Patent application title: INTELLIGENT LONG TERM EVOLUTION PEER-TO-PEER MANAGEMENT
Venson M. Shaw (Kirkland, WA, US)
Venson M. Shaw (Kirkland, WA, US)
AT&T Intellectual Property I, L.P.
IPC8 Class: AH04W400FI
Class name: Telecommunications radiotelephone system programming control
Publication date: 2013-11-21
Patent application number: 20130310015
A device may receive a peer-to-peer communication, receive a capability
of a second device associated with the peer-to-peer communication, and
provide instructions to adjust a peer-to-peer communication based on the
capability of the device.
1. A method comprising: intercepting, by a first network device, a first
peer-to-peer communication that is part of a peer-to-peer communication
session between a first device capable of peer-to-peer communication and
a second device capable of peer-to-peer communication, the peer-to-peer
communication session forwarded to a second network device by the first
network device based on determining the first peer-to-peer communication
comprises peer-to-peer data; determining, by the second network device, a
compatibility of a capability of the peer-to-peer communication session;
providing, by the second network device, based on the compatibility,
instructions to the first device to adjust a first characteristic of a
second peer-to-peer communication to the second device during the
peer-to-peer communication session in a manner that is compatible with
the second device; and adjusting by the second network device, a second
characteristic of a received portion of a third peer-to-peer
communication from the second device in a manner that is compatible with
the first device based on the compatibility.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising providing instructions to the first device to adjust a characteristic of the second peer-to-peer communication to optimize another application on the second device, based on the compatibility, wherein optimization of the another application is defined by the second device.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the first characteristic of the first peer-to-peer communication is adjusted in order to perform content adaptation for the second device.
4. The method of claim 1, further comprising providing instructions to turn off a capability of the second device based on a defined condition.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the defined condition comprises a location.
6. The method of claim 1, further comprising refraining from inspecting the peer-to-peer communication session for a period of time based on the compatibility of the capability of the peer-to-peer communication session.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the capability of the first device and the second device comprises processor speed, display screen resolution, or operating system version.
8. A network device comprising: a memory storing instructions; and a a processor coupled to the memory, wherein the processor executes instructions and performs operations comprising: receiving a first peer-to-peer communication that is part of a peer-to-peer communication session between a first device capable of peer-to-peer communication and a second device capable of peer-to-peer communication; determining a compatibility of a capability of the peer-to-peer communication session; providing, based on the compatibility, instructions to the first device to adjust a first characteristic of a second peer-to-peer communication to the second device during the peer-to-peer communication session in a manner that is compatible with a second device; and adjusting a second characteristic of a received portion of a third peer-to-peer communication from the second device in a manner that is compatible with the first device based on the compatibility.
9. The network device of claim 8, where the processor executing the instructions further performs operations comprising adjusting the peer-to-peer communication session based on a defined condition.
10. The network device of claim 8, wherein the first characteristic of the second peer-to-peer communication is adjusted in order to perform content adaptation for the first device.
11. The network device of claim 8, wherein the processor executing the instructions further performs operations comprising turning off a capability of the first device based on a defined condition.
12. The network device of claim 11, wherein the defined condition comprises a location.
13. The network device of claim 8, wherein the processor executing the instructions further performs operations comprising sending instructions to refrain from inspecting the peer-to-peer communication session for a period of time based on the capability of the first device.
14. The network device of claim 8, wherein the capability of the first device and the second device comprises processor speed, display screen type, or operating system version.
15. A system comprising: a first mobile device configured to send a first peer-to-peer communication; a second mobile device configured to send a second peer-to-peer communication; a first network device configured to forward the first peer-to-peer communication to a second network device after determining the first peer-to-peer communication comprises peer-to-peer data; and a second network device configured with instructions comprising: receiving a first peer-to-peer communication that is part of a peer-to-peer communication session between the first mobile device and the second mobile device; determining a compatibility of a capability of the peer-to-peer communication session; providing, based on the compatibility, instructions to the first mobile device to adjust a first characteristic of a second peer-to-peer communication to the second mobile device during the peer-to-peer communication session in a manner that is compatible with the second mobile device; and adjusting a second characteristic of a received portion of a third peer-to-peer communication from the second mobile device in a manner that is compatible with the first mobile device based on the compatibility.
16. The system of claim 15, wherein the second network device is further configured to adjust the second peer-to-peer communication to optimize another application on the first mobile device, based on the compatibility, wherein optimization of the another application is defined by the first mobile device.
17. The system of claim 15, wherein the second network device is further configured to provide instructions to turn off a capability of the first mobile device based on a defined condition.
18. The system of claim 17, wherein the defined condition comprises a location.
19. The system of claim 15, wherein the capability of the first mobile device and second mobile device comprises a processor speed, a display screen type, or an operating system version.
20. The system of claim 15, wherein the first characteristic of the second peer-to-peer communication is adjusted in order to perform content adaptation for the first mobile device.
 The technical field generally relates to wireless communications and more specifically relates to peer-to-peer communications.
 Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks can be set up in the home, in a business, or over the Internet. Each network type can require all computers in the network to use the same or a compatible program to connect to each other and access files and other resources found on the other computer. P2P networks can be used for sharing content such as audio, video, data or anything in digital format.
 P2P is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads among peers. Peers can be equally privileged participants in the application. The owner of each computer on a P2P network may set aside a portion of its resources such as processing power, disk storage or network bandwidth to be made directly available to other network participants.
 This Summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form that are further described below in the Detailed Description. This Summary is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the claimed subject matter, nor is it intended to be used to limit the scope of the claimed subject matter. Furthermore, the claimed subject matter is not limited to limitations that solve any or all disadvantages noted in any part of this disclosure.
 Systems, methods, and devices are disclosed for peer-to-peer communications. In an embodiment, first device may receive a peer-to-peer (P2P) communication, receive a capability of a second device associated with the peer-to-peer communication, and provide instructions to adjust a characteristic of the P2P communication based on the capability of the device.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 The following detailed description is better understood when read in conjunction with the appended drawings. For the purposes of illustration, there is shown in the drawings exemplary embodiments; however, the subject matter is not limited to the specific elements and instrumentalities disclosed. In the drawings:
 FIG. 1 illustrates a non-limiting exemplary network configuration for implementing one or more disclosed embodiments.
