Patent application title: METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING MULTIPLE IMAGES IN A SINGLE IMAGE PLANE USING DIFFRACTION
Bruce Ha (Brockport, NY, US)
STAMPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
IPC8 Class: AG02B2744FI
Class name: Diffraction from grating for ornamental effect or display
Publication date: 2014-03-06
Patent application number: 20140063605
Methods create images viewable under different selected angles on optical
storage devices and other photosensitive surfaces and optical storage
devices with super-imposed images. Generally, a photosensitive surface is
exposed with multiple diffraction patterns creating super-imposed images.
These diffraction patterns create super-imposed images on the
photosensitive surfaces, which can be read by either a human or a
1. An apparatus with multiple diffraction images, the apparatus
comprising: a substrate; and a plurality of diffractive elements coupled
to the substrate, wherein a first portion of the plurality of diffractive
elements is reconstructable to form a first image viewable at a first
angle, wherein a second portion of the plurality of diffractive elements
is reconstructable to form a second image viewable at a second angle
different from the first angle, wherein the plurality of diffractive
elements are formed by pressing the substrate with a stamper, wherein the
stamper is formed by replicating an exposed photosensitive substrate,
wherein the exposed photosensitive substrate is formed by exposing the
photosensitive substrate, during rotation of the photosensitive
substrate, to a single laser beam wavefront, wherein the exposing is
accomplished without a reference beam impacting the photosensitive
substrate, and wherein the exposing is accomplished with one laser beam
2. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the first portion and the second portion have at least one diffractive element in common.
3. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the first portion and the second portion have diffractive elements which vary in depth.
4. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the first portion and the second portion have diffractive elements which vary in width.
5. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the first portion and the second portion have diffractive elements which vary in spatial spacing.
6. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the first portion and the second portion have diffractive elements which vary in angular orientation.
7. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the plurality of first diffractive elements make up a holographic optical element.
8. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the plurality of first diffractive elements make up a computer generated diffractive optical element.
9. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the plurality of diffractive elements make up a hologram.
10. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the plurality of diffractive elements make tip a 3D image.
11. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising a plurality of data elements coupled to the substrate.
12. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the apparatus is a disc.
13. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the disc comprises a polycarbonate material.
14. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the disc further comprises: a reflective metallization layer; and a protective layer.
15. The apparatus of claim 14, wherein the disc further comprises a printed layer.
16. A method for pressing a disc, comprising: providing a disc configured to be pressed by a stamper; and pressing the disc with the stamper to form a plurality of diffractive elements on the disc, wherein the stamper is formed by: exposing, solely by a single spherical wavefront, a rotating photosensitive substrate a first time to form a plurality of first diffractive elements, wherein the plurality of first diffractive elements are reconstructable to form a first image viewable at a first angle; exposing, solely by the single spherical wavefront, the rotating photosensitive substrate a second time to form a plurality of second diffractive elements, wherein the plurality of second diffractive elements are reconstructable to form a second image viewable at a second angle different from the first angle; and replicating the photosensitive substrate.
17. A method for pressing a disc, comprising: providing a disc configured to be pressed by a stamper; and pressing the disc with the stamper to form a plurality of diffractive elements on the disc, wherein the stamper is formed by replicating a master, wherein the master is formed by exposing a rotating photosensitive substrate to a single laser beam wavefront, wherein the exposing is accomplished without a reference beam impacting the rotating photosensitive substrate, and wherein the exposing is accomplished with one laser beam impact point.
18. The method of claim 17, wherein a first portion of the plurality of diffractive elements is reconstructable to form a first image viewable at a first angle, and wherein a second portion of the plurality of diffractive elements is reconstructable to form a second image viewable at a second angle different from the first angle.
19. The method of claim 17, wherein the exposing is accomplished without the use of a beamsplitter.
20. The method of claim 17, wherein the single laser beam wavefront does not contain interference information intended for recordation in the photosensitive substrate.
21. The method of claim 17, wherein the single laser beam wavefront does not contain interference information associated with the first image.
22. The method of claim 17, wherein the disc comprises a polycarbonate material.
23. The method of claim 17, further comprising overcoating the disc with: a reflective metallization layer, and a protective layer.
24. The method of claim 23, further comprising overcoating the disc with a recording layer containing a dye.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
 This application is a continuation of U.S. Ser. No. 12/757,792 filed on Apr. 9, 2010, now U.S. Patent Publication No. 2010/0216060 entitled METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING MULTIPLE IMAGES IN A SINGLE IMAGE PLANE USING DIFFRACTION". U.S. Ser. No. 12/757,792 is a divisional of U.S. Ser. No. 11/556,012 filed on Nov. 2, 2006, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,830,573 entitled "METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING MULTIPLE IMAGES IN A SINGLE IMAGE PLANE USING DIFFRACTION". U.S. Ser. No. 11/556,012 is a non-provisional of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/597,007, filed Nov. 3, 2005 and entitled "METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING MULTIPLE IMAGES IN A SINGLE IMAGE PLANE USING DIFFRACTION". The entire contents of each of the foregoing applications are hereby incorporated by reference.
