972 RANATUERIN 8 (frog) AP00408 P82824, FLFPLITSFLSKVL 973 RANATUERIN 9 (frog) AP00461 P82825, Brevinin-1LA FLPMLAGLAASMVPKLVCLITKKC 974 (frog) AP00462 P82826, Brevinin-1LB FLPMLAGLAASMVPKFVCLITKKC 975 (frog) AP00118 P82828, GILDSFKGVAKGVAKDLAGKLLDKLK 976 RANATUERIN 2La CKITGC (Ranatuerin-2La, frog) AP00119 P82829, GILSSIKGVAKGVAKNVAAQLLDTLK 977 RANATUERIN 2Lb CKITGC (Ranatuerin-2Lb, frog) AP00109 P82830, Temporin-1La VLPLISMALGKLL 978 (Temporin 1La, frog) AP00110 P82831, Temporin-1Lb NFLGTLINLAKKIM 979 (Temporin 1Lb, frog) AP00111 P82832, Temporin-1Lc FLPILINLIHKGLL 980 (Temporin 1Lc, frog) AP00463 P82833, Brevinin-1BA FLPFIAGMAAKFLPKIFCAISKKC 981 (frog) AP00464 P82834, Brevinin-1BB FLPAIAGMAAKFLPKIFCAISKKC 982 (frog) AP00465 P82835, Brevinin-1BC FLPFIAGVAAKFLPKIFCAISKKC 983 (frog) AP00466 P82836, Brevinin-1BD FLPAIAGVAAKFLPKIFCAISKKC 984 (frog) AP00467 P82837, Brevinin-1BE FLPAIVGAAAKFLPKIFCVISKKC 985 (frog) AP00468 P82838, Brevinin-1BF FLPFIAGMAANFLPKIFCAISKKC 986 (frog) AP00120 P82840, GLLDTIKGVAKTVAASMLDKLKCKIS 987 RANATUERIN 2B GC (Ranatuerin-2B, frog) AP00469 P82841, Brevinin-1PA FLPIIAGVAAKVFPKIFCAISKKC 988 (frog) AP00460 P82842, Brevinin-1PB FLPIIAGIAAKVFPKIFCAISKKC 989 (frog) AP00470 P82843, Brevinin-1PC FLPIIASVAAKVFSKIFCAISKKC 990 (frog) AP00471 P82844, Brevinin-1PD FLPIIASVAANVFSKIFCAISKKC 991 (frog) AP00472 P82845, Brevinin-1PE FLPIIASVAAKVFPKIFCAISKKC 992 (frog) AP00121 P82847, GLMDTVKNVAKNLAGHMLDKLKCKI 993 RANATUERIN 2P TGC (Ranatuerin-2P, frog) AP00112 P82848, Temporin-1P FLPIVGKLLSGLL 994 (Temporin 1P, frog) AP00452 P82871, Brevinin-1SY FLPVVAGLAAKVLPSIICAVTKKC 995 (frog) AP00122 P82875, Ranatuerin-1C SMLSVLKNLGKVGLGLVACKINKQC 996
(Ranatuerin 1C, frog) AP00514 P82876, Ranalexin-1Ca FLGGLMKAFPALICAVTKKC 997 (frog) AP00515 P82877, Ranalexin-1Cb FLGGLMKAFPAIICAVTKKC 998 (frog) AP00124 P82878, Ranatuerin-2Ca GLFLDTLKGAAKDVAGKLLEGLKCKI 999 (Ranatuerin 2Ca, frog) AGCKP AP00123 P82879, Ranatuerin- GLFLDTLKGLAGKLLQGLKCIKAGCKP 1000 2Cb (Ranatuerin 2Cb, frog) AP00104 P82880, Temporin-1Ca FLPFLAKILTGVL 1001 (Temporin 1Ca, frog) AP00105 P82881, Temporin-1Cb FLPLFASLIGKLL 1002 (Temporin 1Cb, frog) AP00106 P82882, Temporin-1Cc FLPFLASLLTKVL 1003 (Temporin 1Cc, frog) AP00107 P82883, Temporin-1Cd FLPFLASLLSKVL 1004 (Temporin 1Cd, frog) AP00108 P82884, Temporin-1Ce FLPFLATLLSKVL 1005 (Temporin 1Ce, frog) AP00453 P82904, Brevinin-1SA FLPAIVGAAGQFLPKIFCAISKKC 1006 (frog) AP00454 P82905, Brevinin-1SB FLPAIVGAAGKFLPKIFCAISKKC 1007 (frog) AP00455 P82906, Brevinin-1SC FFPIVAGVAGQVLKKIYCTISKKC 1008 (frog) AP00996 P82907, Lichenin ISLEICAIFHDN 1009 (bacteria) AP00302 P82951, Hepcidin (fish) GCRFCCNCCPNMSGCGVCCRF 1010 AP00058 P83080, Maximin 1 GIGTKILGGVKTALKGALKELASTYAN 1011 (toad) AP00059 P83081, Maximin 2 GIGTKILGGVKTALKGALKELASTYVN 1012 (toad) AP00060 P83082, Maximin 3 GIGGKILSGLKTALKGAAKELASTYLH 1013 (toad, ZZHa) AP00061 P83083, Maximin 4 GIGGVLLSAGKAALKGLAKVLAEKYAN 1014 (toad) AP00062 P83084, Maximin 5 SIGAKILGGVKTFFKGALKELASTYLQ 1015 (toad) AP00063 P83085, Maximin 6 ILGPVISTIGGVLGGLLKNL 1016 (toad) AP00064 P83086, Maximin 7 ILGPVLGLVGNALGGLIKNE 1017 (toad) AP00065 P83087, Maximin 8 ILGPVLSLVGNALGGLLKNE 1018 (toad) AP00355 P83171, Ginkbilobin ANTAFVSSAHNTQKIPAGAPFNRNLR 1019 (Chinese plant) AMLADLRQNAAFAG AP00475 P83188, Pseudin 1 GLNTLKKVFQGLHEAIKLINNHVQ 1020 (frog) AP00476 P83189, Pseudin 2 GLNALKKVFQGIHEAIKLINNHVQ 1021 (frog) AP00477 P83190, Pseudin 3 GINTLKKVIQGLHEVIKLVSNHE 1022 (frog) AP00478 P83191, Pseudin 4 GINTLKKVIQGLHEVIKLVSNHA 1023 (frog) AP00410 P83287, Oncorhyncin SKGKKANKDVELARG 1024 III (fish) AP00357 P83305, Japonicin-1 FFPIGVFCKIFKTC 1025 (amphibian, frog) AP00358 P83306, Japonicin-2 FGLPMLSILPKALCILLKRKC 1026 (amphibian, frog) AP00385 P83312, Parabutoporin FKLGSFLKKAWKSKLAKKLRAKGKE 1027 (scorpion) MLKDYAKGLLEGGSEEVPGQ AP00374 P83313, Opistoporin 1 GKVWDWIKSTAKKLWNSEPVKELKN 1028 (scorpion) TALNAAKNLVAEKIGATPS AP00375 P83314, Opistoporin 2 GKVWDWIKSTAKKLWNSEPVKELKN 1029 (scorpion) TALNAAKNFVAEKIGATPS AP00336 P83327, Histone H2A AERVGAGAPVYL 1030 (fish) AP00335 P83338, Histone H6- PKRKSATKGDEPA 1031 like protein (fish) AP00411 P83374, Oncorhyncin II KAVAAKKSPKKAKKPAT 1032 (fish) AP00999 P83375, Serracin-P 43 kDa DYHHGVRVL 1033 subunit (bacteria) AP00284 P83376, Dolabellanin SHQDCYEALHKCMASHSKPFSCSMKF 1034 B2 (sea hare) HMCLQQQ AP00998 P83378, Serracin-P 23 kDa ALPKKLKYLNLFNDGFNYMGVV 1035 subunit (bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00129 P83403, Cecropin GWLKKIGKKIERVGQNTRDATVKGLE 1036 (insect, moth) VAQQAANVAATVR AP00127 P83413, Cecropin A RWKVFKKIEKVGRNIRDGVIKAAPAIE 1037 (insect, moth) VLGQAKAL AP00372 P83416, Virescein GKIPIGAIKKAGKAIGKGLRAVNIAST 1038 (insect) AHDVYTFFKPKKRH AP00356 P83427, Heliocin QRFIHPTYRPPPQPRRPVIMRA 1039 (insect) AP00409 P83428, Locustin ATTGCSCPQCIIFDPICASSYKNGRRGF 1040 (insect) SSGCHMRCYNRCHGTDYFQISKGSKCI AP00339 P83545, Chrysophsin-1 FFGWLIKGAIHAGKAIHGLIHRRRH 1041 (Red sea bream, madai) AP00340 P83546, Chrysophsin-2 FFGWLIRGAIHAGKAIHGLIHRRRH 1042 (Red sea bream, madai) AP00341 P83547, Chrysophsin-3 FIGLLISAGKAIHDLIRRRH 1043 (Red sea bream, madai) AP01004 P84763, Thuricin-S DWTAWSALVAAACSVELL 1044 (bacteria) AP00553 P84868, Sesquin (plant, KTCENLADTY 1045 ZZHp) AP00132 Q06589, Cecropin 1 GWLKKIGKKIERVGQHTRDATIQTIAV 1046 (insect, fly) AQQAANVAATAR AP00135 Q06590, Cecropin 2 GWLKKIGKKIERVGQHTRDATIQTIGV 1047 (insect fly) AQQAANVAATLK AP00416 Q17313, Ceratotoxin C SLGGVISGAKKVAKVAIPIGKAVLPVV 1048 (insect, fly) AKLVG AP00171 Q24395, Metchnikowin HRHQGPIFDTRPSPFNPNQPRPGPIY 1049 (insect) AP00354 Q27023, Tenecin 1 VTCDILSVEAKGVKLNDAACAAHCLF 1050 (insect) RGRSGGYCNGKRVCVCR AP00401 Q28880, Lingual GFTQGVRNSQSCRRNKGICVPIRCPGS 1051 antimicrobial peptide MRQIGTCLGAQVKCCRRK (LAP, beta defensin, cow) AP00224 Q62713, RatNP-3 (rat) CSCRTSSCRFGERLSGACRLNGRIYRL 1052 CC AP00225 Q62714, RatNP-4 (rat) ACYCRIGACVSGERLTGACGLNGRIY 1053 RLCCR AP00223 Q62715, RatNP-2 (rat) VTCYCRSTRCGFRERLSGACGYRGRI 1054 YRLCCR AP00222 Q62716, RatNP-1 (rat) VTCYCRRTRCGFRERLSGACGYRGRI 1055 YRLCCR AP00174 Q64365, GNCP-1 RRCICTTRTCRFPYRRLGTCIFQNRVY 1056 (Guinea pig neutrophil TFCC cationic peptide 1) AP00311 Q90W78, Galensin CYSAAKYPGFQEFINRKYKSSRF 1057 (frog) AP00395 Q95NT0, Penaeidin-4a HSSGYTRPLPKPSRPIFIRPIGCDVCYGI 1058 (shrimp, Crustacea) PSSTARLCCFRYGDCCHR AP00423 Q962B0, Penaeidin-3n QGYKGPYTRPILRPYVRPVVSYNACT 1059 (shrimp, Crustacea) LSCRGITTTQARSCSTRLGRCCHVAKG YS AP00422 Q962B1, Penaeidin-3m QGCKGPYTRPILRPYVRPVVSYNACT 1060 (shrimp, Crustacea) LSCRGITTTQARSCCTRLGRCCHVAK GYS AP00421 Q963C3, Penaeidin-4C YSSGYTRPLPKPSRPIFIRPIGCDVCYGI 1061 (shrimp, Crustacea) PSSTARLCCFRYGDCCHR AP00210 Q99134, PGLa (African GMASKAGAIAGKIAKVALKAL 1062 clawed frog, XXA) AP00054 Q9DET7, Bombinin- GIGGALLSAGKSALKGLAKGLAEHFAN 1063 like peptide 7 (BLP-7, toad) AP00315 Q9PT75, Dermatoxin SLGSFLKGVGTTLASVGKVVSDQFGK 1064 (Two-colored leaf frog) LLQAGQ AP00133 Q9Y0Y0, Cecropin B GGLKKLGKKLEGVGKRVFKASEKAL 1065 (insect, mosquito) PVLTGYKAIG AP00004 Ref, Ct-AMP1 NLCERASLTWTGNCGNTGHCDTQCR 1066 (CtAMP1, C. ternatea- NWESAKHGACHKRGNWKCFCYFDC antimicrobial peptide 1, plant defensin) AP00027 Ref, hexapeptide RRWQWR 1067 (synthetic) AP00529 Ref, Lantibiotic Ericin S WKSESVCTPGCVTGVLQTCFLQTITC 1068 (bacteria) NCHISK AP00306 Ref, Tigerinin-4 (frog) RVCYAIPLPIC 1069 AP00309 Ref, Human KS-27 KSKEKIGKEFKRIVQRIKDFLRNLVPR 1070 (KS27 from LL-37) AP00344 Ref, Apidaecin II GNNRPIYIPQPRPPHPRL 1071 (honeybee, insect) AP00424 Ref, XT1 (frog) GFLGPLLKLAAKGVAKVIPHLIPSRQQ 1072 AP00425 Ref, XT 2 (frog) GCWSTVLGGLKKFAKGGLEAIVNPK 1073 AP00426 Ref, XT 4 (frog) GVFLDALKKFAKGGMNAVLNPK 1074 AP00427 Ref, XT 7 (frog) GLLGPLLKIAAKVGSNLL 1075 AP00431 Ref, human LLP 1 RVIEVVQGACRAIRHIPRRIRQGLERIL 1076 AP00432 Ref, human LLP RIAGYGLRGLAVIIRICIRGLNLIFEIIR 1077 AP00447 Ref, Anoplin (insect) GLLKRIKTLL 1078 AP00474 Ref, Piscidin 3 (fish) FIHHIFRGIVHAGRSIGRFLTG 1079
AP00481 Ref, Kaliocin-1 FFSASCVPGADKGQFPNLCRLCAGTG 1080 (synthetic) ENKCA AP00482 Ref, Thionin mutation KSCCRNTWARNCYNVCRLPGTISREIC 1081 (synthetic) AKKCRCKIISGTTCPSDYPK AP00484 Ref, Stomoxyn (insect, RGFRKHFNKLVKKVKHTISETAHVAK 1082 fly) DTAVIAGSGAAVVAAT AP00486 Ref, Cupiennin 1b GFGSLFKFLAKKVAKTVAKQAAKQG 1083 (spider) AKYIANKQME AP00487 Ref, Cupiennin 1c GFGSLFKFLAKKVAKTVAKQAAKQG 1084 (spider) AKYIANKQTE AP00488 Ref, Cupiennin 1D GFGSLFKFLAKKVAKTVAKQAAKQG 1085 (spider) AKYVANKHME AP00489 Ref, Hipposin (fish) SGRGKTGGKARAKAKTRSSRAGLQFP 1086 VGRVHRLLRKGNYAHRVGAGAPVYL AP00923 Ref, Carnobacteriocin AISYGNGVYCNKEKCWVNKAENKQA 1087 B1 (XXO, class IIa ITGIVIGGWASSLAGMGH bacteriocin, bacteria) AP00496 Ref, HP 2-20 (synthetic) AKKVFKRLEKLFSKIQNDK 1088 AP00497 Ref, Maximin H5 (toad) ILGPVLGLVSDTLDDVLGIL 1089 AP00498 Ref, rCRAMP (rat GLVRKGGEKFGEKLRKIGQKIKEFFQ 1090 cathelicidin) KLALEIEQ AP00500 Ref, S9-P18 (synthetic) KWKLFKKISKFLHLAKKF 1091 AP00501 Ref, L9-P18 (synthetic) KWKLFKKILKFLHLAKKF 1092 AP00502 Ref, Clavaspirin (sea FLRFIGSVIHGIGHLVHHIGVAL 1093 squirt, tunicate) AP00503 Ref, human P-113D AKRHHGYKRKFH 1094 AP00504 Ref, human MUC7 20- LAHQKPFIRKSYKCLHKRCR 1095 Mer AP00507 Ref, Nigrocin 2 (frog) GLLSKVLGVGKKVLCGVSGLC 1096 AP00508 Ref, Nigrocin 1 (frog) GLLDSIKGMAISAGKGALQNLLKVAS 1097 CKLDKTC AP00509 Ref, human Calcitermin VAIALKAAHYHTHKE 1098 AP00510 Ref, Dicynthaurin (sea ILQKAVLDCLKAAGSSLSKAAITAIYN 1099 peach) KIT AP00511 Ref, KIGAKI KIGAKIKIGAKIKIGAKI 1100 (synthetic) AP00516 Ref, Lycotoxin I IWLTALKFLGKHAAKHLAKQQLSKL 1101 (spider) AP00517 Ref, Lycotoxin II KIKWFKTMKSIAKFIAKEQMKKHLGGE 1102 (spider) AP00518 Ref, Ib-AMP3 (plant QYRHRCCAWGPGRKYCKRWC 1103 defensin, balsam) AP00519 Ref, Ib-AMP4 (plant EWGRRCCGWGPGRRYCRRWC 1104 defensin, balsam) AP00521 Ref, Dhvar4 (synthetic) KRLFKKLLFSLRKY 1105 AP00522 Ref, Dhvar5 (synthetic) LLLFLLKKRKKRKY 1106 AP00525 Ref, Maximin H2 (toad) ILGPVLSMVGSALGGLIKKI 1107 AP00526 Ref, Maximin H3 (toad) ILGPVLGLVGNALGGLIKKI 1108 AP00527 Ref, Maximin H4 (toad) ILGPVISKIGGVLGGLLKNL 1109 AP00528 Ref, Anionic peptide DDDDDD 1110 SAAP (sheep) AP00530 Ref, Lantibiotic Ericin VLSKSLCTPGCITGPLQTCYLCFPTFA 1111 A (bacteria) KC AP00531 Ref, Kenojeinin I (sea GKQYFPKVGGRLSGKAPLAAKTHRRL 1112 skate) KP AP00532 Ref, Lunatusin (plant, KTCENLADTFRGPCFATSNC 1113 ZZHp) AP00533 Ref, Fallaxin (frog) GVVDILKGAAKDIAGHLASKVMNKL 1114 AP00534 Ref, Tu-AMP 2 KSCCRNTTARNCYNVCRIPG 1115 (TuAMP2, thionin-like antimicrobial peptides, plant defensin, tulip) AP00535 Ref, Pilosulin 1 (Myr b GLGSVFGRLARILGRVIPKVAKKLGPK 1116 I) (Australian ants) VAKVLPKVMKEAIPMAVEMAKSQEE QQPQ AP00536 Ref, Luxuriosin (insect) SVRTQDNAVNRQIFGSNGPYRDFQLS 1117 DCYLPLETNPYCNEWQFAYHWNNAL MDCERAIYHGCNRTRNNFITLTACKN QAGPICNRRRH AP00537 Ref, SAMP H1 (fish, AEVAPAPAAAAPAKAPKKKAAAKPK 1118 Atlantic salmon) KAGPS AP00538 Ref, Halocidin (dimer WLNALLHHGLNCAKGVLA 1119 Hal18 + Hal15) (tunicate) AP00539 Ref, AOD (American GFGCPWNRYQCHSHCRSIGRLGGYCA 1120 oyster defensin, animal GSLRLTCTCYRS defensin) AP00540 Ref, Pentadactylin GLLDTLKGAAKNVVGSLASKVMEKL 1121 (frog) AP00541 Ref, Polybia-MPI IDWKKLLDAAKQIL 1122 (insect, social wasp) AP00542 Ref, Polybia-CP (insect, ILGTILGLLKSL 1123 social wasp) AP00543 Ref, Ocellatin-1 (XXA, GVVDILKGAGKDLLAHLVGKISEKV 1124 frog) AP00544 Ref, Ocellatin-2 (XXA, GVLDIFKDAAKQILAHAAEKQI 1125 frog) AP00545 Ref, Ocellatin-3 (frog) GVLDILKNAAKNILAHAAEQI 1126 AP00548 Ref, CMAP 27 (chicken RFGRFLRKIRRFRPKVTITIQGSARFG 1127 myeloid antimicrobial peptide 27, bird cathelicidin, chicken cathelicidin) AP00550 Ref, Tu-AMP-1 KSCCRNTVARNCYNVCRIPGTPRPVC 1128 (TuAMP 1, thionin-like AATCDCKLITGTKCPPGYEK antimicrobial peptides, plant defensin, tulip) AP00551 Ref, Combi-2 FRWWHR 1129 (synthetic) AP00552 Ref, Maximin 9 (frog) GIGRKFLGGVKTTFRCGVKDFASKHLY 1130 AP00554 Ref, S1 moricin (insect) GKIPVKAIKKAGAAIGKGLRAINIAST 1131 AHDVYSFFKPKHKKK AP00555 Ref, Parasin I (catfish) KGRGKQGGKVRAKAKTRSS 1132 AP00556 Ref, Kassinatuerin-1 GFMKYIGPLIPHAVKAISDLI 1133 (frog) AP00557 Ref, Fowlicidin-1 RVKRVWPLVIRTVIAGYNLYRAIKKK 1134 (chCATH-1, bird cathelicidin, chicken cathelicidin) AP00559 Ref, Eryngin ATRVVYCNRRSGSVVGGDDTVYYEG 1135 (mushroom, fungi) AP00560 Ref, Dendrocin (plant, TTLTLHNLCPYPVWWLVTPNNGGFPII 1136 bamboo) DNTPVVLG AP00561 Ref, Coconut antifungal EQCREEEDDR 1137 peptide (plant) AP00562 Ref, Pandinin 1 (African GKVWDWIKSAAKKIWSSEPVSQLKG 1138 scorpion) QVLNAAKNYVAEKIGATPT AP00563 Ref, White cloud bean KTCENLADTFRGPCFATSNCDDHCKN 1139 defensin (plant KEHLLSGRCRDDFRCWCTRNC defensin) AP00564 Ref, Dybowskin-1 FLIGMTHGLICLISRKC 1140 (frog) AP00565 Ref, Dybowskin-2 FLIGMTQGLICLITRKC 1141 (frog) AP00566 Ref, Dybowskin-3 GLFDVVKGVLKGVGKNVAGSLLEQL 1142 (frog) KCKLSGGC AP00567 Ref, Dybowskin-4 VWPLGLVICKALKIC 1143 (frog) AP00568 Ref, Dybowskin-5 GLFSVVTGVLKAVGKNVAKNVGGSL 1144 (frog) LEQLKCKKISGGC AP00569 Ref, Dybowskin-6 FLPLLLAGLPLKLCFLFKKC 1145 (frog) AP00570 Ref, Pleurain-A1 (frog) SIITMTKEAKLPQLWKQIACRLYNTC 1146 AP00571 Ref, Pleurain-A2 (frog) SIITMTKEAKLPQSWKQIACRLYNTC 1147 AP00574 Ref, Esculentin-IGRa GLFSKFAGKGIKNLIFKGVKHIGKEVG 1148 (frog) MDVIRTGIDVAGCKIKGEC AP00575 Ref, Brevinin-2GRa GLLDTFKNLALNAAKSAGVSVLNSLS 1149 (frog) CKLSKTC AP00576 Ref, Brevinin-2GRb GVLGTVKNLLIGAGKSAAQSVLKTLS 1150 (frog) CKLSNDC AP00577 Ref, Brevinin-2GRc GLFTLIKGAAKLIGKTVAKEAGKTGLE 1151 (frog) LMACKITNQC AP00578 Ref, Brevinin-1GRa FLPLLAGLAANFLPKIFCKITKKC 1152 (frog) AP00579 Ref, Nigrocin-2GRa GLLSGILGAGKHIVCGLSGLC 1153 (frog) AP00580 Ref, Nigrocin-2GRb GLFGKILGVGKKVLCGLSGMC 1154 (frog) AP00581 Ref, Nigrocin-2GRc GLLSGILGAGKNIVCGLSGLC 1155 (frog) AP00582 Ref, Brevinin-2GHa GFSSLFKAGAKYLLKSVGKAGAQQLA 1156 (frog) CKAANNCA AP00583 Ref, Brevinin-2GHb GVITDALKGAAKTVAAELLRKAHCKL 1157 (frog) TNSC AP00584 Ref, Guentherin (frog) VIDDLKKVAKKVRRELLCKKHHKKLN 1158 AP00585 Ref, Brevinin-2GHc SIWEGIKNAGKGFLVSILDKVRCKVA 1159 (frog) GGCNP AP00586 Ref, Temporin-GH FLPLLFGAISHLL 1160 (frog) AP00587 Ref, Brevinin-2TSa GIMSLFKGVLKTAGKHVAGSLVDQLK 1161 (frog) CKITGGC AP00588 Ref, Brevinin-1TSa FLGSIVGALASALPSLISKIRN 1162 (frog) AP00589 Ref, Temporin-1TSa FLGALAKIISGIF 1163 (frog) AP00593 Ref, Brevinin-1CSa FLPILAGLAAKIVPKLFCLATKKC 1164 (frog)
AP00594 Ref, Temporin-1CSa FLPIVGKLLSGLL 1165 (frog) AP00595 Ref, Temporin-1CSb FLPIIGKLLSGLL 1166 (frog) AP00596 Ref, Temporin-1CSc FLPLVTGLLSGLL 1167 (frog) AP00597 Ref, Temporin-1CSd NFLGTLVNLAKKIL 1168 (frog) AP00598 Ref, Temporin-1SPb FLSAITSLLGKLL 1169 (frog) AP00599 Ref, Brevinin-2-related GIWDTIKSMGKVFAGKILQNL 1170 (frog) AP00600 Ref, Odorranain-HP GLLRASSVWGRKYYVDLAGCAKA 1171 (frog) AP00601 Ref, Brevinin-1DYa FLSLALAALPKFLCLVFKKC 1172 (frog) AP00602 Ref, Brevinin-1DYb FLSLALAALPKLFCLIFKKC 1173 (frog) AP00603 Ref, Brevinin-1DYc FLPLLLAGLPKLLCLFFKKC 1174 (frog) AP00607 Ref, Brevinin-2DYb GLFDVVKGVLKGAGKNVAGSLLEQL 1175 (frog) KCKLSGGC AP00608 Ref, Brevinin-2DYc GLFDVVKGVLKGVGKNVAGSLLEQL 1176 (frog) KCKLSGGC AP00609 Ref, Brevinin-2DYd GIFDVVKGVLKGVGKNVAGSLLEQLK 1177 (frog) CKLSGGC AP00610 Ref, Brevinin-2DYe GLFSVVTGVLKAVGKNVAKNVGGSL 1178 (frog) LEQLKCKISGGC AP00611 Ref, Temporin-1DYa FIGPIISALASLFG 1179 (frog) AP00615 Ref, Palustrin-1b (frog) ALFSILRGLKKLGNMGQAFVNCKIYK 1180 KC AP00616 Ref, Palustrin-1c (frog) ALSILRGLEKLAKMGIALTNCKATKKC 1181 AP00617 Ref, Palustrin-1d (frog) ALSILKGLEKLAKMGIALTNCKATKKC 1182 AP00619 Ref, Palustrin-2b (frog) GFFSTVKNLATNVAGTVIDTLKCKVT 1183 GGCRS AP00620 Ref, Palustrin-2c (frog) GFLSTVKNLATNVAGTVIDTLKCKVT 1184 GGCRS AP00621 Ref, Palustrin-3a (frog) GIFPKIIGKGIKTGIVNGIKSLVKGVGM 1185 KVFKAGLNNIGNTGCNEDEC AP00622 Ref, Palustrin-3b (frog) GIFPKIIGKGIKTGIVNGIKSLVKGVGM 1186 KVFKAGLSNIGNTGCNEDEC AP00624 Ref, human ALL-38 (an ALLGDFFRKSKEKIGKEFKRIVQRIKD 1187 LL-37 analog released FLRNLVPRTES from its precursor hCAP-18 by gastricsin in vivo) AP00625 Ref, human KR-20 KRIVQRIKDFLRNLVPRTES 1188 (KR20 from LL-37) AP00626 Ref, human KS-30 KSKEKIGKEFKRIVQRIKDFLRNLVPR 1189 (KS30 from LL-37) TES AP00627 Ref, human RK-31 RKSKEKIGKEFKRIVQRIKDFLRNLVP 1190 (RK31 from LL-37) RTES AP00628 Ref, human LL-23 LLGDFFRKSKEKIGKEFKRIVQR 1191 (LL23 from LL-37) AP00629 Ref, human LL-29 LLGDFFRKSKEKIGKEFKRIVQRIKDFLR 1192 (LL29 from LL-37) AP00630 Ref, Amoeba peptide GEILCNLCTGLINTLENLLTTKGAD 1193 (protozoan para AP00631 Ref, Mundticin KYYGNGVSCNKKGCSVDWGKAIGIIG 1194 (bacteria) NNSAANLATGGAAGWSK AP00638 Ref, Citropin 2.1 (frog) GLIGSIGKALGGLLVDVLKPKL 1195 AP00639 Ref, Citropin 2.1.3 GLIGSIGKALGGLLVDVLKPKLQAAS 1196 (frog) AP00640 Ref, Maculatin 1.3 GLLGLLGSVVSHVVPAIVGHF 1197 (frog) AP00641 Ref, Pardaxin 1 GFFALIPKIISSPLFKTLLSAVGSALSSS 1198 (Pardaxin P-1, Pardaxin GEQE P1, Pa1, flat fish) AP00642 Ref, Pardaxin 2 GFFALIPKIISSPIFKTLLSAVGSALSSS 1199 (Pardaxin P-2, Pardaxin GGQE P2, Pa2, flat fish) AP00643 Ref, Pardaxin 3 GFFAFIPKIISSPLFKTLLSAVGSALSSS 1200 (Pardaxin P-3, Pardaxin GEQE P3, Pa3, flat fish) AP00645 Ref, Pardaxin 5 GFFAFIPKIISSPLFKTLLSAVGSALSSS 1201 (Pardaxin P-5, Pardaxin GDQE P5, Pa5, flat fish) AP00647 Ref, Brevinin-1PLb FLPLIAGLAANFLPKIFCAITKKC 1202 (frog) AP00648 Ref, Brevinin-1PLc FLPVIAGVAAKFLPKIFCAITKKC 1203 (frog) AP00649 Ref, Esculentin-1PLa GLFPKINKKKAKTGVFNIIKTVGKEAG 1204 (frog) MDLIRTGIDTIGCKIKGEC AP00650 Ref, Esculentin-1PLb GIFTKINKKKAKTGVFNIIKTIGKEAG 1205 (frog) MDVIRAGIDTISCKIKGEC AP00651 Ref, Esculentin-2PLa GLFSILKGVGKIALKGLAKNMGKMGL 1206 (frog) DLVSCKISKEC AP00652 Ref, Ranatuerin-2PLa GIMDTVKNVAKNLAGQLLDKLKCKIT 1207 (frog) AC AP00653 Ref, Ranatuerin-2PLb GIMDTVKNAAKDLAGQLLDKLKCRIT 1208 (frog) GC AP00654 Ref, Ranatuerin-2PLc GLLDTIKNTAKNLAVGLLDKIKCKMT 1209 (frog) GC AP00655 Ref, Ranatuerin-2PLd