 FIG. 2 illustrates a non-limiting exemplary method of implementing one or more disclosed embodiments.
 FIG. 3 is a block diagram of a non-limiting exemplary mobile device in which aspects of one or more disclosed embodiments may be implemented.
 FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a non-limiting exemplary processor in which aspects of one or more disclosed embodiments may be implemented.
 FIG. 5 is a block diagram of a non-limiting exemplary packet-based mobile cellular network environment, such as a GPRS network, in which one or more disclosed embodiments may be implemented.
 FIG. 6 illustrates a non-limiting exemplary architecture of a typical GPRS network, segmented into four groups, in which one or more disclosed embodiments may be implemented.
 FIG. 7 illustrates a non-limiting alternate block diagram of an exemplary GSM/GPRS/IP multimedia network architecture in which one or more disclosed embodiments may be implemented.
 FIG. 8 illustrates a PLMN block diagram view of an exemplary architecture in which one or more disclosed embodiments may be implemented.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIVE EMBODIMENTS
 FIG. 1 is an exemplary illustration of a communications system 100 in which one or more of the disclosed embodiments may be implemented. In FIG. 1, a wireless transmit/receive unit (WTRU) 105 may connect to an eNode B 102 and a WTRU 110 may connect to an eNode B 106. The eNode B 102 and eNode B 104 may connect to a core network 104. Connected to core network 104 may be the Internet 112, other Networks 114 which may include a packet switched telephone network. The core network may comprise or be connected to a peer-to-peer (abbreviated herein as P2P) core network device 108. Network device 108 may be involved with a P2P session and may be located anywhere within communication system 100.
 FIG. 2 illustrates method 200 of intelligent peer-to-peer management. Note that the functions and/or actions described in regard to any of the blocks of method 200 or other method discussed herein may be performed in any order, in isolation, with a subset of other functions and/or actions described in regard to any of the other blocks of method 200, and in combination with other functions and/or actions, including those described herein and those not set forth herein. All such embodiments are contemplated as within the scope of the present disclosure.
 At block 210 of method 200, a mobile device (e.g., a WTRU) may initiate a P2P session. A WTRU may include user equipment (UE), a mobile station, a mobile device, a fixed or mobile subscriber unit, a pager, a cellular telephone, a personal digital assistant (PDA), a smartphone, a laptop, a netbook, a personal computer, a wireless sensor, consumer electronics, and the like. At block 220, a P2P core network device or other network device may intercept the initiated P2P session. The core network may be configured to route the initiated P2P session to the P2P core network device after determining that the packet is P2P traffic. The determination of P2P traffic may occur by the use of packet inspection. In an embodiment, the mobile device may be configured with an IP address or other appropriate address of the P2P core network device and may be configured to send initial requests for a P2P session with any network device to the P2P core network device.
 In an embodiment, the core network may direct all P2P session traffic through the P2P core network device and the redirection may be invisible to the mobile devices that are involved with the P2P session. For example, the core network may route the traffic by inspecting all packets entering the network and route the P2P packets through the P2P core network device. Alternatively, the core network may be configured to inspect and direct the packets of mobile devices that are capable of doing P2P communication. In another example, the core network may be configured to inspect and direct the packets of all mobile devices that have registered to do P2P.
 At block 230 of method 200, the P2P core network device may determine the peer-to-peer capability of the initiating P2P session mobile device as well as all other devices that may desire to participate in the P2P session. The P2P core network device may be aware of the capability of P2P session devices through various ways. For example, the P2P core network device may request the device capability of each device that desires a P2P session. Alternatively, each device that desires a P2P session may be configured to send device capability information sometime before or during a P2P session. In another example, device capability information may periodically be updated and housed on a core network device. The P2P core network device may query the core network device for device capability. Lastly, some combination or fallback of the examples disclosed herein may be used to determine the device capability for each device that desires a P2P session. For example, a database may be queried first and if the database is unavailable or the device is not found in the database then the device may be queried. Capability, as discussed herein, may include a device's software and accompanying features, hardware (e.g., processor speed, display screen, or amount of read only memory), upload and download speeds, and the like.
 The P2P core network device, at block 240, may adjust the P2P session based on the device capability of the involved P2P session devices. Sessions may be adjusted in order to perform content adaptation between devices when capability mismatches occur. For example, an "old" smartphone user may desire to play a game with a "new" tablet computer user. The old smartphone may not have the updated software and hardware capabilities of the new tablet user. Here, the P2P core network device may intercede and adjust the characteristics of a P2P communication (e.g., graphics options, sound options, or other features) in a manner in which the old smartphone and the new tablet can communicate without having to upgrade or downgrade software or hardware on the smartphone or tablet device. More specifically, in an embodiment a P2P core network device may translate the P2P packet of the new tablet into a new P2P packet that may be interpreted with little or no issue by the old smartphone. Again, this may allow for options such as sound and graphics to be removed or interpreted in a manner that is easily or optimally interpreted by a destination P2P device. In another example, a P2P communication may be adjusted by a P2P core network device to allow for a destination P2P device so the processor use may be optimized for other applications. In this latter example, the destination P2P device may be able to interpret the "original" P2P communication, but it may not be optimal for the destination P2P device.
 In an embodiment, a P2P core network device may adjust some P2P sessions based on device capability and direct other P2P session devices to adjust their P2P communication. For example, the old smartphone may not be compatible (or optimally communicate) with the new tablet. Yet, the tablet may have the capability of adjusting its P2P communication to be optimal or compatible with the old smartphone. The P2P core network device, which may already have the device capabilities on file, may direct the tablet to adjust its settings for optimal or compatible communication. The P2P core network device may take no further active role in P2P session and the smartphone and tablet may continue to communicate directly. This may allow for faster setup and P2P communication with devices of different capabilities, especially if the P2P core network device is located at a connecting base station of a P2P session device.
 In an embodiment, the P2P core network device may adjust P2P session based further on a user profile or a network service provider's defined conditions. For example, the camera capability may be turned off by the P2P core network device when a P2P session device is at a particular location. The location may be determined by a global positioning system, proximity to a base station, and the like. In general, the P2P core network device may be able to disable device capability during end user defined or network provider defined conditions.