FIELD OF INVENTION
 The present invention is generally related to optical storage devices with super-imposed, pseudo-holographic images, and more particularly, to methods for creating pseudo-holographic images on optical storage devices and other photosensitive substrates, wherein the images are viewable under different selected angles.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 Creating multiple and discriminate images on the same plane is currently achieved by lenticular or holographic techniques. Lenticular techniques rely on the images being separated by a secondary sheet of lenses to discriminate the images. The images are interleaved together and a lenticular sheet composed of a series of cylindrical lenses molded into a plastic substrate is layered on top of the interlaced image.
 Holograms or light interference is another way to discriminate images on the same recording plane. With holograms, the goal is to record the complete wave field of both amplitude and phase. In order to record the complete wave field of both amplitude and phase, a reference beam is created to interfere with the object of exposure and then recorded onto a recording medium several microns thick. However, this thickness can often pose an obstacle in terms of image recording time and versatility. For example, in a dot matrix hologram method described in European patent No. 91306316.0 as cited in U.S. Pat. No. 5,452,282, individual holographic gratings are produced by changing the alignment angle of the interference beam to expose from 255 discrete angles. This process is typically very slow and usually takes 5 to 6 hours to expose a one-inch square area.
 Another technique, demonstrated by holography pioneers Emmett N. Leith and Juris Upatnieks, separates images using a reference beam that is recorded at a different angle from the object than the beam. However, like other holographic techniques, this relies on the interference pattern of two wavefronts, which causes difficulties and inaccuracies in terms of alignment and environmental controls.
 With respect to optical storage media, U.S. Pat. No. 6,011,767 describes a method for providing holograms, wherein the holograms are created on the same surface as the digital recordings using successive exposures with different lasers to create phase interference. This method requires two light wave exposures that create phase interference diffraction gratings to create holograms or dot matrixed holograms. These phase interference diffraction gratings are uniform. Devices incorporating these uniform gratings are commonly referred to as Optical Variable Devices or OVD's. As such, under an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), an OVD image has evenly distributed gratings and no discrete components. Additionally, creation of these uniform, phase interference diffraction gratings requires expensive and complex multi-laser hardware. This is very different from machines that create digital recordable, re-playable indentations that only use a single beam.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention includes systems and methods for creating pseudo-holographic images viewable under different selected angles, on optical storage devices and other photosensitive substrates. The present invention also includes novel optical storage devices with super-imposed, pseudo-holographic images. In general, a photosensitive substrate is exposed with multiple diffraction patterns creating super-imposed, pseudo-holographic images. These diffraction patterns create super-imposed images on the photosensitive substrate, which can be read by either a human or a computer. The present invention may be applicable to one or more commercially available photosensitive substrates.
 The present invention includes a system and method for using a single laser beam wave front and diffractive elements to cause multiple diffractions. In one embodiment, the first order of the multiple diffractions is the most predominant, and the diffractions are created at distinct angles away from the 0th order of the wave front as a function of wavelength, the dimensions of the diffraction element, and the index in which the wave front of the light propagates through the diffraction element. That is, the location of each diffraction image is dictated by the equation nλ=d sin θ, where n is the order number, lambda is the wavelength, d is the distance between the diffraction elements and theta is the angle placement of the nth order. Due to these multiple diffractions, the first image of the multiple diffraction images, when viewed either by transmitted and/or reflected light at distinct angles, can be configured to reveal an image designed to have the predominant first order intensity placed at one or more distinct angles. That is, the invention can be used to create a spiral exposure pattern that matches the pixels of the multiple images. The multiple images can also be configured to be recorded at various depths within the recording photosensitive substrate.
 More particularly, in one embodiment, the invention includes a system and method for forming pseudo-holographic images comprising: exposing a photosensitive substance to form a plurality of diffractive elements; and, forming a pseudo-holographic, diffraction image comprising said diffractive elements, which can be viewed at an angle.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 The subject matter of the present invention is particularly pointed out and distinctly claimed in the concluding portion of the specification. A more complete understanding of the present invention, however, may best be obtained by referring to the detailed description and claims when considered in connection with the drawing figures, wherein like numerals denote like elements, and wherein:
 FIG. 1 illustrates light wave propagation off of diffractive elements in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention;
 FIG. 2 illustrates light wave propagation off of a second set of diffractive elements, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention;
 FIG. 3 illustrates an exemplary system for recording multiple pseudo-holographic images viewable under different selected angles, in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the present invention;
 FIG. 4 illustrates a flow diagram of the method of creating a first pseudo-holographic image in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the present invention;
 FIG. 5 illustrates a flow diagram of the method of creating a second pseudo-holographic image, in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the present invention;
 FIG. 6 illustrates a method of creating reproducible masks with a plurality of pseudo-holographic images to assist in copying, in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the present invention;
 FIG. 7 illustrates a surface with a plurality of pseudo-holographic images viewable under different selected angles, in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the present invention;
 FIG. 8 illustrates a novel, optical storage device with super-imposed pseudo-holographic images, in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the present invention; and
 FIG. 9 illustrates an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) image of the diffractive elements, in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the present invention.
