Patent application title: METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR PROVIDING USER ACCESS TO A SECURE APPLICATION
Timothy Dingwall (Wannlassa, AU)
Matthew Herscovitch (Chapman Act, AU)
Jason Hart (Fremont, CA, US)
Jason Hart (Fremont, CA, US)
John F. Clark (Orem, UT, US)
John Boyer (Otttawa, CA)
IPC8 Class: AH04L2906FI
Class name: Network credential global (e.g., single sign on (sso), etc.)
Publication date: 2013-10-10
Patent application number: 20130269018
Providing remote user access to secure financial applications includes
deployment of SSO software to client workstations by receiving a password
for collaborating access to a secure server, navigating to the secure
server using a web browser on a remote workstation, providing user
authorization details and the received password to the secure server,
generating a subsequent password at the secure server upon validation of
the user authorization details and received password, and downloading an
SSO deployment file to the remote workstation. The deployment file
includes a subsequent password. The SSO deployment file is executed to
install an SSO client application on the remote workstation. Workstation
settings and user credentials are read from a secure file or data store.
The SSO client application is run on the workstation to employ the user
credentials and subsequent password to logon to the secure application.
23. A non-transitory computer readable storage medium storing software modules that provide remote user access to a secure application, the software modules comprising executable code that is executable to: receive a password for collaborating access to a secure server; receive a subsequent password from the secure server upon validation of user authorization details and the received password; execute an SSO deployment file that includes the subsequent password to install an SSO client application; and run the SSO client application to logon to the secure application with user credentials.
24. The non-transitory computer readable storage medium of claim 23 wherein the SSO client application facilitates reduced or single sign on type remote access to a plurality of secure applications.
25. The non-transitory computer readable storage medium of claim 23 wherein user credentials may take the form of identifiers, passwords, pass phrases, certificates, encryption, signing and authentication key pairs or keys, and Kerberos tickets.
26. The non-transitory computer readable storage medium of claim 23 wherein the user credentials are secured in a local file by user authorization details.
27. The non-transitory computer readable storage medium of claim 23 wherein installing the SSO client application is undertaken dynamically to deliver client application functionality based on at least one of: client location and user credentials.
28. The non-transitory computer readable storage medium of claim 23 wherein the user credentials are consolidated, encrypted and stored in a secure file or data store.
29. The non-transitory computer readable storage medium of claim 23 wherein the user authorization details are encrypted and stored on a web server.
30. The non-transitory computer readable storage medium of claim 23 wherein the SSO client application is adapted to intercept and respond to authentication requests issued by the secure application, including requests issued by at least one of: mainframe applications, web sites, Java applications, Unix applications and Windows applications.
31. The non-transitory computer readable storage medium according to claim 23 wherein the password is received from an external source.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to provision of user access to a secure application, particularly although not exclusively, providing a remote user with secure access to authentication credentials required for reduced or single sign-on services to applications. The invention also relates to the convenient storage and management of such user credentials.
 The present invention has particular, although not exclusive use in providing a remote user with secure access to Internet-based financial services.
DISCUSSION OF THE BACKGROUND ART
 Authenticating the identity of customer information is of paramount importance in Internet-based financial services and banking industries. The Internet has provided users with access to real-time electronic transactions, transferring funds between linked accounts or to other parties. However, such global access leaves systems susceptible to fraud and identity theft.
 There are a number of ways financial institutions employ customer authentication for access to Internet-based services. For example, a simple user name and password/PIN are entered into a front-end interface. More recently, technologies such as digital certificates, smart cards and one-time passwords have been used to add security levels to authentication techniques.
 Single factor authentication acting as the only control mechanism for high risk transactions is considered inadequate. It is desired for Internet-based financial services to provide effective and reliable methods of authentication to safeguard customer information.
 Financial services may involve a number of applications available to the user, spread over a number of controlling departments. For example, credit services may be distinct from investment services and employ different application environments. Accordingly, a level of convenience for the user is required to access multiple applications, while providing a suitable level of security corresponding to the risk of desired transactions.
 Reduced or single sign-on (SSO) services have been developed to manage authentication of users wishing to access secure applications. SSO services provide the advantage of a single authentication to allow a user to gain access to multiple resources. One example of an SSO service is discussed in US Patent Publication No. 2004/0163087 assigned to the present applicant.
