Patent application title: SURVEILLANCE, MONITORING AND REAL-TIME EVENTS PLATFORM
Colin P. Britton (Lexington, MA, US)
Howard Greenblatt (Wayland, MA, US)
Alan Greenblatt (Sudbury, MA, US)
IPC8 Class: AH04L2906FI
Class name: Electrical computers and digital processing systems: multicomputer data transferring distributed data processing client/server
Publication date: 2014-02-20
Patent application number: 20140052779
Systems and methods according to the invention provide a surveillance,
monitoring and real-time events platform to (i) enable the integration
and communication of information between government agencies and
organizations specifically tasked with ensuring the security and safety
of our nation and its communities, (ii) to integrate information systems
from federal, state and/or local agencies (from disparate data sources if
necessary) in order to obtain a single, real-time view of the entire
organization, and (iii) to extract more complete, actionable information
from their existing systems, thereby dramatically improving decision
making speed and accuracy.
1. A digital data processing system for surveillance, monitoring and
real-time events handling, the system comprising a plurality of data
sources, query functionality, coupled to the data sources, to identify
information from the data sources responsive to one or more queries, a
framework server, coupled to the query functionality, that presents
information selected identified by the expert engine to a web browser.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 This application claims the benefit of priority of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/485,200, filed Jul. 7, 2003, entitled "Surveillance, Monitoring and Real-Time Events Platform," the teachings of which are incorporated herein by reference. This application is a continuation in part of and claims the benefit of priority of the following copending, commonly-assigned patent applications, the teachings of all of which are incorporated herein by reference: U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/680,049, filed Oct. 7, 2003, entitled "Methods and apparatus for Identifying Related Nodes in a Directed Graph Having Named Arcs"; U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/416,616, filed Oct. 7, 2002, entitled "Method and Apparatus for Identifying Related Nodes in a Directed Graph Having Named Arcs"; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/917,264, filed Jul. 27, 2001, entitled "Methods and Apparatus for Enterprise Application Integration"; U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/291,185, filed May 15, 2001, entitled "Methods and Apparatus for Enterprise Application Integration"; U.S. patent application Ser. no. 10/051,619, filed Oct. 29, 2001, entitled "Methods and Apparatus for Real-Time Business Visibility Using Persistent Schema-Less Data Storage"; U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/324,037, filed Sep. 21, 2001, entitled "Methods and Apparatus for Real-Time Business Visibility Using Persistent Schema-Less Data Storage"; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/302,764, filed Nov. 21, 2002, entitled "Methods and Apparatus for Querying a Relational Data Store Using Schema-Less Queries"; U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/332,053, filed Nov. 21, 2001, entitled "Methods and Apparatus for Querying a Relational Database of RDF Triples in a System for Real-Time Business Visibility"; U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/332,219, filed Nov. 21, 2001, entitled "Methods and Apparatus for Calculation and Reduction of Time-Series Metrics from Event Streams or Legacy Databases in a System for Real-Time Business Visibility"; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/302,727, filed Nov. 21, 2002, entitled "Methods and Apparatus for Statistical Data Analysis and Reduction for an Enterprise Application"; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/138,727, filed May 3, 2002, entitled "Methods and Apparatus for Visualizing Relationships Among Triples of Resource Description Framework (RDF) Data Sets."
 The invention pertains to surveillance, monitoring and real-time event processing. It has application in public health & bioterrorism, border and port security, public and community safety, and government data integration, to name a few.
 Today, national, state, and local governments are challenged to achieve unprecedented levels of cooperation in and among agencies and organizations charged with protecting the safety of communities. Many of these organizations use similar proprietary or incompatible technology infrastructures that need to be integrated in order to provide real-time, critical information for effective event monitoring and coordinated emergency response. Information must be shared instantaneously and among numerous entities to effectively identify and respond to a potential threat or emergency-related event.
 Significant efforts are underway along these lines, for example, in the public health and bioterrorism arena. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Sciences has launched several initiatives toward forming nationwide networks of shared health-related information that, when fully implemented, will facilitate the rapid identification of, and response to, health and bioterrorism threats. The CDC plans the Health alert Network (HAN), for example, to provide infrastructure supporting for distribution of health alerts, disease surveillance, and laboratory reporting. The Public Health Information Network (PHIN) is another CDC initiative that will provide detailed specifications for the acquisition, management, analysis and dissemination of health-related information, building upon the HAN and other CDC initiatives, such as the National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS).
 While these initiatives, and others like them in both health and non-health-related fields, define functional requirements and set standards for interoperability of the TV systems that hospitals, laboratories, government agencies and others will use in forming the nationwide networks, they do not solve the problem of finding data processing equipment capable of meeting those requirements and standards.
 It is not uncommon for a single enterprise, such as a hospital, for example, to have several separate database systems to track medical records, patient biographical data, hospital bed obligation, vendors, and so forth. The same is true of the government agencies charged with monitoring local, state and national health. In each enterprise, different data processing systems might have been added at different times throughout the history of the enterprise and, therefore, represent differing generations of computer technology. Integration of these systems at the enterprise level is difficult enough; it would be impossible on any grander scale. This is a major impediment to surveillance monitoring and real-time events processing in public health and bioterrorism. Similar issues result in parallel problems in border and port security, public and community safety, and government data integration, is the consolidation of data from disparate databases and other sources.
 An object of this invention is to provide improved methods and apparatus surveillance, monitoring and real-time events processing.
 A related object is to provide such methods and apparatus as can applied in public health and bioterrorism, e.g., to facilitate CDC initiatives in this area.
 A further object of the invention is to provide such methods and apparatus as can be applied border and port security, public and community safety, and government data integration.
 A still further object of the invention is to provide such methods and apparatus as can be implemented inexpensively, incrementally or otherwise without interruption of IT functions that they bring together.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 To meet these challenges, systems and methods described herein provide a surveillance, monitoring and real-time platform to (i) enable the integration and communication of information between government agencies and organizations specifically tasked with ensuring the security and safety of our nation and its communities, (ii) to integrate information systems from federal, state and/or local agencies (from disparate data sources if necessary) in order to obtain a single, real-time view of the entire organization, and (iii) to extract more complete, actionable information from their existing systems, thereby dramatically improving decision making speed and accuracy.