 In an embodiment, the P2P core network device may only intercept the initial P2P session inquiry. If the devices are compatible or there are no other restrictions the P2P core network device may be configured to forward packets indefinitely without further P2P related packet inspection, forward packets with P2P related packet inspection at periodic time intervals (e.g., every 30 minutes), or the like. In addition, the P2P core network device may direct core network devices to refrain from P2P related packet inspection or routing to the P2P core network device for a period of time.
 FIG. 3 illustrates an example wireless device 1010 that may be used in connection with an embodiment. References will also be made to other figures of the present disclosure as appropriate. For example, mobile devices 105 and 110 may be wireless devices of the type described in regard to FIG. 3, and may have some, all, or none of the components and modules described in regard to FIG. 3. It will be appreciated that the components and modules of wireless device 1010 illustrated in FIG. 3 are illustrative, and that any number and type of components and/or modules may be present in wireless device 1010. In addition, the functions performed by any or all of the components and modules illustrated in FIG. 3 may be performed by any number of physical components. Thus, it is possible that in some embodiments the functionality of more than one component and/or module illustrated in FIG. 3 may be performed by any number or types of hardware and/or software.
 Processor 1021 may be any type of circuitry that performs operations on behalf of wireless device 1010. Such circuitry may include circuitry and other components that enable processor 1021 to perform any of the functions and methods described herein. Such circuitry and other components may also enable processor 1021 to communicate and/or interact with other devices and components, for example any other component of device of wireless device 1010, in such a manner as to enable processor 118 and such other devices and/or components to perform any of the disclosed functions and methods. In one embodiment, processor 1021 executes software (i.e., computer readable instructions stored in a computer readable medium) that may include functionality related to intelligent peer-to-peer management, for example. User interface module 1022 may be any type or combination of hardware and/or software that enables a user to operate and interact with wireless device 1010, and, in one embodiment, to interact with a system or software enabling the user to place, request, and/or receive calls, text communications of any type, voicemail, voicemail notifications, voicemail content and/or data, and/or a system or software enabling the user to view, modify, or delete related software objects. For example, user interface module 1022 may include a display, physical and/or "soft" keys, voice recognition software, a microphone, a speaker and the like. Wireless communication module 1023 may be any type of transmitter, receiver, or transceiver including hardware or a combination of hardware and/software that enables wireless device 1010 to communicate with wireless network equipment. Memory 1024 enables wireless device 1010 to store information, such as APNs, MNCs, MCCs, text communications content and associated data, multimedia content, software to efficiently process radio resource requests and service requests, and radio resource request processing preferences and configurations. Memory 1024 may take any form, such as internal random access memory (RAM), an SD card, a microSD card and the like. Power supply 1025 may be a battery or other type of power input (e.g., a charging cable that is connected to an electrical outlet, etc.) that is capable of powering wireless device 1010. SIM 1026 may be any type Subscriber Identity Module and may be configured on a removable or non-removable SIM card that allows wireless device 1010 to store data on SIM 1026.
 FIG. 4 is a block diagram of an example processor 1158 which may be employed in any of the embodiments described herein, including as one or more components of mobile devices 105 and 110, as one or more components of network equipment such as MMEs, and HSSs, and/or CMS, or any other component of networks 210, 212, 216, and/or any related equipment, and/or as one or more components of any third party system or subsystem that may implement any portion of the subject matter described herein. It is emphasized that the block diagram depicted in FIG. 4 is exemplary and not intended to imply a specific implementation. Thus, the processor 1158 can be implemented in a single processor or multiple processors. Multiple processors can be distributed or centrally located. Multiple processors can communicate wirelessly, via hard wire, or a combination thereof. Processor 1158 may include circuitry and other components that enable processor 1158 to perform any of the functions and methods described herein. Such circuitry and other components may also enable processor 1158 to communicate and/or interact with other devices and components, for example any other component of any device disclosed herein or any other device, in such a manner as to enable processor 1158 and such other devices and/or components to perform any of the disclosed functions and methods.
 As depicted in FIG. 4, the processor 1158 comprises a processing portion 1160, a memory portion 1162, and an input/output portion 1164. The processing portion 1160, memory portion 1162, and input/output portion 1164 are coupled together (coupling not shown in FIG. 4) to allow communications between these portions. The input/output portion 1164 is capable of providing and/or receiving components, commands, and/or instructions, utilized to, for example, request and receive APNs, MNCs, and/or MCCs, establish and terminate communications sessions, transmit and receive service requests and data access request data and responses, transmit, receive, store and process text, data, and voice communications, execute software that efficiently processes radio resource requests, receive and store service requests and radio resource requests, radio resource request processing preferences and configurations, and/or perform any other function described herein.
 The processor 1158 may be implemented as a client processor and/or a server processor. In a basic configuration, the processor 1158 may include at least one processing portion 1160 and memory portion 1162. The memory portion 1162 can store any information utilized in conjunction with establishing, transmitting, receiving, and/or processing text, data, and/or voice communications, communications-related data and/or content, voice calls, other telephonic communications, etc. For example, the memory portion is capable of storing APNs, MNCs, MCCs, service requests, radio resource requests, QoS and/or APN parameters, software for intelligent peer-to peer communications, text and data communications, calls, voicemail, multimedia content, visual voicemail applications, etc. Depending upon the exact configuration and type of processor, the memory portion 1162 can be volatile (such as RAM) 1166, non-volatile (such as ROM, flash memory, etc.) 1168, or a combination thereof. The processor 1158 can have additional features/functionality. For example, the processor 1158 may include additional storage (removable storage 1170 and/or non-removable storage 1172) including, but not limited to, magnetic or optical disks, tape, flash, smart cards or a combination thereof. Computer storage media, such as memory and storage elements 1162, 1170, 1172, 1166, and 1168, may include volatile and nonvolatile, removable and non-removable media implemented in any method or technology for storage of information such as computer readable instructions, data structures, program modules, or other data. Computer storage media include, but are not limited to, RAM, ROM, EEPROM, flash memory or other memory technology, CD-ROM, digital versatile disks (DVD) or other optical storage, magnetic cassettes, magnetic tape, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, universal serial bus (USB) compatible memory, smart cards, or any other medium that can be used to store the desired information and that can be accessed by the processor 1158. Any such computer storage media may be part of the processor 1158. It is to be understood that a computer storage medium, as described herein, is not to be construed as a transient signal.