 In one form of SSO system there is included a client application installed on a user workstation. Such an application is conventionally installed, whether from local portable storage media or over a secure network connection to a local network server, by adding a persistent program to the menu of applications programs accessible by the workstation's operating system.
 However, security issues are a concern for SSO services. Some organisations are disinclined to distribute single sign-on client applications for installation on a remote user work station in an uncontrolled environment. A home office computing environment, for example, may not be as well protected from external security threats as an office workstation coupled to a fire-walled corporate network. A highly mobile user may further wish to have a reduced or single sign-on capability from a communal computer work station, such as provided in a hotel business centre or Internet cafe. Installation of persistent client applications on a communal or shared work station is generally not possible or at least highly undesirable.
 In an alternative arrangement, a web browser application can be used to access a financial services web site when the workstation is coupled to the Internet. Where the web site incorporates a web portal provided by a back-end portal server, the portal can display information to the user in a consolidated form. The portal server can achieve this by authenticating the user to the secure application on behalf of the user. Thus the single sign-on process occurs between the back-end server and the secure application. However, this arrangement does not address the issue of providing initial secure access to the portal server via the user's web browser application, and still only provides a single-factor authentication process.
 Some prior SSO systems, not necessarily adapted for authentication with Internet-based financial services, are described below.
 The disclosure in US 2003/0105981 (Miller et al.) is concerned with a single sign on system, wherein credentials from a first computer system are placed on a client and used by a second computer system to effectively impersonate the client to the first system for validation purposes. When the first system confirms the validity of the credentials, the second system uses that validation to grant access to the client machine. In one embodiment discussed in Miller, the first system is a central logon server and the second system is a target application server that relies on a token generated by the first system. Miller requires that the client machine provide a service-independent credential/token to the target application system. However, the credential/token is not related to the application credentials rather it is associated with another trusted system, requiring the second system to communicate with the first system to validate the credential/token.
 In a manner similar to web portal single sign-on service terminal server configurations, such as Microsoft Terminal Server® and Citrix Metaframe® or equivalents, many existing SSO solutions run on the terminal server rather than on a remote workstation. Because of this configuration, these solutions are limited to providing SSO services to applications running in the terminal server environment and do nothing to provide SSO to applications run on the user's workstation.
 The disclosure in US 2004/0003081 (Microsoft) is concerned with a single sign on system, wherein a single sign on server receives a request from the client's credentials from a computer program, determines whether the client's credentials are stored in a database, and sends the client's credentials from the database to the computer program. The Microsoft arrangement requires the single sign on server to present the client credentials authorizing access to the application to the target computer program directly, wherein the SSO engine is on the server rather than the client machine.
 The disclosure in US 2004/0250118 (IBM) is concerned with an access portal server that provides a front-end to a set of target applications, providing a single point of authentication for all of the target applications. The access portal server incorporates an SSO engine that provides application credentials to a target application after the target application is selected, and then transfers the authenticated target application session from the access server to the client machine. The IBM arrangement requires the access server to present the application credentials to the target application directly where, again, the SSO engine is on the server instead of on the client machine.
 A further problem with SSO solutions exists when credentials for accessing secure applications hosted by backend systems must be reset or changed. Ordinarily the reset or change of credentials involves going into the normal interface for the backend system; resetting/changing the password or other credentials; accessing the SSO interface and setting the new credential in SSO. However, this procedure is both time consuming and error prone.
 The disclosure in US 2003/0188193 (IBM) is concerned with a single sign on system, wherein credentials from a first system are placed on a client and used by a second system to impersonate the client to the first system. When the first system confirms the validity of the credentials the second system uses that validation to grant access to the client. In one described embodiment utilizing Kerberos authentication, the first system is a central logon server and the second system is a target application server that relies on a token generated by the first system. This arrangement requires the client to provide a service-independent credential/token to the target application system, limiting the invention to when the credential/token is not related to the application credentials themselves but is associated with another trusted system, and further limiting the invention to when the second system communicates to the first system to validate the credential/token.
 The reference to any prior art in this specification is not, and should not be taken as, an acknowledgement or any form of suggestion that the referenced prior art forms part of the common general knowledge in Australia.