GIMDSVKNVAKNIAGQLLDKLKCKIT 1210 (frog) GC AP00656 Ref, Ranatuerin-2PLe GIMDSVKNAAKNLAGQLLDTIKCKIT 1211 (frog) AC AP00657 Ref, Ranatuerin-2PLf GIMDTVKNAAKDLAGQLDKLKCRITGC 1212 (frog) AP00658 Ref, Temporin-1PLa FLPLVGKILSGLI 1213 (frog) AP00659 Ref, Ranatuerin 5 (frog) FLPIASLLGKYL 1214 AP00661 Ref, Esculentin-2L GILSLFTGGIKALGKTLFKMAGKAGA 1215 (frog) EHLACKATNQC AP00662 Ref, Esculentin-2B GLFSILRGAAKFASKGLGKDLTKLGV 1216 (ESC2B-RANBE, frog) DLVACKISKQC AP00663 Ref, Esculentin-2P GFSSIFRGVAKFASKGLGKDLARLGV 1217 (frog) NLVACKISKQC AP00664 Ref, Peptide A1 (frog) FLPAIAGILSQLF 1218 AP00665 Ref, Peptide B9 (frog) FLPLIAGLIGKLF 1219 AP00666 Ref, PG-L (frog) EGGGPQWAVGHFM 1220 AP00667 Ref, PG-KI (frog) EPHPDEFVGLM 1221 AP00668 Ref, PG-KII (frog) EPNPDEFVGLM 1222 AP00669 Ref, PG-KIII (frog) EPHPNEFVGLM 1223 AP00670 Ref, PG-SPI (frog) EPNPDEFFGLM 1224 AP00660 Ref, Pandinin 2 (African FWGALAKGALKLIPSLFSSFSKKD 1225 scorpion) AP00671 Ref, PG-SPII (frog) EPNPNEFFGLM 1226 AP00673 Ref, Lantibiotic Ericin S WKSESVCTPGCVTGVLQTCFLQTITC 1227 (bacteria NCHISK AP00674 Ref, Lantibiotic Ericin VLSKSLCTPGCITGPLQTCYLCFPTFA 1228 A (bacteria KC AP00675 Ref, Human beta FELDRICGYGTARCRKKCRSQEYRIGR 1229 defensin 4 (HBD-4, CPNTYACCLRKWDESLLNRTKP HBD4, human defensin) AP00676 Ref, RL-37 (RL37, RLGNFFRKVKEKIGGGLKKVGQKIKD 1230 monkey cathelicidin) FLGNLVPRTAS AP00677 Ref, CAP11 (Guinea pig GLRKKFRKTRKRIQKLGRKIGKTGRK 1231 cathelicidin) VWKAWREYGQIPYPCRI AP00678 Ref, Canine cathelicidin RLKELITTGGQKIGEKIRRIGQRIKDFF 1232 (K9CATH) (dog) KNLQPREEKS AP00679 Ref, Esculentin 2VEb GLFSILKGVGKIAIKGLGKNLGKMGL 1233 (frog) DLVSCKISKEC AP00680 Ref, SMAP-34 (sheep GLFGRLRDSLQRGGQKILEKAERIWC 1234 cathelicidin) KIKDIFR AP00681 Ref, OaBac5 (sheep RFRPPIRRPPIRPPFRPPFRPPVRPPIRPP 1235 cathelicidin) FRPPFRPPIGPFP AP00682 Ref, OaBac6 (sheep RRLRPRHQHFPSERPWPKPLPLPLPRP 1236 cathelicidin) GPRPWPKPLPLPLPRPGLRPWPKPL AP00683 Ref, OaBac7.5 (sheep RRLRPRRPRLPRPRPRPRPRPRSLPLPR 1237 cathelicidin) PQPRRIPRPILLPWRPPRPIPRPQIQPIPR WL AP00684 Ref, OaBac11 (sheep RRLRPRRPRLPRPRPRPRPRPRSLPLPR 1238 cathelicidin) PKPRPIPRPLPLPRPRPKPIPRPLPLPRP RPRRIPRPLPLPRPRPRPIPRPLPLPQPQ PSPIPRPL AP00685 Ref, Ranatuerin 2VEb GIMDTVKGVAKTVAASLLDKLKCKIT 1239 (frog) GC AP00686 Ref, eCATH-1 (horse KRFGRLAKSFLRMRILLPRRKILLAS 1240 cathelicidin) AP00687 Ref, eCATH-2 (horse KRRHWFPLSFQEFLEQLRRFRDQLPFP 1241 cathelicidin) AP00688 Ref, eCATH-3 (horse KRFHSVGSLIQRHQQMIRDKSEATRH 1242 cathelicidin) GIRIITRPKLLLAS AP00689 Ref, Prophenin-1 (pig AFPPPNVPGPRFPPPNFPGPRFPPPNFP 1243 cathelicidin) GPRFPPPNFPGPRFPPPNFPGPPFPPPIFP GPWFPPPPPFRPPPFGPPRFP AP00690 Ref, Prophenin-2 (pig AFPPPNVPGPRFPPPNVPGPRFPPPNFP 1244 cathelicidin) GPRFPPPNFPGPRFPPPNFPGPPFPPPIFP GPWFPPPPPFRPPPFGPPRFP AP00691 Ref, HFIAP-1 (hagfish GFFKKAWRKVKHAGRRVLDTAKGV 1245 cathelicidin) GRHYVNNWLNRYR AP00692 Ref, HFIAP-3 (hagfish GWFKKAWRKVKNAGRRVLKGVGIH 1246 cathelicidin) YGVGLI AP00693 Ref, Trout cath (fish RICSRDKNCVSRPGVGSIIGRPGGGSLI 1247 cathelicidin) GRPGGGSVIGRPGGGSPPGGGSFNDEF IRDHSDGNRFA
AP00694 Ref, MRP (melittin- AIGSILGALAKGLPTLISWIKNR 1248 related peptide) AP00695 Ref, Temporin-1TGa FLPILGKLLSGIL 1249 (frog) AP00696 Ref, Dahlein 1.1 (frog) GLFDIIKNIVSTL 1250 AP00697 Ref, Dahlein 1.2 (frog) GLFDIIKNIFSGL 1251 AP00698 Ref, Dahlein 4.1 (frog) GLWQLIKDKIKDAATGFVTGIQS 1252 AP00699 Ref, Dahlein 4.2 (frog) GLWQFIKDKLKDAATGLVTGIQS 1253 AP00700 Ref, Dahlein 4.3 (frog) GLWQFIKDKFKDAATGLVTGIQS 1254 AP00701 Ref, Dahlein 5.1 (frog) GLLGSIGNAIGAFIANKLKP 1255 AP00702 Ref, Dahlein 5.2 (frog) GLLGSIGNAIGAFIANKLKPK 1256 AP00703 Ref, Dahlein 5.3 (frog) GLLASLGKVLGGYLAEKLKP 1257 AP00704 Ref, Dahlein 5.4 (frog) GLLGSIGKVLGGYLAEKLKPK 1258 AP00705 Ref, Dahlein 5.5 (frog) GLLASLGKVLGGYLAEKLKPK 1259 AP00706 Ref, Dahlein 5.6 (frog) GLLASLGKVFGGYLAEKLKPK 1260 AP00709 Ref, Mytilus defensin GFGCPNDYPCHRHCKSIPGRAGGYCG 1261 (mytilin) A (mollusc) GAHRLRCTCYR AP00711 Ref, Mussel defensin GFGCPNNYACHQHCKSIRGYCGGYC 1262 MGD2 AGWFRLRCTCYRCG AP00712 Ref, scorpion defensin GFGCPLNQGACHRHCRSIRRRGGYCA 1263 GFFKQTCCYRN AP00713 Ref, Androctonus GFGCPFNQGACHRHCRSIRRRGGYCA 1264 defensin GLFKQTCTCYR AP00714 Ref, Orinthodoros GYGCPFNQYQCHSHCSGIRGYKGGYC 1265 defensin A (soft ticks) KGTFKQTCKCY AP00715 Ref, VaD1 (plant RTCMKKEGWGKCLIDTTCAHSCKNR 1266 defensin) GYIGGNCKGMTRTCYCLVNC AP00722 Ref, Cryptonin (insect, GLLNGLALRLGKRALKKIIKRLCR 1267 cicada) AP00723 Ref, Decoralin (insect) SLLSLLRKLIT 1268 AP00724 Ref, RTD-2 (rhesus RCLCRRGVCRCLCRRGVC 1269 theta-defensin-2, minidefensin, XXC, BBS, lectin, ZZHa) AP00725 Ref, RTD-3 (rhesus RCICTRGFCRCICTRGFC 1270 theta-defensin-3, minidefensin, XXC, BBS, lectin, ZZHa) AP00726 Ref, Combi-1 RRWWRF 1271 (synthetic) AP00748 Ref, Gm pro-rich pept1 DIQIPGIKKPTHRDIIIPNWNPNVRTQP 1272 (insect) WQRFGGNKS AP00749 Ref, Gm anionic pept 1 EADEPLWLYKGDNIERAPTTADHPILP 1273 (insect) SIIDDVKLDPNRRYA AP00750 Ref, Gm pro-rich pept 2 EIRLPEPFRFPSPTVPKPIDIDPILPHPWS 1274 (insect) PRQTYPIIARRS AP00752 Ref, Gm defensin-like DKLIGSCVWGATNYTSDCNAECKRR 1275 peptide (insect) GYKGGHCGSFWNVNCWCEE AP00753 Ref, Gm VQETQKLAKTVGANLEETNKKLAPQI 1276 apolipophoricin (insect) KSAYDDFVKQAQEVQKKLHEAASKQ AP00754 Ref, Gm anionic pept2 ETESTPDYLKNIQQQLEEYTKNFNTQV 1277 (insect) QNAFDSDKIKSEVNNFIESLGKILNTE KKEAPK AP00755 Ref, Gm cecropin D- ENFFKEIERAGQRIRDAIISAAPAVETL 1278 like pept, insect AQAQKIIKGGD AP00756 Ref, Dermaseptin-B6 ALWKDILKNAGKAALNEINQLVNQ 1279 (DRS-B6, DRS B6, XXA, frog) AP00759 Ref, Phylloseptin-O1 FLSLIPHAINAVSTLVHHSG 1280 (PLS-O1, Phylloseptin- 4, PS-4, XXA, frog) AP00760 Ref, Phylloseptin-O2 FLSLIPHAINAVSAIAKHS 1281 (PLS-O2, Phylloseptin- 5, PS-5, XXA, frog) AP00761 Ref, Phylloseptin-6 SLIPHAINAVSAIAKHF 1282 (Phylloseptin-H4, PLS- H4, PS-6, XXA, frog) AP00762 Ref, Phylloseptin-7 FLSLIPHAINAVSAIAKHF 1283 (Phylloseptin-H5, PLS- H5, PS-7, XXA, frog) AP00763 Ref, Dermaseptin DPh-1 GLWSTIKNVGKEAAIAAGKAALGAL 1284 (XXA, frog) AP00764 Ref, Dermaseptin-S9 GLRSKIWLWVLLMIWQESNKFKKM 1285 (DRS-S9, DRS S9, frog) AP00765 Ref, Human salvic MHDFWVLWVLLEYIYNSACSVLSATS 1286 SVSSRVLNRSLQVKVVKITN AP00766 Ref, Gassericin A IYWIADQFGIHLATGTARKLLDAMAS 1287 (XXC, XXD2, class IV GASLGTAFAAILGVTLPAWALAAAGA bacteriocin, Gram- LGATAA positive bacteria) AP00767 Ref, Circularin A (XXC, VAGALGVQTAAATTIVNVILNAGTLV 1288 class IV bacteriocin, TVLGIIASIASGGAGTLMTIGWATFKA Gram-positive bacteria) TVQKLAKQSMARAIAY AP00768 Ref, Closticin 574 PNWTKIGKCAGSIAWAIGSGLFGGAK 1289 (bacteria) LIKIKKYIAELGGLQKAAKLLVGATT WEEKLHAGGYALINLAAELTGVAGIQ ANCF AP00769 Ref, Caerin 1.11 (XXA, GLLGAMFKVASKVLPHVVPAITEHF 1290 frog) AP00770 Ref, Maculatin 1.4 GLLGLLGSVVSHVLPAITQHL 1291 (XXA, frog) AP00771 Ref, Magainin 1 (frog) GIGKFLHSAGKFGKAFVGEIMKS 1292 AP00772 Ref, Oxyopinin 1 FRGLAKLLKIGLKSFARVLKKVLPKA 1293 (spider) AKAGKALAKSMADENAIRQQNQ AP00773 Ref, Oxyopinin 2a GKFSVFGKILRSIAKVFKGVGKVRKQF 1294 (spider) KTASDLDKNQ AP00774 Ref, Oxyopinin 2b GKFSGFAKILKSIAKFFKGVGKVRKGF 1295 (spider) KEASDLDKNQ AP00775 Ref, Oxyopinin 2c GKLSGISKVLRAIAKFFKGVGKARKQ 1296 (spider) FKEASDLDKNQ AP00776 Ref, Oxyopinin 2d GKFSVFSKILRSIAKVFKGVGKVRKGF 1297 (spider) KTASDLDKNQ AP00777 Ref, NRC-1 (XXA, fish, GKGRWLERIGKAGGIIIGGALDHL 1298 gene predicted) AP00778 Ref, NRC-2 (XXA, fish, WLRRIGKGVKIIGGAALDHL 1299 gene predicted) AP00779 Ref, NRC-3 (XXA, fish, GRRKRKWLRRIGKGVKIIGGAALDHL 1300 gene predicted) AP00781 Ref, NRC-5 (XXA, fish, FLGALIKGAIHGGRFIHGMIQNHH 1301 gene predicted) AP00782 Ref, NRC-6 (XXA, fish, GWGSIFKHGRHAAKHIGHAAVNHYL 1302 gene predicted) AP00783 Ref, NRC-7 (XXA, fish, RWGKWFKKATHVGKHVGKAALTAYL 1303 gene predicted) AP00784 Ref, NRC-10 (XXA, FFRLLFHGVHHVGKIKPRA 1304 fish, gene predicted) AP00785 Ref, NRC-11 (XXA, GWKSVFRKAKKVGKTVGGLALDHYL 1305 fish, gene predicted) AP00786 Ref, NRC-12 (XXA, GWKKWFNRAKKVGKTVGGLAVDHYL 1306 fish, gene predicted) AP00787 Ref, NRC-13 (XXA, GWRLLLKKAEVKTVGKLALKHYL 1307 fish, gene predicted) AP00788 Ref, NRC-14 (XXA, AGWGSIFKHIFKAGKFIHGAIQAHND 1308 fish, gene predicted) AP00789 Ref, NRC-15 (XXA, GFWGKLFKLGLHGIGLLHLHL 1309 fish, gene predicted) AP00790 Ref, NRC-16 (XXA, GWKKWLRKGAKHLGQAAIK 1310 fish, gene predicted) AP00791 Ref, NRC-17 (XXA, GWKKWLRKGAKHLGQAAIKGLAS 1311 fish, gene predicted) AP00792 Ref, NRC-19 (XXA, FLGLLFHGVHHVGKWIHGLIHGHH 1312 fish, gene predicted) AP00793 Ref, Bombinin H2 IIGPVLGLVGSALGGLLKKI 1313 (XXA, frog) AP00794 Ref, Bombinin H3 (frog, IIGPVLGMVGSALGGLLKKI 1314 XXD, XXA) AP00795 Ref, Bombinin H7 (frog, ILGPILGLVSNALGGLL 1315 XXD, XXA) AP00796 Ref, Bombinin GH-1L IIGPVLGLVGKPLESLLE 1316 (XXA, toad) AP00797 Ref, Bombinin GH-1D IIGPVLGLVGKPLESLLE 1317 (toad, XXD, XXA) AP00807 Ref, Enterocin E-760 NRWYCNSAAGGVGGAAGCVLAGYV 1318 (bacteriocin, bacteria) GEAKENIAGEVRKGWGMAGGFTHNK ACKSFPGSGWASG AP00808 Ref, hepcidin (fish) CRFCCRCCPRMRGCGLCCRF 1319 AP00809 Ref, hepcidin TH1-5 GIKCRFCCGCCTPGICGVCCRF 1320 (fish) AP00810 Ref, hepcidin TH2-3 QSHLSLCRWCCNCCRSNKGC 1321 (fish) AP00811 Ref, human LEAP-2 MTPFWRGVSLRPIGASCRDDSECITRL 1322 CRKRRCSLSVAQE AP00812 Ref, Enkelytin (cow) FAEPLPSEEEGESYSKEPPEMEKRYGG 1323 FM AP00732 Ref, Spheniscin-1 SFGLCRLRRGSCAHGRCRFPSIPIGRCS 1324 (Sphe-1, avian defensin) RFVQCCRRVW AP00733 Ref, Organgutan LLGDFFRKAREKIGEEFKRIVQRIKDFL 1325 ppyLL-37 (Great Ape, RNLVPRTES primate cathelicidin) AP00734 Ref, Gibbon hmdSL-37 SLGNFFRKARKKIGEEFKRIVQRIKDF 1326 (hylobatidae, primate LQHLIPRTEA cathelicidin) AP00735 Ref, pobRL-37 RLGNFFRKAKKKIGRGLKKIGQKIKDF 1327 (cercopithecidae, LGNLVPRTES primate cathelicidin) AP00736 Ref, cjaRL-37 (primate RLGDILQKAREKIEGGLKKLVQKIKDF 1328 cathelicidin) FGKFAPRTES AP00737 Ref, Plasticin PBN2KF GLVTSLIKGAGKLLGGLFGSVTG 1329 (XXA, DRP-PBN2,
frog) AP00738 Ref, Plasticin ANCKF GLVTGLLKTAGKLLGDLFGSLTG 1330 (XXA, synthetic) AP00739 Ref, Plasticin PD36KF GVVTDLLKTAGKLLGNLFGSLSG 1331 (XXA, synthetic) AP00740 Ref, Plasticin PD36K GVVTDLLKTAGKLLGNLVGSLSG 1332 (XXA, synthetic) AP00741 Ref, Chicken PITYLDAILAAVRLLNQRISGPCILRLR 1333 cathelicidin-B1 (bird EAQPRPGWVGTLQRRREVSFLVEDGP cathelicidin) CPPGVDCRSCEPGALQHCVGTVSIEQ QPTAELRCRPLRPQ AP00742 Ref, Chicken gallinacin MRILYLLLSVLFVVLQGVAGQPYFSSP 1334 4 (Gal 4) IHACRYQRGVCIPGPCRWPYYRVGSC GSGLKSCCVRNRWA AP00743 Ref, Chicken gallinacin MKILCFFIVLFVAVHGAVGFSRSPRYH 1335 7 (Gal 7) MQCGYRGTFCTPGKCPYGNAYLGLC RPKYSCCRWL AP00744 Ref, Chicken gallinacin MQILPLLFAVLLLMLRAEPGLSLARGL 1336 9 (Gal 9) PQDCERRGGFCSHKSCPPGIGRIGLCS KEDFCCRSRWYS AP00745 Ref, Chicken LEAP-2 MTPFWRGVSLRPVGASCRDNSECITM 1337 (cLEAP-2) LCRKNRCFLRTASE AP00814 Ref, Caerulein GLGSILGKILNVAGKVGKTIGKVADA 1338 precursor-related VGNKE fragment Ea (CPRF-Ea, frog) AP00815 Ref, Caerulein GLGSFLKNAIKIAGKVGSTIGKVADAI 1339 precursor-related GNKE fragment Eb (CPRF-Eb, frog) AP00816 Ref, Caerulein GLGSFFKNAIKIAGKVGSTIGKVADAI 1340 precursor-related GNKE fragment Ec (CPRF-Ec, frog) AP00817 Ref, Temporin-1Oa FLPLLASLFSRLL 1341 (frog) AP00818 Ref, Temporin-1Ob FLPLIGKILGTIL 1342 (frog) AP00819 Ref, Temporin-1Oc FLPLLASLFSRLF 1343 (frog) AP00820 Ref, Temporin-1Od FLPLLASLFSGLF 1344 (frog) AP00821 Ref, Brevinin-20a (frog) GLFNVFKGLKTAGKHVAGSLLNQLK 1345 CKVSGGC AP00822 Ref, Brevinin-20b (frog) GIFNVFKGALKTAGKHVAGSLLNQLK 1346 CKVSGEC AP00824 Ref, Temporin-1Gb SILPTIVSFLSKFL 1347 (XXA, frog) AP00825 Ref, Temporin-1Gc SILPTIVSFLTKFL 1348 (XXA, frog) AP00826 Ref, Temporin-1Gd FILPLIASFLSKFL 1349 (XXA, frog) AP00827 Ref, Ranatuerin-1Ga SMISVLKNLGKVGLGFVACKVNKQC 1350 (frog) AP00829 Ref, Ranalexin-1G FLGGLMKIIPAAFCAVTKKC 1351 (frog) AP00830 Ref, Ranatuerin-2G GLLLDTLKGAAKDIAGIALEKLKCKIT 1352 (frog) GCKP AP00831 Ref, Odorranain-NR GLLSGILGAGKHIVCGLTGCAKA 1353 (frog) AP00832 Ref, Maximin H1 ILGPVISTIGGVLGGLLKNL 1354 (XXA, toad) AP00834 Ref, G. mellonella KVNANAIKKGGKAIGKGFKVISAAST 1355 moricin-like peptide A AHDVYEHIKNRRH (Gm-mlpA, insect) AP00835 Ref, G. mellonella GKIPVKAIKKGGQIIGKALRGINIASTA 1356 moricin-like peptide B HDIISQFKPKKKKNH (Gm-mlpB, insect) AP00836 Ref, G. mellonella KVPIGAIKKGGKIIKKGLGVIGAAGTA 1357 moricin-like peptide C1 HEVYSHVKNRH (Gm-mlpC1, insect) AP00837 Ref, G. mellonella KVPIGAIKKGGKIIKKGLGVLGAAGTA 1358 moricin-like peptide C2 HEVYNHVRNRQ (Gm-mlpC2, insect) AP00838 Ref, G. mellonella KVPIGAIKKGGKIIKKGLGVIGAAGTA 1359 moricin-like peptide C3 HEVYSHVKNRQ (Gm-mlpC3, insect) AP00839 Ref, G. mellonella KVPVGAIKKGGKAIKTGLGVVGAAGT 1360 moricin-like peptide AHEVYSHIRNRH C4/C5 (Gm-mlpC4/C5, insect) AP00840 Ref, G. mellonella KGIGSALKKGGKIIKGGLGALGAIGTG 1361 moricin-like peptide D QQVYEHVQNRQ (Gm-mlpD, insect) AP00841 Ref, Enterocin A (EntA, TTHSGKYYGNGVYCTKNKCTVDWAK 1362 class IIA bacteriocin, ATTCIAGMSIGGFLGGAIPGKC i.e. pediocin-like peptide, bacteria) AP00842 Ref, Divercin V41 TKYYGNGVYCNSKKCWVDWGQASG 1363 (DvnV41, class IIa CIGQTVVGGWLGGAIPGKC bacteriocin, pediocin- like peptide, bacteria. DvnRV41 is the recombinant form) AP00843 Ref, Divergicin M35 TKYYGNGVYCNSKKCWVDWGTAQG 1364 (class IIa bacteriocin, CIDVVIGQLGGGIPGKGKC pediocin-like peptide, bacteria) AP00844 Ref, Coagulin KYYGNGVTCGKHSCSVDWGKATTCII 1365 (bacteriocin, pediocin- NNGAMAWATGGHQGTHKC like peptide, bacteria) AP00845 Ref, Listeriocin 743A KSYGNGVHCNKKKCWVDWGSAISTI 1366 (class IIa bacteriocin, GNNSAANWATGGAAGWKS pediocin-like peptide, bacteria) AP00846 Ref, Mundticin KS KYYGNGVSCNKKGCSVDWGKAIGIIG 1367 (enterocin CRL35, NNSAANLATGGAAGWKS mundticin ATO6, mundticin QU2, class IIa bacteriocin, pediocin-like peptide, bacteria) AP00847 Ref, Sakacin 5X KYYGNGLSCNKSGCSVDWSKAISIIGN 1368 (Sak5X, class IIa NAVANLTTGGAAGWKS bacteriocin, pediocin- like peptide, bacteria) AP00848 Ref, Leucocin C (class KNYGNGVHCTKKGCSVDWGYAWAN 1369 IIa bacteriocin, IANNSVMNGLTGGNAGWHN pediocin-like peptide, bacteria) AP00849 Ref, Lactococcin TSYGNGVHCNKSKCWIDVSELETYKA 1370 MMFII (class IIa GTVSNPKDILW bacteriocin, pediocin- like peptide, bacteria) AP00850 Ref, Sakacin G (SakG, KYYGNGVSCNSHGCSVNWGQAWTC 1371 class IIa bacteriocin, GVNHLANGGHGVC pediocin-like peptide, bacteria) AP00851 Ref, Plantaricin 423 KYYGNGVTCGKHSCSVNWGQAFSCS 1372 (class IIa bacteriocin, VSHLANFGHGKC pediocin-like peptide, bacteria) AP00852 Ref, Plantaricin C19 KYYGNGLSCSKKGCTVNWGQAFSCG 1373 (class IIa bacteriocin, VNRVATAGHHKC pediocin-like peptide, bacteria) AP00853 Ref, Enterocin P (EntP, ATRSYGNGVYCNNSKCWVNWGEAK 1374 class IIa bacteriocin, ENIAGIVISGWASGLAGMGH pediocin-like peptide, bacteria) AP00854 Ref, Bacteriocin 31 ATYYGNGLYCNKQKCWVDWNKASR 1375 (Bac 31, Bac31, class EIGKIIVNGWVQHGPWAPR IIa bacteriocin, pediocin-like peptide, bacteria) AP00855 Ref, MSI-78 (XXA, GIGKFLKKAKKFGKAFVKILKK 1376 synthetic) AP00856 Ref, MSI-594 (XXA, GIGKFLKKAKKGIGAVLKVLTTGL 1377 synthetic) AP00857 Ref, Catestatin (human SSMKLSFRARAYGFRGPGPQL 1378 CHGA(352-372), human Cst) AP00858 Ref, Temporin D (XXA, LLPIVGNLLNSLL 1379 frog) AP00859 Ref, Temporin H (XXA, LSPNLLKSLL 1380 frog) AP00861 Ref, Brevinin-ALb FLPLAVSLAANFLPKLFCKITKKC 1381 (frog) AP00862 Ref, Brevinin 1E (frog) FLPLLAGLAANFLPKIFCKITKRC 1382 AP00863 Ref, Temporin-ALa FLPIVGKLLSGLSGLL 1383 (XXA, frog) AP00864 Ref, Temporin 1ARa FLPIVGRLISGLL 1384 (XXA, frog) AP00865 Ref, Temporin 1AUa FLPIIGQLLSGLL 1385 (XXA, Temporin- 1AUa) (frog) AP00866 Ref, Temporin 1Bya FLPIIAKVLSGLL 1386 (XXA, Temporin-1Bya, frog) AP00867 Ref, Temporin 1Ec FLPVIAGLLSKLF 1387 (XXA, frog) AP00869 Ref, Temporin 1Ja ILPLVGNLLNDLL 1388 (XXA, Temporin-1Ja, frog) AP00873 Ref, Temporin 1Pra ILPILGNLLNGLL 1389 (XXA, frog) AP00874 Ref, Temporin 1VE FLPLVGKILSGLI 1390 (XXA, frog) AP00875 Ref, Temporin 1Va FLSSIGKILGNLL 1391 (XXA, frog) AP00876 Ref, Temporin 1Vb FLSIIAKVLGSLF 1392 (XXA, frog) AP00877 Ref, Brevinin-1Ja (frog) FLGSLIGAAIPAIKQLLGLKK 1393 AP00878 Ref, Brevinin-1BYa FLPILASLAAKFGPKLFCLVTKKC 1394 (frog)