 The processor 1158 may also contain the communications connection(s) 1180 that allow the processor 1158 to communicate with other devices, for example through a radio access network (RAN). Communications connection(s) 1180 is an example of communication media. Communication media typically embody computer-readable instructions, data structures, program modules or other data in a modulated data signal such as a carrier wave or other transport mechanism and includes any information delivery media. The term "modulated data signal" means a signal that has one or more of its characteristics set or changed in such a manner as to encode information in the signal. By way of example, and not limitation, communication media includes wired media such as a wired network or direct-wired connection as might be used with a land line telephone, and wireless media such as acoustic, RF, infrared, cellular, and other wireless media. The term computer-readable media as used herein includes both storage media and communication media. It is to be understood, however, that a computer-readable storage medium, as described herein, is not to be construed as a transient signal. The processor 1158 also can have input device(s) 1176 such as keyboard, keypad, mouse, pen, voice input device, touch input device, etc. Output device(s) 1174 such as a display, speakers, printer, etc. also can be included.
 A RAN as described herein may comprise any telephony radio network, or any other type of communications network, wireline or wireless, or any combination thereof. The following description sets forth some exemplary telephony radio networks, such as the global system for mobile communications (GSM), and non-limiting operating environments. The below-described operating environments should be considered non-exhaustive, however, and thus the below-described network architectures merely show how intelligent peer-to-peer management may be implemented with stationary and non-stationary network structures and architectures in order to do intelligent peer-to-peer management. It can be appreciated, however, that intelligent peer-to-peer management as described herein may be incorporated with existing and/or future alternative architectures for communication networks as well.
 The GSM is one of the most widely utilized wireless access systems in today's fast growing communication environment. The GSM provides circuit-switched data services to subscribers, such as mobile telephone or computer users. The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), which is an extension to GSM technology, introduces packet switching to GSM networks. The GPRS uses a packet-based wireless communication technology to transfer high and low speed data and signaling in an efficient manner. The GPRS attempts to optimize the use of network and radio resources, thus enabling the cost effective and efficient use of GSM network resources for packet mode applications.
 The exemplary GSM/GPRS environment and services described herein also may be extended to 3G services, such as Universal Mobile Telephone System (UMTS), Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) and Time Division Duplexing (TDD), High Speed Packet Data Access (HSPDA), cdma2000 1× Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO), Code Division Multiple Access-2000 (cdma2000 3×), Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA), Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE), International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), 4G Services such as Long Term Evolution (LTE), etc., as well as to other network services that become available in time. In this regard, intelligent peer-to-peer management may be applied independently of the method of data transport.
 Embodiments disclosed herein may allow for communications single and network service provider networks. P2P notification messages may be sent across the network(s) from a P2P end device to another P2P end device to query communication availability of a P2P end device. Communication availability may include uptime, bandwidth resources of for uplink and downlink communication, and the like.
 FIG. 5 depicts an overall block diagram of an exemplary packet-based mobile cellular network environment, such as a GPRS network, in which intelligent peer-to-peer management systems and methods such as those described herein may be practiced. In an example configuration, any RAN as described herein may be encompassed by or interact with the network environment depicted in FIG. 5. Similarly, mobile devices 105 and 110 may communicate or interact with a network environment such as that depicted in FIG. 5. In such an environment, there may be a plurality of Base Station Subsystems (BSS) 900 (only one is shown), each of which comprises a Base Station Controller (BSC) 902 serving a plurality of Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) such as BTSs 904, 906, and 908. BTSs 904, 906, 908, etc. are the access points where users of packet-based mobile devices (e.g., mobile devices 210, 310, and 610) become connected to the wireless network. In exemplary fashion, the packet traffic originating from user devices (e.g., mobile devices 105 and 110) may be transported via an over-the-air interface to a BTS 908, and from the BTS 908 to the BSC 902. Base station subsystems, such as BSS 900, may be a part of internal frame relay network 910 that can include Service GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) such as SGSN 912 and 914. Each SGSN may be connected to an internal packet network 920 through which a SGSN 912, 914, etc. may route data packets to and from a plurality of gateway GPRS support nodes (GGSN) 922, 924, 926, etc. As illustrated, SGSN 914 and GGSNs 922, 924, and 926 may be part of internal packet network 920. Gateway GPRS serving nodes 922, 924 and 926 may provide an interface to external Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) 950, corporate intranets 940, or Fixed-End System (FES) or the public Internet 930. As illustrated, subscriber corporate network 940 may be connected to GGSN 924 via firewall 932, and PLMN 950 may be connected to GGSN 924 via border gateway router 934. The Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server 942 may be used for caller authentication when a user of a mobile cellular device calls corporate network 940.
 Generally, there can be four different cell sizes in a GSM network, referred to as macro, micro, pico, and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell is different in different environments. Macro cells may be regarded as cells in which the base station antenna is installed in a mast or a building above average roof top level. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level. Micro-cells may be typically used in urban areas. Pico cells are small cells having a diameter of a few dozen meters. Pico cells may be used mainly indoors. On the other hand, umbrella cells may be used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells.
 FIG. 6 illustrates an architecture of a typical GPRS network segmented into four groups: users 1050, radio access network 1060, core network 1070, and interconnect network 1080. Users 1050 may comprise a plurality of end users (though only mobile subscriber 1055 is shown in FIG. 6). In an example embodiment, the device depicted as mobile subscriber 1055 may comprise any of mobile devices 105 and 110. Radio access network 1060 comprises a plurality of base station subsystems such as BSSs 1062, which include BTSs 1064 and BSCs 1066. Core network 1070 comprises a host of various network elements. As illustrated here, core network 1070 may comprise Mobile Switching Center (MSC) 1071, Service Control Point (SCP) 1072, gateway MSC 1073, SGSN 1076, Home Location Register (HLR) 1074, Authentication Center (AuC) 1075, Domain Name Server (DNS) 1077, and GGSN 1078. Interconnect network 1080 may also comprise a host of various networks and other network elements. As illustrated in FIG. 6, interconnect network 1080 comprises Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) 1082, Fixed-End System (FES) or Internet 1084, firewall 1088, and Corporate Network 1089.