 The present invention advantageously provides an alternative to existing arrangements for providing remote secure access to Internet-based financial services. The system and method according to certain embodiments of the present invention may advantageously be used to address at least some of the drawbacks of prior services of the background art.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
 In one broad form, the present invention resides in a method for providing remote user access to secure financial applications by deployment of SSO software to client workstations, said method including the steps of:
 receiving a password for collaborating access to a secure server;
 navigating to the secure server using a web browser on a remote workstation;
 providing user authorisation details and the received password to the secure server;
 generating a subsequent password at the secure server upon validation of the user authorisation details and received password;
 downloading an SSO deployment file to the remote workstation, said deployment file including the subsequent password;
 executing the SSO deployment file to install an SSO client application on the remote workstation;
 reading workstation settings and user credentials from a secure file or data store; and
 running the SSO client application on the workstation to employ the user credentials and subsequent password to logon to the secure application.
 Most preferably in the case of a shared workstation, the method includes a further step of uninstalling the SSO client application when the web browser application is terminated, the user logs off from a current session or the client workstation is re-started. Alternatively in the case of a single user workstation, the SSO client application starts automatically without the need for re-entry of user credentials.
 Suitably, the SSO client facilitates reduced or single sign on type remote access to a plurality of secure applications.
 The secure file for user credentials may be stored on the user workstation, on the web server and/or on a secure third party server. The secure file may take the form of an LDAP directory entry, an ordinary file on a local or remote file system, a file on a portable storage device (such as a USB drive), a token or a smart card. The user credentials may take the form of identifiers; passwords, including one-time passwords (OTP); pass phrases; certificates; encryption, signing and authentication key pairs or keys; Kerberos tickets; any other authentication or authorisation data. In one particularly preferred form, the user credentials are secured in a local file by the user authorisation details, such as an initial username and password.
 The step of installing the SSO client application may be undertaken dynamically to deliver client application functionality based on client location and/or user credentials.
 Preferably the present method includes the precursor step of consolidating, encrypting and storing user credentials in the secure file or data store. Suitably user authorisation details are encrypted and stored on the web server.
 The SSO application is suitably adapted to intercept and respond to authentication requests issued by the secure application, preferably including requests issued by mainframe applications, web sites, Java applications, Unix applications and/or Windows applications.
 In the event that a secure application prompts user credentials to be changed, the SSO application is preferably further adapted to:
 intercept such application prompts;
 ask the user for the changed credentials or automatically generate changed user credentials;
 validate that the changed credentials meet the secure application's requirements;
 enter the changed credentials into the application prompt that was intercepted; and
 encrypt and send the changed credentials to the secure file or datastore.
 If required, changes to the SSO datastore may be monitored and transferred to an authentication database of the secure application.
 Preferably, the password is received from an external source.
 In another broad form, the invention resides in a system for providing remote user access to secure financial applications, said system including:
 a secure server coupled to a publicly accessible global communications network, said secure server having a single sign-on (SSO) service module, an SSO deployment file and associated user authorisation details;
 at least one remote workstation having a web browser for navigating to the secure server via the publicly accessible global communications network; and
 wherein the SSO deployment file includes instructions for execution on a plurality of processors for performing the above described method.
 The SSO service module preferably effects initial user authentication and thereafter manages download of the SSO deployment file for execution on said at least one remote workstation.
 The SSO deployment file suitably includes a management control program for controlling download from the secure server and installation of an SSO client application on said at least one workstation.
 The SSO client application, once installed, can provide sign-on and user credential caching in relation to said secure application for the user at said remote workstation.
 In still another broad form, the invention further includes a sub-system for reverse synchronisation of user credentials required to access secure financial applications for a server managing an SSO datastore accessible by a plurality of remote workstations, said sub-system including:
 an SSO datastore monitor server coupled to the server for monitoring changes to user credentials in the SSO datastore; and
 upon changes being effected to user credentials for a secure financial application, said SSO datastore monitor server is adapted to: connect to a respective back-end system hosting said secure financial application, and
 modify the corresponding user credentials held in an authentication database for the secure financial application on the back-end system.