AP00884 Ref, Ixosin-B (tick) QLKVDLWGTRSGIQPEQHSSGKSDVR 1395 RWRSRY AP00885 Ref, Brevinin-1BYb FLPILASLAAKLGPKLFCLVTKKC 1396 (frog) AP00886 Ref, Brevinin-1BYc FLPILASLAATLGPKLLCLITKKC 1397 (frog) AP00887 Ref, Brevinin-2BYa GILSTFKGLAKGVAKDLAGNLLDKFK 1398 (frog) CKITGC AP00888 Ref, Brevinin-2BYb GIMDSVKGLAKNLAGKLLDSLKCKIT 1399 (frog) GC AP00891 Ref, Pilosulin 3 (Myr b IIGLVSKGTCVLVKTVCKKVLKQG 1400 III)(ants) AP00892 Ref, Pilosulin 4 (Myr b PDITKLNIKKLTKATCKVISKGASMCK 1401 IV)(ants) VLFDKKKQE AP00893 Ref, Pilosulin 5 (Myr b DVKGMKKAIKGILDCVIEKGYDKLAA 1402 III)(ants) KLKKVIQQLWE AP00894 Ref, Ocellatin 4 (XXA, GLLDFVTGVGKDIFAQLIKQI 1403 frog) AP00895 Ref, OH-CATH (snake KRFKKFFKKLKNSVKKRAKKFFKKPR 1404 cathelicidin, reptile VIGVSIPF cathelicidin, or elapid cathelicidins) AP00896 Ref, BF-CATH (snake KRFKKFFKKLKKSVKKRAKKFFKKPR 1405 cathelicidin) VIGVSIPF AP00897 Ref, NA-CATH (snake KRFKKFFKKLKNSVKKRAKKFFKKPK 1406 cathelicidin) VIGVTFPF AP00898 Ref, Temporin-1Sa FLSGIVGMLGKLF 1407 (XXA, frog) AP00899 Ref, Temporin-1Sb FLPIVTNLLSGLL 1408 (XXA, frog) AP00900 Ref, Temporin-1Sc FLSHIAGFLSNLF 1409 (XXA, frog) AP00913 Ref, Ib-AMP1 EWGRRCCGWGPGRRYCVRWC 1410 (IbAMP1, plant defensin) AP00914 Ref, Ib-AMP2 QYGRRCCNWGPGRRYCKRWC 1411 (IBAMP2, plant defensin) AP00915 Ref, Ee-CBP (EeCBP, QQCGRQAGNRRCANNLCCSQYGYCG 1412 plant defensin, hevein- RTNEYCCTSQGCQSQCRRCG type, E. europaeus chitin-binding protein) AP00916 Ref, Pa-AMP1 AGCIKNGGRCNASAGPPYCCSSYCFQI 1413 (PaAMP1, plant AGQSYGVCKNR defensin, C6 type) AP00917 Ref, Pa-AMP2 ACIKNGGRCVASGGPPYCCSNYCLQI 1414 (PaAMP2, plant AGQSYGVCKKH defensin, C6 type) AP00924 Ref, Ornithodoros GYGCPFNQYQCHSHCRGIRGYKGGY 1415 defensin B (soft ticks) CTGRFKQTCKCY AP00925 Ref, Ornithodoros GYGCPFNQYQCHSHCSGIRGYKGGYC 1416 defensin C (soft ticks) KGLFKQTCNCY AP00926 Ref, Ornithodoros GFGCPFNQYECHAHCSGVPGYKGGY 1417 defensin D (soft ticks) CKGLFKQTCNCY AP00927 Ref, Butyrivibriocin IYFIADKMGIQLAPAWYQDIVNWVSA 1418 AR10 (XXC, class IV GGTLTTGFAIIVGVTVPAWIAEAAAAF bacteriocin, gram- GIASA positive bacteria) AP00929 Ref, AS-48 (enterocin 4, ASLQFLPIAHMAKEFGIPAAVAGTVIN 1419 XXC, class IV VVEAGGWVTTIVSILTAVGSGGLSLLA bacteriocin or class IId AAGRESIKAYLKKEIKKKGKRAVIAW bacteriocin, Gram- positive bacteria) AP00930 Ref, Reutericin 6 (XXC, IYWIADQFGIHLATGTARKLLDAMAS 1420 XXD1, class IV GASLGTAFAAILGVTLPAWALAAAGA bacteriocin, Gram- LGATAA positive bacteria) AP00931 Ref, Uberolysin (XXC, LAGYTGIASGTAKKVVDAIDKGAAAF 1421 class IV bacteriocin, VIISIISTVISAGALGAVSASADFIILTVK Gram-positive bacteria) NYISRNLKAQAVIW AP00932 Ref, Acidocin B (XXC, IYWIADQFGIHLATGTARKLLDAVAS 1422 class IV bacteriocin, GASLGTAFAAILGVTLPAWALAAAGA Gram-positive bacteria) LGATAA AP00980 Ref, Phormia defensin B ATCDLLSGTGINHSACAAHCLLRGNR 1423 (insect defensin B) GGYCNRKGVCVCRN AP00990 Ref, Pth-St1 (plant RNCESLSHRFKGPCTRDSN 1424 defensin) AP00991 Ref, Snakin-1 (StSN1, GSNFCDSKCKLRCSKAGLADRCLKYC 1425 plant defensin) GICCEECKCVPSGTYGNKHECPCYRD KKNSKGKSKCP AP00992 Ref, Snakin-2 (StSN2, YSYKKIDCGGACAARCRLSSRPRLCN 1426 plant defensin) RACGTCCARCNCVPPGTSGNTETCPC YASLTTHGNKRKCP AP00993 Ref, So-D2 (S. oleracea GIFSSRKCKTPSKTFKGICTRDSNCDTS 1427 defensin D2, plant CRYEGYPAGDCKGIRRRCMCSKPC defensin) AP00994 Ref, So-D6 (S. oleracea GIFSNMYARTPAGYFRGP 1428 defensin D6, plant defensin) AP00997 Ref, Nisin Q ITSISLCTPGCKTGVLMGCNLKTATCN 1429 (lantibiotic, CSVHVSK bacteriocins, bacteria) AP01008 Ref, Tachystatin A1 YSRCQLQGFNCVVRSYGLPTIPCCRGL 1430 (BBS, horseshoe crabs) TCRSYFPGSTYGRCQRF AP01009 Ref, Tachystatin C DYDWSLRGPPKCATYGQKCRTWSPR 1431 (BBS, horseshoe crabs) NCCWNLRCKAFRCRPR AP01012 Ref, Latarcin 3a (Ltc3a, SWKSMAKKLKEYMEKLKQRA 1432 XXA, BBM, spider) AP01013 Ref, Latarcin 3b (Ltc3b, SWASMAKKLKEYMEKLKQRA 1433 XXA, BBM, spider) AP01014 Ref, Latarcin 4a (Ltc4a, GLKDKFKSMGEKLKQYIQTWKAKF 1434 XXA, BBM, spider) AP01015 Ref, Latarcin 4b (Ltc4b, SLKDKVKSMGEKLKQYIQTWKAKF 1435 XXA, BBM, spider) AP01016 Ref, Latarcin 5 (Ltc5, GFFGKMKEYFKKFGASFKRRFANLKK 1436 XXA, BBM, spider) RL AP01018 Ref, Latarcin 6a (Ltc6a, QAFQTFKPDWNKIRYDAMKMQTSLG 1437 BBM, spider) QMKKRFNL AP01019 Ref, Latarcin 7 (Ltc7, GETFDKLKEKLKTFYQKLVEKAEDLK 1438 BBM, spider) GDLKAKLS AP01049 Ref, Kalata B2 (plant VCGETCFGGTCNTPGCSCTWPICTRD 1439 cyclotides, XXC) GLP AP01141 Ref, Cryptdin-6 (Crp6, LRDLVCYCRARGCKGRERMNGTCRK 1440 animal defensin, alpha, GHLLYMLCCR mouse) AP01142 Ref, Rabbit kidney KPYCSCKWRCGIGEEEKGICHKFPIVT 1441 defensin RK-2 (animal YVCCRRP defensin, alpha- defensin) AP01146 Ref, Gallinacin 6 (Gal6, DTLACRQSHGSCSFVACRAPSVDIGTC 1442 Gal-6, avian beta RGGKLKCCKWAPSS defensin, bird) AP01147 Ref, Gallinacin 8 (Gal8, DTVACRIQGNFCRAGACPPTFTISGQC 1443 Gal-8, avian beta HGGLLNCCAKIPAQ defensin, bird) AP01148 Ref, Gallinacin 3 (Gal3, IATQCRIRGGFCRVGSCRFPHIAIGKCA 1444 Gal-3, avian beta TFISCCGRAY defensin, bird) AP01152 Ref, Lactococcin Q SIWGDIGQGVGKAAYWVGKAMGNM 1445 (class IIb bacteriocin, SDVNQASRINRKKKH bacteria, chain a. For chain b, see Info) AP01155 Ref, Enterocin 1071 ESVFSKIGNAVGPAAYWILKGLGNMS 1446 (Ent1071A, class IIb DVNQADRINRKKH bacteriocin, bacteria; chain B is Enterocin 1071B or Ent1071B, see info) AP01156 Ref, Plantaricin S (chain NKLAYNMGHYAGKATIFGLAAWALLA 1447 a, class IIb bacteriocin, bacteria) AP01159 Ref, Hinnavin II (Hin II, KWKIFKKIEHMGQNIRDGLIKAGPAV 1448 XXA, insect) QVVGQAATIYK AP01160 Ref, NK-2 (synthetic, KILRGLCKKIMRSFLRRISWDILTGKK 1449 XXA) AP01167 Ref, Plantaricin NC8 LTTKLWSSWGYYLGKKARWNLKHPY 1450 (PLNC8, chain a, class VQF IIb bacteriocin, bacteria. For chain b, see Info) AP01168 Ref, Carnocyclin A (a LVAYGIAQGTAEKVVSLINAGLTVGSI 1451 circular bacteriocin, ISILGGVTVGLSGVFTAVKAAIAKQGI XXC, bacteria) KKAIQL AP01169 Ref, Lactacin F (LafX, NRWGDTVLSAASGAGTGIKACKSFGP 1452 class IIb bacteriocin, WGMAICGVGGAAIGGYFGYTHN bacteria. For LafA, see Info) AP01170 Ref, Brochocin C YSSKDCLKDIGKGIGAGTVAGAAGGG 1453 (BrcC, chain BrcA, LAAGLGAIPGAFVGAHFGVIGGSAACI class IIb bacteriocin, GGLLGN bacteria. For BrcB, see Info) AP01171 Ref, Thermophilin 13 YSGKDCLKDMGGYALAGAGSGALW 1454 (chain a ThmA, 2-chain GAPAGGVGALPGAFVGAHVGAIAGG class IIb bacteriocin, FACMGGMIGNKFN bacteria. For chain B ThmB, see Info) AP01172 Ref, ABP-118 (chain a: KRGPNCVGNFLGGLFAGAAAGVPLGP 1455 Abp118alpha, class IIb AGIVGGANLGMVGGALTCL bacteriocin, bacteria. For chain b: Abp118beta, see Info) AP01173 Ref, Salivaricin P (chain KRGPNCVGNFLGGLFAGAAAGVPLGP 1456 a: Sln1; class IIb AGIVGGANLGMVGGALTCL bacteriocin, bacteria. For chain b: Sln2, see Info) AP01174 Ref, Mutacin IV (chain KVSGGEAVAAIGICATASAAIGGLAG 1457 a: NlmA, class IIb ATLVTPYCVGTWGLIRSH bacteriocin, bacteria. For chain b:NLmB, see Info) AP01175 Ref, Lactocin 705 GMSGYIQGIPDFLKGYLHGISAANKH 1458 (chain a: Lac705alpha; KKGRLGY class IIb bacteriocin, bacteria. For chain b: Lac705beta, see Info) AP01176 Ref, Cytolysin (CylLS, TTPACFTIGLGVGALFSAKFC 1459
bacteria; Chain B: CylLL) AP01177 Ref, Plantaricin EF FNRGGYNFGKSVRHVVDAIGSVAGIL 1460 (chain a: PlnE, class IIb KSIR bacteriocin, bacteria. Chain b: PlnF) AP01178 Ref, Plantaricin JK GAWKNFWSSLRKGFYDGEAGRAIRR 1461 (chain a: PlnJ; class IIb bacteriocin, bacteria. Chain b: PlnK) AP01179 Ref, Enterocin SE-K4 NGVYCNKQKCWVDWSRARSEIIDRG 1462 (class IIa bacteriocin, VKAYVNGFTKVLGGIGGR bacteria) AP01180 Ref, Acidocin J1132 NPKVAHCASQIGRSTAWGAVSGA 1463 (class IIb bacteriocin, bacteria) AP01181 Ref, Curvaticin L442 AYPGNGVHCGKYSCTVDKQTAIGNIG 1464 (class IIa bacteriocin, NNAA bacteria) AP01182 Ref, Bacteriocin 32 FTPSVSFSQNGGVVEAAAQRGYIYKK 1465 (Bac 32, class IIa YPKGAKVPNKVKMLVNIRGKQTMRT bacteriocin, bacteria) CYLMSWTASSRTAKYYYYI AP01183 Ref, Bacteriocin 43 ATYYGNGLYCNKEKCWVDWNQAKG 1466 (Bac 43, bacteriocin, EIGKIIVNGWVNHGPWAPRR bacteria) AP01184 Ref, Bacteriocin T8 ATYYGNGLYCNKEKCWVDWNQAKG 1467 (Bac T8, class IIa EIGKIIVNGWVNHGPWAPRR bacteriocin, bacteria) AP01185 Ref, Enterocin B (EntB, ENDHRMPNNLNRPNNLSKGGAKCGA 1468 bacteriocin, bacteria) AIAGGLFGIPKGPLAWAAGLANVYSK CN AP01186 Ref, Acidocin A KTYYGTNGVHCTKKSLWGKVRLKNV 1469 (bacteriocin, bacteria) IPGTLCRKQSLPIKQDLKILLGWATGA FGKTFH AP01187 Ref, Enterocin Q (EntQ, MNFLKNGIAKWMTGAELQAYKKKY 1470 class IIc bacteriocin, GCLPWEKISC leaderless, i.e. no signal peptide, bacteria) AP01188 Ref, Enterocin EJ97 MLAKIKAMIKKFPNPYTLAAKLTTYEI 1471 (EntEJ97, class IIc NWYKQQYGRYPWERPVA bacteriocin, leaderless, i.e. no signal peptide, bacteria) AP01189 Ref, Enterocin RJ-11 APAGLVAKFGRPIVKKYYKQIMQFIG 1472 (EntRJ-11, class IIc EGSAINKIIPWIARMWRT bacteriocin, leaderless, i.e. no signal sequence, bacteria) AP01190 Ref, Enterocin L50 (old MGAIAKLVAKFGWPIVKKYYKQIMQ 1473 name: pediocin L50, FIGEGWAINKIIEWIKKHI EntL50A, a two-chain class IIc bacteriocin, leaderless, i.e. no signal peptide, bacteria. The sequence of EntL50B is provided in Info) AP01191 Ref, MR10 (MR10A, MGAIAKLVAKFGWPIVKKYYKQIMQ 1474 class IIc bacteriocin, FIGEGWAINKIIDWIKKHI leaderless, i.e. no signal peptide, bacteria. For the sequence of chain b, see Info) AP01192 Ref, Halocin S8 (HalS8, SDCNINSNTAADVILCFNQVGSCALCS 1475 microhalocin, PTLVGGPVP archaeocins, archeae) AP01193 Ref, Halocin C8 DIDITGCSACKYAAGQVCTIGCSAAG 1476 (HalC8, microhalocins, GFICGLLGITIPVAGLSCLGFVEIVCTV archaeocins, archaea) ADEYSGCGDAVAKEACNRAGLC AP01194 Ref, Lacticin 3147 CSTNTFSLSDYWGNNGAWCTLTHEC 1477 (chain A1, a two-chain MAWCK lantibiotic, bacteriocin, bacteria. The sequence of chain A2 is given in Info; XXD3) AP01195 Ref, Salivaricin A KRGSGWIATITDDCPNSVFVCC 1478 (SalA, lantibiotic, bacteriocin, bacteria) AP01196 Ref, Microcin E492 ATYYGNGLYCNKEKCWVDWNQAKG 1479 (MccE492, class IIb EIGKIIVNGWVNHGPWAPRR microcins, bacteriocin, bacteria; BBM; u- MccE492, siderophore peptide, BBI, XXG) AP01197 Ref, Hiracin JM79 ATYYGNGLYCNKEKCWVDWNQAKG 1480 (HirJM79, a Sec- EIGKIIVNGWVNHGPWAPRR dependent class II bacteriocin, bacteria) AP01198 Ref, Thermophilin 9 LSCDEGMLAVGGLGAVGGPWGAAV 1481 (BlpDst, class IIb GVLVGAALYCF bacteriocin, bacteria. beta-chains: BlpUst, BlpEst, BapFst) AP01199 Ref, Penocin A (PenA, KYYGNGVHCGKKTCYVDWGQATASI 1482 class IIa bacteriocin, GKIIVNGWTQHGPWAHR bacteria) AP01200 Ref, Salivaricin B GGGVIQTISHECRMNSWQFLFTCCS 1483 (SalB, lantibotic, bacteriocin, bacteria) AP01201 Ref, Lacticin 481 KGGSGVIHTISHECNMNSWQFVFTCCS 1484 (lantibiotic, class I bacteriocin, bacteria) AP01202 Ref, Bacteriocin J46 KGGSGVIHTISHEVIYNSWNFVFTCCS 1485 (BacJ46, bacteriocin, bacteria) AP01203 Ref, Nukacin A (NucA, KKKSGVIPTVSHDCHMNSFQFVFTCCS 1486 Nukacin ISK-1, NukISK-1, bacteriocin, bacteria) AP01204 Ref, Streptococcin A- GKNGVFKTISHECHLNTWAFLATCCS 1487 FF22 (LANTIBIOTIC, class I bacteriocin, bacteria) AP01210 Ref, Jelleine-I PFKLSLHL 1488 (honeybees, insect, XXA) AP01211 Ref, Jelleine-II TPFKLSLHL 1489 (honeybees, insect, XXA) AP01212 Ref, Jelleine-III EPFKLSLHL 1490 (honeybees, insect, XXA) AP01213 Ref, Hymenoptaecin EFRGSIVIQGTKEGKSRPSLDIDYKQR 1491 (honeybees, insect VYDKNGMTGDAYGGLNIRPGQPSRQ defensin, XXcooh) HAGFEFGKEYKNGFIKGQSEVQRGPG GRLSPYFGINGGFRF AP01216 Ref, Ascaphin-1 (frog, GFRDVLKGAAKAFVKTVAGHIAN 1492 XXA) AP01218 Ref, Ascaphin-3 (frog) GFRDVLKGAAKAFVKTVAGHIANI 1493 AP01220 Ref, Ascaphin-5 (frog) GIKDWIKGAAKKLIKTVASNIANQ 1494 AP01222 Ref, Ascaphin-7 (frog) GFKDWIKGAAKKLIKTVASSIANQ 1495 AP01223 Ref, Ascaphin-8 (frog, GFKDLLKGAAKALVKTVLF 1496 XXA) AP01226 Ref, Microcin C7 MRTGNAD 1497 (MccC7, microcin C51, MccC51, class I microcins, bacteriocins, bacteria. Others: MccA; XXamp; BBPe) AP01227 Ref, Microcin B17 VGIGGGGGGGGGGSCGGQGGGCGGC 1498 (MccB17, class I SNGCSGGNGGSGGSGSHI microcins, bacteriocins, Gram-negative bacteria; BBPe) AP01228 Ref, Microcin V (MccV, ASGRDIAMAIGTLSGQFVAGGIGAAA 1499 (old name) Colicin V, GGVAGGAIYDYASTHKPNPAMSPSGL ColV; class II GGTIKQKPEGIPSEAWNYAAGRLCNW microcins, bacteriocins, SPNNLSDVCL Gram-negative bacteria) AP01229 Ref, Microcin L (MccL, GDVNWVDVGKTVATNGAGVIGGAFG 1500 class IIa microcins, AGLCGPVCAGAFAVGSSAAVAALYD bacteriocins, Gram- AAGNSNSAKQKPEGLPPEAWNYAEG negative bacteria) RMCNWSPNNLSDVCL AP01230 Ref, Microcin M DGNDGQAELIAIGSLAGTFISPGFGSIA 1501 (MccM, class IIb GAYIGDKVHSWATTATVSPSMSPSGI microcins, bacteriocins, GLSSQFGSGRGTSSASSSAGSGS Gram-negative bacteria) AP01231 Ref, Microcin H47 GGAPATSANAAGAAAIVGALAGIPGG 1502 (MccH47, class IIb PLGVVVGAVSAGLTTGIGSTVGSGSA microcins, bacteriocins, SSSAGGGS Gram-negative bacteria) AP01232 Ref, Microcin I47 MNLNGLPASTNVIDLRGKDMGTYIDA 1503 (MccI47, class IIb NGACWAPDTPSIIMYPGGSGPSYSMSS microcins, bacteriocins, STSSANSGS Gram-negative bacteria) Aibellin *Ac U A U A U A Q U F U G U U P V U 1504 U E E [NHC(CH2Ph)HCH2NHCH2CH2]OH Alamethicin_F-30 *Ac U P U A U A Q U V U G L U P V U 1505 U E Q F OH Alamethicin_F-50 *Ac U P U A U A Q U V U G L U P V U 1506 U Q Q F OH Alamethicin_II *Ac U P U A U U Q U V U G L U P V U 1507 U E Q F OH Ampullosporin *Ac W A U U L U Q U U U Q L U Q L 1508 OH Ampullosporin_B *Ac W A U U L U Q A U U Q L U Q L 1509 OH Ampullosporin_C *Ac W A U U L U Q U A U Q L U Q L 1510 OH Ampullosporin_D *Ac W A U U L U Q U U A Q L U Q L 1511 OH Ampullosporin_E1 *Ac W A U U L U Q A U U Q L A Q L 1512 OH Ampullosporin_E2 *Ac W A U U L U Q U A A Q L U Q L 1513 OH Ampullosporin_E3 *Ac W A U U L U Q U U A Q L A Q L 1514 OH Ampullosporin_E4 *Ac W A U U L U Q A A U Q L U Q L 1515 OH Antiamoebin_I *Ac F U U U J G L U U O Q J O U P F 1516 OH Antiamoebin_II *Ac F U U U J G L U U O Q J P U P F 1517 OH
Antiamoebin_III *Ac F U U U U G L U U O Q J O U P F 1518 OH Antiamoebin_IV *Ac F U U U J G L U U O Q J O U P F 1519 OH Antiamoebin_V *Ac F U U U J A L U U O Q J O U P F 1520 OH Antiamoebin_VI *Ac F U U U U G L U U O Q U O U P F 1521 OH Antiamoebin_VII *Ac F A U J U G L U U O Q J O U P F 1522 OH Antiamoebin_VIII *Ac F U U U J G L U U O Q U O U P F 1523 OH Antiamoebin_IX *Ac F U A U J G L U U O Q J O U P F 1524 OH Antiamoebin_X *Ac F U U U J G L J U O Q U O U P F 1525 OH Antiamoebin_XI *Ac F U U U U A L U U O Q J O U P F 1526 OH Antiamoebin_XII *Ac F U U U U G L A U O Q J O U P F 1527 OH Antiamoebin_XIII *Ac V U U U U G L U U O Q J O U P F 1528 OH Antiamoebin_XIV *Ac V U U U V G L U U O Q J O U P F 1529 OH Antiamoebin_XV *Ac L U U U U G L U U O Q J O U P F 1530 OH Antiamoebin_XVI *Ac L U U U J G L U U O Q J O U P F 1531 OH Atroviridin_A *Ac U P U A U A Q U V U G L U P V U 1532 U Q Q F OH Atroviridin_B *Ac U P U A U A Q U V U G L U P V U 1533 J Q Q F OH Atroviridin_C *Ac U P U A U U Q U V U G L U P V U 1534 J Q Q F OH Bergofungin_A *Ac V U U U V G L U U O Q J O U F 1535 OH Bergofungin_B *Ac V U U U V G L V U O Q U O U F 1536 OH Bergofungin_C *Ac V U U U V G L U U O Q U O U F 1537 OH Bergofungin_D *Ac V U U V G L U U O Q U O U F OH 1538 Boletusin *Ac F U A U J L Q G U U A A U P U U 1539 U Q W OH Cephaibol_A *Ac F U U U U G L J U O Q J O U P F 1540 OH Cephaibol_A2 *Ac F U U U U A L J U O Q J O U P F 1541 OH Cephaibol_B *Ac F U U U J G L J U O Q J O U P F 1542 OH Cephaibol_C *Ac F U U U U G L J U O Q U O U P F 1543 OH Cephaibol_D *Ac F U U U U G L U U O Q U O U P F 1544 OH Cephaibol_E *Ac F U U U U G L U U O Q J O U P F 1545 OH Cephaibol_P *Ac F J Q U I T U L U O Q U O U P F S 1546 OH Cephaibol_Q *Ac F J Q U I T U L U P Q U O U P F S 1547 OH Cervinin_1 *Ac L U P U L U P A U P V L OH 1548 Cervinin_2 *Ac L U P U L U P A U P V L OCOCH3 1549 Chrysospermin_A *Ac F U S U U L Q G U U A A U P U U 1550 U Q W OH Chrysospermin_B *Ac F U S U U L Q G U U A A U P J U U 1551 Q W OH Chrysospermin_C *Ac F U S U J L Q G U U A A U P U U U 1552 Q W OH Chrysospermin_D *Ac F U S U J L Q G U U A A U P J U U 1553 Q W OH Clonostachin *Ac U O L J O L J O U J U O J I 1554 O[CH(CH(OH)CH2OH)CH(OH)CH(OH)CH2]OH Emerimicin_II_A *Ac W I Q U I T U L U O Q U O U P F 1555 OH Emerimicin_II_B *Ac W I Q J I T U L U O Q U O U P F 1556 OH Emerimicin_III *Ac F U U U V G L U U O Q J O U F OH 1557 Emerimicin_IV *Ac F U U U V G L U U O Q J O A F OH 1558 Harzianin_HB_I *Ac U N L I U P J L U P L OH 1559 Harzianin_HC_I *Ac U N L U P S V U P U L U P L OH 1560 Harzianin_HC_III *Ac U N L U P S V U P J L U P L OH 1561 Harzianin_HC_IX *Ac U N L U P A I U P J L U P L OH 1562 Harzianin_HC_VI *Ac U N L U P A V U P U L U P L OH 1563 Harzianin_HC_VIII *Ac U N L U P A V U P J L U P L OH 1564 Harzianin_HC_VIII *Ac U N L U P A V U P J L U P L OH 1565 Harzianin_HC_X *Ac U Q L U P A V U P J L U P L OH 1566 Harzianin_HC_XI *Ac U N L U P S I U P U L U P L OH 1567 Harzianin_HC_XII *Ac U N L U P S I U P J L U P L OH 1568 Harzianin_HC_XIII *Ac U Q L U P S I U P J L U P L OH 1569 Harzianin_HC_XIV *Ac U N L U P A I U P U L U P L OH 1570 Harzianin_HC_XV *Ac U Q L U P A I U P J L U P L OH 1571 Harzianin_HK_VI *Ac U N I I U P L L U P L OH 1572 Harzianin_PCU4 *Ac U N L U P S I U P U L U P V OH 1573 Helioferin_A *Fa P ZZ A U I I U U AAE 1574 Helioferin_B *Fa P ZZ A U I I U U AMAE 1575 Heptaibin *Ac F U U U V G L U U O Q U O U F 1576 OH Hypelcin_A *Ac U P U A U U Q L U G U U U P V U 1577 U Q Q L OH Hypelcin_A_I *Ac U P U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1578 U Q Q L OH Hypelcin_A_II *Ac U P U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1579 U Q Q L OH Hypelcin_A_III *Ac U P U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1580 U Q Q [C7H16NO] Hypelcin_A_IV *Ac U P U A U U Q U I U G U U P V U 1581 U Q Q L OH Hypelcin_A-III *Ac U P U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1582 J Q Q L OH Hypelcin_A-IX *Ac U P U A U U Q U I U G U U P V U J 1583 Q Q L OH Hypelcin_A-V *Ac U P U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1584 U Q Q I OH Hypelcin_A-VI *Ac U P U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1585 U Q Q I OH Hypelcin_A-VII *Ac U P U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1586 J Q Q L OH Hypelcin_A-VIII *Ac U P U A U A Q U I U G U U P V U 1587 U Q Q L OH Hypelcin_B_I *Ac U P U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1588 U E Q L OH Hypelcin_B_II *Ac U P U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1589 U E Q L OH Hypelcin_B_III *Ac U P U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1590 J E Q L OH Hypelcin_B_IV *Ac U P U A U U Q U I U G U U P V U 1591 U E Q L OH Hypelcin_B_V *Ac U P U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1592 U E Q I OH Hypomurocin_A_I *Ac U Q V V U P L L U P L OH 1593 Hypomurocin_A_II *Ac J Q V V U P L L U P L OH 1594 Hypomurocin_A_III *Ac U Q V L U P L I U P L OH 1595 Hypomurocin_A_IV *Ac U Q I V U P L L U P L OH 1596 Hypomurocin_A_V *Ac U Q I I U P L L U P L OH 1597 Hypomurocin_A_Va *Ac U Q I L U P L I U P L OH 1598 Hypomurocin_B_I *Ac U S A L U Q U V U G U U P L U U 1599 Q V OH Hypomurocin_B_II *Ac U S A L U Q U V U G U U P L U U 1600 Q L OH Hypomurocin_B_IIIa *Ac U A A L U Q U V U G U U P L U U 1601 Q V OH Hypomurocin_B_IIIb *Ac U S A L U Q J V U G U U P L U U 1602 Q V OH Hypomurocin_B_IV *Ac U S A L U Q U V U G J U P L U U 1603 Q V OH Hypomurocin_B_V *Ac U S A L U Q U V U G J U P L U U 1604 Q L OH Leu1_Zervamicin *Ac L I Q J I T U L U O Q U O U P F OH 1605 Longibrachin_A_I *Ac U A U A U A Q U V U G L U P V U 1606 U Q Q F OH Longibrachin_A_II *Ac U A U A U A Q U V U G L U P V U 1607 J Q Q F OH Longibrachin_A_III *Ac U A U A U U Q U V U G L U P V U 1608 U Q Q F OH Longibrachin_A_IV *Ac U A U A U U Q U V U G L U P V U 1609 J Q Q F OH Longibrachin_B_II *Ac U A U A U A Q U V U G L U P V U 1610 U E Q F OH