 The platform has application in a variety of areas, including, public health & bioterrorism, border and port security, public and community safety, and government data integration, to name a few.
 Public Health & BioTerrorism
 Effective and timely surveillance and monitoring of health-related events is essential for early detection and management of a public health threats, whether a naturally occurring disease, such as West Nile Virus, or a biological or chemical attack. State and local public health officials must have the ability to identify the specific nature and scope of an event and launch a tightly coordinated response, all in real-time.
 In one aspect of the invention, the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events platform is adapted for use, e.g., as a local, state or federal node, in a network conforming to the Public Health Information Network (PHIN) initiative of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or as an infrastructure element of that network. This provides a real-time solution that:
 Delivers a dual purpose real-time syndromic surveillance system covering both bioterrorism and targeted communicable diseases
 Transforms data from a variety of protocols (CSV, EDI, Excel, XML) into industry standard formats HL7 and HIPPA
 Integrates disparate data systems (hospitals, labs, clinics, pharmacies) from any format or location quickly and without custom coding
 Enables synchronous and asynchronous collaboration between participating departments and personnel
 Provides real-time customizable reporting and GIS mapping via web-based graphical interface
 Initiates and manages real-time notifications to first responders and public health officials via web, email, phone, wireless PDA and mobile phone
 Complies with the CDC's NEDSS, HAN and PHIN architectures
 Systems and methods according to this aspect of the invention are designed as for multi-purposes. They function as a real-time surveillance system, a bioterrorism detection and response system and a collaborative network for distance learning and communication.
 As the CDC develops standards and mandated reporting protocols such as the National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS), Health Alert Network (HAN) and Public Health Information Network (PHIN), it is up to state and local health officials to understand these new requirements and develop a system to comply. Systems and methods according to this aspect of the invention are designed to satisfy all NEDSS, HAN and PHIN requirements and more. They provide a platform technology that is highly flexible and scalable meaning that it can adapt and stay current with new requirements and specifications with minimal effort. This feature allows health agencies to add data systems and functionality to the platform easily without impacting the current architecture.
 Border & Port Security
 Border and port security represent complex security challenges. These sites represent vulnerable points of entry and require monitoring of ocean vessel arrivals and departures, assessing potentially hazardous cargo, responding to immigration challenges, terrorist threats and managing the proximity risk to civilians and land-based targets such as nuclear facilities, dams, power plants, gas lines and other biological and chemical facilities. Due to the complex and porous natures of borders and ports, many distinct organizations are required to work in close cooperation and effectively share critical information.
 In one aspect of the invention, the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events platform is adapted for border and port security applications, providing;
 Real-time information in a secure web-based user interface
 Providing a consolidated view of port security status by integrating multiple agencies and organizations existing information systems to appear as one, in real-time.
 Integration of meteorological or other environmental information
 GIS (geo-spatial mapping) for rapid local assessment and visibility
 Time-critical risk assessment based on local, state and federal data sources
 Scenario-based event management for medical, emergency and public safety responders with immediate notifications to key safety personnel
 Public & Community Safety
 Local law enforcement agencies are increasingly involved in complex public safety issues. Today, airports, construction sites, concerts, and other large, high-profile community events require greater levels of security, including biometric identification and other methods of individual scanning and surveillance. The surveillance, monitoring and real-time events platform can be deployed in applications designed to identify community threats or security breaches in a wide range of settings including inter-agency solutions for superior security surveillance and response. This platform provides:
 Real-time reporting with secure web-based user interface enabling a single view of a multi-agency operation
 Integration of critical data from existing data sources (any data in any format) to create better public safety information
 GIS (geo-spatial mapping) for rapid local assessment and visibility
 Real-time risk assessment based on local, state and federal data sources
 Coordinated communication and immediate notifications to key safety personnel and responders
 Government Solution for Data Visibility
 Government agencies are challenged with the daunting task of improving agency-wide and inter-agency information flow and visibility, especially in today's volatile environment. True agency-wide information access for real-time analysis is only achieved by being able to tie together all existing disparate data sources, from any location, and offer a consolidated view of critical information.
 In one aspect of the invention, the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events platform provides a single point of access to all state security-related IT systems (Justice Dept, Law Enforcement, Dept of Health) to expedite identifying potential threats. The platform can also provide information visibility across an organizations systems. The platform:
 Leverages investments in existing IT infrastructure
 Provides a single, comprehensive view of critical information from all data sources
 Provides a solution that is operational in a fraction of the time a "traditional" data integration project would take.
 Benefits from a flexible, scalable, interoperable platform capable of integrating any agency's data sources for optimal visibility and operational readiness
 The aforementioned and other aspects of the invention are evident in the drawings and in the description that follows.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 The foregoing features of this invention, as well as the invention itself, may be more fully understood from the following detailed description of the drawings in which:
 FIG. 1 depicts a surveillance, monitoring and real-time events system 100 according to the invention suitable for the adaptation to a public health & bioterrorism application, e.g., as part of PHIN, HAN or NEDSS-compatible networks;
 FIG. 2A depicts an architecture for a hologram data store used in the system of FIG. 1;
 FIG. 2B depicts the tables in a model store and a triples store of the hologram data store of FIG. 2A;
 FIG. 3 depicts an expert engine to identify information in the data store or from the other information in the system of FIG. 1; and
 FIG. 4-16 depict a visual display used in the system of FIG. 1 to call alerts and other information to the attention of the user.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE ILLUSTRATE EMBODIMENT
 FIG. 1 depicts a surveillance, monitoring and real-time events system 100 according to the invention suitable for the adaptation to a public health & bioterrorism application, e.g., as part of PHIN, HAN or NEDSS networks. Illustrated system 100 represents a data processing station (or stations) resident at a node in such a network, such as, for example, a clinical care provider, a laboratory, a local or state health department, the CDC headquarters, a local or national law enforcement office, or otherwise. Though the illustrate system is used in a public health & bioterrorism application, it will be appreciated that a similar such system can be applied in border & port security, public & community safety, and government data integration applications, described above, among others.