BRIEF DETAILS OF THE DRAWINGS
 In order that this invention may be more readily understood and put into practical effect, reference will now be made to the accompanying drawings illustrate preferred embodiments of the invention, and wherein:
 FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing the main software modules utilised by a first embodiment of the invention;
 FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating the arrangement of interfaces amongst the software modules which allow communications between a web server and a client workstation of the first embodiment;
 FIG. 3 is a flow diagram depicting the sequence of the communications between respective modules of the first embodiment;
 FIG. 4 is a block diagram showing components of a second embodiment of the invention in one configuration;
 FIG. 5 is a block diagram of the embodiment of FIG. 4 in a further configuration; and
 FIG. 6 is a block diagram showing a system of a third embodiment of the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
 In the following discussion and in the claims that follow, the term "including" and "includes" are used, and are to be read, in an open-ended fashion, and should be interpreted to mean "including, but not limited to . . . ".
 In FIG. 1 there is shown a web server 110 which is coupled to an exemplary client PC or workstation 120 via a publicly accessible global communications network, such as the Internet. The web server 110 and the client workstation 120 constitute the operational environment 100 of a first embodiment of the method of the invention. The method of the first embodiment utilises a number of software modules, including an "EspreSSO" single sign-on (SSO) service module 112 resident on the web server 110, together with an "EspreSSO" deployment file (EDF) module 122, a conventional web browser 124 and an SSO client module 126, each deployed to or, in the case of the browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer®, resident on the workstation 120. The deployment file module 122 further includes a management control program (MCP) sub-module 123.
 The function of each of the modules will now be described briefly. The SSO service module 112 is responsible for initial user authentication, client download and configuration information management. In the present embodiment, the service is constituted by a Java Servlet responding to HTTP requests sent over SSL. However, a wide range of alternative technologies may be utilised for implementation of the service module functions, as desired.
 The deployment file module 122 is responsible for executing native code within the web browser and ensuring the integrity of that native code, suitably using digital signatures. In the present embodiment, the deployment file is implemented using CAB/ICD for Internet Explorer, although other embodiments may employ XPI for Mozilla's "Firefox" browser. Furthermore other mechanisms for ensuring integrity of the executable native code may be employed in the alternative.
 The MCP sub-module provided with the deployment file is responsible for controlling download of the SSO client 126. The MCP sub-module provides a local web server function which executes within the user's security context and employs a bootstrap configuration. This insulates the client SSO application from the configuration mechanism and allows a portable storage device, such as a Universal Serial Bus (USB) drive solution. The MCP sub-module may be implemented in the embodiment using a Microsoft Windows executable file.
 The browser module 124 is responsible for downloading and executing the deployment file 122, providing a user interface for the local web server and for the SSO service. The browser may be Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox or another compatible web browser.
 The SSO client 126 is responsible for providing the sign-on and handling lifetime management and user credential caching. A configuration interface is provided specifically for this purpose, as will be described further below.
 The operation of each of the modules of the embodiment will now be described in further detail below:
 The primary responsibility of the SSO service module is to facilitate the download of the deployment file 122 to the client workstation 120 from the web server 110. To do this the service module 112 generates an HTML user interface readable by the web browser 124 and from which the user can start the download. The second responsibility of the SSO service is to authenticate the user of the client workstation 120. This involves presenting a log-on form in the HTML user interface, requesting the user provide authentication details. The authentication details include an initial password received via an external source (over a telephone as a voice communication, for example), as well as known personal details such as a PIN or password.
 The SSO service module 112 generates a subsequent password in the form of a new set of OTP keys, for example, and sets the subsequent password on the web server once the authentication procedure described above is complete. The service module also places the subsequent password in the deployment file. The subsequent password may involve a number of passwords.
 Once the authentication and generation of the subsequent password is completed, the download of the SSO deployment file 122 may begin.
 The last and more complex area of responsibility for the SSO service module 112 is the storage and retrieval of SSO configuration data. The simplest part of this is a bootstrap configuration document that instructs the SSO client 126 as to which data store mode it should run in, and the servers with which it should connect. The more complex part of this procedure is to allow the secure retrieval by the client of the authentication details entered into the log-on form.
 It is recognised that there are a large number of competing technologies available for creating web applications such as the SSO service module, including Java Servlets, .Net server and CGI/mod_perl solutions. However, the present embodiment described herein utilises Java Servlet technology in view of the applicant's successful implementation of earlier related products, including the SSO service discussed above in the background art. Furthermore the applicant has access to suitable data store interface libraries written in Java and is aware that Java Servlet containers are available on a wide range of Microsoft and non-Microsoft computing platforms.