Longibrachin_B_III *Ac U A U A U A Q U V U G L U P V U 1611 J E Q F OH LP237_F5 *Oc U P Y U Q Q U Zor Q A L OH 1612 LP237_F7 *Ac U P F U Q Q U U Q A L OH 1613 LP237_F8 *Oc U P F U Q Q U Zor Q A L OH 1614 NA_VII *Ac U A A U J Q U U U S L U OCH3 1615 Paracelsin_A *Ac U A U A U A Q U V U G U U P V U 1616 U Q Q F OH Paracelsin_B *Ac U A U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1617 U Q Q F OH Paracelsin_C *Ac U A U A U U Q U V U G U U P V U 1618 U Q Q F OH Paracelsin_D *Ac U A U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1619 U Q Q F OH Paracelsin_E *Ac U A U A U A Q U L U G U A P V U 1620 U Q Q F OH Peptaibolin *Ac L U L U F OH 1621 Peptaivirin_A *Ac F U A U J L Q G U U A A U P J U U 1622 Q W OH Peptaivirin_B *Ac F U S U J L Q G U U A A U P J U U 1623 Q F OH Polysporin_A *Ac U P U A U U Q U V U G V U P V U 1624 U Q Q F OH Polysporin_B *Ac U P U A U U Q U V U G L U P V U 1625 U Q Q F OH Polysporin_C *Ac U P U A U U Q U I U G L U P V U 1626 U Q Q F OH Polysporin_D *Ac U P U A U U Q U I U G L U P V U 1627 V Q Q F OH Pseudokinin_KLIII *Ac U N I I U P L L U P NH2 1628 Pseudokinin_KLVI *Ac U N I I U P L V 1629 hydroxyketopiperazine Samarosporin_I *Ac F U U U V G L U U O Q J O A F OH 1630 Samarosporin_II *Ac F U U U V G L U U O Q J O U F OH 1631 Saturnisporin_SA_I *Ac U A U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1632 U Q Q F OH Saturnisporin_SA_II *Ac U A U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1633 J Q Q F OH Saturnisporin_SA_III *Ac U A U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1634 U Q Q F OH Saturnisporin_SA_IV *Ac U A U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1635 J Q Q F OH Stilbellin_I *Ac F U U U V G L U U O Q J O A F OH 1636 Stilbellin_II *Ac F U U U V G L U U O Q J O U F OH 1637 Stilboflavin_A_1 *Ac U P U A U A Q U V U G U U P V U 1638 U E Q V OH Stilboflavin_A_2 *Ac U P U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1639 U E Q V OH Stilboflavin_A_3 *Ac U P U A U U Q U V U G U A P V U 1640 U E Q L OH Stilboflavin_A_4 *Ac U P U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1641 U E Q L OH Stilboflavin_A_5 *Ac U P U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1642 U E Q V OH Stilboflavin_A_6 *Ac U P U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1643 U E Q J OH Stilboflavin_A_7 *Ac U P U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1644 U E Q I OH Stilboflavin_B_1 *Ac U P U A U A Q U V U G U U P V U 1645 U Q Q V OH Stilboflavin_B_2 *Ac U P U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1646 U Q Q V OH Stilboflavin_B_3 *Ac U P U A U A Q U V U G U U P V U 1647 U Q Q L OH Stilboflavin_B_4 *Ac U P U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1648 U Q Q L OH Stilboflavin_B_5 *Ac U P U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1649 U Q Q V OH Stilboflavin_B_6 *Ac U P U A U U Q U V U G U U P V U 1650 U Q Q V OH Stilboflavin_B_7 *Ac U P U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1651 U Q Q L OH Stilboflavin_B_8 *Ac U P U A U U Q U V U G U U P V U 1652 U Q Q L OH Stilboflavin_B_9 *Ac U P U A U U Q U L U G U U P V U 1653 U Q Q I OH Stilboflavin_B_10 *Ac U P U A U U Q U V U G U U P V U 1654 U Q Q I OH Suzukacillin *Ac U A U A U A Q U U U G L U P V U 1655 U Q Q F OH Trichobrachin_A-I *Ac U N L L U P L U U P L OH 1656 Trichobrachin_A-II *Ac U N L L U P V L U P V OH 1657 Trichobrachin_A-III *Ac U N V L U P L L U P V OH 1658 Trichobrachin_A-IV *Ac U N L V U P L L U P V OH 1659 Trichobrachin_B-I *Ac U N L L U P V U V P L OH 1660 Trichobrachin_B-II *Ac U N V L U P L U V P L OH 1661 Trichobrachin_B-III *Ac U N L V U P L U V P L OH 1662 Trichobrachin_B-IV *Ac U N L L U P L U V P V OH 1663 Trichocellin_TC-A-I *Ac U A U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1664 U Q Q F OH Trichocellin_TC-A-II *Ac U A U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1665 J Q Q F OH Trichocellin_TC-A-III *Ac U A U A U A Q U I U G U U P V U 1666 U Q Q F OH Trichocellin_TC-A-IV *Ac U A U A U A Q U I U G U U P V U 1667 J Q Q F OH Trichocellin_TC-A-V *Ac U A U A U A Q U L U G L U P V U 1668 U Q Q F OH Trichocellin_TC-A-VI *Ac U A U A U A Q U L U G L U P V U 1669 J Q Q F OH Trichocellin_TC-A-VII *Ac U A U A U A Q U I U G L U P V U 1670 U Q Q F OH Trichocellin_TC-A-VIII *Ac U A U A U A Q U I U G L U P V U J 1671 Q Q F OH Trichocellin_TC-B-I *Ac U A U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1672 U E Q F OH Trichocellin_TC-B-II *Ac U A U A U A Q U L U G U U P V U 1673 J E Q F OH Trichodecenin_TD_I *(Z)-4-decenoyl G G L U G I L OH 1674 Trichodecenin_TD_II *(Z)-4-decenoyl G G L U G L L OH 1675 Trichogin_A_IV *Oc U G L U G G L U G I L OH 1676 Trichokindin_Ia *Ac U S A U U Q J L U A U U P L U U 1677 Q I OH Trichokindin_Ib *Ac U S A U J Q U L U A U U P L U U 1678 Q I OH Trichokindin_IIa *Ac U S A U U Q U L U A J U P L U U 1679 Q I OH Trichokindin_IIb *Ac U S A U J Q J L U A U U P L U U Q 1680 L OH Trichokindin_IIIa *Ac U S A U U Q J L U A J U P L U U Q 1681 L OH Trichokindin_IIIb *Ac U S A U J Q U L U A J U P L U U Q 1682 L OH Trichokindin_IV *Ac U S A U J Q J L U A U U P L U U Q 1683 I OH Trichokindin_Va *Ac U S A U U Q J L U A J U P L U U Q 1684 I OH Trichokindin_Vb *Ac U S A U J Q U L U A J U P L U U Q 1685 I OH Trichokindin_VI *Ac U S A U J Q J L U A J U P L U U Q 1686 L OH Trichokindin_VII *Ac U S A U J Q J L U A J U P L U U Q I 1687 OH Trichokonin_Ia *Ac U A U A U A Q U V U G L A P V U 1688 U Q Q F OH Trichokonin_Ib *Ac U G U A U A Q U V U G L U P V U 1689 U Q Q F OH Trichokonin_IIa *Ac U A U A U A Q U V U G L U P A U 1690 U Q Q F OH Trichokonin_IIb *Ac A A U A U A Q U V U G L U P V U 1691 U Q Q F OH Trichokonin_IIc *Ac U A A A U A Q U V U G L U P V U 1692 U Q Q F OH Trichokonin_V *Ac U A U A U Q U V U G L U P V U U 1693 Q Q F OH Trichokonin_VII *Ac U A U A U A Q U V U G L U P V U 1694 J Q Q F OH Trichokonin_VIII *Ac U A U A U U Q U V U G L U P V U 1695 U Q Q F OH Trichokonin_IX *Ac U A U A U A Q U V U G L U P V U 1696 J Q Q F OH Tricholongin_BI *Ac U G F U U Q U U U S L U P V U U 1697 Q Q L OH Tricholongin_BII *Ac U G F U U Q U U U S L U P V U J Q 1698 Q L OH Trichopolyn_I *Fa P ZZ A U U I A U U AMAE 1699 Trichopolyn_II *Fa P ZZ A U U V A U U AMAE 1700 Trichopolyn_III *Fa P ZZ A U U I A U A AMAE 1701 Trichopolyn_IV *Fa P ZZ A U U V A U A AMAE 1702
Trichopolyn_V *Fa' P ZZ A U U I A U U AMAE 1703 Trichorovin_TV_Ia *Ac U N V Lx U P Lx Lx U P V OH 1704 Trichorovin_TV_Ib *Ac U N V V U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1705 Trichorovin_TV_IIa *Ac U N V V U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1706 Trichorovin_TV_IIb *Ac U N Lx V U P Lx Lx U P V OH 1707 Trichorovin_TV_IIIa *Ac U Q V V U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1708 Trichorovin_TV_IIIb *Ac U Q V Lx U P Lx Lx U P V OH 1709 Trichorovin_TV_IVa *Ac U Q V V U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1710 Trichorovin_TV_IVb *Ac U Q Lx V U P Lx Lx U P V OH 1711 Trichorovin_TV_IVc *Ac U N V Lx U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1712 Trichorovin_TV_IXa *Ac U Q V Lx U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1713 Trichorovin_TV_IXb *Ac U Q Lx Lx U P Lx Lx U P V OH 1714 Trichorovin_TV_Va *Ac U N V Lx U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1715 Trichorovin_TV_Vb *Ac U N Lx Lx U P Lx Lx U P V OH 1716 Trichorovin_TV_VIa *Ac U N V Lx U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1717 Trichorovin_TV_VIb *Ac U N Lx Lx U P Lx Lx U P V OH 1718 Trichorovin_TV_VIIa *Ac U N Lx V U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1719 Trichorovin_TV_VIIb *Ac U Q V Lx U P Lx Lx U P V OH 1720 Trichorovin_TV_VIII *Ac U Q V Lx U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1721 Trichorovin_TV_Xa *Ac U Q Lx V U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1722 Trichorovin_TV_Xb *Ac U N Lx Lx U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1723 Trichorovin_TV_XIIa *Ac U N I I U P L L U P I OH 1724 Trichorovin_TV_XIIb *Ac U N Lx Lx U P Lx Lx U P L OH 1725 Trichorovin_TV_XIII *Ac U Q Lx Lx U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1726 Trichorovin_TV_XIV *Ac U Q Lx Lx U P Lx Lx U P Lx OH 1727 Trichorozin_I *Ac U N I L U P I L U P V OH 1728 Trichorozin_II *Ac U Q I L U P I L U P V OH 1729 Trichorozin_III *Ac U N I L U P I L U P L OH 1730 Trichorozin_IV *Ac U Q I L U P I L U P L OH 1731 Trichorzianine_TA_IIIc *Ac U A A U U Q U U U S L U P V U I 1732 Q Q W OH Trichorzianine_TB_IIa *Ac U A A U U Q U U U S L U P L U I Q 1733 E W OH Trichorzianine_TB_IIIc *Ac U A A U U Q U U U S L U P V U I 1734 Q E W OH Trichorzianine_TB_IVb *Ac U A A U J Q U U U S L U P V U I Q 1735 E W OH Trichorzianine_TB_Vb *Ac U A A U U Q U U U S L U P L U I Q 1736 E F OH Trichorzianine_TB_VIa *Ac U A A U J Q U U U S L U P L U I Q 1737 E F OH Trichorzianine_TB_VIb *Ac U A A U U Q U U U S L U P V U I 1738 Q E F OH Trichorzianine_TB_VII *Ac U A A U J Q U U U S L U P V U I Q 1739 E F OH Trichorzin_HA_I *Ac U G A U U Q U V U G L U P L U U 1740 Q L OH Trichorzin_HA_II *Ac U G A U U Q U V U G L U P L U J 1741 Q L OH Trichorzin_HA_III *Ac U G A U J Q U V U G L U P L U U 1742 Q L OH Trichorzin_HA_V *Ac U G A U J Q U V U G L U P L U J Q 1743 L OH Trichorzin_HA_VI *Ac U G A U J Q J V U G L U P L U J Q 1744 L OH Trichorzin_HA_VII *Ac U G A U J Q V V U G L U P L U J Q 1745 L OH Trichorzin_MA_I *Ac U S A U U Q U L U G L U P L U U 1746 Q V OH Trichorzin_MA_II *Ac U S A U J Q U L U G L U P L U U Q 1747 V OH Trichorzin_MA_III *Ac U S A U J Q J L U G L U P L U U Q 1748 V OH Trichorzin_PA_II *Ac U S A U J Q U V U G L U P L U U 1749 Q W OH Trichorzin_PA_IV *Ac U S A U J Q J V U G L U P L U U Q 1750 W OH Trichorzin_PA_V *Ac U S A J J Q U V U G L U P L U U Q 1751 W OH Trichorzin_PA_VI *Ac U S A U J Q U V U G L U P L U U 1752 Q F OH Trichorzin_PA_VII *Ac U S A J J Q U V U G L U P L U U Q 1753 W OH Trichorzin_PA_VIII *Ac U S A U J Q J V U G L U P L U U Q 1754 F OH Trichorzin_PA_IX *Ac U S A J J Q U V U G L U P L U U Q 1755 F OH Trichorzin_PAU4 *Ac U S A U U Q U V U G L U P L U U 1756 Q W OH Trichosporin_TS-B-1a-1 *Ac U A G U A U Q U Lx A A Vx A P V 1757 U Vx Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-1a-2 *Ac U A G A U U Q U Lx A A Vx A P V 1758 U Vx Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-1b *Ac U A G A U U Q U Lx U G Lx A P V 1759 U A Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-1d *Ac U A S A U U Q U Lx U G Lx A P V 1760 U U Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-1e *Ac U A G A U U Q U Lx U G Lx U P V 1761 U U Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-1f *Ac U A S A U U Q U Lx U G Lx U P V 1762 U U Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-1g *Ac U A G A U U Q U Lx U G Lx A P V 1763 U U Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-1h *Ac U A G A U U Q U Lx U G Lx U P V 1764 U Vx Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-Ia *Ac U A S A U U Q U L U G L U P V U 1765 U Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-IIIa *Ac U A A A U U Q U L U G L U P V U 1766 U Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-IIIb *Ac U A A A U U Q U I U G L U P V U 1767 A Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-IIIc *Ac U A A A A U Q U I U G L U P V U 1768 U Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-IIId *Ac U A A A U U Q U V U G L U P V U 1769 U Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-IVb *Ac U A A A U U Q U L U G L U P V U 1770 J Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-IVc *Ac U A U A U U Q U V U G L U P V U 1771 U Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-IVd *Ac U A A A U U Q U V U G L U P V U 1772 J Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-V *Ac U A A A U U Q U I U G L U P V U 1773 U Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-VIa *Ac U A U A U U Q U I U G L U P V U 1774 U Q Q F OH Trichosporin_TS-B-VIb *Ac U A A A U U Q U I U G L U P V U J 1775 Q Q F OH Trichotoxin_A-40 *Ac U G U L U E U U U A U U P L U J 1776 Q V OH Trichotoxin_A-40_I *Ac U G U L U Q U U A A U U P L U U 1777 E V OH Trichotoxin_A-40_II *Ac U G U L U Q U U U A A U P L U U 1778 E V OH Trichotoxin_A-40_III *Ac U G U L U Q U U A A U U P L U J 1779 E V OH Trichotoxin_A-40_IV *Ac U G U L U Q U U U A U U P L U U 1780 E V OH Trichotoxin_A-40_V *Ac U G U L U Q U U U A U U P L U J 1781 E V OH Trichotoxin_A-40_Va *Ac U A U L U Q U U U A U U P L U U 1782 E V OH Trichotoxin_A-50_E *Ac U G U L U Q U U U A A U P L U U 1783 Q V OH Trichotoxin_A-50_F *Ac U G U L U Q U U A A A U P L U J 1784 Q V OH Trichotoxin_A-50_G *Ac U G U L U Q U U U A A U P L U J 1785 Q V OH Trichotoxin_A-50_H *Ac U A U L U Q U U U A A U P L U J 1786 Q V OH Trichotoxin_A-50_I *Ac U G U L U Q U U U A U U P L U J 1787 Q V OH Trichotoxin_A-50_J *Ac U A U L U Q U U U A U U P L U J 1788 Q V OH Trichovirin-Ia *Ac U G A L A Q Vx V U G U U P L U 1789 U Q L OH Trichovirin-Ib *Ac U G A L U Q A V U G J U P L U U 1790 Q L OH Trichovirin-IIa *Ac U G A L A Q U V U G J U P L U U 1791 Q L OH Trichovirin-IIb *Ac U G A L U Q U V U G U U P L U U 1792 Q L OH Trichovirin-IIc *Ac U G A L U Q Vx V U G U U P L U 1793 U Q L OH Trichovirin-IIIa *Ac U G A L U Q J V U G U U P L U U 1794 Q L OH Trichovirin-IIIb *Ac U G A L J Q J U U G U U P L U U Q 1795 L OH Trichovirin-IVa *Ac U G A L J Q J V U G U U P L U U Q 1796
L OH Trichovirin-IVb *Ac U G A L U Q U V U G J U P L U U 1797 Q L OH Trichovirin-V *Ac U G A L U Q J V U G J U P L U U Q 1798 L OH Trichovirin-VIa *Ac U G A L U Q J L U G J U P L U U Q 1799 L OH Trichovirin-VIb *Ac U G A L J Q J V U G J U P L U U Q 1800 L OH Trikoningin_KA_V *Ac U G A U I Q U U U S L U P V U I Q 1801 Q L OH Trikoningin_KB_I *Oc U G V U G G V U G I L OH 1802 Trikoningin_KB_II *Oc J G V U G G V U G I L OH 1803 Tylopeptin_A *Ac W V U J A Q A U S U A L U Q L 1804 OH Tylopeptin_B *Ac W V U U A Q A U S U A L U Q L 1805 OH XR586 *Ac W J Q U I T U L U P Q U O J P F G 1806 OH Zervamicin_A-1-16 *Boc W I A U I V U L U P A U P U P F 1807 OCH3 Zervamicin_ZIA *Ac W I E J V T U L U O Q U O U P F 1808 OH Zervamicin_ZIB *Ac W V E J I T U L U O Q U O U P F 1809 OH Zervamicin_ZIB' *Ac W I E U I T U L U O Q U O U P F 1810 OH Zervamicin_ZIC *Ac W I E J I T U L U O Q U O U P F 1811 OH Zervamicin_ZII-1 *Ac W I Q U V T U L U O Q U O U P F 1812 OH Zervamicin_ZII-2 *Ac W I Q U I T U V U O Q U O U P F 1813 OH Zervamicin_ZII-3 *Ac W V Q U I T U L U O Q U O U P F 1814 OH Zervamicin_ZII-4 *Ac W I Q J V T U L U O Q U O U P F 1815 OH Zervamicin_ZII-5 *Ac W I Q J I T U V U O Q U O U P F 1816 OH Zervamicin_ZIIA *Ac W I Q U I T U L U O Q U O U P F 1817 OH Zervamicin_ZIIB *Ac W I Q J I T U L U O Q U O U P F 1818 OH CAMEL135 (CAM135) GWRLIKKILRVFKGL 1819 Novispirin G2 KNLRIIRKGIHIIKKY* 1820 B-33 FKKFWKWFRRF 1821 B-34 LKRFLKWFKRF 1822 B-35 KLFKRWKHLFR 1823 B-36 RLLKRFKHLFK 1824 B-37 FKTFLKWLHRF 1825 B-38 IKQLLHFFQRF 1826 B-39 KLLQTFKQIFR 1827 B-40 RILKELKNLFK 1828 B-41 LKQFVHFIHRF 1829 B-42 VKTLLHIFQRF 1830 B-43 KLVEQLKEIFR 1831 B-44 RVLQEIKQILK 1832 B-45 VKNLAELVHRF 1833 B-46 ATHLLHALQRF 1834 B-47 KLAENVKEILR 1835 B-48 RALHEAKEALK 1836 B-49 FHYFWHWFHRF 1837 B-50 LYHFLHWFQRF 1838 B-51 YLFQTWQHLFR 1839 B-52 YLLTEFQHLFK 1840 B-53 FKTFLQWLHRF 1841 B-54 IKTLLHFFQRF 1842 B-55 KLLQTFNQIFR 1843 B-56 TILQSLKNIFK 1844 B-57 LKQFVKFIHRF 1845 B-58 VKQLLKIFNRF 1846 B-59 KLVQQLKNIFR 1847 B-60 RVLNQVKQILK 1848 B-61 VKKLAKLVRRF 1849 B-62 AKRLLKVLKRF 1850 B-63 KLAQKVKRVLR 1851 B-64 RALKRIKHVLK 1852 1C-1 RRRRWWW 1853 1C-2 RRWWRRW 1854 1C-3 RRRWWWR 1855 1C-4 RWRWRWR 1856 2C-1 RRRFWWR 1857 2C-2 RRWWRRF* 1858 2C-3 RRRWWWF* 1859 2C-4 RWRWRWF* 1860 3C-1 RRRRWWK 1861 3C-2 RRWWRRK 1862 3C-3 RRRWWWK 1863 3C-4 RWRWRWK 1864 4C-1 RRRKWWK 1865 4C-2 RRWKRRK 1866 4C-3 RRRKWWK 1867 4C-4 RWRKRWK 1868 a-3 LHLLHQLLHLLHQF* 1869 a-4 AQAAHQAAHAAHQF* 1870 a-5 KLKKLLKKLKKLLK 1871 a-6 LKLLKKLLKLLKKF* 1872 a-7 LQLLKQLLKLLKQF* 1873 a-8 AQAAKQAAKAAKQF* 1874 a-9 RWRRWWRHFHHFFH* 1875 a-10 KLKKLLKRWRRWWR 1876 a-11 RWRRLLKKLHHLLH* 1877 a-12 KLKKLLKHLHHLLH* 1878 BD-1 FVF RHK WVW KHR FLF 1879 BD-2 VFI HRH VWV HKH VLF 1880 BD-3 WR WR AR WR WR LR WR F 1881 BD-4 WR IH LR AR LH VK FR F 1882 BD-5 LR IH AR FK VH IR LK F 1883 BD-6 FH IK FR VH LK VR FH F 1884 BD-7 FH VK IH FR LH VK FH F 1885 BD-8 LH IH AH FH VH IH LH F 1886 BD-9 FK IH FR LK VH IR FK F 1887 BD-10 FK AH IR FK LR VK FH F 1888 BD-11 LK AK IK FK VK LK IK F 1889 BD-12 WIW KHK FL HRH FLF 1890 BD-13 VFL HRH VI KHK LVF 1891 BD-14 FL HKH VL RHR IVF 1892 BD-15 VF KHK IV HRH ILF 1893 BD-16 FLF KH LFL HR IFF 1894 BD-17 LF KH ILI HR VIF 1895 BD-18 FL HKH LF KHK LF 1896 BD-19 VF RHR FI HRH VF 1897 BD-20 FI HK LV HKH VLF 1898 BD-21 VL RH LF RHR IVF 1899 BD-22 LV HK LIL RH LLF 1900 BD-23 VF KR VLI HK LIF 1901 BD-24 IV RK FLF RHK VF 1902 BD-25 VL KH VIA HKR LF 1903 BD-26 FI RK FLF KH LF 1904 BD-27 VI RH VWV RK LF 1905 BD-28 FLF RHR F RHR LVF 1906 BD-29 LFL HKH A KHK FLF 1907 BD-30 F KHK F KHK FIF 1908 BD-31 L RHR L RHR LIF 1909 BD-32 LIL K FLF K FVF 1910 BD-33 VLI R ILV R VIF 1911
BD-34 F RHR F RHR F 1912 BD-35 L KHK L KHK F 1913 BD-36 F K F KHK LIF 1914 BD-37 L R L RHR VLF 1915 BD-38 F K FLF K FLF 1916 BD-39 L R LFL R WLF 1917 BD-40 F K FLF KHK F 1918 BD-41 L R LFL RHR F 1919 BD-42 F K FLF K F 1920 BD-43 L R LFL R F 1921 AA-1 HHFFHHFHHFFHHF* 1922 AA-2 FHFFHHFFHFFHHF* 1923 AA-3 KLLK-GAT-FHFFHHFFHFFHHF 1924 AA-4 KLLK-FHFFHHFFHFFHHF 1925 AA-5 FHFFHHFFHFFHHFKLLK 1926 RIP YSPWTNF* 1927 Abreviations: U - Aminoisobutyric Acid (Aib); J - Isovaline (Iva); O - Hydroxyproline (Hyp); Z - Ethylnorvaline (EtNor); x or xx means L or I at that position; Ac - optionally acetylated N-term; OH, OCH3 - optional C-term; Alkane long chains are noted in brackets; *optionally amidated C-terminus.