 Illustrated system 100, which can be embodied in conventional digital data processing apparatus (including attendant processor(s), display units, store units, and communications devices) of the type conventional in the art, comprises connectors 108 that provide software interfaces to legacy and other databases, data streams, and sources of information--collectively, databases 140--in clinical care facilities or other entities (such as agency field offices or laboratories), organizations (such as a governmental agencies) or enterprises, such as the PHIN network, the HAN network or otherwise. A "hologram" data store 114 (hereinafter, "data store" or "hologram data store"), which is coupled to the databases 140 via the connectors 108, stores data from those databases 140. A framework server 116 accesses the data store 114, presenting selected data to (and permitting queries from) a user browser 118. The server 116 can also permit updates to data in the data store 114 and, thereby, in the databases 140. These updates can include both the addition of new data and the modification of old data.
 In the illustration, databases 140 include a database 140a maintained with a Sybase® database management system, a database 140b maintained with an Oracle® database management system. The "databases" 140 also include a data stream 140c providing information from other nodes 100b, 100c, 100d, 100e, of the PHIN, HAN, NEDSS or other network 120. Those other nodes can be constructed and operated in the manner of system 100 (as suggested in the illustration by their depiction using like silhouettes) or in any other manner consistent with PHIN, HAN, NEDSS or other network operations. The network 120 represents the Internet, wide area network or other medium or collection of media that permit the transfer of information (continuous, periodic or otherwise) between the nodes in a manner consistent with requirements of PHIN, HAN, NEDSS or other applicable network standards.
 Of course, these are merely examples of the variety of databases or other sources of information with which methods and apparatus as described herein can be used. Common features of illustrated databases 148 are that they provide access to information of actual or potential interest to the node in which system 100 resides and that they can be accessed via application program interfaces (API) or other mechanisms dictated by the PHIN, HAN, NEDSS or other applicable network.
 Connectors 108 serve as interfaces to databases, streams and other information sources 140. Each connector applies requests to, and receives information from, a respective database, using that database's API or other interface mechanism, e.g., as dictated by the PHIN, HAN or other otherwise. Thus, for example, connector 108b applies requests to database 140a using the corresponding SAP API; connector 108b applies requests to database 140b using the Oracle API; and connector 108c applies requests to and/or receives information from the stream or information source 140c use PHIN-appropriate, HAN-appropriate, NEDSS-appropriate or other stream or network-appropriate requests. Thus, by way of non-limiting example, the connector 108c can generate requests to the network 120 to obtain data from health care institutions and other nodes on the network.
 The requests can be simple queries, such as SQL queries and the like (e.g., depending on the type of the underlying database and its API) or more complex sets of queries, such as those commonly used in data mining. For example, one or more of the connectors can use decision trees, statistical techniques or other query and analysis mechanisms knows in the art of data mining to extract information from the databases. Specific queries and analysis methodologies can be specified by the hologram data store 114 or the framework server 116 for application by the connectors. Alternatively, the connectors themselves can construct specific queries and methodologies from more general queries received from the data store 114 or server 116. For example, request-specific items can be "plugged" into query templates thereby effecting greater speed and efficiency.
 Regardless of their origins, the requests can be stored in the connectors 108 for application and/or reapplication to the respective databases 108 to provide one-time or periodic data store updates. Connectors can use expiration date information to determine which of a plurality of similar data to return to the data store, or if dates are absent, the connectors can mark returned data as being of lower confidence levels.
 In a system 100 according to the invention used as part of the PHIN network, the connector 108c (and/or other functionality not shown) provides for the automated exchange of data between public health partners, as required of nodes in the PHIN network. Thus the connector 108c (and/or other functionality) comprises an ebXML compliant SOAP web service that can be reached via an HTTPS connection after appropriate authentication and comprises. or is coupled to, an HTTPS port. It also supports messaging in the industry standard requisite formats and message content specified by the PHIN standard. The connector 108c also provides for translation of messages received from the network 120 into a format compatible with the NEDSS and/or other requisite data models specified by the PHIN standards for storage in the data store 114 as detailed further below. And, the connector 108c (or other functionality) facilitates the exchange and management of specimen and lab result information, as required under the PHIN standard. Systems 100 according to the invention used as part of HAN or NEDSS-compatible networks provide similar functionality, as particularly required under those initiatives.
 Data and other information (collectively, "messages") generated by the databases, streams and other information sources 140 in response to the requests are routed by connectors to the hologram data store 114. That other information can include, for example, expiry or other adjectival data for use by the data store in caching, purging, updating and selecting data. The messages can be cached by the connectors 108, though, they are preferably immediately routed to the store 114.
 Information updates entered, for example, by a user who is accessing the store 114 via a server 116 and browser 118, are transmitted by server 116 to data store 114. There, any triples implicated by the change are created or changed in store 114C, as are the corresponding RDF document objects in store 114A. An indication of these changes can be forwarded to the respective databases, streams or other information sources 140 via the connectors 108, which utilize the corresponding API (or other interface mechanisms) to alert those sources 140 of updates. Likewise, changes made directly to the store 114C, e.g., using a WebDAV client or otherwise, can be forwarded by the connector 108 to the respective sources 140.
 The hologram data store 114 stores data from the databases 140 (and from the framework server 116, as discussed below) as RDF triples. The data store 114 can be embodied on any digital data processing system or systems that are in communications coupling (e.g., as defined above) with the connectors 108 and the framework server 116. Typically, the data store 114 is embodied in a workstation or other high-end computing device with high capacity storage devices or arrays, though, this may not be required for any given implementation.
 Though the hologram data store 114 may be contained on an optical storage device, this is not the sense in which the term "hologram" is used. Rather, it refers to its storage of data from multiple sources (e.g., the databases 140) in a form which permits that data to be queried and coalesced from a variety of perspectives, depending on the needs of the user and the capabilities of the framework server 116.
 To this end, a preferred data store 114 stores the data item the databases 140 in subject-predicate-object form, e.g., RDF triples, though those of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that either forms may be used as well, or instead. By way of background, RDF is a way of expressing the properties of items of data. Those items are referred to as subjects. Their properties are referred to predicates. And, the values of those properties are referred to as objects. In RDF, an expression of a property of an item is referred to as a triple, a convenience reflecting that the expression contains three parts: subject, predicate and object.