SSO Deployment File
 The SSO deployment file module 122 is a group of Windows binary files packaged such that they can be securely downloaded from a web site and then executed by the web browser as a normal Windows application. From the perspective of client workstation security, this is clearly a very dangerous operation, hence web browsers typically employ digital certificates and other security mechanisms to ensure that only trusted binaries are installed and executed.
 The EspreSSO deployment file (EDF) module will contain only the binary files required for starting the MCP, as well as the subsequent password generated by the service module. The EDF can be viewed as a means of downloading and running the MCP in a secure fashion without user intervention.
 The present embodiment of the invention happens to target Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) browsers. IE includes several technologies that can be used to create an EDF, including the Microsoft's Internet Component Download (ICD) technology. Another option is use of a signed Java package which may become more viable as the support for Java within IE improves.
 ICD is a technology design to allow the secure download and execution of ActiveX controls in a web browser by wrapping all of its components in CAB files, which files can then be signed. If a CAB file is signed with a certified software publisher certificate, the user is still prompted to accept the download, but the screen says that the CAB file can be trusted.
 However ICD is not without some drawbacks, including the way in which some systems administrators are restricting IE functionality. ActiveX controls have worried administrators since their introduction on security grounds, as they allow execution of code on a client machine. To address these concerns, technologies such as Java and .Net have arisen which provide similar functionality to ActiveX, but which restrict the activities of these components to a safe "sand box". In response, many administrators have turned off the ActiveX functionality in their browsers, a move which then prevents ICD execution.
 While posing a problem for the ICD EDF format of the embodiment, the .Net platform still provides mechanisms which can be used to achieve similar functionality. The .Net Smart Client Model allows for the secure download of .Net executables in an alternative embodiment of the invention.
 The applicants are cognisant that Internet Explorer is not the only web browser in widespread use. Mozilla's "Firefox" browser is growing in popularity, and hence a different EDF format will be developed for it. Fortunately, Firefox includes an extension download mechanism that support signing and automatic download in a similar fashion to ICD. The system, called XPInstall (XPI), is used throughout the browser itself, and is relatively simple to use.
Management Control Program
 The MCP 126 is responsible for controlling the SSO client download and operation. When started from the EDF module 122, the MCP's first responsibility is to download other required components, such as additional executable files and dynamic link libraries (DLLs). This is done from the MCP and not the EDF for two reasons. First, the less that is packaged in the EDF the easier it will be to create EDFs for different browsers (eg. for Firefox as foreshadowed above), and secondly it allows the download of exactly those components that are required without a large number of files within the EDF.
 Once all of the required components are downloaded, the MCP's task is to correctly configure the SSO client 126 and start it. To do this the MCP downloads configuration information from the SSO Service 112, and uses this to setup the SSO client 126 so that it will start automatically without user intervention. The MCP collaborates the subsequent password from the server and applies it to the SSO client.
 If the user entered lightweight directory access protocol (LDAP) credentials in the SSO service logon form, the MCP also retrieves these from the SSO service module and supplies them to the SSO client.
 The SSO Client 126 is responsible for signing on to configured secure financial applications, and running wizards to allow the applications to be configured. It is intended that, once installed on the client work station 120, the SSO client of the embodiment should function in an equivalent fashion as a standard SSO client. This is desirable for compatibility reasons and to allow updates made to the standard client can be made available to EspreSSO users immediately.
 In an alternative embodiment, the MCP may be integrated within the SSO client, wherein the SSO deployment file is arranged to configure and control the download using the subsequent password.
 The web browser 124 is responsible for rendering the HTML web pages from the EspreSSO Service 112 and downloading and executing the EDF module 122. The rendering of HTML is reasonably well standardized and should not vary significantly amongst different browsers. The download and execution of the EDF on the other hand is browser and operating system specific. Accordingly, the EDF files will require tailoring to specific end-use, as discussed in the EDF section above.