 A mobile switching center may be connected to a large number of base station controllers. At MSC 1071, for instance, depending on the type of traffic, the traffic may be separated in that voice may be sent to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) 1082 through Gateway MSC (GMSC) 1073, and/or data may be sent to SGSN 1076 that may send the data traffic to GGSN 1078 for further forwarding.
 When MSC 1071 receives call traffic, for example, from BSC 1066, it may send a query to a database hosted by SCP 1072. The SCP 1072 may process the request and may issue a response to MSC 1071 so that it may continue call processing as appropriate.
 The HLR 1074 may be a centralized database for users to register to the GPRS network. In some embodiments, HLR 1074 may be a device such as HSSs. HLR 1074 may store static information about the subscribers such as the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), APN profiles as described herein, subscribed services, and a key for authenticating the subscriber. HLR 1074 may also store dynamic subscriber information such as dynamic APN profiles and the current location of the mobile subscriber. HLR 1074 may also serve to intercept and determine the validity of destination numbers in messages sent from a device, such as mobile subscriber 1055, as described herein. Associated with HLR 1074 may be AuC 1075. AuC 1075 may be a database that contains the algorithms for authenticating subscribers and may include the associated keys for encryption to safeguard the user input for authentication.
 In the following, depending on context, the term "mobile subscriber" sometimes refers to the end user and sometimes to the actual portable device, such as mobile devices 105 and 110, used by an end user of a mobile cellular service or a wireless provider. When a mobile subscriber turns on his or her mobile device, the mobile device may go through an attach process by which the mobile device attaches to an SGSN of the GPRS network. In FIG. 6, when mobile subscriber 1055 initiates the attach process by turning on the network capabilities of the mobile device, an attach request may be sent by mobile subscriber 1055 to SGSN 1076. The SGSN 1076 queries another SGSN, to which mobile subscriber 1055 was attached before, for the identity of mobile subscriber 1055. Upon receiving the identity of mobile subscriber 1055 from the other SGSN, SGSN 1076 may request more information from mobile subscriber 1055. This information may be used to authenticate mobile subscriber 1055 to SGSN 1076 by HLR 1074. Once verified, SGSN 1076 sends a location update to HLR 1074 indicating the change of location to a new SGSN, in this case SGSN 1076. HLR 1074 may notify the old SGSN, to which mobile subscriber 1055 was attached before, to cancel the location process for mobile subscriber 1055. HLR 1074 may then notify SGSN 1076 that the location update has been performed. At this time, SGSN 1076 sends an Attach Accept message to mobile subscriber 1055, which in turn sends an Attach Complete message to SGSN 1076.
 After attaching itself to the network, mobile subscriber 1055 may then go through the authentication process. In the authentication process, SGSN 1076 may send the authentication information to HLR 1074, which may send information back to SGSN 1076 based on the user profile that was part of the user's initial setup. The SGSN 1076 may then send a request for authentication and ciphering to mobile subscriber 1055. The mobile subscriber 1055 may use an algorithm to send the user identification (ID) and password to SGSN 1076. The SGSN 1076 may use the same algorithm and compares the result. If a match occurs, SGSN 1076 authenticates mobile subscriber 1055.
 Next, the mobile subscriber 1055 may establish a user session with the destination network, corporate network 1089, by going through a Packet Data Protocol (PDP) activation process. Briefly, in the process, mobile subscriber 1055 may request access to an Access Point Name (APN), for example, UPS.com, and SGSN 1076 may receive the activation request from mobile subscriber 1055. SGSN 1076 may then initiate a Domain Name Service (DNS) query to learn which GGSN node has access to the UPS.com APN. The DNS query may be sent to the DNS server within the core network 1070, such as DNS 1077, that may be provisioned to map to one or more GGSN nodes in the core network 1070. Based on the APN, the mapped GGSN 1078 may access the requested corporate network 1089. The SGSN 1076 may then send to GGSN 1078 a Create Packet Data Protocol (PDP) Context Request message that contains necessary information. The GGSN 1078 may send a Create PDP Context Response message to SGSN 1076, which may then send an Activate PDP Context Accept message to mobile subscriber 1055.
 Once activated, data packets of the call made by mobile subscriber 1055 may then go through radio access network 1060, core network 1070, and interconnect network 1080, in a particular fixed-end system, or Internet 1084 and firewall 1088, to reach corporate network 1089.
 Thus, network elements that can invoke the functionality of intelligent peer-to-peer management systems and methods such as those described herein may include, but are not limited to, Gateway GPRS Support Node tables, Fixed End System router tables, firewall systems, VPN tunnels, and any number of other network elements as required by the particular digital network.
 FIG. 7 illustrates another exemplary block diagram view of a GSM/GPRS/IP multimedia network architecture 1100 in which the systems and methods for intelligent peer-to-peer management such as those described herein may be incorporated. As illustrated, architecture 1100 of FIG. 7 includes a GSM core network 1101, a GPRS network 1130 and an IP multimedia network 1138. The GSM core network 1101 includes a Mobile Station (MS) 1102, at least one Base Transceiver Station (BTS) 1104 and a Base Station Controller (BSC) 1106. The MS 1102 is physical equipment or Mobile Equipment (ME), such as a mobile telephone or a laptop computer (e.g., mobile devices 105 and 110) that is used by mobile subscribers, in one embodiment with a Subscriber identity Module (SIM). The SIM includes an International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), which is a unique identifier of a subscriber. The SIM may also include APNs. The BTS 1104 may be physical equipment, such as a radio tower, that enables a radio interface to communicate with the MS. Each BTS may serve more than one MS. The BSC 1106 may manage radio resources, including the BTS. The BSC may be connected to several BTSs. The BSC and BTS components, in combination, are generally referred to as a base station (BSS) or radio access network (RAN) 1103.