 Listed below is a portion of a data set of the type with which the invention can be practiced. The listing contains RDF triples, here, expressed in extensible markup language (XML) syntax. Those skilled in the art will, of course, appreciate that RDF triples can be expressed in other syntaxes and that the teachings hereof are equally applicable to those syntaxes. Further, the listing shows only a sampling of the triples in a data store 114, which typically would contain tens of thousands or more of such triples.
TABLE-US-00001 <rdf:RDF...xmlns="http://www/metatomix.com/postalCode/1.0#> <rdf:Description rdf:about="postal://zip#02886''> <town>Warwick></town> <state>RI</state> <country>USA</country> <zip>02886</zip> <rdf:Description> <rdf:Descrription rdf:about=''postal://zip#02901''> <town>Providence</town> <state>RI>/state> <country>USA</country> <zip>02901</zip> </rdf:Description>
 Subjects are indicated within the listing using a "rdf:about" statement. For example, the second line of the listing defines a subject as a resource named "postal//zip#2886." That subject has predicates and objects that follow the subject declaration. One predicate, <town>, is associated with a value "Warwick". Another predicate, <state>, is associated with a value "RI". The same follows for the predicates <country> and <zip>, which are associated with values "USA" and "02886" respectively. Similarly, the listing shows properties for the subject "postal://zip#02901," namely, <town> "Providence," <state> "RI," <country> "US" and <zip> "02901."
 In the listing, the subjects and predicates are expressed as uniform resource indicators (URIs), e.g., of the type defined in Berniers-Lee et al, Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax (RFC 2396) (August 1998), and can be said to be expressed in a form <scheme>://<path>#<fragment>. For the subjects given in the example, <scheme> is "postal," <path> is "zip," and <fragment> is, for example, "02886" and "02901."
 The predicates, too, are expressed in the form <scheme>://<path>#<fragment>, as is evident to those in ordinary skill in the art. In accord with XML syntax, the predicates in lines two, et seq., of the listing must be interpreted as suffixes to the string provided in the namespace directive "xmlns=http://www.metatomix.com/postalCode/1.0#" in line one of the listing. This results in predicates that are formally expressed as: "http://www.metatomix.com/postalCode/1.0#town," "http://www.metatomix.com/postalCode/1.0#state," "http://www.metatomix.com/postalCode/1.0#country" and "http://www.metatomix.com/postalCode/1.0#zip."
 Hence, the <scheme> for the predicates is "http" and <path> is "www.metatomix.com/postalCode/1.0." The <fragment> portions are <town>, <state>, <country> and <zip>, respectively. It is important to note that the listing is in some ways simplistic in that each of its objects is a literal value. Commonly, an object may itself be another subject, with its own objects and predicates. In such cases, a resource can be both a subject and an object, e.g., an object to all "upstream" resources and a subject to all "downstream" resources and properties. Such "branching" allows for complex relationships to be modeled within the RDF triple framework.
 FIG. 2a depicts an architecture for a preferred hologram data store 114 according to the invention. The illustrate store 114 includes a model document store 114A and a model document manager 114B. It also includes a relational triples store 114C, a relational triples store manager 114D, and a parser 114E interconnected as shown in the drawing.
 As indicated in the drawing, RDF triples maintained by the store 114 are received--from the databases 140 (via connectors 108) and/or from time-based data reduction module 150 (described below)--in the form of document objects, e.g., of the type generated from a Document Object Model (DOM) in a JAVA, C++ or other application. In the illustrated embodiment, these are stored in the model document store 114A as such (i.e., document objects) particularly, using the tables and inter-table relationships shown in FIG. 1B (see dashed box labelled 114B).
 The model document manager 114B manages storage/retrieval of the document object to/from the model document store 114A. In the illustrated embodiment, the manager 114B comprises the Slide content management and integration framework, publicly available through the Apache Software Foundation. It stores (and retrieves) document objects to (and from) the store 114A in accord with the WebDAV protocol. Those skilled in the art will, of course, appreciate that other applications can be used in place of Slide and that document objects can be stored/retrieved from the store 114A in accord with other protocols, industry-standard, proprietary or otherwise.
 However, use of the WebDAV protocol allows for adding, updating and deleting RDF document objects using a variety of WebDAV client tools (e.g., Microsoft Windows Explorer, Microsoft Office, XML Spy or other such tools available from a variety of vendors), in addition to adding, updating and deleting document objects via correctors 108 and/or time-based data reduction module 150. This also allows for presenting the user with a view of a traversable file system, with RDF documents that cans be opened directly in XML editing tools or from Java programs supporting WebDAV protocols, or from processes on remote machines via any HTTP protocol on which WebDAV is based.
 RDF triples received by the store 114 are also stored to a relational database, here, store 114C, that is managed and accessed by a conventional relational database management system (RDBMS) 114D, operating in accord with the teachings hereof. In that database, the triples are divided into their constituent components (subject, predicate, and object), which are indexed and stored to respective tables in the manner of a "hashed with origin" approach. Whenever an RDF document is added, updated or deleted, a parser 114E extracts its triples and conveys them to the RDBMS 114D with a corresponding indicator that they are to be added, updated or deleted from the relational database. Such a parser 114E operates in the conventional manner known in the art for extracting triples from RDF documents.
 The illustrated database store 114C has live tables interrelated as particularly shown in FIG. 2B (see dashed box labelled 114C). In general, these tables rely on indexes generated by hashing the triples' respective subjects, predicates and objects using a 64-bit hashing algorithm based on cyclical redundancy codes (CRCs)--though, it will be appreciated that the indexes can be generated by other techniques as well, industry-standard, proprietary or otherwise.
 Referring to FIG. 2B the "triples" table 534 maintains one record for each stored triple. Each record contains an aforementioned hash code for each of the subject, predicate and object that make up the respective triple, along with a resource flag ("resource_flg") indicating whether that object is of the resource or literal type. Each record also includes an aforementioned hash code ("m_hash") identifying the document object (stored in model document store 114A) from which the triple was parsed, e.g., by parser 114E.