 Turning to FIG. 2, the functional modules of the embodiment are illustrated with their respective interfaces. In the embodiment, all interfaces are implemented using HTTP POST and GET messages. Considering the SSO service module 112, the EspreSSOBootstrapInfo interface 113 provides a document listing, datastore mode and other configuration options for the MCP sub-module 123 which will be discussed further below. This interface also allows for one-time retrieval of authorisation credentials from the SSO service 112, as well as additional retrieval of the subsequent password. The AuthUI interface 114 provides the initial HTML graphical user interface (GUI) page for the Browser 124. The ConfigurationUI interface 115 provides HTML configuration for the GUI, by provision of get, modify and save functions.
 Only one interface is supported by the MCP module 123, namely the AppLaunchGUI 128 which is implemented as an embedded HTTP server (hostlocal only). The interface provides a list of installed applications available for launch and replaces an ActiveX component.
 All communication with the SSO client module 126 is routed through the SSOBootStrapper interface 127, which allows centralised changes to client mechanisms. The interface provides methods to set data store mode using a configuration document, set authorisation credentials and both start and stop the client process. Importantly in the embodiment, it is implemented within the client module so that should the SSO client change how it stores its configuration, the implementation of this interface and be conveniently updated at the same time. Details of further functional aspects of certain logical interfaces of the embodiment are set out below:
 GetSSOBootstrapConfig--Retrieves a document containing bootstrap information for the MCP and SSO client.
 GetSSOAuthDetails--Retrieves an XML document containing the username, password and any other authentication details entered by the user into the EspreSSO Service logon page. This method can only be called once, after the first invocation the XML document is destroyed and subsequent calls will fail.
 GetEDF--Retrieves the EDF.
 GetClientComponent--Retrieves an additional SSO client component.
 SetSSOBootstrapConfig--Accepts a document containing bootstrap information for the SSO client.
 SetSSOAuthDetails--Accepts a document containing authentication information for the datastore.
 StartSSOClient--Starts the SSO client.
 HTTPGet--Returns an HTML document displaying the logon form.
 HTTPPostSubmitAuthDetails--This method validates the authentication details supplied in the logon form. If these details are correct it returns an HTML document that causes the EDF to be downloaded, otherwise it displays an error page.
 HTTPGet--Returns an HTML document displaying all of the SSO configured applications that are currently available on the local machine along with hyperlinks to launch them.
 Once the code has been deployed to the client workstation, the client code needs to query the EspreSSO server for configuration and authentication information including collaborating access with the subsequent password. Further, other modules need to communicate with each other. Communication between modules on the client PC 120 in the embodiment is performed using function calls exported from Windows DLLs.
 Communication between client modules and the EspreSSO service 112 on the web server 110 is performed using HTTP Post messages. For interfaces such as SSOBootstrapInfo which are designed for automated use, a query string format is described in detail above in the Interfaces section. As HTTP is a stateless protocol, special measures must be taken to ensure that the EspreSSO service understands that the current request is linked to a previous request. This is especially important when the first request was an authentication operation which the second request relies upon.
 The Java Servlets of the embodiment provide a mechanism known as Sessions to address this issue. When a session is created, an HTTP Cookie called JSESSIONID is returned to the user. In each subsequent request this cookie is sent to the server, allowing the server to know that the requests are all a part of the same session. One difficulty can arise when separate client executable modules want to access the same servlet session. This is a result of the fact that JSESSIONID is a cookie that is tied to the browser session, and may not be accessible to other programs. In this case an external mechanism is provided for this cookie to be propagated to other processes that require access to the same session.
 More complex communications interfaces such as SOAP were also considered for this role. While such systems provide some extensibility and advanced features, the simplicity of the data and function call requirements does not warrant such complexity in the present embodiment.
 In one mode of use, the method of the first embodiment relates to a roaming corporate user or consumer who is accessing the WebEspresso SSO system (such as a financial web server 110) from a shared workstation (such as client PC 120); installation of the client is ephemeral and employs the following steps:
 1. User receives a password from an external source;
 2. User employs the web browser 124 to navigate to a Web Espresso form furnished by the EspreSSO service 112;
 3. User enters authorisation details and the received password comprising the authorisation details into the form;
 4. Web Server 110 validates the supplied user authorisation details against a database and generates a subsequent password to be placed in a deployment file 122;
 5. Web server starts download of a WebEspresso package in the form of the SSO deployment file 122;
 6. Client PC 120 runs the SSO deployment file and further components, including the management control program (MCP) 123, are installed/configured according to the client PC environment, in accordance with a collaboration with the subsequent password now stored on the client's PC;
 7. Client settings and user secrets or credentials are read from a secure local file (not shown) or the web server 110;
 8. SSO client application effects single sign on to desired/authorised secure financial applications, including Web applications, Windows applications, Terminal services and Java applications; and
 9. When the web browser 124 is terminated, the user session ends or the client PC 120 is restarted the SSO client 126 uninstalls itself.