 The present invention discloses methods for creating multiple diffraction images on photosensitive substrates. These multiple diffraction images comprise a plurality of diffractive elements, which can be viewed either by transmitted and/or reflected light at distinct angles. As illustrated in FIG. 1, these diffraction elements may be configured to reveal an image designed to have the predominant first order intensity. In turn, the invention can be used to create a spiral exposure pattern that matches the pixels of the multiple images. The multiple images can also be configured to be recorded at various depths and at various gratings within the photosensitive substrate.
 In an exemplary embodiment, a first image is used with integer spacing between each successive diffraction element to create a first set of diffraction elements with a first order intensity corresponding to a first angle as illustrated in FIG. 1. Secondly, as illustrated in FIG. 2, a second image is used with non-integer spacing between each successive diffraction element to create a second set of diffraction elements with a first order intensity corresponding to a second angle. For example, the second set of elements has a diffraction grating that is 1.5 microns apart. These differential gratings allow for multiple images to be superimposed on the photosensitive substrate.
 In an exemplary embodiment, the photosensitive substrate comprises an optical storage device such as, for example, one or more of: compact discs (CDs), "digital versatile discs" or "digital video discs" (DVDs), BluRay discs (BDs), "high definition DVDs" (HDDVD), Recordable Optical Discs, Pre-Recorded Optical Discs and optical memory cards. Each of these photosensitive substrates includes a photosensitive substance. A photosensitive substance is any substance which reacts upon receiving photons of light. For example, photosensitive substrates like writable CD/DVDs and rewritable CD/DVDs incorporate photodyes or phase-change alloys, respectively. Non-writeable CD/DVDs are produced from master stampers, which are copied into plastic discs and sold. These stampers are produced by coating a photosensitive substance, commonly referred to as a photoresist, or depositing a thin metallic phase changeable material to a substrate and exposing with a laser. One of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that there numerous photoresists and substrates contemplated in this disclosure.
 A method for recording multiple images is described in more detail with reference to an exemplary system illustrated in FIG. 3. In one embodiment, recording system 300 includes two or more images 302, a computer controller 304, an eight-to-fourteen modulation (EFM) encoder 306, a modulation driver 308, a light source 310, a digital to analog converter (DAC)/frequency controller 312, an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) 314, a lens 316, a photosensitive substrate 320, a turn-table apparatus 322, and a translation system 326. System 300 may also include one or more media sources 324.
 That is, recording system 300 is configured with turn-table apparatus 322 to facilitate carrying and rotating photosensitive substrate 320 in synchronization with translation system 326. Recording system 300 can be configured, via a spiral system, to create a recording of digital images 302 onto photosensitive substrate 320 that will have spacing between successive turns equal to each predetermined diffractive grating that is configured with each image 302.
 Images 302 can be configured to be any size or shape. In one exemplary embodiment, images 302 are configured to have substantially similar dimensions. Images 302 can also be configured in digital format as one or more of: binary, grayscale, and/or color images. For images 302 configured as binary images, images 302 can be configured with multiple bits to represent different levels of pixel color and intensity. Images 302 can also be configured to have various resolutions, such as 2048×256 pixels, 800×600 pixels, 1024×512 pixels, and/or the like. In one embodiment, images 302 have resolutions of 2048×256 pixels. Further, images 302 can be any type of image files, such as bitmaps, jpegs, gifs, and/or the like.
 In one embodiment, computer controller 304 is coupled to EFM encoder 306, modulation driver 308, light source 310, DAC/frequency controller 312, AOM 314, and/or turn-table apparatus 322 to facilitate recording of images 302 onto photosensitive substrate 320. Computer controller 304 comprises a processor, a display, and/or one or more input devices. The processor comprises a personal computer, a UNIX system, or any other conventional processing unit. The display comprises a monitor, LCD screen, or any other device configured to display an image. An input/output device comprises a keyboard, a mouse, a touch-screen, or any other device for inputting information. The information from the input device and images displayed may be received or transmitted in any format, such as manually, by analog device, by digital device, and/or by any other mechanisms. The processor, display, and/or input device may be coupled together in any manner. By coupling, the devices comprising computer controller 304 may directly communicate with each other or may be connected through one or more other devices or components that allow a signal to travel to/from one component to another. The various coupling components for the devices comprising computer controller 304 may include one or more of the internet, a wireless network, a conventional wire cable, an optical cable or connection through any other medium that conducts signals, and any other coupling device or communication medium.
 EFM encoder 306 facilitates encoding data from images 302. That is, EFM encoder 306 facilitates converting images 302 into an electrical signal. The electrical signal then drives modulation driver 308 and/or AOM 314 to facilitate turning light source 310, according to the digital information on the file. EFM encoder 306 can be configured as any type of encoder known in the art, such as, for example, a Media Morphics® encoder.