 In the illustrated embodiment, the values of the subjects, predicates and objects are not stored in the triples table. Rather, those values are stored in the resources table 530, namespaces table 532 and literals table 536. Particularly, the resources table 530, in conjunction with the namespaces table 532, stores the subjects, predicates and resource-type objects; whereas, the literals table 536 stores the literal-type objects.
 The resources table 530 maintains one record for each unique subject, predicate or resource-type object. Each record contains the value of the resource, along with its aforementioned 64-bit hash. It is the latter on which the table is indexed. To conserve space, portions of those values common to multiple resources (e.g., common <scheme>://<path> identifiers) are stored in the namespaces table 532. Accordingly the field, "r_value," contained in each record of the resources table 530 reflects only the unique portion e.g., <fragment> identifier) of each resource.
 The namespaces table 532 maintains one record for each unique common portion referred to in the prior paragraph (hereinafter, "namespace"). Each record contains the value of that namespace, along with its aforementioned 64-bit hash. As above, it is the latter on which this table is indexed.
 The literals table 536 maintains one record for each unique literal-type object. Each record contains the value of the object, along with its aforementioned 64-bit hash. Each record also includes an indicator of the type of that literal (e.g., integer, string, and so forth). Again, it is the latter on which this table is indexed.
 The models table 538 maintains one record for each RDF document object contained in the model document store 114A. Each record contains the URI of the corresponding document object ("uri_string"), along with its aforementioned 64-bit hash ("m_hash"). It is the latter on which this table is indexed. To facilitate associating document objects identified in the models table 538 with document objects maintained by the model document store 114A, each record of the models table 538 also contains the ID of the corresponding document object in the store 114A. That ID can be assigned by the model document manager 114B, or otherwise.
 From the above, it can be appreciated that the relational triples store 114C is a schemaless-structure for storing RDF triples. As suggested by Melnik, an author well known to those skilled in the art of RDF and SQL, triples maintained is that store can be reconstituted via an SQL query. For example, to reconstitute the RDF triple having a subject equal to "postal://zip#02886", a predicate equal to "http://www.metatomix.com/postalCode/1.0#town", and an object equal to "Warwick", the following SQL statement is applied:
TABLE-US-00002 SELECT m.uri_string, t.resource_flg, concat (n1.n_value, r1.r_value) as subj, concat (n2.n_value, r2.r_value) as pred, concat (n3.n_value,r3.r_value), 1.1_value FROM triples t, models m, resources r1, resources r2, namespaces n1, namespaces n2 LEFT JOIN literals 1 on t.object=1.1_hash LEFT JOIN resources r3 on t.object=r3.r_hash LEFT JOIN namespaces n3 on r3.r_value=n3.n_value WHERE t.subject=r1.r_hash AND r1.n_hash=n1.n_hash AND t.predicate=r2.r_hash AND r2.n_hash=n2.n_hash AND m.uri_id=t.m_hash AND t.subject=hash(''postal://zip#02886'') AND t.predicate=hash(`http://www.metatomix.com/postalcode/1.0#town`) AND t.object=hash(`warwick`)
 Those skilled in the art will, of course, appreciate that RDF documents and, more generally, objects maintained in the store 114 can be contained in other stores--structured relationally, hierarchically or otherwise--as well, in addition to or instead of stores 114A and 114C.
 In a system 100 according to the invention used as part of the PHIN network, the maintenance of data in the store 114 is accomplished in a manner compatible with the applicable PHIN standards, e.g., for the use of electronic clinical data for event detection. Thus, for example, data storage is compatible with the applicable logical data model(s), can associate incoming data with appropriate existing data (e.g., a report of a disease in a person who had another condition previously reported), permits potential cases should be "linked" and traceable from detection via electronic sources of clinical data or manual entry of potential case data through confirmation via laboratory result reporting, and permits data to be accessed far reporting, statistical analysis, geographic mapping and automated outbreak detection algorithms, and so forth, all as required under the PHIN standards and further discussed below. Whether maintained in the data store 114, or otherwise, a system 100 according to the invention used as part of the PHIN network, provides directories of public health and clinical personnel accessible as required under the PHIN standards. Systems 100 according to the invention used as part of HAN or NEDSS-compatible networks provide similar functionality, as particularly required under those initiatives.
 Referring to FIGS. 2A, the relational triples store manager 114D supports SQL queries such as the one exemplified above (for extracting a triple with the subject "postal://zip#02886", the predicate "http://www.metatomix.com/postalCode/1.0#town", and the object "Warwick"), in the manner described in commonly assigned U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/302,764, filed Nov. 21, 2002, entitled METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR QUERYING A RELATIONAL DATA STORE USING SCHEMA-LESS QUERIES, now published as PCT WO 03044634 (Application WO2002U.S.0037729), the teachings of which are incorporated herein by reference (see, specifically, for example, FIG. 3 thereof and the accompanying text), and a copy of which may be attached as an appendix hereto (and, if so, as Appendix A).
 The data store 114 can likewise include time-wise data reduction component of the type described in commonly assigned U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/302,727, filed Nov. 21, 2002, entitled METHODS AND APPARATUS FDR STATISTICAL DATA ANALYSIS AMD REDUCTION FOR AN ENTERPRISE APPLICATION, now published as PCT WO 03046769 (Application WO2002U.S.003727), the teachings of which are incorporated herein by reference (see, specifically, for example, FIG. 3 thereof and the accompanying text), a copy of which may be attached as an appendix hereto (and, if so, as Appendix B), to perform a time-wise reduction, on data from the database, streams or other sources 140.