 Steps 2 through 8 of the method described above are shown in FIG. 3, wherein further details of the communications occurring amongst the modules of FIG. 1 utilising the interfaces of FIG. 2 are depicted.
 When form displayed by AuthUI is submitted in step 3, the user's credentials are transmitted over the network to the EspreSSO web server. Two things need to be ensured here, firstly that the server credentials are being sent to is a trusted EspreSSO Server, and secondly that no one except that trusted EspreSSO server can access the credentials. By requiring that all communications with the EspreSSO server are performed using HTTPS, and assuming that a trust relationship has already been setup between the server SSL certificate and the client browser, both of these concerns can be addressed.
 The EDF Instantiator interface 125 is utilised by the browser to create the MCP 123, which is itself launched by the browser via the AppLauchGUI interface 125 in steps 4 and 4.1. Step 7 above is labelled as 4.1.5 and involves obtaining the authorisation details from the EspreSSO service 112 in FIG. 3. After the EspreSSO service has validated the user credentials provided though the AuthUI form, these credentials must be made available to the MCP through the deployment file. To secure this, the EspreSSO service must ensure that only the client who submitted the authentication form can then retrieve those credentials. This is the main function of the subsequent password stored on the client's workstation from the deployment file. Where the subsequent password is a generated set of OTPs, an additional, ever-changing suite of passwords is employed, making the workstation a factor in the authentication process.
 Additional mechanisms are employed to ensure client authentication with the EspreSSO service. For example, the EspreSSO service will only return the credentials if the correct JSESSIONID is provided. As JSESSIONID was only transferred between the server and client over SSL, it will only be known to the intended client. Further, once the credentials have been retrieved from the EspreSSO Service they are deleted, meaning that if someone does later discover the correct JSESSIONID they will not be able to access the credentials.
 Step 8 above is labelled as 4.1.7 in FIG. 3, which step involves the SSO Client module 126 starting after being bootstrapped by the MCP utilising the SSOBootstrapper interface 127.
 Other embodiments of the method vary according to the intended environment of use. For example, in the case of corporate desktop environments which mostly have a strong package management infrastructure, there are exceptions. Those corporate customers that may only have very limited package deployment systems could conveniently take advantage of the easy deployment offered by WebEspresso. The steps in such a variation to the first embodiment could then include:
 1. User navigates to the Web Espresso form;
 2. User enters authorisation details including a received password into form;
 3. Server validates the supplied user authorisation details against an LDAP Directory and generates subsequent password for addition to the WebEspresso package;
 4. Server starts download of WebEspresso package;
 5. Client PC or laptop runs WebEspresso package and further components are installed/configured as required and in accordance with subsequent password;
 6. Corporate settings and user secrets or credentials are downloaded from an LDAP Directory;
 7. SSO client application effects single sign on to selected secure financial applications, including Web applications, Windows applications, Terminal services and Java applications; and
 8. The next time the user logs into their PC or laptop the WebEspreSSO client application starts automatically without requiring credentials.
 In this variation the SSO client application behaves like a traditionally installed application. This variation to the embodiment allows financial services' customers to use and manage SSO in the normal way, but to take advantage of the easy deployment offered by the WebEspreSSO system.
 Thus it will be appreciated that the method of the present invention can cater for different environments of use. On the one hand, organisations may wish to provide a single directory based data store for all application and system credentials required by authorised users, regardless of type and level of access authority. Corporate users of Espresso will most likely want to store their configuration information in an LDAP or similar directory. To support this, the standard SSO datastores are available can include ActiveDirectory, eDirectory and LDAP.