 AOM 314 is configured to control the power, frequency and/or spatial direction of light source 310 using the electrical drive signal from modulation driver 308. DAC/frequency controller 312 is used to convert the binary code of digital images 302 to an analog signal, such as, for example, frequency, voltage, and/or electrical current to drive modulation driver 308.
 Light source 310 is configured as any type of light source for facilitating writing data and/or images to a storage device. Light source 310 can include gas lasers, LEDs, dye lasers, and/or any other type of light source and/or laser. In one embodiment, system 300 incorporates a Coherent Enterprise II laser at 413 nm as light source 310 and has an acousto-optical modulator to turn light source 310 on and off in the nanoseconds range. Light source 310 can be coupled to one or more additional optical elements to facilitate focusing and/or recording. For example, in one embodiment, light source 310 is focused by an objective lens to a spot size of about 0.3 microns.
 Media source 324 comprises any type of data source for writing non-image data to photosensitive substrate 320. Media source 324 can include a computer, a network, a flash drive, a data file, a music file, a movie file, and/or any other data media, network and/or device.
 Turn-table apparatus 322, in one embodiment, is configured as a rotary turntable that provides a rotational pulse, for example, per each rotation. Turn-table apparatus 322 can also comprise a translation system 326 that moves light source 310 radially relative to the turn-table apparatus 322. Translation system 326 comprises one or more lenses, reflectors, beamsplitters, and/or the like. Turn-table apparatus 322 may be configured similarly to turn tables used in the making of prerecorded or recordable glass masters for CD and DVD's. For example, turn-table apparatus 322 can comprise systems that are commercially available through companies such as Sony, Panasonic, Singulus, M2, ODC, and/or the like. In one exemplary embodiment, turn-table apparatus 322 is the Singulus AM200 system.
 Photosensitive substrate 320 can comprise any type of substrate, such as a substrate formed of glass, quartz and/or a ceramic material, which can be configured to be coated with a photosensitive substance. Examples of photosensitive substances include photodyes, phase-change alloys and/or photoresists. One of reasonable skill in the art will recognize that numerous photosensitive substances and substrates are contemplated in this disclosure.
 In exemplary embodiments, the photosensitive substrate 320 can be configured to be any size and/or shape. In one exemplary embodiment, photosensitive substrate 320 is configured in a round format with a 160 mm diameter. In one embodiment, the photosensitive substrate 320 is created by coating a substrate with a photosensitive substance at 200 nm deep so that the photosensitive substrate 320 is sensitive to a 413 nm recording wavelength. The photosensitive substance layer can be formed by coating a photoresist material over a surface of a substrate. The photoresist material can be configured to be "activated" by having a photochemical reaction upon exposure. A variation of depth of the photoresist layer on photosensitive substrate 320 can facilitate increasing the contrast of images 302 depending on the viewing source of light. In one exemplary embodiment, the photosensitive substance used to coat the substrate is a 20% concentration of photoresist and solvent manufactured by Shipley.
 In certain embodiments, to optimize the first order intensity of image 302 patterns, photosensitive substrate 604 (i.e. the recording layer) can be configured to have a thickness that is not optimal to facilitate creation of features that are useful in the playback of the optical data storage media. In these embodiments, the thickness of the recording layer 604 can be configured with a thickness that is higher than optimal for the recording of the optical data storage media. During the recording process, the relative intensity difference of light source 310 can be made such that the intensity of light source 310 for the optical data storage media when developed will result in features that facilitate the playback of such media.
 An exemplary method for using recording system 300 to facilitate recording images 302 on the same plane using diffractive elements is illustrated with reference to an exemplary flow chart illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 5. An exemplary method for recording a first image 302 comprises coating a substrate with a photosensitive substance solution (step 401). For example, a substrate can be covered with a solution of 20% photoresist to achieve a photoresist thickness of 200 nm. Once substrate has been covered with a desired layer of photoresist material 604, it can be placed onto turn-table apparatus 322 of system 300 (step 403).
 First image 302 can be placed into system 300 to begin the recording process (step 405). Computer controller 304 may be used to program system 300 to start triggering AOM 314 with the information from the first image 302 (step 407). The programming information may comprise of start and stop dimensions for recording image 302 onto photosensitive substrate 320. For example, computer controller 304 may be configured to record first image 302 information starting at a 35 mm radius on photosensitive substrate 320 and ending at a 50 mm radius on photosensitive substrate 320 (step 409).
 During recording, the color information from first image 302, representing each pixel, can be converted to an analog voltage using a DAC 312 (step 411) and the voltage from DAC 312 can be provided to modulation driver 308 and/or AOM 314 (step 413) to facilitate varying the intensity of light source 310 in increments of the max laser intensity divided by 2 to the power of the number of bits representing the color information (step 415). The color information can also be converted to frequency information where the voltage used to drive modulation driver 308 and/or AOM 314 is a wave voltage signal with the frequencies varying in increments of reference frequency divided by 2 to the power of the number of bits representing the color information.