 A number of antimicrobial peptides are also disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,271,239, 7,223,840, 7,176,276, 6,809,181, 6,699,689, 6,420,116, 6,358,921, 6,316,594, 6,235,973, 6,183,992, 6,143,498, 6,042,848, 6,040,291, 5,936,063, 5,830,993, 5,428,016, 5,424,396, 5,032,574, 4,623,733, which are incorporated herein by reference for the disclosure of particular antimicrobial peptides.
 In certain embodiments the effector can comprise one or more ligands, epitope tags, and/or antibodies. In certain embodiments preferred ligands and antibodies include those that bind to surface markers on immune cells. Chimeric moieties utilizing such antibodies as effector molecules act as bifunctional linkers establishing an association between the immune cells bearing binding partner for the ligand or antibody and the target microorganism(s).
 The term "epitope tag" or "affinity tag" are used interchangeably herein, and as used refers to a molecule or domain of a molecule that is specifically recognized by an antibody or other binding partner. The term also refers to the binding partner complex as well. Thus, for example, biotin or a biotin/avidin complex are both regarded as an affinity tag. In addition to epitopes recognized in epitope/antibody interactions, affinity tags also comprise "epitopes" recognized by other binding molecules (e.g. ligands bound by receptors), ligands bound by other ligands to form heterodimers or homodimers, His6 bound by Ni-NTA, biotin bound by avidin, streptavidin, or anti-biotin antibodies, and the like.
 Epitope tags are well known to those of skill in the art. Moreover, antibodies specific to a wide variety of epitope tags are commercially available. These include but are not limited to antibodies against the DYKDDDDK (SEQ ID NO:1928) epitope, c-myc antibodies (available from Sigma, St. Louis), the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope, the HA epitope, the HSV epitope, the His4 (SEQ ID NO:1929), Hiss (SEQ ID NO:1930), and His6 (SEQ ID NO:1931) epitopes that are recognized by the His epitope specific antibodies (see, e.g., Qiagen), and the like. In addition, vectors for epitope tagging proteins are commercially available. Thus, for example, the pCMV-Tag1 vector is an epitope tagging vector designed for gene expression in mammalian cells. A target gene inserted into the pCMV-Tag1 vector can be tagged with the FLAG® epitope (N-terminal, C-terminal or internal tagging), the c-myc epitope (C-terminal) or both the FLAG (N-terminal) and c-myc (C-terminal) epitopes.
 Lipids and Liposomes.
 In certain embodiments the effectors comprise one or more microparticles or nanoparticles that can be loaded with an effector agent (e.g., a pharmaceutical, a label, etc.). In certain embodiments the microparticles or nanoparticles are lipidic particles. Lipidic particles are microparticles or nanoparticles that include at least one lipid component forming a condensed lipid phase. Typically, a lipidic nanoparticle has preponderance of lipids in its composition. Various condensed lipid phases include solid amorphous or true crystalline phases; isomorphic liquid phases (droplets); and various hydrated mesomorphic oriented lipid phases such as liquid crystalline and pseudocrystalline bilayer phases (L-alpha, L-beta, P-beta, Lc), interdigitated bilayer phases, and nonlamellar phases (see, e.g., The Structure of Biological Membranes, ed. by P. Yeagle, CRC Press, Bora Raton, Fla., 1991). Lipidic microparticles include, but are not limited to a liposome, a lipid-nucleic acid complex, a lipid-drug complex, a lipid-label complex, a solid lipid particle, a microemulsion droplet, and the like. Methods of making and using these types of lipidic microparticles and nanoparticles, as well as attachment of affinity moieties, e.g., antibodies, to them are known in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,077,057; 5,100,591; 5,616,334; 6,406,713; 5,576,016; 6,248,363; Bondi et al. (2003) Drug Delivery 10: 245-250; Pedersen et al., (2006) Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 62: 155-162, 2006 (solid lipid particles); U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,534,502; 6,720,001; Shiokawa et al. (2005) Clin. Cancer Res. 11: 2018-2025 (microemulsions); U.S. Pat. No. 6,071,533 (lipid-nucleic acid complexes), and the like).
 A liposome is generally defined as a particle comprising one or more lipid bilayers enclosing an interior, typically an aqueous interior. Thus, a liposome is often a vesicle formed by a bilayer lipid membrane. There are many methods for the preparation of liposomes. Some of them are used to prepare small vesicles (d<0.05 micrometer), some for larger vesicles (d>0.05 micrometer). Some are used to prepare multilamellar vesicles, some for unilamellar ones. Methods for liposome preparation are exhaustively described in several review articles such as Szoka and Papahadjopoulos (1980) Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng., 9: 467, Deamer and Uster (1983) Pp. 27-51 In: Liposomes, ed. M. J. Ostro, Marcel Dekker, New York, and the like.
 In various embodiments the liposomes include a surface coating of a hydrophilic polymer chain. "Surface-coating" refers to the coating of any hydrophilic polymer on the surface of liposomes. The hydrophilic polymer is included in the liposome by including in the liposome composition one or more vesicle-forming lipids derivatized with a hydrophilic polymer chain. In certain embodiments, vesicle-forming lipids with diacyl chains, such as phospholipids, are preferred. One illustrative phospholipid is phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which contains a reactive amino group convenient for coupling to the activated polymers. One illustrative PE is distearoyl PE (DSPE). Another example is non-phospholipid double chain amphiphilic lipids, such as diacyl- or dialkylglycerols, derivatized with a hydrophilic polymer chain.
 In certain embodiments a hydrophilic polymer for use in coupling to a vesicle forming lipid is polyethyleneglycol (PEG), preferably as a PEG chain having a molecular weight between 1,000-10,000 Daltons, more preferably between 1,000-5,000 Daltons, most preferably between 2,000-5,000 Daltons. Methoxy or ethoxy-capped analogues of PEG are also useful hydrophilic polymers, commercially available in a variety of polymer sizes, e.g., 120-20,000 Daltons.
 Other hydrophilic polymers that can be suitable include, but are not limited to polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polymethyloxazoline, polyethyloxazoline, polyhydroxypropyl methacrylamide, polymethacrylamide, polydimethylacrylamide, and derivatized celluloses, such as hydroxymethylcellulose or hydroxyethylcellulose.
 Preparation of lipid-polymer conjugates containing these polymers attached to a suitable lipid, such as PE, have been described, for example in U.S. Pat. No. 5,395,
 The liposomes can, optionally be prepared for attachment to one or more targeting moieties described herein. Here the lipid component included in the liposomes would include either a lipid derivatized with the targeting moiety, or a lipid having a polar-head chemical group, e.g., on a linker, that can be derivatized with the targeting moiety in preformed liposomes, according to known methods.
 Methods of functionalizing lipids and liposomes with affinity moieties such as antibodies are well known to those of skill in the art (see, e.g., DE 3,218,121; Epstein et al. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 82:3688 (1985); Hwang et al. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 77: 4030; EP 52,322; EP 36,676; EP 88,046; EP 143,949; EP 142,641; Japanese patent application 83-118008; U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,485,045 and 4,544,545; and EP 102,324, all of which are incorporated herein by reference).
 Polymeric Microparticles and/or Nanoparticles.
 In certain embodiments the effector(s) comprise polymeric microparticles and/or nanoparticles and/or micelles.
 Microparticle and nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems have considerable potential for treatment of various microorganisms. Technological advantages of polymeric microparticles or nanoparticles used as drug carriers are high stability, high carrier capacity, feasibility of incorporation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, and feasibility of variable routes of administration, including oral application and inhalation. Polymeric nanoparticles can also be designed to allow controlled (sustained) drug release from the matrix. These properties of nanoparticles enable improvement of drug bioavailability and reduction of the dosing frequency.
 Polymeric nanoparticles are typically micron or submicron (<1 μm) colloidal particles. This definition includes monolithic nanoparticles (nanospheres) in which the drug is adsorbed, dissolved, or dispersed throughout the matrix and nanocapsules in which the drug is confined to an aqueous or oily core surrounded by a shell-like wall. Alternatively, in certain embodiments, the drug can be covalently attached to the surface or into the matrix.
 Polymeric microparticles and nanoparticles are typically made from biocompatible and biodegradable materials such as polymers, either natural (e.g., gelatin, albumin) or synthetic (e.g., polylactides, polyalkylcyanoacrylates), or solid lipids. In the body, the drug loaded in nanoparticles is usually released from the matrix by diffusion, swelling, erosion, or degradation. One commonly used material is poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG).
 Methods of fabricating and loading polymeric nanoparticles or microparticles are well known to those of skill in the art. Thus, for example, Matsumoto et al. (1999) Intl. J. Pharmaceutics, 185: 93-101 teaches the fabrication of poly(L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide) nanoparticles, Chawla et al. (2002) Intl. J. Pharmaceutics 249: 127-138, teaches the fabrication and use of poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles delivery of tamifoxen, and Bodmeier et al. (1988) Intl. J. Pharmaceutics, 43: 179-186, teaches the preparation of poly(D,L-lactide) microspheres using a solvent evaporation method. ° "Intl. J. Pharmaceutics, 1988, 43, 179-186. Other nanoparticle formulations are described, for example, by Williams et al. (2003) J. Controlled Release, 91: 167-172; Leroux et al. (1996) J. Controlled Release, 39: 339-350; Soppimath et al. (2001) J. Controlled Release, 70:1-20; Brannon-Peppas (1995) Intl. J. Pharmaceutics, 116: 1-9; and the like.
 Peptide Preparation.
 The peptides described herein can be chemically synthesized using standard chemical peptide synthesis techniques or, particularly where the peptide does not comprise "D" amino acid residues, the peptide can be recombinantly expressed. Where the "D" polypeptides are recombinantly expressed, a host organism (e.g. bacteria, plant, fungal cells, etc.) can be cultured in an environment where one or more of the amino acids is provided to the organism exclusively in a D form. Recombinantly expressed peptides in such a system then incorporate those D amino acids.
 In certain embodiments, D amino acids can be incorporated in recombinantly expressed peptides using modified amino acyl-tRNA synthetases that recognize D-amino acids.
 In certain embodiments the peptides are chemically synthesized by any of a number of fluid or solid phase peptide synthesis techniques known to those of skill in the art. Solid phase synthesis in which the C-terminal amino acid of the sequence is attached to an insoluble support followed by sequential addition of the remaining amino acids in the sequence is a preferred method for the chemical synthesis of the polypeptides of this invention. Techniques for solid phase synthesis are well known to those of skill in the art and are described, for example, by Barany and Merrifield (1963) Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis; pp. 3-284 in The Peptides: Analysis, Synthesis, Biology. Vol. 2: Special Methods in Peptide Synthesis, Part A.; Merrifield et al. (1963) J. Am. Chem. Soc., 85: 2149-2156, and Stewart et al. (1984) Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis, 2nd ed. Pierce Chem. Co., Rockford, Ill.
 In one embodiment, the peptides can be synthesized by the solid phase peptide synthesis procedure using a benzhyderylamine resin (Beckman Bioproducts, 0.59 mmol of NH2/g of resin) as the solid support. The COOH terminal amino acid (e.g., t-butylcarbonyl-Phe) is attached to the solid support through a 4-(oxymethyl)phenacetyl group. This is a more stable linkage than the conventional benzyl ester linkage, yet the finished peptide can still be cleaved by hydrogenation. Transfer hydrogenation using formic acid as the hydrogen donor can be used for this purpose.
 It is noted that in the chemical synthesis of peptides, particularly peptides comprising D amino acids, the synthesis usually produces a number of truncated peptides in addition to the desired full-length product. Thus, the peptides are typically purified using, e.g., HPLC.
 D-amino acids, beta amino acids, non-natural amino acids, and the like can be incorporated at one or more positions in the peptide simply by using the appropriately derivatized amino acid residue in the chemical synthesis. Modified residues for solid phase peptide synthesis are commercially available from a number of suppliers (see, e.g., Advanced Chem Tech, Louisville; Nova Biochem, San Diego; Sigma, St Louis; Bachem California Inc., Torrance, etc.). The D-form and/or otherwise modified amino acids can be completely omitted or incorporated at any position in the peptide as desired. Thus, for example, in certain embodiments, the peptide can comprise a single modified acid, while in other embodiments, the peptide comprises at least two, generally at least three, more generally at least four, most generally at least five, preferably at least six, more preferably at least seven or even all modified amino acids. In certain embodiments, essentially every amino acid is a D-form amino acid.
 As indicated above, the peptides and/or fusion proteins of this invention can also be recombinantly expressed. Accordingly, in certain embodiments, the antimicrobial peptides and/or targeting moieties, and/or fusion proteins of this invention are synthesized using recombinant expression systems. Generally this involves creating a DNA sequence that encodes the desired peptide or fusion protein, placing the DNA in an expression cassette under the control of a particular promoter, expressing the peptide or fusion protein in a host, isolating the expressed peptide or fusion protein and, if required, renaturing the peptide or fusion protein.
 DNA encoding the peptide(s) or fusion protein(s) described herein can be prepared by any suitable method as described above, including, for example, cloning and restriction of appropriate sequences or direct chemical synthesis.
 This nucleic acid can be easily ligated into an appropriate vector containing appropriate expression control sequences (e.g. promoter, enhancer, etc.), and, optionally, containing one or more selectable markers (e.g. antibiotic resistance genes).
 The nucleic acid sequences encoding the peptides or fusion proteins described herein can be expressed in a variety of host cells, including, but not limited to, E. coli, other bacterial hosts, yeast, fungus, and various higher eukaryotic cells such as insect cells (e.g. SF3), the COS, CHO and HeLa cells lines and myeloma cell lines. The recombinant protein gene will typically be operably linked to appropriate expression control sequences for each host. For E. coli this can include a promoter such as the T7, trp, or lambda promoters, a ribosome binding site and preferably a transcription termination signal. For eukaryotic cells, the control sequences can include a promoter and often an enhancer (e.g., an enhancer derived from immunoglobulin genes, SV40, cytomegalovirus, etc.), and a polyadenylation sequence, and may include splice donor and acceptor sequences.
 The plasmids can be transferred into the chosen host cell by well-known methods such as calcium chloride transformation for E. coli and calcium phosphate treatment or electroporation for mammalian cells. Cells transformed by the plasmids can be selected by resistance to antibiotics conferred by genes contained on the plasmids, such as the amp, gpt, neo and hyg genes.
 Once expressed, the recombinant peptide(s) or fusion protein(s) can be purified according to standard procedures of the art, including ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity columns, column chromatography, gel electrophoresis and the like (see, generally, R. Scopes, (1982) Protein Purification, Springer-Verlag, N.Y.; Deutscher (1990) Methods in Enzymology Vol. 182: Guide to Protein Purification., Academic Press, Inc. N.Y.). Substantially pure compositions of at least about 90 to 95% homogeneity are preferred, and 98 to 99% or more homogeneity are most preferred.
 One of skill in the art would recognize that after chemical synthesis, biological expression, or purification, the peptide(s) or fusion protein(s) may possess a conformation substantially different than desired native conformation. In this case, it may be necessary to denature and reduce the peptide or fusion protein and then to cause the molecule to re-fold into the preferred conformation. Methods of reducing and denaturing proteins and inducing re-folding are well known to those of skill in the art (see, e.g., Debinski et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem., 268: 14065-14070; Kreitman and Pastan (1993) Bioconjug. Chem., 4: 581-585; and Buchner, et al., (1992) Anal. Biochem., 205: 263-270). Debinski et al., for example, describes the denaturation and reduction of inclusion body proteins in guanidine-DTE. The protein is then refolded in a redox buffer containing oxidized glutathione and L-arginine.
 One of skill would recognize that modifications can be made to the peptide(s) and/or fusion protein(s) proteins without diminishing their biological activity. Some modifications may be made to facilitate the cloning, expression, or incorporation of the targeting molecule into a fusion protein. Such modifications are well known to those of skill in the art and include, for example, a methionine added at the amino terminus to provide an initiation site, or additional amino acids (e.g., poly His) placed on either terminus to create conveniently located restriction sites or termination codons or purification sequences.
 Protecting Groups.
 While the various peptides (e.g., targeting peptides, antimicrobial peptides, STAMPs) described herein may be shown with no protecting groups, in certain embodiments they can bear one, two, three, four, or more protecting groups. In various embodiments, the protecting groups can be coupled to the C- and/or N-terminus of the peptide(s) and/or to one or more internal residues comprising the peptide(s) (e.g., one or more R-groups on the constituent amino acids can be blocked). Thus, for example, in certain embodiments, any of the peptides described herein can bear, e.g., an acetyl group protecting the amino terminus and/or an amide group protecting the carboxyl terminus. One example of such a protected peptide is the 1845L6-21 STAMP having the amino acid sequence KFINGVLSQFVLERKPYPKLFKFLRKHLL* (SEQ ID NO:1953), where the asterisk indicates an amidated carboxyl terminus. Of course, this protecting group can be can be eliminated and/or substituted with another protecting group as described herein.
 Without being bound by a particular theory, it was discovered that addition of a protecting group, particularly to the carboxyl and in certain embodiments the amino terminus can improve the stability and efficacy of the peptide.
 A wide number of protecting groups are suitable for this purpose. Such groups include, but are not limited to acetyl, amide, and alkyl groups with acetyl and alkyl groups being particularly preferred for N-terminal protection and amide groups being preferred for carboxyl terminal protection. In certain particularly preferred embodiments, the protecting groups include, but are not limited to alkyl chains as in fatty acids, propionyl, formyl, and others. Particularly preferred carboxyl protecting groups include amides, esters, and ether-forming protecting groups. In one preferred embodiment, an acetyl group is used to protect the amino terminus and an amide group is used to protect the carboxyl terminus. These blocking groups enhance the helix-forming tendencies of the peptides. Certain particularly preferred blocking groups include alkyl groups of various lengths, e.g., groups having the formula: CH3--(CH2)n--CO-- where n ranges from about 1 to about 20, preferably from about 1 to about 16 or 18, more preferably from about 3 to about 13, and most preferably from about 3 to about 10.
 In certain embodiments, the protecting groups include, but are not limited to alkyl chains as in fatty acids, propionyl, formyl, and others. Particularly preferred carboxyl protecting groups include amides, esters, and ether-forming protecting groups. In one embodiment, an acetyl group is used to protect the amino terminus and/or an amino group is used to protect the carboxyl terminus (i.e., amidated carboxyl terminus). In certain embodiments blocking groups include alkyl groups of various lengths, e.g., groups having the formula: CH3--(CH2)n--CO-- where n ranges from about 3 to about 20, preferably from about 3 to about 16, more preferably from about 3 to about 13, and most preferably from about 3 to about 10.
 In certain embodiments, the acid group on the C-terminal can be blocked with an alcohol, aldehyde or ketone group and/or the N-terminal residue can have the natural amide group, or be blocked with an acyl, carboxylic acid, alcohol, aldehyde, or ketone group.
 Other protecting groups include, but are not limited to Fmoc, t-butoxycarbonyl (t-BOC), 9-fluoreneacetyl group, 1-fluorenecarboxylic group, 9-florenecarboxylic group, 9-fluorenone-1-carboxylic group, benzyloxycarbonyl, xanthyl (Xan), trityl (Trt), 4-methyltrityl (Mtt), 4-methoxytrityl (Mmt), 4-methoxy-2,3,6-trimethyl-benzenesulphonyl (Mtr), Mesitylene-2-sulphonyl (Mts), 4,4-dimethoxybenzhydryl (Mbh), Tosyl (Tos), 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl chroman-6-sulphonyl (Pmc), 4-methylbenzyl (MeBzl), 4-methoxybenzyl (MeOBzl), benzyloxy (BzlO), benzyl (Bzl), benzoyl (Bz), 3-nitro-2-pyridinesulphenyl (Npys), 1-(4,4-dimentyl-2,6-diaxocyclohexylidene)ethyl (Dde), 2,6-dichlorobenzyl (2,6-DiCl-Bzl), 2-chlorobenzyloxycarbonyl (2-Cl-Z), 2-bromobenzyloxycarbonyl (2-Br-Z), Benzyloxymethyl (Bom), cyclohexyloxy (cHxO), t-butoxymethyl (Bum), t-butoxy (tBuO), t-Butyl (tBu), Acetyl (Ac), and Trifluoroacetyl (TFA).
 Protecting/blocking groups are well known to those of skill as are methods of coupling such groups to the appropriate residue(s) comprising the peptides of this invention (see, e.g., Greene et al., (1991) Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Somerset, N.J.). In an illustrative embodiment, for example, acetylation is accomplished during the synthesis when the peptide is on the resin using acetic anhydride. Amide protection can be achieved by the selection of a proper resin for the synthesis. For example, a rink amide resin can be used. After the completion of the synthesis, the semipermanent protecting groups on acidic bifunctional amino acids such as Asp and Glu and basic amino acid Lys, hydroxyl of Tyr are all simultaneously removed. The peptides released from such a resin using acidic treatment comes out with the n-terminal protected as acetyl and the carboxyl protected as NH2 and with the simultaneous removal of all of the other protecting groups.
 While amino acid sequences are disclosed herein, amino acid sequences comprising, one or more protecting groups, e.g., as described above (or any other commercially available protecting groups for amino acids used, e.g., in boc or fmoc peptide synthesis) are also contemplated.
 Peptide Circularization.
 In certain embodiments the peptides described herein (e.g., AMPs, compound AMPs, STAMPs, etc.) are circularized/cyclized to produce cyclic peptides. Cyclic peptides, as contemplated herein, include head/tail, head/side chain, tail/side chain, and side chain/side chain cyclized peptides. In addition, peptides contemplated herein include homodet, containing only peptide bonds, and heterodet containing in addition disulfide, ester, thioester-bonds, or other bonds.