 The GSM core network 1101 may also include a Mobile Switching Center (MSC) 1108, a Gateway Mobile Switching Center (GMSC) 1110, a Home Location Register (HLR) 1112, Visitor Location Register (VLR) 1114, an Authentication Center (AuC) 1118, and an Equipment Identity Register (EIR) 1116. The MSC 1108 may perform a switching function for the network. The MSC may also perform other functions, such as registration, authentication, location updating, handovers, and call routing. The GMSC 1110 may provide a gateway between the GSM network and other networks, such as an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) or Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTNs) 1120. Thus, the GMSC 1110 provides interworking functionality with external networks.
 The HLR 1112 may be a database that may contain administrative information regarding each subscriber registered in a corresponding GSM network. Such information may include APNs and APN profiles. The HLR 1112 may also contain the current location of each MS. The VLR 1114 may be a database that contains selected administrative information from the HLR 1112. The VLR may contain information necessary for call control and provision of subscribed services for each MS currently located in a geographical area controlled by the VLR. The HLR 1112 and the VLR 1114, together with the MSC 1108, may provide the call routing and roaming capabilities of GSM. The AuC 1116 may provide the parameters needed for authentication and encryption functions. Such parameters allow verification of a subscriber's identity. The EIR 1118 may store security-sensitive information about the mobile equipment.
 A Short Message Service Center (SMSC) 1109 allows one-to-one short message service (SMS), or multimedia message service (MMS), messages to be sent to/from the MS 1102. A Push Proxy Gateway (PPG) 1111 is used to "push" (i.e., send without a synchronous request) content to the MS 1102. The PPG 1111 acts as a proxy between wired and wireless networks to facilitate pushing of data to the MS 1102. A Short Message Peer to Peer (SMPP) protocol router 1113 may be provided to convert SMS-based SMPP messages to cell broadcast messages. SMPP is a protocol for exchanging SMS messages between SMS peer entities such as short message service centers. The SMPP protocol is often used to allow third parties, e.g., content suppliers such as news organizations, to submit bulk messages.
 To gain access to GSM services, such as voice, data, short message service (SMS), and multimedia message service (MMS), the MS may first register with the network to indicate its current location by performing a location update and IMSI attach procedure. MS 1102 may send a location update including its current location information to the MSC/VLR, via BTS 1104 and BSC 1106. The location information may then be sent to the MS's HLR. The HLR may be updated with the location information received from the MSC/VLR. The location update may also be performed when the MS moves to a new location area. Typically, the location update may be periodically performed to update the database as location updating events occur.
 GPRS network 1130 may be logically implemented on the GSM core network architecture by introducing two packet-switching network nodes, a serving GPRS support node (SGSN) 1132, a cell broadcast and a Gateway GPRS support node (GGSN) 1134. The SGSN 1132 may be at the same hierarchical level as the MSC 1108 in the GSM network. The SGSN may control the connection between the GPRS network and the MS 1102. The SGSN may also keep track of individual MS's locations and security functions and access controls.
 Cell Broadcast Center (CBC) 1133 may communicate cell broadcast messages that are typically delivered to multiple users in a specified area. Cell Broadcast is one-to-many geographically focused service. It enables messages to be communicated to multiple mobile telephone customers who are located within a given part of its network coverage area at the time the message is broadcast.
 GGSN 1134 may provide a gateway between the GPRS network and a public packet network (PDN) or other IP networks 1136. That is, the GGSN may provide interworking functionality with external networks, and set up a logical link to the MS through the SGSN. When packet-switched data leaves the GPRS network, it may be transferred to an external TCP-IP network 1136, such as an X.25 network or the Internet. In order to access GPRS services, the MS first attaches itself to the GPRS network by performing an attach procedure. The MS then activates a packet data protocol (PDP) context, thus activating a packet communication session between the MS, the SGSN, and the GGSN.
 In a GSM/GPRS network, GPRS services and GSM services may be used in parallel. The MS may operate in one three classes: class A, class B, and class C. A class A MS may attach to the network for both GPRS services and GSM services simultaneously. A class A MS may also support simultaneous operation of GPRS services and GSM services. For example, class A mobiles may receive GSM voice/data/SMS calls and GPRS data calls at the same time.
 A class B MS may attach to the network for both GPRS services and GSM services simultaneously. However, a class B MS does not support simultaneous operation of the GPRS services and GSM services. That is, a class B MS can only use one of the two services at a given time.
 A class C MS can attach for only one of the GPRS services and GSM services at a time. Simultaneous attachment and operation of GPRS services and GSM services is not possible with a class C MS.
 GPRS network 1130 may be designed to operate in three network operation modes (NOM1, NOM2 and NOM3). A network operation mode of a GPRS network may be indicated by a parameter in system information messages transmitted within a cell. The system information messages may direct an MS where to listen for paging messages and how to signal towards the network. The network operation mode represents the capabilities of the GPRS network. In a NOM1 network, a MS may receive pages from a circuit switched domain (voice call) when engaged in a data call. The MS may suspend the data call or take both simultaneously, depending on the ability of the MS. In a NOM2 network, a MS may not receive pages from a circuit switched domain when engaged in a data call, since the MS may be receiving data and may not be listening to a paging channel. In a NOM3 network, a MS may monitor pages for a circuit switched network while receiving data and vice versa.
 The IP multimedia network 1138 was introduced with 3GPP Release 5, and may include IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) 1140 to provide rich multimedia services to end users. A representative set of the network entities within IMS 1140 are a call/session control function (CSCF), a media gateway control function (MGCF) 1146, a media gateway (MGW) 1148, and a master subscriber database, called a home subscriber server (HSS) 1150. HSS 1150 may be common to GSM core network 1101, GPRS network 1130 as well as IP multimedia network 1138.
 IP multimedia system 1140 may be built around the call/session control function, of which there are three types: an interrogating CSCF (I-CSCF) 1143, a proxy CSCF (P-CSCF) 1142, and a serving CSCF (S-CSCF) 1144. The P-CSCF 1142 is the MS's first point of contact with the IMS 1140. The P-CSCF 1142 may forward session initiation protocol (SIP) messages received from the MS to an SIP server in a home network (and vice versa) of the MS. The P-CSCF 1142 may also modify an outgoing request according to a set of rules defined by the network operator (for example, address analysis and potential modification).