 During the recording steps (steps 409-415), computer controller 304 may also be configured to start rotating turn table apparatus 322 at a constant angular velocity (step 417), for example, at a constant angular velocity of 10 revolutions per second. Computer controller 304 can also be used to activate translation system 326 to displace light source 310 radially to create a spiral exposure pattern matching the pixels of first image 302 (step 419). That is, translation system 326 can be configured to traverse at a constant rate, for example, at a rate of 1 micron per revolution.
 After the first image 302 has been recorded, a second image 302 can be recorded onto photosensitive substrate 320. Photosensitive substrate 320 can be configured to remain in the same position as it was for the recording of the first image 302, and translation system 326 can be reset back to the same starting radius that it was in for recording first image 302 (step 501). A second image 302 can be configured to be recorded by system 300 (step 503). After second image 302 is in place, computer controller 304 can be again programmed to start triggering AOM 314 with the information from second image 302 (step 505). For example, computer controller 304 may be configured to record second image 302 information starting at a 35 mm radius on photosensitive substrate 320 and ending at a 50 mm radius on photosensitive substrate 320 (step 507).
 During recording, the color information from second image 302, representing each pixel, can be converted to an analog voltage using a DAC 312 (step 509) and the voltage from DAC 312 can be provided to modulation driver 308 and/or AOM 314 (step 511) to facilitate varying the intensity of light source 310 in increments of half the max laser intensity divided by 2 to the power of the number of bits in image 302 (step 513). The color information can also be converted to frequency information where the voltage used to drive modulation driver 308 and/or AOM 314 is a wave voltage signal with the frequencies varying in increments of reference frequency divided by 2 to the power of the number of bits in image 302.
 During these second recording steps (step 507-513), computer controller 304 may also be configured to start rotating turn table apparatus 322 at a constant angular velocity (step 515), for example, at a constant angular velocity of 10 revolutions per second. Computer controller 304 can also be used to activate translation system 326 to displace light source 310 radially to create a spiral exposure pattern matching the pixels of second image 302 (step 517). That is, translation system 326 can be configured to traverse at a constant rate, for example, at a rate of 1.5 micron per revolution.
 With reference to an exemplary diagram illustrated in FIG. 6, and with continued reference to FIG. 5, the photosensitive substance layer of photosensitive substrate comprising a photoresist 620 can then be developed to provide the two separate spacings from recording images 302 (step 519). That is, upon developing the photoresist layer, regions corresponding to grooves 604 and/or depressions 602 are exposed. By "developing" the photoresist layer, it can be immersed in, sprayed with, exposed to and/or combined in any other way with a developer.
 Photosensitive substrate 620 can then be metallized (step 521), using any metallization process, such as, for example, a sputtering process. By metallization, a metal 605, such as, for example nickel or silver, can be evaporated and/or coated onto the surface of exposed photosensitive substrate 620, providing a conductive layer. Once photosensitive substrate 320 is metallized, it can be electroplated to transfer the autostereoscopic images to a nickel master and/or stamper (step 523). That is a stamper 610 can then formed by plating a metal, for example nickel, against and into depressions 602 and/or grooves 604 to provide stamper 610 having inverted features, i.e. raised features on one surface.
 Stamper 610 can then be placed in a molding machine to create plastic substrates (step 525). By creating plastic substrates, stamper 610 can be used to facilitate replicating grooves 604 and/or depressions 602 into a plastic substrate (not shown) by embossing techniques and/or by injection molding procedures. Plastic substrates can be made out of any plastic and/or glass material, including, for example, a polycarbonate material. Plastic substrate can be metallized by being overcoated with a recording medium structure (step 527), which can include a recording layer containing a dye, a reflective metallization layer over the recording layer, and/or a protective layer formed over the metallization layer.
 When the metallized plastic substrates are viewed under a source of light, first and second images 302 are revealed at the angles designed. Specifically first image 302 will be seen (or partially seen) at one angle without completely or partially seeing second image 302. When moved to the anticipated angle of second image 302, only second image 302 can be viewed (or partially viewed) without completely or partially seeing first image 302. In exemplary diagram in FIG. 7, an example of how the angle of viewing affects the viewing of images 302 is provided.
 In another embodiment, diffraction patterns create super-imposed other information (e.g., barcode) viewable under different selected angles on the photosensitive substrate, which can be read by either a human and/or a computer.
 In another exemplary embodiment, the optical storage device is exposed with a plurality of diffractive elements, such that, when the storage device is tilted from the reading hardware or the reading hardware is moved to varying angles above the storage device data can be retrieve at each discrete angle. This embodiment allows for increased data density on many common optical storage devices such as, for example CDs, DVD's, BluRay disc, HDDVD, Recordable Optical Discs, Pre-Recorded Optical Discs and/or optical memory cards.