 The cyclic peptides can be prepared using virtually any art-known technique for the preparation of cyclic peptides. For example, the peptides can be prepared in linear or non-cyclized form using conventional solution or solid phase peptide syntheses and cyclized using standard chemistries. Preferably, the chemistry used to cyclize the peptide will be sufficiently mild so as to avoid substantially degrading the peptide. Suitable procedures for synthesizing the peptides described herein as well as suitable chemistries for cyclizing the peptides are well known in the art.
 In various embodiments cyclization can be achieved via direct coupling of the N- and C-terminus to form a peptide (or other) bond, but can also occur via the amino acid side chains. Furthermore it can be based on the use of other functional groups, including but not limited to amino, hydroxy, sulfhydryl, halogen, sulfonyl, carboxy, and thiocarboxy. These groups can be located at the amino acid side chains or be attached to their N- or C-terminus.
 Accordingly, it is to be understood that the chemical linkage used to covalently cyclize the peptides of the invention need not be an amide linkage. In many instances it may be desirable to modify the N- and C-termini of the linear or non-cyclized peptide so as to provide, for example, reactive groups that may be cyclized under mild reaction conditions. Such linkages include, by way of example and not limitation amide, ester, thioester, CH2--NH, etc. Techniques and reagents for synthesizing peptides having modified termini and chemistries suitable for cyclizing such modified peptides are well-known in the art.
 Alternatively, in instances where the ends of the peptide are conformationally or otherwise constrained so as to make cyclization difficult, it may be desirable to attach linkers to the N- and/or C-termini to facilitate peptide cyclization. Of course, it will be appreciated that such linkers will bear reactive groups capable of forming covalent bonds with the termini of the peptide. Suitable linkers and chemistries are well-known in the art and include those previously described.
 Cyclic peptides and depsipeptides (heterodetic peptides that include ester (depside) bonds as part of their backbone) have been well characterized and show a wide spectrum of biological activity. The reduction in conformational freedom brought about by cyclization often results in higher receptor-binding affinities. Frequently in these cyclic compounds, extra conformational restrictions are also built in, such as the use of D- and N-alkylated-amino acids, α,β-dehydro amino acids or α,α-disubstituted amino acid residues.
 Methods of forming disulfide linkages in peptides are well known to those of skill in the art (see, e.g., Eichler and Houghten (1997) Protein Pept. Lett. 4: 157-164).
 Reference may also be made to Marlowe (1993) Biorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 3: 437-44 who describes peptide cyclization on TFA resin using trimethylsilyl (TMSE) ester as an orthogonal protecting group; Pallin and Tam (1995) J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 2021-2022) who describe the cyclization of unprotected peptides in aqueous solution by oxime formation; Algin et al. (1994) Tetrahedron Lett. 35: 9633-9636 who disclose solid-phase synthesis of head-to-tail cyclic peptides via lysine side-chain anchoring; Kates et al. (1993) Tetrahedron Lett. 34: 1549-1552 who describe the production of head-to-tail cyclic peptides by three-dimensional solid phase strategy; Tumelty et al. (1994) J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 1067-1068, who describe the synthesis of cyclic peptides from an immobilized activated intermediate, where activation of the immobilized peptide is carried out with N-protecting group intact and subsequent removal leading to cyclization; McMurray et al. (1994) Peptide Res. 7: 195-206) who disclose head-to-tail cyclization of peptides attached to insoluble supports by means of the side chains of aspartic and glutamic acid; Hruby et al. (1994) Reactive Polymers 22: 231-241) who teach an alternate method for cyclizing peptides via solid supports; and Schmidt and Langer (1997) J. Peptide Res. 49: 67-73, who disclose a method for synthesizing cyclotetrapeptides and cyclopentapeptides.
 These methods of peptide cyclization are illustrative and non-limiting. Using the teaching provide herein, other cyclization methods will be available to one of skill in the art.
 Joining Targeting Moieties to Effectors.
 Chemical Conjugation.
 Chimeric moieties are formed by joining one or more of the targeting moieties described herein to one or more effectors. In certain embodiments the targeting moieties are attached directly to the effector(s) via naturally occurring reactive groups or the targeting moiety and/or the effector(s) can be functionalized to provide such reactive groups.
 In various embodiments the targeting moieties are attached to effector(s) via one or more linking agents. Thus, in various embodiments the targeting moieties and the effector(s) can be conjugated via a single linking agent or multiple linking agents. For example, the targeting moiety and the effector can be conjugated via a single multifunctional (e.g., bi-, tri-, or tetra-) linking agent or a pair of complementary linking agents. In another embodiment, the targeting moiety and the effector are conjugated via two, three, or more linking agents. Suitable linking agents include, but are not limited to, e.g., functional groups, affinity agents, stabilizing groups, and combinations thereof.
 In certain embodiments the linking agent is or comprises a functional group. Functional groups include monofunctional linkers comprising a reactive group as well as multifunctional crosslinkers comprising two or more reactive groups capable of forming a bond with two or more different functional targets (e.g., labels, proteins, macromolecules, semiconductor nanocrystals, or substrate). In some preferred embodiments, the multifunctional crosslinkers are heterobifunctional crosslinkers comprising two or more different reactive groups.
 Suitable reactive groups include, but are not limited to thiol (--SH), carboxylate (COOH), carboxyl (--COOH), carbonyl, amine (NH2), hydroxyl (--OH), aldehyde (--CHO), alcohol (ROH), ketone (R2CO), active hydrogen, ester, sulfhydryl (SH), phosphate (--PO3), or photoreactive moieties. Amine reactive groups include, but are not limited to e.g., isothiocyanates, isocyanates, acyl azides, NHS esters, sulfonyl chlorides, aldehydes and glyoxals, epoxides and oxiranes, carbonates, arylating agents, imidoesters, carbodiimides, and anhydrides. Thiol-reactive groups include, but are not limited to e.g., haloacetyl and alkyl halide derivates, maleimides, aziridines, acryloyl derivatives, arylating agents, and thiol-disulfides exchange reagents. Carboxylate reactive groups include, but are not limited to e.g., diazoalkanes and diazoacetyl compounds, such as carbonyldiimidazoles and carbodiimides. Hydroxyl reactive groups include, but are not limited to e.g., epoxides and oxiranes, carbonyldiimidazole, oxidation with periodate, N,N'-disuccinimidyl carbonate or N-hydroxylsuccimidyl chloroformate, enzymatic oxidation, alkyl halogens, and isocyanates. Aldehyde and ketone reactive groups include, but are not limited to e.g., hydrazine derivatives for schiff base formation or reduction amination. Active hydrogen reactive groups include, but are not limited to e.g., diazonium derivatives for mannich condensation and iodination reactions. Photoreactive groups include, but are not limited to e.g., aryl azides and halogenated aryl azides, benzophenones, diazo compounds, and diazirine derivatives.
 Other suitable reactive groups and classes of reactions useful in forming chimeric moieties include those that are well known in the art of bioconjugate chemistry. Currently favored classes of reactions available with reactive chelates are those which proceed under relatively mild conditions. These include, but are not limited to, nucleophilic substitutions (e.g., reactions of amines and alcohols with acyl halides, active esters), electrophilic substitutions (e.g., enamine reactions), and additions to carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom multiple bonds (e.g., Michael reaction, Diels-Alder addition). These and other useful reactions are discussed in, for example, March (1985) Advanced Organic Chemistry, 3rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, Hermanson (1996) Bioconjugate Techniques, Academic Press, San Diego; and Feeney et al. (1982) Modification of Proteins; Advances in Chemistry Series, Vol. 198, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.
 In certain embodiments, the linking agent comprises a chelator. For example, the chelator comprising the molecule, DOTA (DOTA=1,4,7,10-tetrakis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane), can readily be labeled with a radiolabel, such as Gd3+ and 64Cu, resulting in Gd3+-DOTA and 64Cu-DOTA respectively, attached to the targeting moiety. Other suitable chelates are known to those of skill in the art, for example, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) derivatives being among the most well known (see, e.g., Lee et al. (1997) Nucl Med. Biol. 24: 2225-23019).
 A "linker" or "linking agent" as used herein, is a molecule that is used to join two or more molecules. In certain embodiments the linker is typically capable of forming covalent bonds to both molecule(s) (e.g., the targeting moiety and the effector). Suitable linkers are well known to those of skill in the art and include, but are not limited to, straight or branched-chain carbon linkers, heterocyclic carbon linkers, or peptide linkers. In certain embodiments the linkers can be joined to the constituent amino acids through their side groups (e.g., through a disulfide linkage to cysteine). However, in certain embodiments, the linkers will be joined to the alpha carbon amino and carboxyl groups of the terminal amino acids.
 A bifunctional linker having one functional group reactive with a group on one molecule (e.g., a targeting peptide), and another group reactive on the other molecule (e.g., an antimicrobial peptide), can be used to form the desired conjugate. Alternatively, derivatization can be performed to provide functional groups. Thus, for example, procedures for the generation of free sulfhydryl groups on peptides are also known (See U.S. Pat. No. 4,659,839).
 In certain embodiments the linking agent is a heterobifunctional crosslinker comprising two or more different reactive groups that form a heterocyclic ring that can interact with a peptide. For example, a heterobifunctional crosslinker such as cysteine may comprise an amine reactive group and a thiol-reactive group can interact with an aldehyde on a derivatized peptide. Additional combinations of reactive groups suitable for heterobifunctional crosslinkers include, for example, amine- and sulfhydryl reactive groups; carbonyl and sulfhydryl reactive groups; amine and photoreactive groups; sulfhydryl and photoreactive groups; carbonyl and photoreactive groups; carboxylate and photoreactive groups; and arginine and photoreactive groups. In one embodiment, the heterobifunctional crosslinker is SMCC.
 Many procedures and linker molecules for attachment of various molecules to peptides or proteins are known (see, e.g., European Patent Application No. 188,256; U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,671,958, 4,659,839, 4,414,148, 4,699,784; 4,680,338; 4,569,789; and 4,589,071; and Borlinghaus et al. (1987) Cancer Res. 47: 4071-4075). Illustrative linking protocols are provided herein in Examples 2 and 3.
 Fusion Proteins.
 In certain embodiments where the targeting moiety and effector are both peptides or both comprise peptides, the chimeric moiety can be chemically synthesized or recombinantly expressed as a fusion protein (i.e., a chimeric fusion protein).
 In certain embodiments the chimeric fusion proteins are synthesized using recombinant DNA methodology. Generally this involves creating a DNA sequence that encodes the fusion protein, placing the DNA in an expression cassette under the control of a particular promoter, expressing the protein in a host, isolating the expressed protein and, if required, renaturing the protein.
 DNA encoding the fusion proteins can be prepared by any suitable method, including, for example, cloning and restriction of appropriate sequences or direct chemical synthesis by methods such as the phosphotriester method of Narang et al. (1979) Meth. Enzymol. 68: 90-99; the phosphodiester method of Brown et al. (1979) Meth. Enzymol. 68: 109-151; the diethylphosphoramidite method of Beaucage et al. (1981) Tetra. Lett., 22: 1859-1862; and the solid support method of U.S. Pat. No. 4,458,066.
 Chemical synthesis produces a single stranded oligonucleotide. This can be converted into double stranded DNA by hybridization with a complementary sequence or by polymerization with a DNA polymerase using the single strand as a template. One of skill would recognize that while chemical synthesis of DNA is limited to sequences of about 100 bases, longer sequences can be obtained by the ligation of shorter sequences.
 Alternatively, subsequences can be cloned and the appropriate subsequences cleaved using appropriate restriction enzymes. The fragments can then be ligated to produce the desired DNA sequence.
 In certain embodiments, DNA encoding fusion proteins of the present invention may be cloned using DNA amplification methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thus, for example, the nucleic acid encoding a targeting antibody, a targeting peptide, and the like is PCR amplified, using a sense primer containing the restriction site for NdeI and an antisense primer containing the restriction site for HindIII. This produces a nucleic acid encoding the targeting sequence and having terminal restriction sites. Similarly an effector and/or effector/linker/spacer can be provided having complementary restriction sites. Ligation of sequences and insertion into a vector produces a vector encoding the fusion protein.
 While the targeting moieties and effector(s) can be directly joined together, one of skill will appreciate that they can be separated by a peptide spacer/linker consisting of one or more amino acids. Generally the spacer will have no specific biological activity other than to join the proteins or to preserve some minimum distance or other spatial relationship between them. However, the constituent amino acids of the spacer may be selected to influence some property of the molecule such as the folding, net charge, or hydrophobicity.
 The nucleic acid sequences encoding the fusion proteins can be expressed in a variety of host cells, including E. coli, other bacterial hosts, yeast, and various higher eukaryotic cells such as the COS, CHO and HeLa cells lines and myeloma cell lines. The recombinant protein gene will be operably linked to appropriate expression control sequences for each host. For E. coli this includes a promoter such as the T7, trp, or lambda promoters, a ribosome binding site and preferably a transcription termination signal. For eukaryotic cells, the control sequences will include a promoter and preferably an enhancer derived from immunoglobulin genes, SV40, cytomegalovirus, etc., and a polyadenylation sequence, and may include splice donor and acceptor sequences.
 The plasmids can be transferred into the chosen host cell by well-known methods such as calcium chloride transformation for E. coli and calcium phosphate treatment or electroporation for mammalian cells. Cells transformed by the plasmids can be selected by resistance to antibiotics conferred by genes contained on the plasmids, such as the amp, gpt, neo and hyg genes.
 Once expressed, the recombinant fusion proteins can be purified according to standard procedures of the art, including ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity columns, column chromatography, gel electrophoresis and the like (see, generally, R. Scopes (1982) Protein Purification, Springer-Verlag, N.Y.; Deutscher (1990) Methods in Enzymology Vol. 182: Guide to Protein Purification., Academic Press, Inc. N.Y.). Substantially pure compositions of at least about 90 to 95% homogeneity are preferred, and 98 to 99% or more homogeneity are most preferred for pharmaceutical uses. Once purified, partially or to homogeneity as desired, the polypeptides may then be used therapeutically.
 One of skill in the art would recognize that after chemical synthesis, biological expression, or purification, the fusion protein may possess a conformation substantially different than the native conformations of the constituent polypeptides. In this case, it may be necessary to denature and reduce the polypeptide and then to cause the polypeptide to re-fold into the preferred conformation. Methods of reducing and denaturing proteins and inducing re-folding are well known to those of skill in the art (See, Debinski et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem., 268: 14065-14070; Kreitman and Pastan (1993) Bioconjug. Chem., 4: 581-585; and Buchner, et al. (1992) Anal. Biochem., 205: 263-270).
 One of skill would recognize that modifications can be made to the fusion proteins without diminishing their biological activity. Some modifications may be made to facilitate the cloning, expression, or incorporation of the targeting molecule into a fusion protein. Such modifications are well known to those of skill in the art and include, for example, a methionine added at the amino terminus to provide an initiation site, or additional amino acids placed on either terminus to create conveniently located restriction sites or termination codons.
 As indicated above, in various embodiments a peptide linker/spacer is used to join the one or more targeting moieties to one or more effector(s). In various embodiments the peptide linker is relatively short, typically less than about 10 amino acids, preferably less than about 8 amino acids and more preferably about 3 to about 5 amino acids. Suitable illustrative linkers include, but are not limited to PSGSP ((SEQ ID NO:1932), ASASA (SEQ ID NO: 1933), or GGG (SEQ ID NO: 1934). In certain embodiments longer linkers such as (GGGGS)3 (SEQ ID NO:1935) can be used. Illustrative peptide linkers and other linkers are shown in Table 11.
TABLE-US-00012 TABLE 11 Illustrative peptide and non-peptide linkers. SEQ Linker ID NO: AAA 1936 GGG 1937 SGG 1938 GGSGGS 1939 SAT 1940 PYP 1941 PSPSP 1942 ASA 1943 ASASA 1944 PSPSP 1945 KKKK 1946 RRRR 1947 (Gly4Ser)3 1948 GGGG 1954 GGGGS 1955 GGGGS GGGGS 1956 GGGGS GGGGS GGGGS GGGGS 1957 GGGGS GGGGS GGGGS GGGGS GGGGS 1958 GGGGS GGGGS GGGGS GGGGS GGGGS GGGGS 1959 2-nitrobenzene or O-nitrobenzyl Nitropyridyl disulfide Dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) S-acetylmercaptosuccinic acid 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10- tetracetic acid (DOTA) β-glucuronide and β-glucuronide variants Poly(alkylacrylic acid) Benzene-based linkers (for example: 2,5- Bis(hexyloxy)-1,4-bis[2,5-bis(hexyloxy)- 4-formyl-phenylenevinylene]benzene) and like molecules Disulfide linkages Poly(amidoamine) or like dendrimers linking multiple target and killing peptides in one molecule Carbon nanotubes Hydrazone and hydrazone variant linkers PEG of any chain length Succinate, formate, acetate butyrate, other like organic acids Aldols, alcohols, or enols Peroxides alkane or alkene groups of any chain length One or more porphyrin or dye molecules containing free amide and carboxylic acid groups One or more DNA or RNA nucleotides, including polyamine and polycarboxyl- containing variants Inulin, sucrose, glucose, or other single, di or polysaccharides Linoleic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids Variants of any of the above linkers containing halogen or thiol groups (all amino-acid-based linkers could be L, D, combinations of L and D forms, β-form, PEG backbone, and the like)
 Multiple Targeting Moieties and/or Effectors.
 As indicated above, in certain embodiments, the chimeric moieties described herein comprise multiple targeting moieties attached to a single effector or multiple effectors attached to a single targeting moiety, or multiple targeting moieties attached to multiple effectors.
 Where the chimeric construct is a fusion protein this is easily accomplished by providing multiple domains that are targeting domains attached to one or more effector domains. FIG. 12 schematically illustrates a few, but not all, configurations. In various embodiments the multiple targeting domains and/or multiple effector domains can be attached to each other directly or can be separated by linkers (e.g., amino acid or peptide linkers as described above).
 When the chimeric construct is a chemical conjugate linear or branched configurations (e.g., as illustrated in FIG. 12) are readily produced by using branched or multifunctional linkers and/or a plurality of different linkers.
III. Administration and Formulations.
 Pharmaceutical Formulations.
 In certain embodiments, the antimicrobial peptides and/or the chimeric constructs (e.g., targeting moieties attached to antimicrobial peptide(s), targeting moieties attached to detectable label(s), etc.) are administered to a mammal in need thereof, to a cell, to a tissue, to a composition (e.g., a food, etc.). In various embodiments the compositions can be administered to detect and/or locate, and/or quantify the presence of particular microorganisms, microorganism populations, biofilms comprising particular microorganisms, and the like. In various embodiments the compositions can be administered to inhibit particular microorganisms, microorganism populations, biofilms comprising particular microorganisms, and the like.
 These active agents (antimicrobial peptides and/or chimeric moieties) can be administered in the "native" form or, if desired, in the form of salts, esters, amides, prodrugs, derivatives, and the like, provided the salt, ester, amide, prodrug or derivative is suitable pharmacologically, i.e., effective in the present method(s). Salts, esters, amides, prodrugs and other derivatives of the active agents can be prepared using standard procedures known to those skilled in the art of synthetic organic chemistry and described, for example, by March (1992) Advanced Organic Chemistry; Reactions, Mechanisms and Structure, 4th Ed. N.Y. Wiley-Interscience.
 Methods of formulating such derivatives are known to those of skill in the art. For example, the disulfide salts of a number of delivery agents are described in PCT Publication WO 00/059863 which is incorporated herein by reference. Similarly, acid salts of therapeutic peptides, peptoids, or other mimetics, and can be prepared from the free base using conventional methodology that typically involves reaction with a suitable acid. Generally, the base form of the drug is dissolved in a polar organic solvent such as methanol or ethanol and the acid is added thereto. The resulting salt either precipitates or can be brought out of solution by addition of a less polar solvent. Suitable acids for preparing acid addition salts include, but are not limited to both organic acids, e.g., acetic acid, propionic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, oxalic acid, malic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, mandelic acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, salicylic acid, and the like, as well as inorganic acids, e.g., hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, and the like. An acid addition salt can be reconverted to the free base by treatment with a suitable base. Certain particularly preferred acid addition salts of the active agents herein include halide salts, such as may be prepared using hydrochloric or hydrobromic acids. Conversely, preparation of basic salts of the active agents of this invention are prepared in a similar manner using a pharmaceutically acceptable base such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, trimethylamine, or the like. In certain embodiments basic salts include alkali metal salts, e.g., the sodium salt, and copper salts.
 For the preparation of salt forms of basic drugs, the pKa of the counterion is preferably at least about 2 pH lower than the pKa of the drug. Similarly, for the preparation of salt forms of acidic drugs, the pKa of the counterion is preferably at least about 2 pH higher than the pKa of the drug. This permits the counterion to bring the solution's pH to a level lower than the pHmax to reach the salt plateau, at which the solubility of salt prevails over the solubility of free acid or base. The generalized rule of difference in pKa units of the ionizable group in the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and in the acid or base is meant to make the proton transfer energetically favorable. When the pKa of the API and counterion are not significantly different, a solid complex may form but may rapidly disproportionate (i.e., break down into the individual entities of drug and counterion) in an aqueous environment.
 Preferably, the counterion is a pharmaceutically acceptable counterion. Suitable anionic salt forms include, but are not limited to acetate, benzoate, benzylate, bitartrate, bromide, carbonate, chloride, citrate, edetate, edisylate, estolate, fumarate, gluceptate, gluconate, hydrobromide, hydrochloride, iodide, lactate, lactobionate, malate, maleate, mandelate, mesylate, methyl bromide, methyl sulfate, mucate, napsylate, nitrate, pamoate (embonate), phosphate and diphosphate, salicylate and disalicylate, stearate, succinate, sulfate, tartrate, tosylate, triethiodide, valerate, and the like, while suitable cationic salt forms include, but are not limited to aluminum, benzathine, calcium, ethylene diamine, lysine, magnesium, meglumine, potassium, procaine, sodium, tromethamine, zinc, and the like.
 In various embodiments preparation of esters typically involves functionalization of hydroxyl and/or carboxyl groups that are present within the molecular structure of the active agent. In certain embodiments, the esters are typically acyl-substituted derivatives of free alcohol groups, i.e., moieties that are derived from carboxylic acids of the formula RCOOH where R is alky, and preferably is lower alkyl. Esters can be reconverted to the free acids, if desired, by using conventional hydrogenolysis or hydrolysis procedures.
 Amides can also be prepared using techniques known to those skilled in the art or described in the pertinent literature. For example, amides may be prepared from esters, using suitable amine reactants, or they may be prepared from an anhydride or an acid chloride by reaction with ammonia or a lower alkyl amine.
 In various embodiments, the active agents identified herein are useful for parenteral, topical, oral, nasal (or otherwise inhaled), rectal, or local administration, such as by aerosol or transdermally, for detection and/or quantification, and or localization, and/or prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatment of infection (e.g., microbial infection). The compositions can be administered in a variety of unit dosage forms depending upon the method of administration. Suitable unit dosage forms, include, but are not limited to powders, tablets, pills, capsules, lozenges, suppositories, patches, nasal sprays, injectibles, implantable sustained-release formulations, lipid complexes, etc.
 The active agents (e.g., antimicrobial peptides and/or chimeric constructs) described herein can also be combined with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier (excipient) to form a pharmacological composition. Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers can contain one or more physiologically acceptable compound(s) that act, for example, to stabilize the composition or to increase or decrease the absorption of the active agent(s). Physiologically acceptable compounds can include, for example, carbohydrates, such as glucose, sucrose, or dextrans, antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid or glutathione, chelating agents, low molecular weight proteins, protection and uptake enhancers such as lipids, compositions that reduce the clearance or hydrolysis of the active agents, or excipients or other stabilizers and/or buffers.
 Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers can contain one or more physiologically acceptable compound(s) that act, for example, to stabilize the composition or to increase or decrease the absorption of the active agent(s). Physiologically acceptable compounds can include, for example, carbohydrates, such as glucose, sucrose, or dextrans, antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid or glutathione, chelating agents, low molecular weight proteins, protection and uptake enhancers such as lipids, compositions that reduce the clearance or hydrolysis of the active agents, or excipients or other stabilizers and/or buffers.
 Other physiologically acceptable compounds, particularly of use in the preparation of tablets, capsules, gel caps, and the like include, but are not limited to binders, diluent/fillers, disentegrants, lubricants, suspending agents, and the like.
 In certain embodiments, to manufacture an oral dosage form (e.g., a tablet), an excipient (e.g., lactose, sucrose, starch, mannitol, etc.), an optional disintegrator (e.g. calcium carbonate, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, sodium starch glycollate, crospovidone etc.), a binder (e.g. alpha-starch, gum arabic, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, hydroxypropylcellulose, cyclodextrin, etc.), and an optional lubricant (e.g., talc, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol 6000, etc.), for instance, are added to the active component or components (e.g., active) and the resulting composition is compressed. Where necessary the compressed product is coated, e.g., known methods for masking the taste or for enteric dissolution or sustained release. Suitable coating materials include, but are not limited to ethyl-cellulose, hydroxymethylcellulose, polyoxyethylene glycol, cellulose acetate phthalate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate, and Eudragit (Rohm & Haas, Germany; methacrylic-acrylic copolymer).
 Other physiologically acceptable compounds include wetting agents, emulsifying agents, dispersing agents or preservatives that are particularly useful for preventing the growth or action of microorganisms. Various preservatives are well known and include, for example, phenol and ascorbic acid. One skilled in the art would appreciate that the choice of pharmaceutically acceptable carrier(s), including a physiologically acceptable compound depends, for example, on the route of administration of the active agent(s) and on the particular physio-chemical characteristics of the active agent(s).
 In certain embodiments the excipients are sterile and generally free of undesirable matter. These compositions can be sterilized by conventional, well-known sterilization techniques. For various oral dosage form excipients such as tablets and capsules sterility is not required. The USP/NF standard is usually sufficient.
 In certain therapeutic applications, the compositions of this invention are administered, e.g., topically administered or administered to the oral or nasal cavity, to a patient suffering from infection or at risk for infection or prophylactically to prevent dental caries or other pathologies of the teeth or oral mucosa characterized by microbial infection in an amount sufficient to prevent and/or cure and/or at least partially prevent or arrest the disease and/or its complications. An amount adequate to accomplish this is defined as a "therapeutically effective dose." Amounts effective for this use will depend upon the severity of the disease and the general state of the patient's health. Single or multiple administrations of the compositions may be administered depending on the dosage and frequency as required and tolerated by the patient. In any event, the composition should provide a sufficient quantity of the active agents of the formulations of this invention to effectively treat (ameliorate one or more symptoms in) the patient.
 The concentration of active agent(s) can vary widely, and will be selected primarily based on activity of the active ingredient(s), body weight and the like in accordance with the particular mode of administration selected and the patient's needs. Concentrations, however, will typically be selected to provide dosages ranging from about 0.1 or 1 mg/kg/day to about 50 mg/kg/day and sometimes higher. Typical dosages range from about 3 mg/kg/day to about 3.5 mg/kg/day, preferably from about 3.5 mg/kg/day to about 7.2 mg/kg/day, more preferably from about 7.2 mg/kg/day to about 11.0 mg/kg/day, and most preferably from about 11.0 mg/kg/day to about 15.0 mg/kg/day. In certain preferred embodiments, dosages range from about 10 mg/kg/day to about 50 mg/kg/day. In certain embodiments, dosages range from about 20 mg to about 50 mg given orally twice daily. It will be appreciated that such dosages may be varied to optimize a therapeutic and/or phophylactic regimen in a particular subject or group of subjects.