 I-CSCF 1143 forms an entrance to a home network and hides the inner topology of the home network from other networks and provides flexibility for selecting an S-CSCF. I-CSCF 1143 may contact subscriber location function (SLF) 1145 to determine which HSS 1150 to use for the particular subscriber, if multiple HSSs 1150 are present. S-CSCF 1144 may perform the session control services for MS 1102. This includes routing originating sessions to external networks and routing terminating sessions to visited networks. S-CSCF 1144 may also decide whether an application server (AS) 1152 is required to receive information on an incoming SIP session request to ensure appropriate service handling. This decision may be based on information received from HSS 1150 (or other sources, such as application server 1152). AS 1152 may also communicate to location server 1156 (e.g., a Gateway Mobile Location Center (GMLC)) that provides a position (e.g., latitude/longitude coordinates) of MS 1102.
 HSS 1150 may contain a subscriber profile and keep track of which core network node is currently handling the subscriber. It may also support subscriber authentication and authorization functions (AAA). In networks with more than one HSS 1150, a subscriber location function provides information on the HSS 1150 that contains the profile of a given subscriber.
 MGCF 1146 may provide interworking functionality between SIP session control signaling from the IMS 1140 and ISUP/BICC call control signaling from the external GSTN networks (not shown.) It may also control the media gateway (MGW) 1148 that provides user-plane interworking functionality (e.g., converting between AMR- and PCM-coded voice.) MGW 1148 may also communicate with other IP multimedia networks 1154.
 Push to Talk over Cellular (PoC) capable mobile telephones may register with the wireless network when the telephones are in a predefined area (e.g., job site, etc.) When the mobile telephones leave the area, they may register with the network in their new location as being outside the predefined area. This registration, however, does not indicate the actual physical location of the mobile telephones outside the pre-defined area.
 FIG. 8 illustrates a PLMN block diagram view of an exemplary architecture in which initiation of a call to an emergency call center may be incorporated. Mobile Station (MS) 1301 is the physical equipment used by the PLMN subscriber. In one illustrative embodiment, communications device 40 may serve as Mobile Station 1301. Mobile Station 1301 may be one of, but not limited to, a cellular telephone, a cellular telephone in combination with another electronic device or any other wireless mobile communication device.
 Mobile Station 1301 may communicate wirelessly with Base Station System (BSS) 1310. BSS 1310 contains a Base Station Controller (BSC) 1311 and a Base Transceiver Station (BTS) 1312. BSS 1310 may include a single BSC 1311/BTS 1312 pair (Base Station) or a system of BSC/BTS pairs which are part of a larger network. BSS 1310 is responsible for communicating with Mobile Station 1301 and may support one or more cells. BSS 1310 is responsible for handling cellular traffic and signaling between Mobile Station 1301 and Core Network 1340. Typically, BSS 1310 performs functions that include, but are not limited to, digital conversion of speech channels, allocation of channels to mobile devices, paging, and transmission/reception of cellular signals.
 Additionally, Mobile Station 1301 may communicate wirelessly with Radio Network System (RNS) 1320. RNS 1320 contains a Radio Network Controller (RNC) 1321 and one or more Node(s) B 1322. RNS 1320 may support one or more cells. RNS 1320 may also include one or more RNC 1321/Node B 1322 pairs or alternatively a single RNC 1321 may manage multiple Nodes B 1322. RNS 1320 is responsible for communicating with Mobile Station 1301 in its geographically defined area. RNC 1321 is responsible for controlling the Node(s) B 1322 that are connected to it and is a control element in a UMTS radio access network. RNC 1321 performs functions such as, but not limited to, load control, packet scheduling, handover control, security functions, as well as controlling Mobile Station 1301's access to the Core Network (CN) 1340.
 The evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) 1330 is a radio access network that provides wireless data communications for Mobile Station 1301 and User Equipment 1302. E-UTRAN 1330 provides higher data rates than traditional UMTS. It is part of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) upgrade for mobile networks and later releases meet the requirements of the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) Advanced and are commonly known as a 4G networks. E-UTRAN 1330 may include of series of logical network components such as E-UTRAN Node B (eNB) 1331 and E-UTRAN Node B (eNB) 1332. E-UTRAN 1330 may contain one or more eNBs. User Equipment 1302 may be any user device capable of connecting to E-UTRAN 1330 including, but not limited to, a personal computer, laptop, mobile device, wireless router, or other device capable of wireless connectivity to E-UTRAN 1330. The improved performance of the E-UTRAN 1330 relative to a typical UMTS network allows for increased bandwidth, spectral efficiency, and functionality including, but not limited to, voice, high-speed applications, large data transfer and IPTV, while still allowing for full mobility.
 An exemplary embodiment of a mobile data and communication service that may be implemented in the PLMN architecture described in FIG. 8 is the Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE). EDGE is an enhancement for GPRS networks that implements an improved signal modulation scheme known as 9-PSK (Phase Shift Keying). By increasing network utilization, EDGE may achieve up to three times faster data rates as compared to a typical GPRS network. EDGE may be implemented on any GSM network capable of hosting a GPRS network, making it an ideal upgrade over GPRS since it may provide increased functionality of existing network resources. Evolved EDGE networks are becoming standardized in later releases of the radio telecommunication standards, which provide for even greater efficiency and peak data rates of up to 1 Mbit/s, while still allowing implementation on existing GPRS-capable network infrastructure.
 Typically Mobile Station 1301 may communicate with any or all of BSS 1310, RNS 1320, or E-UTRAN 1330. In a illustrative system, each of BSS 1310, RNS 1320, and E-UTRAN 1330 may provide Mobile Station 1301 with access to Core Network 1340. The Core Network 1340 may include of a series of devices that route data and communications between end users. Core Network 1340 may provide network service functions to users in the Circuit Switched (CS) domain, the Packet Switched (PS) domain or both. The CS domain refers to connections in which dedicated network resources are allocated at the time of connection establishment and then released when the connection is terminated. The PS domain refers to communications and data transfers that make use of autonomous groupings of bits called packets. Each packet may be routed, manipulated, processed or handled independently of all other packets in the PS domain and does not require dedicated network resources.