 In another exemplary embodiment, in the DVD format as defined in the ECMA-267 standard, the two different planes that carry optical information are separated by a gap to allow for playback of more data. Thus, the diffractive elements of the current invention can be used to cause multiple diffractions on the DVD, and the most predominant of the diffraction orders can be placed to display multiple images through the same side of the DVD. That is, a first layer may be configured to be the data layer where light is partially reflected, and a second layer can contain the diffractive elements and/or images where the reflectivity is manufactured to be higher than that of the first layer. Additionally and/or alternatively, a layer of diffractive elements can be inserted without interference into the functioning playback layer of the intended optical data surface. Thus, if a playback device is tilted away from perpendicular and read by reflected signal, more data can be read back from the optical data surface at multiple angles. As a result, more data can be provided from both sides of an optical data surface.
 In another embodiment, the diffractive elements can be placed on non-optical carrying data regions as well as in the optical data carrying regions as well. The present invention contemplates the diffractive elements being formed on any surface. In one embodiment, the diffractive elements are formed on the side surfaces of the pits. For example, the most predominant order of the images can be placed at distinct angles outside that of the optical storage media, so that they can be exposed on the data area of optical storage media without interfering with the playback of the optical storage media. This may be useful for security and/or other purposes.
 In yet another exemplary embodiment, to improve the discrimination of the multiple images, each image can be recorded into a recording layer that is thicker than the optimal recording thickness needed to create data elements usable in the playback of optical storage media. That is, the typical image thicknesses range from 120 nm to 250 nm, however, the images can be configured to be recorded at thicknesses in excess of 250 nm. In order to facilitate this process, the diffractive elements are used to expose the predominant orders at a higher laser intensity. This, in turn, causes the photoresist to be exposed at a greater depth than normal, while the laser intensity used to create the data elements can be exposed at a lower intensity. As a result, the exposed depth of the photoresist is developed at an optimal depth for use in facilitating playback of the data elements.
 An exemplary illustration of the diffraction elements can be found in FIG. 9. FIG. 9 represents an AFM image of the diffractive elements of this invention. As illustrated, the diffractive elements, in one embodiment, are substantially non-uniform, discrete diffractive elements. These elements are pre-calculated and digitally recorded individually. In an exemplary embodiment, each of the plurality of diffractive elements is formed by only one exposure to only one light wave. This individual digital recording uses single beam hardware, which is commonly sold for creating the indentations on optical storage devices and can create the diffractive elements much more quickly. Additionally, these elements produce holograms using phase interference and are analog in nature.
 For the sake of brevity, conventional data networking, application development and other functional aspects of the systems (and components of the individual operating components of the systems) may not be described in detail herein. It also should be noted that many alternative or additional functional relationships or physical connections may be present in a practical system.
 The various system components discussed herein may include one or more of the following: a host server or other computing systems including a processor for processing digital data; a memory coupled to the processor for storing digital data; an input digitizer coupled to the processor for inputting digital data; an application program stored in the memory and accessible by the processor for directing processing of digital data by the processor; a display device coupled to the processor and memory for displaying information derived from digital data processed by the processor; and a plurality of databases. Various databases used herein may include: client data; merchant data; financial institution data; and/or like data useful in the operation of the present invention. As those skilled in the art will appreciate, user computer may include an operating system (e.g., Windows NT, 95/98/2000, OS2, UNIX, Linux, Solaris, MacOS, etc.) as well as various conventional support software and drivers typically associated with computers. User computer can be in a home or business environment with access to a network. In an exemplary embodiment, access is through a network or the Internet through a commercially-available web-browser software package.
 As used herein, the term "network" shall include any electronic communications means which incorporates both hardware and software components of such. Communication among the parties in accordance with the present invention may be accomplished through any suitable communication channels, such as, for example, a telephone network, an extranet, an intranet, Internet, point of interaction device (point of sale device, personal digital assistant, cellular phone, kiosk, etc.), online communications, off-line communications, wireless communications, transponder communications, local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), networked or linked devices and/or the like. Moreover, although the invention is frequently described herein as being implemented with TCP/IP communications protocols, the invention may also be implemented using IPX, Appletalk, IP-6, NetBIOS, OSI or any number of existing or future protocols. If the network is in the nature of a public network, such as the Internet, it may be advantageous to presume the network to be insecure and open to eavesdroppers. Specific information related to the protocols, standards, and application software utilized in connection with the Internet is generally known to those skilled in the art and, as such, need not be detailed herein. See, for example, DILIP NAIK, INTERNET STANDARDS AND PROTOCOLS (1998); JAVA 2 COMPLETE, various authors, (Sybex 1999); DEBORAH RAY AND ERIC RAY, MASTERING HTML 4.0 (1997); and LOSHIN, TCP/IP CLEARLY EXPLAINED (1997) and DAVID GOURLEY AND BRIAN TOTTY, HTTP, THE DEFINITIVE GUIDE (2002), the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
 The various system components may be independently, separately or collectively suitably coupled to the network via data links which includes, for example, a connection to an Internet Service Provider (ISP) over the local loop as is typically used in connection with standard modern communication, cable modem, Dish networks, ISDN, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), or various wireless communication methods, see, e.g., GILBERT HELD, UNDERSTANDING DATA COMMUNICATIONS (1996), which is hereby incorporated by reference. It is noted that the network may be implemented as other types of networks, such as an interactive television (ITV) network. Moreover, the system contemplates the use, sale or distribution of any goods, services or information over any network having similar functionality described herein.