 In certain embodiments, the active agents of this invention are administered to the oral cavity. This is readily accomplished by the use of lozenges, aersol sprays, mouthwash, coated swabs, and the like.
 In certain embodiments, the active agent(s) of this invention are administered topically, e.g., to the skin surface, to a topical lesion or wound, to a surgical site, and the like.
 In certain embodiments the active agents of this invention are administered systemically (e.g., orally, or as an injectable) in accordance with standard methods well known to those of skill in the art. In other preferred embodiments, the agents, can also be delivered through the skin using conventional transdermal drug delivery systems, i.e., transdermal "patches" wherein the active agent(s) are typically contained within a laminated structure that serves as a drug delivery device to be affixed to the skin. In such a structure, the drug composition is typically contained in a layer, or "reservoir," underlying an upper backing layer. It will be appreciated that the term "reservoir" in this context refers to a quantity of "active ingredient(s)" that is ultimately available for delivery to the surface of the skin. Thus, for example, the "reservoir" may include the active ingredient(s) in an adhesive on a backing layer of the patch, or in any of a variety of different matrix formulations known to those of skill in the art. The patch may contain a single reservoir, or it may contain multiple reservoirs.
 In one embodiment, the reservoir comprises a polymeric matrix of a pharmaceutically acceptable contact adhesive material that serves to affix the system to the skin during drug delivery. Examples of suitable skin contact adhesive materials include, but are not limited to, polyethylenes, polysiloxanes, polyisobutylenes, polyacrylates, polyurethanes, and the like. Alternatively, the drug-containing reservoir and skin contact adhesive are present as separate and distinct layers, with the adhesive underlying the reservoir which, in this case, may be either a polymeric matrix as described above, or it may be a liquid or hydrogel reservoir, or may take some other form. The backing layer in these laminates, which serves as the upper surface of the device, preferably functions as a primary structural element of the "patch" and provides the device with much of its flexibility. The material selected for the backing layer is preferably substantially impermeable to the active agent(s) and any other materials that are present.
 Other formulations for topical delivery include, but are not limited to, ointments, gels, sprays, fluids, and creams. Ointments are semisolid preparations that are typically based on petrolatum or other petroleum derivatives. Creams containing the selected active agent are typically viscous liquid or semisolid emulsions, often either oil-in-water or water-in-oil. Cream bases are typically water-washable, and contain an oil phase, an emulsifier and an aqueous phase. The oil phase, also sometimes called the "internal" phase, is generally comprised of petrolatum and a fatty alcohol such as cetyl or stearyl alcohol; the aqueous phase usually, although not necessarily, exceeds the oil phase in volume, and generally contains a humectant. The emulsifier in a cream formulation is generally a nonionic, anionic, cationic or amphoteric surfactant. The specific ointment or cream base to be used, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, is one that will provide for optimum drug delivery. As with other carriers or vehicles, an ointment base should be inert, stable, nonirritating and nonsensitizing.
 As indicated above, various buccal, and sublingual formulations are also contemplated.
 In certain embodiments, one or more active agents of the present invention can be provided as a "concentrate", e.g., in a storage container (e.g., in a premeasured volume) ready for dilution, or in a soluble capsule ready for addition to a volume of water, alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, or other diluent.
 While the invention is described with respect to use in humans, it is also suitable for animal, e.g., veterinary use. Thus certain preferred organisms include, but are not limited to humans, non-human primates, canines, equines, felines, porcines, ungulates, largomorphs, and the like.
 The foregoing formulations and administration methods are intended to be illustrative and not limiting. It will be appreciated that, using the teaching provided herein, other suitable formulations and modes of administration can be readily devised.
 Home Health Care Product Formulations.
 In certain embodiments, one or more of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and/or chimeric moieties described herein are incorporated into healthcare formulations, e.g., for home use. Such formulations include, but are not limited to toothpaste, mouthwash, tooth whitening strips or solutions, contact lens storage, wetting, or cleaning solutions, dental floss, toothpicks, toothbrush bristles, oral sprays, oral lozenges, nasal sprays, aerosolizers for oral and/or nasal application, wound dressings (e.g., bandages), and the like.
 The formulation of such health products is well known to those of skill, and the antimicrobial peptides and/or chimeric constructs are simply added to such formulations in an effective dose (e.g., a prophylactic dose to inhibit dental carie formation, etc.).
 For example, toothpaste formulations are well known to those of skill in the art. Typically such formulations are mixtures of abrasives and surfactants; anticaries agents, such as fluoride; tartar control ingredients, such as tetrasodium pyrophosphate and methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride copolymer; pH buffers; humectants, to prevent dry-out and increase the pleasant mouth feel; and binders, to provide consistency and shape (see, e.g., Table 12). Binders keep the solid phase properly suspended in the liquid phase to prevent separation of the liquid phase out of the toothpaste. They also provide body to the dentifrice, especially after extrusion from the tube onto the toothbrush.
TABLE-US-00013 TABLE 12 Typical components of toothpaste. Ingredients Wt % Humectants 40-70 Water 0-50 Buffers/salts/tartar 0.5-10 control Organic thickeners 0.4-2 (gums) Inorganic thickeners 0-12 Abrasives 10-50 Actives (e.g., triclosan) 0.2-1.5 Surfactants 0.5-2 Flavor and sweetener 0.8-1.5 Fluoride sources provide 1000-15000 ppm fluorine.
 Table 13 lists typical ingredients used in formulations; the final combination will depend on factors such as ingredient compatibility and cost, local customs, and desired benefits and quality to be delivered in the product. It will be recognized that one or more antimicrobial peptides and/or chimeric constructs described herein can simply be added to such formulations or used in place of one or more of the other ingredients.
TABLE-US-00014 TABLE 13 List of typical ingredients Tartar Inorganic Control Gums Thickeners Abrasives Surfactants Humectants Ingredient Sodium Silica Hydrated Sodium Glycerine Tetrasodium carboxymethyl thickeners silica lauryl sulfate pyrophosphate cellulose Cellulose ethers Sodium Dicalcium Sodium N- Sorbitol Gantrez S-70 aluminum phosphate lauryl silicates digydrate sarcosinate Xanthan Gum Clays Calcium Pluronics Propylene Sodium tri- carbonate glycol polyphosphate Carrageenans Sodium Xylitol bicarbonate Sodium alginate Calcium Sodium Polyethylene pyrophosphate lauryl glycol sulfoacetate Carbopols Alumina
 One illustrative formulation described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,113,887 comprises (1) a water-soluble bactericide selected from the group consisting of pyridinium compounds, quaternary ammonium compounds and biguanide compounds in an amount of 0.001% to 5.0% by weight, based on the total weight of the composition; (2) a cationically-modified hydroxyethylcellulose having an average molecular weight of 1,000,000 or higher in the hydroxyethylcellulose portion thereof and having a cationization degree of 0.05 to 0.5 mol/glucose in an amount of 0.5% to 5.0% by weight, based on the total weight of the composition; (3) a surfactant selected from the group consisting of polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene block copolymers and alkylolamide compounds in an amount of 0.5% to 13% by weight, based on the total weight of the composition; and (4) a polishing agent of the non-silica type in an amount of 5% to 50% by weight, based on the total weight of the composition. In certain embodiments, the antimicrobial peptide(s) and/or chimeric construct(s) described herein can be used in place of the bactericide or in combination with the bactericide.
 Similarly, mouthwash formulations are also well known to those of skill in the art. Thus, for example, mouthwashes containing sodium fluoride are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,913,373, 3,975,514, and 4,548,809, and in US Patent Publications US 2003/0124068 A1, US 2007/0154410 A1, and the like. Mouthwashes containing various alkali metal compounds are also known: sodium benzoate (WO 9409752); alkali metal hypohalite (US 20020114851A1); chlorine dioxide (CN 1222345); alkali metal phosphate (US 2001/0002252 A1, US 2003/0007937 A1); hydrogen sulfate/carbonate (JP 8113519); cetylpyridium chloride (CPC) (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 6,117,417, U.S. Pat. No. 5,948,390, and JP 2004051511). Mouthwashes containing higher alcohol (see, e.g., US 2002/0064505 A1, US 2003/0175216 A1); hydrogen peroxide (see, e.g., CN 1385145); CO2 gas bubbles (see, e.g., JP 1275521 and JP 2157215) are also known. In certain embodiments, these and other mouthwash formulations can further comprise one or more of the AMPs or compound AMPs of this invention.
 Contact lens storage, wetting, or cleaning solutions, dental floss, toothpicks, toothbrush bristles, oral sprays, oral lozenges, nasal sprays, and aerosolizers for oral and/or nasal application, and the like are also well known to those of skill in the art and can readily be adapted to incorporate one or more antimicrobial peptide(s) and/or chimeric construct(s) described herein.
 The foregoing home healthcare formulations and/or devices are meant to be illustrative and not limiting. Using teaching provided herein, the antimicrobial peptide(s) and/or chimeric construct(s) described herein can readily be incorporated into other products.
 In another embodiment this invention provides kits for the inhibition of an infection and/or for the treatment and/or prevention of dental caries in a mammal. The kits typically comprise a container containing one or more of the active agents (i.e., the antimicrobial peptide(s) and/or chimeric construct(s)) described herein. In certain embodiments the active agent(s) can be provided in a unit dosage formulation (e.g., suppository, tablet, caplet, patch, etc.) and/or may be optionally combined with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.
 In certain embodiments the kits comprise one or more of the home healthcare product formulations described herein (e.g., toothpaste, mouthwash, tooth whitening strips or solutions, contact lens storage, wetting, or cleaning solutions, dental floss, toothpicks, toothbrush bristles, oral sprays, oral lozenges, nasal sprays, aerosolizers for oral and/or nasal application, and the like).
 In certain embodiments kits are provided for detecting and/or locating and/or quantifying certain target microorganisms and/or cells or tissues comprising certain target microorganisms, and/or prosthesis bearing certain target microorganisms, and/or biofilms comprising certain target microorganisms. In various embodiments these kits typically comprise a chimeric moiety comprising a targeting moiety and a detectable label as described herein and/or a targeting moiety attached to an affinity tag for use in a pretargeting strategy as described herein.
 In addition, the kits optionally include labeling and/or instructional materials providing directions (i.e., protocols) for the practice of the methods or use of the "therapeutics" or "prophylactics" or detection reagents of this invention. Certain instructional materials describe the use of one or more active agent(s) of this invention to therapeutically or prophylactically to inhibit or prevent infection and/or to inhibit the formation of dental caries. The instructional materials may also, optionally, teach preferred dosages/therapeutic regiment, counter indications and the like.
 While the instructional materials typically comprise written or printed materials they are not limited to such. Any medium capable of storing such instructions and communicating them to an end user is contemplated by this invention. Such media include, but are not limited to electronic storage media (e.g., magnetic discs, tapes, cartridges, chips), optical media (e.g., CD ROM), and the like. Such media may include addresses to internet sites that provide such instructional materials.
 The following examples are offered to illustrate, but not to limit the claimed invention.
Design and Activity of a "Dual-Targeted" Antimicrobial Peptide
 Numerous reports have indicated the important role of human normal flora in the prevention of microbial pathogenesis and disease. Evidence suggests that infections at mucosal surfaces result from the outgrowth of subpopulations or clusters within a microbial community, and are not linked to one pathogenic organism alone. In order to preserve the protective normal flora while treating the majority of infective bacteria in the community, a tunable therapeutic is necessary that can discriminate between benign bystanders and multiple pathogenic organisms. Here we describe the proof-of-principle for such a multi-targeted antimicrobial: a multiple-headed specifically-targeted antimicrobial peptide (MH-STAMP). The completed MH-STAMP, M8(KH)-20, displays specific activity against targeted organisms in vitro (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus mutans) and can remove both species from a mixed planktonic culture with little impact against untargeted bacteria. These results demonstrate that a functional, dual-targeted molecule can be constructed from wide-spectrum antimicrobial peptide precursor.
 For nearly 30 years antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been rigorously investigated as alternatives to small molecule antibiotics and potential solutions to the growing crisis of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections [1, 2]. Numerous reports have characterized potential AMPs from natural sources, and a great body of work has been carried out designing "tailor-made" AMPs due to the approachable nature of solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) [3, 4]. Several examples of the latter have shown remarkable activities in vitro against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as some enveloped viruses .
 Unlike small molecule antibiotics that may lose activity when their basic structures are modified even incrementally, peptides are a convenient canvas for molecular alteration. AMPs can be optimized through the incorporation of more or less hydrophobic or charged amino acids, which has been shown to affect selectivity for Gram-positive, Gram-negative or fungal membranes [6, 7]. Additionally, lysine residues can be utilized to improve AMP activity per μM. In this approach, multiple AMP chains can be attached to a single peptide scaffold through branching from lysine epsilon-amines [8, 9]. AMP activity can be specifically tuned through the attachment of a targeting peptide region, as described for a novel class of molecules, the specifically-targeted antimicrobial peptides, or STAMPs [10, 11]. These chimeric molecules can consist of functionally independent targeting and killing moieties within a linear peptide sequence. A pathogenic bacterium recognized (i.e. bound) by the targeting peptide can be eliminated from a multi-species community with little impact to bystander normal flora. As an extension of this concept, we hypothesized that a STAMP could be constructed with multiple targeting peptide "heads" attached to a single AMP by utilizing a central lysine residue branch point. Potentially, targeting "heads" could be specific for the same pathogen, or have different binding profiles. Utilizing the former approach, microbial resistance evolution linked to a targeting peptide could be inhibited or reduced, as no single microbial population would have the genetic diversity necessary to mutate multiple discrete targeting peptide receptors in one cell .
 Multi-headed STAMP (MH-STAMP) molecules with differing bacterial targets may have appeal in treating poly-microbial infections, or where it may be advantageous to remove a cluster of biofilm constituents without utilizing several distinct molecules; for example in the simultaneously treatment of dental caries and periodontitis, or in the eradication of the Propionibacteria spp. and Staphylococcus spp. involved in acne and skin infections, respectively.
 In this example, we present the proof-of-principle design, synthesis and in vitro activity of such a MH-STAMP, M8(KH)-20. Previously, we identified two functional STAMP targeting domains, one with specific recognition of the cariogenic pathogen S. mutans , and the other with Pseudomonas spp.-level selectivity . Conjoined to a normally wide-spectrum linear AMP, we observed antimicrobial effects directed specifically to P. aeruginosa and S. mutans in vitro. Additionally, treatment of mixed bacterial communities with the multi-headed MH-STAMP resulted in the specific eradication of the target organisms with little impact on bystander population levels.
Materials and Methods
 Bacterial Strains and Growth Conditions
 P. aeruginosa ATCC 15692, Klebsiella pneumoniae KAY 2026 , Escherichia coli DH5α (pFW5, spectinomycin resistance) , Staphylococcus aureus Newmann , and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 were cultivated under aerobic conditions at 37° C. with vigorous shaking Aerobic Gram-negative organisms were grown in Lauri-Bertaini (LB) broth and Gram-positive bacteria in Brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth. Streptococcus mutans JM11 (spectinomycin resistant, UA140 background) was grown in Todd-Hewitt (TH) broth under anaerobic conditions (80% N2, 15% CO2, 5% H2) at 37° C. . All bacteria were grown overnight to an OD600 of 0.8-1.0 prior to appropriate dilution and antimicrobial testing.
 Synthesis of Multi-Head STAMP Peptides
 Conventional solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) methodologies were utilized for the construction of all peptides shown in FIG. 13 (Symphony Synthesizer, PTI, Tucson, Ariz.). Chemicals, amino acids, and synthesis resins were purchased from Anaspec (San Jose, Calif.). BD2.20 (FIRKFLKKWLL (SEQ ID NO:1949), amidated c-terminus, mw 1491.92), an antimicrobial peptide developed in our laboratory with robust antimicrobial activity against a number of bacterial species (Table 14), served as the root sequence to which differing targeting peptides were attached: Firstly, BD2.20 was synthesized by SPPS (Rink-Amide-MBHA resin, 0.015 mmol), followed by the stepwise coupling of a functionalized alkane (NH2(CH2)7COOH), and an Fmoc-protected Lys (side-chain protected with 4-methyltrityl (Mtt)) to the N-terminus. Standard SPPS methods were then employed for the step-wise addition of the S. mutans targeting peptide M8 plus a tri-Gly linker region (TFFRFLNR-GGG (SEQ ID NO:1950)) to the N-terminal of the central Lys. After assembly of Fmoc-M8-GGG-K(Mtt)-(CH2)7CO-BD2.20 (SEQ ID NO:1951), the Fmoc group was removed with 25% piperidine in DMF and the N-terminal was re-protected with an acetyl group with Ac2O/DIEA (1:1, 20 molar excess) for 2 hours. The Mtt-protected amino group of the central Lys was then selectively exposed with 2% TFA in DCM (1.5 mL) for 15 minutes (three cycles of 5 min). The resulting product was reloaded into the synthesizer and the peptide sequence built from the Lys side-chain was completed with standard Fmoc SPPS methods. As shown in FIG. 13, the completed MH-STAMP M8(KH)-20 contained the side-chain peptide KH (Pseudomonas spp.-targeting, KKHRKHRKHRKH-GGG (SEQ ID NO:1952)), while in MH-STAMP M8(BL)-20 a peptide with no bacterial binding (data not shown), BL-1 (DAANEA-GGG), was utilized. BL(KH)-20 was constructed identically to M8(KH)-20, utilizing BL-1 in place of M8 (FIG. 13).
TABLE-US-00015 TABLE 14 MICs of MH-STAMPs and component peptides. MIC (μM) P. aeruginosa E. coli K. pneumoniae S. mutans S. epidermidis S. aureus BD2.20 14.4 ± 4.40 5.47 ± 1.41 2.98 ± 0.47 2.86 ± 0.60 5.11 ± 1.58 5.625 ± 1.29 M8(KH)- 11.95 ± 3.32 2.72 ± 0.59 3.13 6.25 3.13 5.64 ± 1.07 20 M8(BL)- 50 5.97 ± 0.94 6.88 ± 1.98 6.25 6.25 18.05 ± 6.58 20 BL(KH)- 27.5 ± 7.90 6.25 6.25 6.25 6.25 6.25 20 Average MIC with standard deviation, n = 10 assays.
 Synthesis progression was monitored by the ninhydrin test, and completed peptides cleaved from the resin with 95% TFA utilizing appropriate scavengers, and precipitated in methyl tert-butyl ether. Purification and MH-STAMP quality was confirmed by HPLC (Waters, Milford, Mass.) using a linear gradient of increasing mobile phase (acetonitrile 10 to 90% in water with 0.1% TFA) and a Waters XBridge BEH 130 C18 column (4.6×100 mm, particle size 5 μm). Absorbance at 215 nm was utilized as the monitoring wavelength, though 260 and 280 nm were also collected. LC spectra were analyzed with MassLynx Software v.4.1 (Waters). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectroscopy was utilized to confirm correct peptide mass (Voyager System 4291, Applied Biosystems) .
 MIC Assay
 Peptides were evaluated for basic antimicrobial activity by broth microdilution, as described previously [10, 11]. Briefly, 1×105 cfu/mL bacteria were diluted in TH (S. mutans), or Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth (all other organisms) and distributed to 96-well plates. Serially-diluted (2-fold) peptides were then added and the plates incubated at 37° C. for 18-24 h. Peptide MIC was determined as the concentration of peptide that completely inhibited organism growth when examined by eye (clear well). All experiments were conducted 10 times.
 Post-Antibiotic Effect Assay
 The activity and selectivity of MH-STAMPs after a 10 min incubation was determined by growth retardation experiments against targeted and untargeted bacteria in monocultures, as described previously [10, 11]. Cells from overnight cultures were diluted to ˜5×106 cfu/mL in MH (or TH with 1% sucrose for S. mutans), normalized by OD600 0.05-0.1 and seeded to 96-well plates. Cultures were then grown under the appropriate conditions for 2 h (3 h for S. mutans) prior to the addition of peptides for 10 min. Plates were then centrifuged at 3000×g for 5 min, the supernatants discarded, fresh medium returned (MH or TH without sucrose for S. mutans), and incubation resumed. Bacterial growth after treatment was then monitored over time by OD600.
 Microbial Population Shift Assay
 Mixed planktonic populations of P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. epidermidis, and S. mutans were utilized to examine the potential of MH-STAMPs to direct species composition within a culture after treatment. Samples were prepared containing: ˜6×104 cfu/mL S. mutans, ˜2×104 cfu/mL E. coli, ˜2×104 cfu/mL S. epidermidis, and ˜0.5×104 cfu/mL P. aeruginosa in BHI (mixed immediately before peptide addition). Peptide (10 μM) or mock-treatment (1×PBS) was then added and samples were incubated at 37° C. for 24 h under anaerobic conditions (80% N2, 15% CO2, 5% H2). After incubation, samples were serially diluted (1:10) in 1×PBS and aliquots from each dilution were then spotted to agar plates selective for each species in the mixture: TH plus 800 μg/mL spectinomycin (S. mutans), LB plus 25 μg/mL ampicillin (P. aeruginosa), LB plus 200 μg/mL spectinomycin (E. coli), and mannitol salt agar (MSA, S. epidermidis) in order to quantitate survivors from each species. Plates were then incubated 37° C. under aerobic conditions (TH plates were incubated anaerobically) and colonies counted after 24 h to determine survivors. Expected colony morphologies were observed for each species when plated on selective media. Gram stains and direct microscopic observation (from select isolated colonies) were undertaken to confirm species identity (data not shown). The detection limit of the assay was 200 cfu/mL.
 Design and Synthesis of Multi-Headed STAMPs
 We constructed a prototype MH-STAMP from the well-established targeting peptides KH (specific to Pseudomonas spp) and M8 (specific for Streptococcus mutans). The wide-spectrum antimicrobial peptide BD2.20 was utilized as the base AMP for all MH171 STAMP construction. BD2.20 is a novel synthetic AMP with a cationic and amphipathic residue arrangement, which has robust MICs against a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms (Table 14). For the synthesis of MH-STMAP M8(KH)-20 (construct presented in FIG. 13), BD2.20 and a Lys (Mtt-protected side-chain) residue were joined via an activated alkane spacer, followed by addition of the M8 targeting peptide to the N-terminus of the product. Selective deprotection of the central Lys(Mtt) side chain was then undertaken and the KH targeting peptide attached. The correct molecular mass (4888.79) and ˜90% purity was confirmed by HPLC and MALDI mass spectrometry (FIG. 14).
 The non-binding "blank" targeting peptide BL-1 was incorporated into the synthesis scheme in place of KH or M8 to construct variant MH-STAMPs possessing a single functional targeting head: M8(BL)-20 and BL(KH)-20. The correct MW and acceptable purity were observed for these MH-STAMPs (FIG. 13, data not shown).
 General Antimicrobial Activity of Multi-Head Constructs
 After synthesis, the completed MH-STAMPs were evaluated for general antimicrobial activity by MIC against a panel of bacteria. As shown in Table 14, the MH-STAMP constructs M8(KH)-20, BL(KH)-20, and M8(BL)-20 were found to have similar activity profiles to that of BD2.20 for the organisms examined (less than two titration steps in 10-fold difference). Additionally, we observed a difference in general susceptibility between P. aeruginosa and the other organisms tested, suggesting this bacterium is more resistant to BD2.20. Overall, these data indicate that the addition of the targeting domains to the base sequence was tolerated and did not completely inhibit the activity of the antimicrobial peptide.
 Peptide selectivity could not be determined utilizing these methods, as STAMPs and their parent AMP molecules often display similar MICs, but have radically different antimicrobial kinetics and selectivity due to increased specific-killing mediated by the targeting regions [10, 11]. Therefore, we performed different experiments to test for antimicrobial selectivity and functional MH-STAMP construction.
 3.3 Selectivity and Post-Antibiotic Effect of MH-STAMP Constructs
 MH-STAMP antimicrobial kinetics was ascertained utilizing a variation of the classical post-antibiotic effect assay, which measures the ability of an agent to affect an organism's growth after a short exposure period. Monocultures of MH-STAMP-targeted and untargeted organisms were exposed to M8(KH)-20, M8(BL)-20, BL(KH)-20, or unmodified BD2.20, then allowed to recover. As shown in FIG. 15A, S. mutans growth was effectively retarded by M8-containing constructs (M8(KH)-20, M8(BL)-20), but was not altered by a MH-STAMP construct lacking this region (BL(KH)-20). Similarly, the growth of the other targeted bacterium, P. aeruginosa, was inhibited in a KH-dependant manner (FIG. 15B). In comparison, the non-targeted bacteria E. coli, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis were not inhibited by treatment with any MH-STAMP and were only inhibited by the base antimicrobial peptide BD2.20, which displayed robust antimicrobial activity against all examined strains. These results indicate that MH-STAMPs containing KH or M8 targeting domains have activity against P. aeruginosa or S. mutans, respectively, and not other bacteria. Furthermore, replacement of the targeting region with a non-binding peptide abolishes specific activity.
 Ability of MH-STAMPs to Direct a "Population Shift" within a Mixed Species Population
 We hypothesized that potential MH-STAMP dual-functionality could affect a particular set of bacteria within a mixed population, thereby promoting the outgrowth of non-targeted organisms and "shifting" the constituent makeup. To examine this possibility, defined mixed populations of planktonic cells were treated continuously and the make-up of the community examined after 24 h. As shown in FIG. 16, treatment with the wide spectrum AMP BD2.20 resulted in a significant loss of recoverable cfu/mL after 24 h from all species in the mixture. Treatment with M8(KH)-20 was found to alter this pattern; we observed ˜1×105 cfu/mL surviving E. coli and S. epidermidis, but did not recover S. mutans or P. aeruginosa cfu/mL. In BL(KH)-20 treated samples, P. aeruginosa cfu/mL were not observed, though we recovered higher than input cfu/mL from S. mutans and unchanged numbers of S. epidermidis and E. coli. In samples exposed to M8(BL)-20, S. mutans recoverable cfu/mL were greatly reduced compared to input cfu/mL, while other species were not affected or affected to a lesser extent. Interestingly, these results suggest that M8(KH)-20, M8(BL)-20, and BL(KH)-20 retain their ability to affect organisms recognized by the targeting regions present, even within a mixed population of bacteria.
 Our results indicate that we have successfully constructed a STAMP with dual antimicrobial specificities controlled by the targeting peptides present in the molecule; KH for Pseudomonas spp, M8 for S. mutans. In a closed multi-species system (FIG. 16), the dual specificity of M8(KH)-20 was readily discernable: the population of the culture "shifted" away from targeted organisms after MH-STAMP treatment. The targeted bacteria were eliminated and the population of untargeted organisms increased, to varying degrees, above-input cfu/mL. Additionally, interruption of KH or M8 in the MH-STAMP construct with the non-binding peptide BL-1 resulted in the expected elimination of only one targeted species. These results support the hypothesis that functional MH-STAMPs could be constructed from a wide-spectrum AMP base.