 The Circuit Switched--Media Gateway Function (CS-MGW) 1341 is part of Core Network 1340, and interacts with Visitor Location Register (VLR) and Mobile-Services Switching Center (MSC) Server 1360 and Gateway MSC Server 1361 in order to facilitate Core Network 1340 resource control in the CS domain. Functions of CS-MGW 1341 include, but are not limited to, media conversion, bearer control, payload processing and other mobile network processing such as handover or anchoring. CS-MGW 1340 may receive connections to Mobile Station 1301 through BSS 1310, RNS 1320 or both.
 Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) 1342 stores subscriber data regarding Mobile Station 1301 in order to facilitate network functionality. SGSN 1342 may store subscription information such as, but not limited to, the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), temporary identities, or Packet Data Protocol (PDP) addresses. SGSN 1342 may also store location information such as, but not limited to, the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) 1344 address for each GGSN where an active PDP exists. GGSN 1344 may implement a location register function to store subscriber data it receives from SGSN 1342 such as subscription or location information.
 Serving Gateway (S-GW) 1343 is an interface which provides connectivity between E-UTRAN 1330 and Core Network 1340. Functions of S-GW 1343 include, but are not limited to, packet routing, packet forwarding, transport level packet processing, event reporting to Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) 1350, and mobility anchoring for inter-network mobility. PCRF 1350 uses information gathered from S-GW 1343, as well as other sources, to make applicable policy and charging decisions related to data flows, network resources and other network administration functions. Packet Data Network Gateway (PDN-GW) 1345 may provide user-to-services connectivity functionality including, but not limited to, network-wide mobility anchoring, bearer session anchoring and control, and IP address allocation for PS domain connections.
 Home Subscriber Server (HSS) 1363 is a database for user information, and stores subscription data regarding Mobile Station 1301 or User Equipment 1302 for handling calls or data sessions. Networks may contain one HSS 1363 or more if additional resources are required. Exemplary data stored by HSS 1363 include, but is not limited to, user identification, numbering and addressing information, security information, or location information. HSS 1363 may also provide call or session establishment procedures in both the PS and CS domains.
 The VLR/MSC Server 1360 provides user location functionality. When Mobile Station 1301 enters a new network location, it begins a registration procedure. A MSC Server for that location transfers the location information to the VLR for the area. A VLR and MSC Server may be located in the same computing environment, as is shown by VLR/MSC Server 1360, or alternatively may be located in separate computing environments. A VLR may contain, but is not limited to, user information such as the IMSI, the Temporary Mobile Station Identity (TMSI), the Local Mobile Station Identity (LMSI), the last known location of the mobile station, or the SGSN where the mobile station was previously registered. The MSC server may contain information such as, but not limited to, procedures for Mobile Station 1301 registration or procedures for handover of Mobile Station 1301 to a different section of the Core Network 1340. GMSC Server 1361 may serve as a connection to alternate GMSC Servers for other mobile stations in larger networks.
 Equipment Identity Register (EIR) 1362 is a logical element which may store the International Mobile Equipment Identities (IMEI) for Mobile Station 1301. In a typical embodiment, user equipment may be classified as either "white listed" or "black listed" depending on its status in the network. In one embodiment, if Mobile Station 1301 is stolen and put to use by an unauthorized user, it may be registered as "black listed" in EIR 1362, preventing its use on the network. Mobility Management Entity (MME) 1364 is a control node which may track Mobile Station 1301 or User Equipment 1302 if the devices are idle. Additional functionality may include the ability of MME 1364 to contact an idle Mobile Station 1301 or User Equipment 1302 if retransmission of a previous session is required.
 While example embodiments of systems and methods for intelligent peer-to-peer management have been described in connection with various communications devices and computing devices/processors, the underlying concepts can be applied to any communications or computing device, processor, or system capable of implementing the intelligent peer-to-peer management systems and methods described. The various techniques described herein may be implemented in connection with hardware or software or, where appropriate, with a combination of both. Thus, the methods and apparatuses for intelligent peer-to-peer management, or certain aspects or portions thereof, can take the form of program code (i.e., instructions) embodied in tangible and/or non-transitory media, such as floppy diskettes, CD-ROMs, hard drives, or any other machine-readable storage medium, wherein, when the program code is loaded into and executed by a machine, such as a computer, the machine becomes an apparatus for intelligent peer-to-peer management. It is to be understood that a machine-readable storage medium, as described herein, is not to be construed as a transient signal. In the case of program code execution on programmable computers, the computing device will generally include a processor, a storage medium readable by the processor (including volatile and non-volatile memory and/or storage elements), at least one input device, and at least one output device. The program(s) can be implemented in assembly or machine language, if desired. The language can be a compiled or interpreted language, and combined with hardware implementations.
 Methods and systems for intelligent peer-to-peer management may also be practiced via communications embodied in the form of program code that is transmitted over some transmission medium, such as over electrical wiring or cabling, through fiber optics, or via any other form of transmission, wherein, when the program code is received, loaded into, and executed by a machine, such as an EPROM, a gate array, a programmable logic device (PLD), a client computer, or the like, the machine becomes an apparatus for intelligent peer-to-peer management. When implemented on a general-purpose processor, the program code combines with the processor to provide a unique apparatus that operates to invoke the functionality of intelligent peer-to-peer management as described herein. Additionally, any storage techniques used in connection with an intelligent peer-to-peer management system may invariably be a combination of hardware and software.
 While intelligent peer-to-peer management systems and methods have been described in connection with the various embodiments of the various figures, it is to be understood that other similar embodiments may be used or modifications and additions may be made to the described embodiments for performing the same function of intelligent peer-to-peer management without deviating therefrom. For example, one skilled in the art will recognize intelligent peer-to-peer management as described in the present application may apply to any environment, whether wired or wireless, and may be applied to any number of such devices connected via a communications network and interacting across the network. Therefore, intelligent peer-to-peer management should not be limited to any single embodiment, but rather should be construed in breadth and scope in accordance with the appended claims.
Patent applications by Venson M. Shaw, Kirkland, WA US
Patent applications by AT&T Intellectual Property I, L.P.
Patent applications in class Programming control
Patent applications in all subclasses Programming control