 Any databases discussed herein may be any type of database, such as relational, hierarchical, graphical, object-oriented, and/or other database configurations. Common database products that may be used to implement the databases include DB2 by IBM (White Plains, N.Y.), various database products available from Oracle Corporation (Redwood Shores, Calif.), Microsoft Access or Microsoft SQL Server by Microsoft Corporation (Redmond, Wash.), or any other suitable database product. Moreover, the databases may be organized in any suitable manner, for example, as data tables or lookup tables. Each record may be a single file, a series of files, a linked series of data fields or any other data structure. Association of certain data may be accomplished through any desired data association technique such as those known or practiced in the art. For example, the association may be accomplished either manually or automatically. Automatic association techniques may include, for example, a database search, a database merge, GREP, AGREP, SQL, and/or the like. The association step may be accomplished by a database merge function, for example, using a "key field" in pre-selected databases or data sectors.
 More particularly, a "key field" partitions the database according to the high-level class of objects defined by the key field. For example, certain types of data may be designated as a key field in a plurality of related data tables and the data tables may then be linked on the basis of the type of data in the key field. The data corresponding to the key field in each of the linked data tables is preferably the same or of the same type. However, data tables having similar, though not identical, data in the key fields may also be linked by using AGREP, for example. In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, any suitable data storage technique may be utilized to store data without a standard format. Data sets may be stored using any suitable technique, including, for example, storing individual files using an ISO/IEC 7816-4 file structure; implementing a domain whereby a dedicated file is selected that exposes one or more elementary files containing one or more data sets; using data sets stored in individual files using a hierarchical filing system; data sets stored as records in a single file (including compression, SQL accessible, hashed via one or more keys, numeric, alphabetical by first tuple, etc.); block of binary (BLOB); stored as ungrouped data elements encoded using ISO/IEC 7816-6 data elements; stored as ungrouped data elements encoded using ISO/IEC Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN.1) as in ISO/EC 8824 and 8825; and/or other proprietary techniques that may include fractal compression methods, image compression methods, etc.
 In one exemplary embodiment, the ability to store a wide variety of information in different formats is facilitated by storing the information as a Block of Binary (BLOB). Thus, any binary information can be stored in a storage space associated with a data set. As discussed above, the binary information may be stored on the financial transaction instrument or external to but affiliated with the financial transaction instrument. The BLOB method may store data sets as ungrouped data elements formatted as a block of binary via a fixed memory offset using either fixed storage allocation, circular queue techniques, or best practices with respect to memory management (e.g., paged memory, least recently used, etc.). By using BLOB methods, the ability to store various data sets that have different formats facilitates the storage of data associated with the financial transaction instrument by multiple and unrelated owners of the data sets. For example, a first data set which may be stored may be provided by a first party, a second data set which may be stored may be provided by an unrelated second party, and yet a third data set which may be stored, may be provided by an third party unrelated to the first and second party. Each of these three exemplary data sets may contain different information that is stored using different data storage formats and/or techniques. Further, each data set may contain subsets of data that also may be distinct from other subsets.
 As stated above, in various embodiments of the present invention, the data can be stored without regard to a common format. However, in one exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the data set (e.g., BLOB) may be annotated in a standard manner when provided for manipulating the data onto the financial transaction instrument. The annotation may comprise a short header, trailer, or other appropriate indicator related to each data set that is configured to convey information useful in managing the various data sets. For example, the annotation may be called a "condition header", "header", "trailer", or "status", herein, and may comprise an indication of the status of the data set or may include an identifier correlated to a specific issuer or owner of the data. In one example, the first three bytes of each data set BLOB may be configured or configurable to indicate the status of that particular data set; e.g., LOADED, INITIALIZED, READY, BLOCKED, REMOVABLE, or DELETED. Subsequent bytes of data may be used to indicate for example, the identity of the issuer, user, transaction/membership account identifier or the like. Each of these condition annotations are further discussed herein.
 The data set annotation may also be used for other types of status information as well as various other purposes. For example, the data set annotation may include security information establishing access levels. The access levels may, for example, be configured to permit only certain individuals, levels of employees, companies, or other entities to access data sets, or to permit access to specific data sets based on the transaction, merchant, issuer, user or the like. Furthermore, the security information may restrict/permit only certain actions such as accessing, modifying, and/or deleting data sets. In one example, the data set annotation indicates that only the data set owner or the user are permitted to delete a data set, various identified merchants are permitted to access the data set for reading, and others are altogether excluded from accessing the data set. However, other access restriction parameters may also be used allowing various entities to access a data set with various permission levels as appropriate.
 The data, including the header or trailer may be received by a stand alone interaction device configured to add, delete, modify, or augment the data in accordance with the header or trailer. As such, in one embodiment, the header or trailer is not stored on the transaction device along with the associated issuer-owned data but instead the appropriate action may be taken by providing to the transaction instrument user at the stand alone device, the appropriate option for the action to be taken. The present invention may contemplate a data storage arrangement wherein the header or trailer, or header or trailer history, of the data is stored on the transaction instrument in relation to the appropriate data.