 According to one practices of the invention, data store 114 includes a graph generator that uses RDF triples to generate directed graphs in response to queries made--e.g., by a user accessing the store via the browser 118 and server 116, by a surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application executing on the server 116 or in connection with the browser 118, by another node on the network 120 and received electronically or otherwise, or made otherwise--for information reflected by triples originating from data in one or more of the databases, streams or other sources 140. Such generation of directed graphs from triples can be accomplished in any conventional manner known the art (e.g., as appropriate to RDF triples or other manner in which the information is stored) or, preferably, in the manner described in co-pending, commonly assigned U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/138,725, filed May 3 2002, entitled METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR VISUALIZING RELATIONSHIPS AMONG TRIPLES OF RESOURCE DESCRIPTION FRAMEWORK (RDF) DATA SETS, now-published as PCT WO 03094142A1 (Application WO2003U.S.0012479), and U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 60/416,616, filed Oct. 7, 2002, entitled METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR IDENTIFYING RELATED NODES IN A DIRECTED GRAPH HAVING NAMED ARCS, now published as PCT WO 04034625 (Application WO2003U.S.0031636), a copy of which may be attached as an appendix hereto (and, if so, as Appendix C), the teachings of both of which are incorporated herein by reference. Directed graphs so generated can be passed back to the server 116 for presentation to the user via browser 118, they can be "walked" by the server 116 to identify specific information responsive to queries, or otherwise.
 Alternatively, or in addition, to the graph generator, the data store 114 can utilize genetic, self-adapting, algorithms to traverse the RDF triples in response to such queries. To this end, the data store utilizes a genetic algorithm that performs several searches, each utilizing a different methodology but all based on the underlying query from the framework server, against the RDF triples. It compares the results of the searches quantitatively to discern which produce(s) the best results and reapplies that search with additional terms or further granularity.
 In some practices of the invention, surveillance, monitoring and real-time events applications executing on the connecters 108, the server 116, the browser and/or the data store 114 utilize an expert engine-based system 8 of the type shown in FIG. 3 to identify information in the data store 114 and/or from sources 140 responsive to queries and/or otherwise for presentation via browser 118, e.g., in the form of alerts, reports, or otherwise. The information so identified can, instead or in addition, form the basis of further processing, e.g., by such surveillance, monitoring and real-time events applications, in the form of broadcasts or messages to other nodes in the network 120, or otherwise, consistent with requirements of PHIN, HAN or other applicable standards.
 Thus, for example, in a system 100 adapted for use in a node on the PHIN, the system 8 can be used to process data incoming from the sources 140 to determine whether it should be ignored, stored, logged for alert or classified otherwise. Data reaching a certain classification limit, moreover, can be displayed via the browser 118 and, more particularly, the dashboard discussed below, e.g., along with a map of the state, country or other relevant geographic region and/or along with other similar data.
 Alternatively, in a system 100 adapted for use in a NEDSS compliant node, the expert engine-based system 8 can be used to detect the numbers of instances occurring over time and, if the number exceeds a threshold, to generate a report, e.g., for display via a dashboard window, or generate alert messages, for transfer over the network 120 to targeted personnel (e.g., as identified by action of further rules or otherwise). In such a system 100, the expert engine can also be used to subset data used for display or reporting in connection with the collaborative function, e.g., specified under the CDC's HAN guidelines.
 Referring to FIG. 3, the system 8 includes a module 12 that executes a set of rules 18 with respect to a set of facts 16 representing criteria in order to (i) generate a subset 20 of a set of facts 10 representing an input data set, (ii) trigger a further rule, and/or (iii) generate an alert, broadcast, message, or otherwise. For simplicity, in the discussion that follows the set of facts 16 representing criteria are referred to as "criteria" or "criteria 16," while the set of facts 10 representing data are referred to as "data" or "data 10."
 Illustrated module 12 is an executable program (compiled, interpreted or otherwise) embodying the rules 18 and operating in the manner described herein for identifying subsets of directed graphs. In the illustrated embodiment, module 12 is implemented is Jess (Java Expert System Shell), a rule-based expert system shell, commercially available from Sandia National Laboratories. However, it can be implemented using any other "expert system" engine, if-then-else network, or other software, firmware and/or hardware environment (whether or not expert system-based) suitable for adaptation in accord with the teachings hereof.
 The module 12 embodies the rules 18 in a network representation 14, e.g., an if-then-else network, or the like, native to the Jess environment. The network nodes are preferably executed so as to effect substantially parallel operation of the rules 18, though they can be executed so as to effect serial and/or iterative operation as well or in addition. In other embodiments, the rules are represented in accord with the specifics of the corresponding engine, if-then-else network, or other software, firmware and/or hardware environment on which the embodiment is implemented. These likewise preferably effect parallel execution of the rules 18, though they may effect serial or iterative execution instead or in addition.
 The data set 10 can comprise any directed graph, e.g., a collection of nodes representing data and directed arcs connecting nodes to one another, though in the illustrated embodiment it comprises RDF triples contained in the data store 114 and/or generated from information received from the sources 140 via connectors 108. Alternatively, or in addition, the data set can comprise data structures representing a meta directed graph of the type disclosed in co-pending, commonly assigned U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/138,725, filed May 3, 2002, entitled METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR VISUALIZING RELATIONSHIPS AMONG TRIPLES OF RESOURCE DESCRIPTION FRAMEWORK (RDF) DATA SETS, e.g., at FIG. 4A-6B and accompanying text, all of which incorporated herein by reference.
 Criteria 16 contains expressions including, for example, literals, wildcards, Boolean operators and so forth, against which nodes in the data set are tested. In embodiments that operate on RDF data sets, the criteria can specify subject, predicate and/or object values or other attributes. In embodiments that operate on directed graphs of other types other appropriate values and attributes may be specified. The criteria can be input by a user, e.g., via browser 118, e.g., on an ad hoc basis. Alternatively or in addition, they can be generated by surveillance, monitoring and real-time events applications executing on the connectors 108, the server 116, the browser and/or the data store 114.
 Rules 18 define the tests for identifying data in the data set 28 that match the criteria or, where applicable, are related thereto. These are expressed in terms of the types and values of the data items as well as their interrelationships or connectedness. By way of example, a set of rules applicable to a data set comprised of RDF triples for identifying triples that match or are related to the criteria are disclosed in aforementioned incorporated by reference U.S. Patent Application Ser. No 60/416,616, filed Oct. 7, 2002, entitled METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR IDENTIFYING RELATED NODES IN A DIRECTED GRAPH HAVING NAMED ARCS (see, Appendix C hereof). Those skilled in the art will, of course, appreciate that different rules may be applicable depending on the nature and focus of the information sought by any given surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application and that construction of such roles is within the ken of those skilled in the art based on the teachings hereof.