 The emergence of metagenomics and the development of more sensitive molecular diagnostics has driven an increase in the understanding of human-associated microbial ecologies and host-microbe interactions [19-21]. At mucosal surfaces, it has become clear that our bodies harbor an abundance of residential flora which may impact innate and humoral immunity, nutrient availability, protection against pathogens, and even host physiology [22-25]. Furthermore, findings have indicated that shifts in the diversity of normal flora are associated with negative clinical consequences; for example the overgrowth of S. mutans in the oral cavity during cariogenesis (linked to the uptake of sucrose) or the antibiotic-assisted colonization of the intestine by Clostridium difficle [26, 27]. Other population shifts may be linked to axilla odor (Corynebacteria spp) [28, 29], or even host obesity. Given the quantity and diversity of microbes present, pathogenesis at mucosal surfaces is not likely to be associated with the overgrowth of a single strain or species. More often, it is a population shift resulting in the predominance of two or more species; for example the persistence of Burkholderia cepacia and P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis airway or Treponema denticola and Porphymonas gingivalis and other "red cluster" organisms in gingivitis [30, 31]. In many cases (such as the latter) these species may have only distant phylogenetic relationships and display differential susceptibilities to antibiotic therapies resulting in persistent disease progression despite treatment [32, 33]. Currently, available treatments for infections of mucosal surfaces are largely non-specific (traditional small-molecule antibiotics, mechanical removal), and thus are not effective in retaining flora or shifting the constituent balance back to a health-associated composition . There is a need for a therapeutic treatment that can selectively target multiple pathogens, regardless of their phylogenetic relationship, and MH-STAMPs can help achieve this goal.
 In monoculture experiments (FIG. 15), our results suggest that M8 or KH inclusion in the MH-STAMP drove activity towards S. mutans or P. aeruginosa, but also that the presence of a targeting domain reduced the activity of the parent AMP BD2.20 against untargeted organisms. In contrast, the results of our MIC assays (Table 14) indicate little difference in activity between BD2.20 and any MH-STAMP. Against untargeted organisms, the M8 and KH regions are likely to have a negative, but not completely inhibitory, impact on BD2.20 activity. Given the long duration of activity and the lower inoculum size in the MIC assay (compared with experiments in FIG. 15), it is likely that all BD2.20-containing peptides could reach equal levels of growth inhibition, despite large and target-specific differences in antimicrobial speed. This pattern of results was also observed when comparing MICs of targeted and untargeted organisms utilizing STAMPs against S. mutans and Pseudomonas mendocina [10, 11].
 Although more rigorous studies and a more medically relevant combination of pathogen targets is desirable, these findings indicate that it is possible to design an antimicrobial peptide-based therapeutic with multiple and defined fidelities in vitro. MH-STAMPs may help improve human health through the promotion of healthy microbial constituencies.
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Synthesis of Peptide-Porphyrin Conjugate
 The mixture of coupling reagent HATU (5 eq. excess, 10 mg) and purpurin-18 (MW 564, 5 eq excess, 15 mg) in 600 mL dry dichloromethane (DCM):DMF:dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) (1:1:1 (v/v)) was added to the peptide resin (1 molar equivalent, 15 mg) which was swelled by placing in minimal DMF for 30 min prior to reaction. 26 μL (10 molar equivalents) DIPEA was then added to the reaction flask to initiate the reaction. The reaction mixture was protected with argon and stirred at room temperature for 3 h.
 After finishing, the reaction mixture was then passed down a sintered glass filtered vial and extensively washed with DMF and DCM to remove all waste reagents. The resin was then dried overnight in vacuum, and cleaved with 1 ml of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)/thioanisole/water/EDT (10/0.5/0.5/025) for 2 hr at room temperature, and the cleavage solution was precipitated with 10 mL methyl-tert butyl ether. The precipitate was washed twice with the same amount of ether.
Synthesis of Peptide-CSA Conjugate
 To the fully protected peptide (solution of B43-GGG (FIDSFIRSF-GGG, 0.025 mmol) and tri-Boc-CSA-15 (0.0125 mol) in 300 μL DMF, DCC (7.7 mg), HOBt (5.1 mg) and 13 μL DIEA were added in iced-bath. After stirred at room temperature for four days, the reaction mixture was poured into 5 ml water and extracted with chloroform (5×3 mL). The CHCl3 extract was evaporated under vacuum and dried in a lyophilizer overnight. The dried CHCl3 extracts was then dissolved in 1 mL DCM followed by added 1 mL of TFA in iced-bath. The reaction mixture was further stirred at room temperature for 2 hours and precipitated with methyl tert-butyl ether (10 mL). The precipitate was further washed once with the same amount ether and dried in vacuum.
Systemically Designed STAMPS Against S. Mutans
 We previously reported a novel strategy of "targeted-killing" with the design of narrow-spectrum molecules known as specifically-targeted antimicrobial peptides (STAMPs). Construction of these molecules requires the identification and the subsequent utilization of two conjoined yet functionally independent peptide components: the targeting and killing regions. In this study, we sought to design and synthesize a large number of STAMPs targeting Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, in order to identify candidate peptides with increased killing speed and selectivity when compared with their unmodified antimicrobial peptides (AMP) precursors. We hypothesized that a combinatorial approach utilizing a set number of AMP, targeting, and linker regions, would be an effective method for the identification of STAMPs with the desired level of activity. STAMPs composed of the S. mutans binding peptide 2--1 and the AMP PL-135 displayed selectivity at minimal inhibitory concentrations after incubation for 18-24 h. STAMPs where PL-135 was replaced by the B-33 killing domain exhibited both selectivity and rapid killing within one minute of exposure. These results suggest that potent and selective STAMP molecules can be designed and improved via a tunable "building-block" approach.
 Pathogenic microorganisms have been a continuous source of human suffering and mortality throughout the course of human history and have spurred the clinical development of novel therapeutics. Even today, the overall burden of infectious disease remains high, constituting a leading (and rising) cause of death worldwide (12, 13). The conventional medical response to bacterial infections, small molecule antibiotics, have become less effective against emerging pathogens due to the evolution of drug-resistance stemming in part from the misuse of antibiotics (11). To counter the rapid progression of antibiotic resistance there is an urgent need for the development of novel lead compounds for clinical applications.
 Our strategy for creating new antibacterial agents is based on the addition of a targeting peptide to an existing broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide, thereby generating a specifically-targeted antimicrobial peptide (STAMP) selective for a particular bacterial species or strain. A completed STAMP consists of conjoined but functionally independent targeting and killing regions, separated by a small flexible linker, all within a linear peptide sequence. The STAMP targeting region drives enhancement of antimicrobial activity by increasing binding to the surface of a targeted pathogen, utilizing specific determinants such as overall membrane hydrophobicity and charge, pheromone receptors, etc., which in turn leads to increased selective accumulation of the killing moiety (6, 7).
 As both the killing and targeting regions of the STAMP are linear peptides, we approached the design process using a tunable combinatorial methodology where, for example, the targeting peptide component is held constant, while a number of killing peptides are conjoined utilizing a variety of linker molecules, or vise versa, in order to generate a library of related STAMPs. Previously, we successfully demonstrated a pilot version of this approach when constructing G10KHc (6), a STAMP with Pseudomonas-spp selective activity, and when designing C16G2 (7), a STAMP specific for Streptococcus mutans, the leading causative agent of human tooth decay. In this study, synthetic targeting and antimicrobial peptide libraries were utilized as building blocks to generate a number of novel STAMPs with high S. mutans-selective activity. STAMPs designed by these methods were then improved through tuning the linker and killing peptides present to yield completed lead STAMP molecules that demonstrated activity against S. mutans biofilms.
Materials and Methods
 Wang resin, Rink-MBHA resin, p-Benzyloxybenzyl alcohol resin (100-200 mesh), 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) amino acids, N-hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate (HOBT) and 2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HBTU) were obtained from Anaspec (San Jose, Calif.). All other solvents and reagents were purchased from Fisher Scientific (Pittsburgh, Pa.) at HPLC or peptide synthesis grade.
 Bacterial Growth
 All S. mutans (UA159) (1), Streptococcus gordonii Challis (DL 1), Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 33478, and Streptococcus sanguinis NY101 strains were grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) medium at 37° C. under anaerobic conditions (80% N2, 10% CO2, 10% H2) (6). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAK) (17), and Escherichia coli W3110 (20), were cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium under an aerobic atmosphere at 37° C. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) were grown in BHI under aerobic conditions at 37° C. (4).
 Peptide Syntheses and Purification.
 Peptides were synthesized using standard solid phase (Fmoc) chemistry with an Apex 396 peptide synthesizer (AAPPTec, Louisville, Ky.) at a 0.01 mM scale. N-terminal deblocking during linear peptide synthesis was conducted with 0.6 mL of 25% (v/v) piperidine in dimethylformamide (DMF), followed by agitation for 27 min and wash cycles of dichlormethane DCM (1×1 mL) and NMP (7×0.8 mL). Subsequent amino acid coupling cycles were conducted with a mixture of Fmoc-protected amino acid (5 eq), HOBT (5 eq), HBTU (5 eq), DIEA (10 eq) in DMF (0.1 mL), and NMP (0.2 mL) with agitation for 45 min. The washing cycle was repeated before the next round of deprotection and coupling. After synthesis, peptides were washed in methanol and dried 24 h. Protected peptide was cleaved with 1 mL of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)/thioanisole/water/1,2-ethanedithiol (10/0.5/0.5/025) for 3 h at room temperature and the resultant peptide solution was precipitated in methyl tert-butyl ether.
 Analytical and preparative HPLC was conducted, as described previously (5, 9), to purify each peptide to 80-90%. Correct peptide mass was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI, Voyager instrument, Applied Biosystems), as described previously (9). Measurements were made in linear, positive ion mode with an α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix (data not shown).
 Acetylated and benzolated peptides derivatives (Ac135(L1)2--1 and bz135(L1)2--1, respectively) were synthesized by the same method used for N-terminal fluorescent labeling, described previously (7). Briefly, acetylation (acetic anhydrous) or benzyl addition (benzoatic acid) was undertaken after assembly of the linear sequence by adding to the resin (10 eq in DIEA) for 2 h.
 Binding of Targeting Peptides. The binding of peptides 1--2, 1--3, 1--4, 1--6, 2--1, and 3--1 was assessed by fluorescent microscopy. S. mutans UA159 was grown overnight and diluted 1:5000 in fresh TH with 1% sucrose before seeding to 96-well plates (flat bottom). Biofilms were grown 24 h and the spent medium replaced with 1×PBS containing 25 μM peptide. After 5 min incubation at room temperature, the supernatants were removed and the biofilms washed 2× with 1×PBS and imaged by bright-field and fluorescence microscopy (Nikon E400). Digital images were collected and analyzed for semiquantitative binding assessments with the manufacturers supplied software (SPOT, Diagnostics) (6).
 Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICS) of Peptides.
 Peptide MIC was determined by broth microdilution (6, 15). Briefly, two-fold serial dilutions of each peptide were prepared with 50% BHI medium+50% sterile water (for oral streptococci; all other bacteria were diluted in 1× Mueller-Hinton broth) at a volume of 100 μL per well in 96-well flat-bottom microtiter plates. The concentration of peptide for the first test round ranged from 500 to 2 μg/mL or 125 to 1 μg/mL. If activity was detected, a second round of MIC tests was conducted with concentrations of 62.5 to 0.5 μg/mL. In either case, the microtiter plate was inoculated with a bacterial cell suspension to a final concentration of ˜1×105 cells per mL and the plates were incubated at 37° C. for 16-20 h under the appropriate conditions. After incubation, absorbance at 600 nm (A600) was measured using a microplate UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Model 3550, BioRad, Hercules, Calif.) to assess cell growth. The MIC endpoint was calculated as the lowest concentration of antibacterial agent that completely inhibited growth or that produced at least 90% reduction in turbidity when compared with that of a peptide-free control. At least 10 independent tests were conducted per peptide. For peptides insoluble in aqueous solutions, stock solutions were prepared in methanol or ethanol and appropriate solvent controls were utilized. Cell growth was not affected by 5% (v/v) methanol or ethanol, as described previously (10).
 Peptide Killing Kinetics.
 To determine antimicrobial kinetics and specificity, assays similar to traditional time-kill experiments were performed, as described previously (6, 7). Briefly, overnight bacterial cultures were diluted in BHI to A600 0.08 and peptides were added as indicated. Aliquots were then removed at various intervals and diluted 1:50 in BHI and kept on ice until plating on appropriate growth medium. After 24 hours incubation, colonies were counted and the surviving cfu/mL determined. All assays were repeated at least 3 times and the average recovered cfu/mL were presented with standard deviations. Statistical analysis was conducted utilizing an unpaired Student's t-test.
 Biofilm Growth Inhibitory Assays.
 STAMPs were tested for anti-biofilm activity as described previously (6). Briefly, overnight cultures of S. mutans were diluted 1:50 in Todd-Hewitt (TH) broth medium supplemented with 0.5% sucrose and 100 μL of bacterial suspension was added to each well of a 96-well microtiter plate. After centrifugation, bacteria were then incubated under anaerobic conditions at 37° C. for 4 h. Supernatants were then removed and replaced with 25 μM peptide in 1×PBS for 30 s to 1 min, followed by removal, washing, and replacement with 100 μL fresh TH broth (without sucrose). Plates were then incubated at 37° C. under anaerobic conditions and the bacterial recovery monitored by recording A600 after 4 h incubation. An unpaired Student's t-test was utilized for statistical analysis.
 STAMPs consist of 3 regions: one targeting and one antimicrobial, connected via a flexible linker. In this report, we conjoined examples of each domain with a variety of linkers to construct a pool of initial STAMP candidates. These peptides were then evaluated for anti-S. mutans activity and selectivity, their designs improved, and the lead STAMPs evaluated against S. mutans biofilms.
 Selection of Components and Initial STAMP Library Design.
 As described elsewhere, we generated several novel S. mutans-specific binding peptides, including 2--4, (previously S3L1-10 (FIKDFIERF)) and 1--5, (previously S3L1-5 (WWYNWWQDW)) (7). From these base sequences, residues differing in hydrophobicity and/or charge were substituted at defined positions to yield a series of related targeting sequences that were then evaluated for binding to S. mutans biofilms. Several of the 1--5 variants, and one of the 2--4 variants, were found to retain biofilm binding (data not shown). These sequences (1--2; 1--3; 1--4; 1--6; 2--1; 3--1), as well as 1--5, were regarded in the present study as the pool of S. mutans targeting peptides for STAMP construction (shown in Table 15). For the antimicrobial component, we selected PL-135, a peptide based on an AMP isolated from tunicates (19), for the initial round of design (Library 1). We hypothesized that linker regions and attachment orientation would exert an influence on STAMP activity. Therefore, we initially conjugated each potential targeting peptide to the N or C terminus of PL-135 through six different linkers, as shown in Table 15 (GGG, designated L1; SAT, L3; ASASA, L5; PYP, L7; PSGSP, L8; PSPSP, L9) leading to the synthesis of 84 STAMPs.
TABLE-US-00016 TABLE 15 STAMP constituent regions utilized in STAMP Library 1. S. mutans targeting peptides Linker No. Sequence peptides (name) Killing peptide 1_2 WWHSWWSTW GGG (L1) FHFHLHF* (PL-135) 1_3 WWSYWWTQW SAT (L3) 1_4 WWKDWWERW ASASA (L5) 1_5 WWYNWWQDW PYP (L7) 1_6 WWQDWWNEW PSGSP (L8) 2_1 FIKHFIHRF PSPSP (L9) 3_1 LIKHILHRL *amidated C-terminus
 Antimicrobial Activity of Initial STAMP Library.
 To roughly gauge Library 1 STAMP antimicrobial activity and S. mutans-selectivity, MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) assays were conducted against S. mutans and a panel of bacteria, including two oral streptococci, S. sanguinis and S. sobrinus (FIG. 17). STAMPs containing 2--1 conjoined to the C-terminus of PL-135 (135(L1)2--1, 135(L3)2--1, 135(L5)2--1, 135(L7)2--1, 135(L8)2--1, 135(L9)2--1), or 3--1 conjoined to the N-terminus of PL-135 (135(L1)3--1) were found to be active against S. mutans at concentrations lower than 100 μg/mL. These peptides were more active (2-4 2-fold dilution steps) against S. mutans than against the other oral streptococci or non-oral organisms tested. In contrast, native PL-135 had similar MICs against all strains examined (FIG. 17).
 Impact of Linker and Terminal Modification on STAMP Antimicrobial Activity.
 We sought to investigate the impact of linker length or type, and N-terminal modification on the activity of STAMP 135(L1)2--1 from Library 1. As shown in Table 16, altered components included: 1) new linkers GGGG (G4) to GGGGGGG (G7), AAA (L2), AGA (L10), GAGAG (L11), 8-aminocaprylic acid (LC); 2) increased N-terminal aromacity (benzoic acid addition); 3) acetylation of N-terminus; or 4) component sequence inversion (135i(L1)2--1i). We observed MICs for these Library 2 STAMPs that were similar to, or 2-fold less-active, than that of the base STAMP 135(L1)2--1 (FIG. 17), suggesting that the linker, termini and inversion alterations did not lead to improved activity against S. mutans, as measured by these means.
TABLE-US-00017 TABLE 16 Minimal inhibitory concentration of (MIC) of Library 2 STAMPs No. Sequencea S. mutans (MIC)b 135(L1)2_1 FHFHLHFGGGFIKHFIHRF 16 135(G4)2_1 FHFHLHFGGGGFIKHFIHRF 16 135(G5)2_1 FHFHLHFGGGGGFIKHFIHRF 16 135(G6)2_1 FHFHLHFGGGGGGFIKHFIHRF 32 135(G7)2_1 FHFHLHFGGGGGGGFIKHFIHRF 32 135(L11)2_1 FHFHLHFSGSFIKHFIHRF 32 135(L12)2_1 FHFHLHFGSGSGFIKHFIHRF 32 Ac135(L1)2_1 Ac-FHFHLHFGGGFIKHFIHRF 32 bz135(L1)2_1 benzoate-FHFHLHFGGGFIKHFIHRF 32 135(L2)2_1 FHFHLHFAAAFIKHFIHRF 16 135(L13)2_1 FHFHLHFAGAFIKHFIHRF 32 135(L14)2_1 FHFHLHFGAGAGFIKHFIHRF 32 2_1i(L1)135i FRHIFHKIFGGGFHLHFHF 16 135i(L1)2_1i FHLHFHFGGGFRHIFHKIF 16 135(LC)2_1 FHFHLHF-[NH(CH2)7CO]-FIKHFIHRF 64 aall C termini amidated bMIC (μg/mL) data from all S. mutans isolates tested, with a minimum of three independent trials.
 Further Potential of PL-135-Based STAMPs.
 Antiseptic mouthrinses, such as Listerine® (Warner-Lambert, Morris Plains, N.J.), are rapid-acting non-selective bactericidal agents that can inactivate viable bacteria within seconds of contact (3). In order for STAMPs to be useful mouthrinse ingredients, the antimicrobial kinetics must approach this scale. Therefore, the killing kinetics of our Library 1 and 2 STAMPs from Table 15 and FIG. 17 were evaluated (data not shown). The results indicate that these PL-135-containing STAMPs, although selective for S. mutans when measured by MIC, are not rapid killers of this bacterium in vitro, requiring several hours of exposure for observable antimicrobial activity. Therefore, we sought to improve our STAMP pool by substituting alternative killing domains for S. mutans STAMP construction.
 Tuning the Design of 2--1-Containing STAMPs.
 To improve the identification of rapid-killing S. mutans STAMPs, we conjugated 2--1 with five AMPs selected from our previous studies (10), to construct Library 3: RWRWRWF (2c-4), FKKFWKWFRRF (B-33), IKQLLHFFQRF (B-38), RWRRLLKKLHHLLH (α-11), LQLLKQLLKLLKQF (a-7); attached at the C- or N-terminus. The linkers selected were L1, SGG (L2), L3 and LC. As shown in FIG. 18, MIC results indicate little difference in activity between constructs where the targeting peptide was attached to the N or C terminus of the AMP region, and little difference between linkers employed. It was also apparent that these STAMPs were more active against S. mutans relative to the other oral and non-oral bacteria tested: peptide 2--1(L1)B33 demonstrated the lowest MIC range of 4 to 8 μg/ml, which was a 2-4 fold improvement over the MIC for the killing peptide alone (10). Taken together, these data suggest that Library 3 STAMPs can effectively inhibit the growth of S. mutans at generally-improved potencies when compared to PL-135-containing STAMPs in Libraries 1 and 2.
 STAMP Killing Kinetics Against Oral Bacteria.
 Since the MIC assay measures antimicrobial activity after overnight incubation, large differences in killing rates between STAMPs and parental AMPs may be obscured in this assay, especially when the target organism is susceptible to the AMP (7, 9). To assess any significant selectivity and short-term antimicrobial activity of the Library 3 STAMPs, time-kill assays were performed against a variety of oral bacteria. Against the targeted bacterium S. mutans (examples shown in FIG. 19D), the STAMPs acted significantly faster than the killing peptide alone within 5 min of treatment (p<0.001 comparing B-33 alone vs. 2--1(L1)B33, or 2C-4 vs. either 2C-4-containing STAMP). In contrast, other oral streptococci, such as S. mitis and S. gordonii, were less affected by STAMP treatments (FIG. 19A-C). Peptide 2--1(L1)B33 exhibited the fastest killing kinetics and best selectivity: killing was observed even when cells were treated for as little as 30 s, a timescale more appropriate for oral cavity therapeutic applications. As expected from their wide-spectra of activities (10), parental AMPs 2C-4 and B-33 had similar levels of activity against the strains examined.
 Inhibition of Biofilm Growth.
 Although rapid and selective killing of S. mutans monocultures was apparent from the data shown in FIG. 19, we sought to determine whether these STAMPs would make suitable antimicrobial agents in the oral cavity, where multi-species biofilms known as dental plaque predominate (16, 18). To investigate, S. mutans biofilms were treated with STAMPs and the post-antibiotic effect was observed after 4 h of biofilm recovery. As shown in FIG. 20, STAMPs 2--1(L1)2C-4, 2--1(L6)2C-4, and 2--1(L1)B33 were found to significantly inhibit (p<0.001) the formation of biofilms when cells were treated with the peptide for 1 min at 25 μg/ml, compared to mock-treated biofilms or biofilms treated with untargeted AMP. Similar antimicrobial effects were observed for Listerine and Chlorhexidine. These results suggest that STAMP treatment persists after peptide removal at a level similar to established wide-spectrum oral antiseptics.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
 In this report, we present a novel strategy for the design and synthesis of STAMPs with activity against the oral pathogen S. mutans. Successful design was achieved through a tunable, building-block approach that utilized various combinations of antimicrobial, targeting, and linker STAMP peptide regions. Our results demonstrate that less-efficacious STAMPs could be improved when alternative killing regions were substituted in the design. While it remains unclear whether the alternative moieties were more active, or simply more conjugation tolerant, this process resulted in STAMPs that displayed killing kinetics against biofilms consistent with oral therapeutic applications. Additionally, more understanding was gained regarding AMP or targeting peptide orientation dependencies, impact of linker regions, and appropriate targeting peptide choice, which could positively impact future anti-S. mutans STAMP design and refinement.
 From the data presented here, it is difficult to determine the precise mechanism for the S. mutans-selectivity. Previous studies with STAMPs have indicated that the enhanced selectivity for the targeted strain is due to the binding of the targeting peptide moiety (6, 7). Although detailed binding analysis was not conducted in this study, our results suggest that a similar targeting-mediated killing is occurring here: targeting peptides, independently selected for STAMP construction on the basis of their S. mutans-binding abilities, were required to enhance AMP antimicrobial activity and selectivity.
 The data presented suggest that PL-135 may be inhibited by conjugation to other peptide subunits, as unmodified PL-135 displayed activity against S. mutans that was 2 to 4-fold higher than in progeny STAMPs, as shown in FIG. 17 and Table 16 (however, these constructs were selective for S. mutans). The unusually small size of this AMP may impart a severe restriction on amino acid additions, especially if the mode of action depends on sequence-dependent self-association on the target-cell membrane, or binding to a discrete intracellular bacterial target (2). Our results suggest that AMPs with quicker "base" antimicrobial kinetics (such as B-33 or 2C-4), and higher tolerance for conjugations, should be selected for the design of STAMPs with optimal levels of enhanced killing kinetics and selectivity.
 Outside of PL-135-containing examples (and potentially some α-7 and α-11 molecules, see FIG. 18), STAMPs in this report displayed no difference in activity between oppositely-oriented N and C-terminal AMP-targeting conjugations, suggesting that the optimal arrangement of STAMP domains in likely AMP-specific, and depends on which least affects the antimicrobial mechanism. For example, the Pseudomonas spp-specific STAMPs G10KHc and G10KHn (oriented target-killing and killing-target, respectively) both bind specifically to the target bacterium surface, but only G10KHc has significant membrane disruption activity (5, 7).
 Interestingly, 2--1 and 3--1 containing STAMPs were active against S. mutans, and the constructs with any other targeting peptide in Table 15, were not. Targeting peptides 1--2 through 1--6 are strongly hydrophobic, compared with 2--1 and 3--1 (8), and it may be possible that this characteristic limits the dissociation of these molecules from the hydrophobic components of the S. mutans cell wall, resulting in their inhibitory affect on AMPs when conjugated, similarly to some strong LPS-binding AMPs (14). However, the systematic building-block design strategy employed allowed us to generate a diverse array of STAMPs, allowing us to identify useful compounds despite these stumbling blocks.
 In conclusion, this report details the rational design of S. mutans-selective STAMPs with enhanced antimicrobial killing kinetics and selectivity when compared to untargeted AMPs. The S. mutans-selective STAMPs were constructed using a tunable, combinatorial approach that generated a diverse number of STAMP sequences for antimicrobial evaluation and improvement; a process may serve as an example for the systematic development of novel selective antimicrobial agents. We propose that these STAMPs could be useful in the design of therapeutics against oral or other mucosal pathogens, where the high diversity of "probiotic" beneficial microflora limits the effectiveness of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents.
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 It is understood that the examples and embodiments described herein are for illustrative purposes only and that various modifications or changes in light thereof will be suggested to persons skilled in the art and are to be included within the spirit and purview of this application and scope of the appended claims. All publications, patents, and patent applications cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety for all purposes.
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0 SQTB SEQUENCE LISTING The patent application contains a lengthy "Sequence Listing" section. A copy of the "Sequence Listing" is available in electronic form from the USPTO web site (http://seqdata.uspto.gov/?pageRequest=docDetail&DocID=US20140142028A1). An electronic copy of the "Sequence Listing" will also be available from the USPTO upon request and payment of the fee set forth in 37 CFR 1.19(b)(3).
Patent applications by Chris Kaplan, Los Angeles, CA US
Patent applications by Daniel K. Yarbrough, Los Angeles, CA US
Patent applications by Jee-Hyun Sim, Garden Grove, CA US
Patent applications by Jian He, Los Angeles, CA US
Patent applications by Maxwell H. Anderson, Sequim, WA US
Patent applications by Randal H. Eckert, Redondo Beach, CA US
Patent applications by Wenyuan Shi, Los Angeles, CA US
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Patent applications in class Streptococcus
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