 One skilled in the art will also appreciate that, for security reasons, any databases, systems, devices, servers or other components of the present invention may consist of any combination thereof at a single location or at multiple locations, wherein each database or system includes any of various suitable security features, such as firewalls, access codes, encryption, decryption, compression, decompression, and/or the like.
 The computers discussed herein may provide a suitable website or other Internet-based graphical user interface which is accessible by users. In one embodiment, the Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS), Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS), and Microsoft SQL Server, are used in conjunction with the Microsoft operating system, Microsoft NT web server software, a Microsoft SQL Server database system, and a Microsoft Commerce Server. Additionally, components such as Access or Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, Sybase, Informix MySQL, Interbase, etc., may be used to provide an Active Data Object (ADO) compliant database management system.
 As will be appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art, the present invention may be embodied as a customization of an existing system, an add-on product, upgraded software, a stand alone system, a distributed system, a method, a data processing system, a device for data processing, and/or a computer program product. Accordingly, the present invention may take the form of an entirely software embodiment, an entirely hardware embodiment, or an embodiment combining aspects of both software and hardware. Furthermore, the present invention may take the form of a computer program product on a computer-readable storage medium having computer-readable program code means embodied in the storage medium. Any suitable computer-readable storage medium may be utilized, including hard disks, CD-ROM, optical storage devices, magnetic storage devices, and/or the like.
 These computer program instructions may be loaded onto a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a machine, such that the instructions that execute on the computer or other programmable data processing apparatus create means for implementing the functions specified in the flowchart block or blocks. These computer program instructions may also be stored in a computer-readable memory that can direct a computer or other programmable data processing apparatus to function in a particular manner, such that the instructions stored in the computer-readable memory produce an article of manufacture including instruction means which implement the function specified in the flowchart block or blocks. The computer program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer or other programmable data processing apparatus to cause a series of operational steps to be performed on the computer or other programmable apparatus to produce a computer-implemented process such that the instructions which execute on the computer or other programmable apparatus provide steps for implementing the functions specified in the flowchart block or blocks.
 The detailed description of exemplary embodiments of the invention herein shows various exemplary embodiments and the best modes, known to the inventors at this time, of the invention are disclosed. These exemplary embodiment and modes are described in sufficient detail to enable those skilled in the art to practice the invention and are not intended to limit the scope, applicability, or configuration or the invention in any way. Rather, the following disclosure is intended to teach both the implementation of the exemplary embodiments and modes and any equivalent modes or embodiments that are known or obvious to those of reasonably skill in the art. Additionally, all included figures are non-limiting illustrations of the exemplary embodiments and modes, which similarly avail themselves to any equivalent modes or embodiments that are known or obvious to those of reasonably skill in the art.
 As used herein, the terms "comprise", "comprises", "comprising", "having", "including", "includes", or any variation thereof, are intended to reference a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a process, method, article, composition or apparatus that comprises a list of elements does not include only those elements recited, but may also include other elements not expressly listed and equivalents inherently known or obvious to those of reasonable skill in the art. Other combinations and/or modifications of structures, arrangements, applications, proportions, elements, materials, or components used in the practice of the instant invention, in addition to those not specifically recited, may be varied or otherwise particularly adapted to specific environments, manufacturing specifications, design parameters or other operating requirements without departing from the scope of the instant invention and are intended to be included in this disclosure.
 Moreover, unless specifically noted, it is the Applicant's intent that the words and phrases in the specification and the claims be given the commonly accepted generic meaning or an ordinary and accustomed meaning used by those of ordinary skill in the applicable arts. In the instance where these meanings differ, the words and phrases in the specification and the claims should be given the broadest possible, generic meaning. If it is intended to limit or narrow these meanings specific, descriptive adjectives will be used. Absent the use of these specific adjectives, the words and phrases in the specification and the claims should be given the broadest possible meaning. If any other special meaning is intended for any word or phrase, the specification will clearly state and define the special meaning.
 The use of the words "function", "means" or step in the specification or claims is not intended to invoke the provisions of 35 USC 112, Paragraph 6, to define the invention. To the contrary, if such provisions are intended to be invoked to define the invention, then the claims will specifically state the phrases "means for" or "step for" and a function, without recitation of such phrases of any material, structure, or at in support of the function. Contrastingly, the intention is NOT to invoke such provision when then claims cite a "means for" or a "step for" performing a function with recitation of any structure, material, or act in support of the function. If such provision is invoked to define the invention it is intended that the invention not be limited only to the specific structure, materials, or acts that are described in the preferred embodiments, but in addition to include any and all structures, materials, or acts that perform the claimed function, along with any and all known or later-developed equivalent materials, structures, or acts for performing the claimed function.
Patent applications by Bruce Ha, Brockport, NY US
Patent applications by STAMPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
Patent applications in class For ornamental effect or display
Patent applications in all subclasses For ornamental effect or display