 Referring to back to FIG. 3, the data 20 output or otherwise generated by module 12 represents those triples matching (or, where applicable, related) to the criteria as determined by exercise of the rules. The data 20 can be output as triples or some alternate form, e.g., pointers or other references to identified data within the data set 10, depending on the needs of the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application that invoked the system 8. As noted above, instead of or in addition to outputting data 20, the module 12 triggers execution of further rules, generate alerts, broadcasts, messages, or otherwise, consistent with requirements of PHIN, HAN or other applicable standards.
 The framework server 116 presents information from the data store 114 and/or sources 140 via browser 118. This can be based on requests entered directly by the user directly, e.g., in response to selections/responses to questions, dialog boxes or other user-input controls generated by a surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application executing on the server 116 or in connection with the browser 118. It can also be based, for example, on information obtained from the database 114 and/or sources 140 by the expert engine-based system 8 described above.
 A further understanding of the operation of the framework server 116 may be attained by reference to the appendix filed with U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/917,264, filed Jul. 27, 2001, now published as PCT WO02093319A2 and EP 1405219A2 (Application EP2002000741711), and entitled METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR ENTERPRISE APPLICATION INTEGRATION, which appendix is incorporated herein by reference.
 According to one practice of the invention, a surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application includes a "dashboard" with display windows or panels that provide comprehensive real-time displays of information gathered from the data store 114 or other sources 140, as well as "alerts" resulting from anomalous situations detected by the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application. The dashboard and alerts can be generated by an application executing on the server 116 and/or the browser 118 or otherwise.
 Surveillance, monitoring and real-time events dashboards can display information and alerts that are specific to predefined categories, such as border and port security, health and bioterrorism, or public and community safety. These can be configured by users to display information from ad hoc combinations of data sources and user-defined alerts. For the purpose of describing the structure and operation of the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events dashboards, reference will be made to two representative examples (border/port security and health/bioterrorism), although these descriptions apply to other predefined and user-defined categories of information.
 FIG. 4 illustrates a border/port security dashboard 400. The dashboard displays several panels 402, 404, 406, 408, 410, 412 and 414. Panel 402 can be used to display information relating to an alert, if one has been issued, by the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application or by an external system. Panel 402 is described in more detail below. Each panel 404-414 displays information from a particular data source or an aggregation of data from several data sources. For example, panel 404 can contain real-time radar data from the US Coast Guard superimposed on a satellite image of Boston's inner harbor. The panel 404 display can be augmented with other Coast Guard data. For example, global positioning system (GPS) data from US Coast Guard vessels and vehicles (collectively "units") can be used to identify and then look up information related to these units. The unit identities can be superimposed on the image displayed in panel 404, as shown at 416, 418 and 420. Double-clicking on one of these units can cause the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application to display information about the unit. This information, can include, for example, contact information (e.g. frequency, call sign, name of person in charge, etc.), capabilities (e.g. maximum speed, crew size, weaponry, fire-fighting equipment, etc.) and status (e.g. docked, patrolling, busy intercepting a vessel, etc.).
 Panel 406 can contain real-time data from a port authority superimposed on a map of the inner harbor. Note that port authority data can include information related to the inner harbor that is different than information provided by the US Coast Guard. For example, the port authority data can include information on vessels traveling or docked within the inner harbor. Furthermore, the port authority data can relate to more than just the inner harbor. For example, the port authority data can include information related to an airport and a rail yard.
 Other panels 410 and 412 can display information from other data sources, such as US Customs and local or state police. Panel 408 displays a current Homeland Security Advisory System threat level. Panel 414 displays contact information for agencies, such as the US Coast Guard, US Customs, port authority and state police, that might be invoked in case of an alert.
 A user can double-click on any panel to display a separate window containing the panel. By this mechanism, the user can enlarge any panel. In addition, through appropriate mouse or keyboard commands, the user can zoom in on a portion of the image displayed by a panel. For example, the user can select a point on the panel display to re-center the display to the selected point and zoom in on that point. Alternatively, the user can select a rectangular portion of the panel display using a "rubber band" cursor and instruct the system to fill the entire panel with the selected portion. FIG. 5 illustrates an example of such a window 500 displaying the port authority panel 406 of FIG. 4. A user can, for example, double-click on a vessel 502 to display information about the vessel. FIG. 6 illustrates an example of a pop-up window 600 that displays information about the selected vessel.
 Although panels 402-414 contain graphical displays, other panels (not shown) can contain textural or numeric data. For example, panels containing shipping schedules, airline schedules, port volume statistics, recent headlines, weather forecasts, etc. can be available for display. Of course, other graphical panels, such as current meteorological data for various portions of the world, can also be available. The surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application can make available more panels than can be displayed at one time on the dashboard 400 (FIG. 4). The dashboard 400 can display a default set of panels, such as panels 404-414. Optionally, the user can select which panels to display in the dashboard 400, as well as arrange the panels within the dashboard and control the size of each panel. If it is deemed desirable to display more panels than can be displayed at one time, some or all of the desired panels can be displayed on a round-robin basis.
 In addition to allowing users to select items on panels to obtain further information about these items, the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application can include roles and/or heuristics to automatically detect anomalies and alert users to these anomalies (hereinafter referred to as "alerts"). As a result of one of these alerts, the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application preferably can select one or more panels containing particularly relevant information and display or enlarge those panels. The selected panels need not be ones that the user could select. For example, the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application can create a new panel that includes a combination of data from several sources, the sources being selected by rule(s) that caused the alert to be issued.
 The following example illustrates how an alert can be issued. As shown in FIG. 7, the inner harbor can be partitioned into shipping lanes 700 and 702. The surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application can include rules describing permitted, required and/or prohibited behavior of vessels in these shipping lanes 700 and 702. Some rules can apply to all vessels. Other rules can apply to only certain vessels, for example according to the vessels' types, cargos, speeds, country of registry, as well as according to data unrelated to the vessels, such as time of day, day of week, season, Homeland Security Advisory System, threat level, amount of other harbor traffic or amount or schedule of non-harbor traffic, such as aircraft at an adjacent airport. Other rules can apply to docked vessels, vessels under tow, etc. Similarly, rules can apply to aircraft, vehicles, or any measurable quantity, such as air quality in a subway station, seismic data, voltage in a portion of a power grid or vibration in a building, bridge or other structure. Rules can also apply to data entered by humans, such as the number of reported cases of food poisoning or quantities of antibiotics prescribed, ordered or on hand during a selected period of time.
 Under normal circumstances, i.e. when no alerts are pending, the dashboard 400 (FIG. 4) displays a default set of panels or a set of panels selected by the user, as previously described. If, for example, the previously mentioned tanker vessel 502 (FIG. 7) carrying a hazardous cargo, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG), deviates 704 from a prescribed course, the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application can issue an alert. Note that rules for vessels carrying hazardous cargos can be different than for vessels carrying non-hazardous cargos. In addition, other vessels can trigger the alert. For example, if the LNG tanker 502 is traveling within its prescribed course, but a high-speed vessel (not shown) or an aircraft is on a collision course with the LNG tanker, the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application can issue an alert.
 As a result of the alert, the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application displays the alert panel 402 (FIG. 4) and an alert message 422. In this case, the alert panel 402 displays a zoomed-in portion of the port authority panel 406. In addition, the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application can automatically notify a predetermined list of people or agencies. The particular people or agencies can depend on factors, such as the time of day of the day of the week of the alert. Optionally, the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application can notify other users at other nodes, such as nodes 100b, 100c, 100d and/or 100e (FIG. 1). Information displayed on dashboards (not shown) at these other nodes 100b-e need not be the same as information displayed on the dashboard 400. In particular, the information displayed on these other nodes 100b-e can be more or less detailed than the information displayed on the dashboard 400. For example, summary information, such as an icon displayed on a map of the United States, can be displayed at command/control node to indicate an alert in Boston, without necessarily displaying all details related to the alert. A user at the command/control node can double-click on the icon to obtain more detailed information.
 FIGS. 8-16 illustrate an exemplary dashboard that can be used in a health and bioterrorism context. FIG. 8 illustrates a dashboard 800 that contains several panels 802, 804, 806, 808 and 810. Panel 802 contains a map of the United States with icons 812, 814, 816 indicating locations of three alerts. Panel 804 contains emergency contact information that is relevant to the alerts. Panel 806 contains hyperlinks to discussion forums, in which agency representatives and other authorized groups and people can post messages and replies, as is well known in the art. Panel 808 contains hyperlinks to information that is relevant to the alerts. Panel 810 displays the current Homeland Security Advisor System threat level. These panels will be described in more detail below.
 In this example, the icons 812, 814 and 816 represent medical care providers that have experienced noteworthy events or levels of activity. As previously described, an alert can be issued if, for example, the number of cases of disease, such as influenza, exceeds a predetermined threshold. In this example, Provider 3 has encountered patients with pneumonia that does not respond to antibiotics. The other alerts could relate to other anomalous events or levels of activity. Clicking the icon 816 causes the system to display information 818 related to the selected alert. Clicking on a link 820 causes the system to display more detailed information about the alert. For example, FIG. 9 illustrates two panels 902 and 904, as well as a user selection area 906, that can be displayed. Panel 902 contains a more detailed map of the area in which the event occurred. Panel 904 list the number of cases by zip code of the patients. User selection area 906 enables the user to select one or more of the alerts, thereby selecting or aggregating data from the selected provider(s) for display in panels 902 and 904.
 Returning for a moment to FIG. 8, panel 804 contains icons for government agencies and other individuals or organizations (collectively "responders") that might be called upon to respond to manage a biological, nuclear, foodborne or other situations identified by the expert engine-based system 8 (e.g., as where the number of instances matching a specified critereon exceeds a threshold). Clicking link 822 displays a window containing emergency contact information for these responders, as shown in FIG. 10 at 1000. Panel 1002 contains several emergency callout options, by which the user can manage the alerts. For example, clicking "Message Board" link 1004 displays a window containing messages posted in relation to this alert, as shown in FIG. 11 at 1100. This message board enables users and responders to communicate with each other in relation to the alert. An "Initiate a new Callout" link 1102 enables the user to initiate a new situation, as shown in FIG. 12.
 In response to an alert, the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application automatically performs searches of the Internet and responder intranets for information relevant to the alert. As previously mentioned, panel 808 (FIG. 8) contains hyperlinks to information that is relevant to the alerts, including results from these searches and predefined information sources that have been identified as relevant. The surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application can, for example, have a database of information sources catalogued according to alert type. As shown in FIG. 13, clicking on one of the hyperlinks in the panel 808 opens a new window 1300 displaying contents identified by the hyperlink.
 Returning again to the dashboard 800 shown in FIG. 8, the user can select a module via a pull-down list 824. For example, the user can select "Reports", in which case the system displays a window similar to that shown in FIG. 14. After selecting one or more providers 1402 and 1404, the system displays a report in a report panel 1400.
 FIG. 15 illustrates another graphical display 1500, by which the system can display an alert. In the example of FIG. 15, two potential outbreaks of anthrax are shown. For each potential outbreak, the system displays information, such as proximity of the outbreak to the nearest residential area, as well as the population of the residential area, proximity to the nearest emergency medical center and the number of free beds in the medical center. Being tied into existing hospital systems, the surveillance, monitoring and real-time events application can query those hospital systems and display relevant information, as shown in FIG. 16.
 Described herein are methods and apparatus meeting the above-mentioned objects. It will be appreciated that the illustrated embodiment is merely an example of the invention and that other embodiments, incorporating changes to those described herein, fall within the scope of the invention. Thus, for example, as noted earlier, although the illustrated embodiment is adapted for use in public health & bioterrorism application (with additional examples provided with respect to border and port security) it will be appreciated that a similar such systems can be applied in public & community safety, and government data integration applications, described above, among others.
Patent applications by Colin P. Britton, Lexington, MA US
Patent applications by Howard Greenblatt, Wayland, MA US
Patent applications in class Client/server
Patent applications in all subclasses Client/server