 Alternatively, for users in a consumer or B2C environment, it is unlikely that a LDAP Directory will be available. Further, many users will not want to store their credentials in a datastore owned by a third party. Accordingly, the following datastore options may be provided to support these scenarios: Standalone; Smart Card and HTTP Datastore. The Standalone Espresso datastore option stores data in a local file which is protected by the username and password from the initial web logon form. The Smart Card option stores data on in a storage area on a smart card protected by a PIN, or stores data in a local file protected by a key stored on the smart card. Whilst the HTTP Datastore option uses HTTP to provide datastore services across the web. Furthermore mobile users may also wish to take a secure wallet of credentials with them during travel, which wallet is secured on the desktop of their PC, laptop, personal digital assistant (PDA), mobile telephone or like portable computing device and on the server.
 The method of the invention is a valuable functional extension to a secure single sign-on arrangement, which extensions enable web distribution and dynamic configuration of an SSO financial application. The present invention employs multi-factor authentication providing an acceptable level of security for high risk transactions, or electronic account origination that has traditionally required physical cues at financial institutions.
 We now turn to further operational aspects the SSO client application of the embodiment after installation. The SSO application is suitably adapted to intercept and respond to authentication requests issued by the secure financial application, preferably including requests issued by mainframe applications, web sites, Java applications, Unix applications and/or Windows applications.
 In the event that a secure financial application prompts user credentials to be changed, the SSO application of the embodiment is further adapted to intercept such prompts, ask the user for the changed credentials, validate that the changed credentials meet the secure financial application's requirements and encrypt and send the changed credentials to the credential datastore. Alternatively the SSO application may automatically generate new or changed credentials for the user. This procedure conveniently keeps the SSO data in synchronism with the requirements of the secure financial application. The procedure requires a password for a secure financial application to be changed in the SSO data store, and have a server process change the password in the secure financial application's authentication database. Accordingly requests to change or reset passwords for secure financial applications can be executed simply by changing data in the SSO datastore.
 A further enhancement of the SSO system resides in a reverse synchronisation procedure, whereby the SSO datastore is monitored for changes and these changes in credentials are relayed to the authentication database of the relevant secure financial application. An exemplary system configuration for reverse synchronisation, which is useful for resetting or changing credentials required for accessing secure financial applications on back-end systems, is illustrated in FIG. 6.
 The system 200 of the embodiment includes a user workstation, such as a PC 201, running an SSO service, an SSO data server 210 which holds SSO data in a datastore (not shown), an SSO datastore monitor server 212 which monitors the SSO datastore, and a backend application 214 on a back-end machine. The back-end machine also includes an authentication database (not shown) for the secure financial applications which it hosts. In use, the SSO datastore monitor server 212 watches the SSO data server 210 for any changes to credentials. If any credentials in the SSO data store managed by the SSO data server do change, the monitor server connects to the relevant backend application and modifies its authentication database to reflect the change made the to SSO data store.
 It should be appreciated that the PC 201 running SSO and the SSO data server 210 may be configured using either the SSO download solution of the present invention or, alternatively, a prior art SSO solution such as a persistent installation from distribution media.
 Where a highly mobile user is utilising a credential wallet in a handheld device, such as a PDA or smart mobile telephone, the SSO datastore can also synchronise with the wallet. This is particularly advantageous in cases where the SSO system is randomly generating credentials, or when as one-time passwords (OTPs) are being used.
 The applicant recognises that OTPs are an authentication mechanism with a number of useful security properties, whereby OTP authentication mechanisms are resistant to phishing attacks and also find utility on insecure networks. However, it has been realised that the insertion of information specifying how an authentication was performed into the OTP can enable graded access. This would only require changes to the initial authentication infrastructure and the secure financial application, and not require changes to any intermediate systems.
 Portable computing devices, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) which are now sometimes integrated with mobile telephones, are becoming ubiquitous. These devices can run small applications and communicate with other computers, using either a cable or wireless connections (such as infrared or Bluetooth links) whether via public communication channels (such as the Internet) or via private or proprietary communications channels. FIGS. 4 and 5 show a system 300 of a second embodiment of the present invention that utilises the programmability of these devices and their ability to communicate with a computer to create a secure store of user credentials.
 In a first configuration of the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 4, a PDA 301 is connected to a personal computer (PC) 302 that is running an SSO service. The SSO service includes an extension that is responsive to requests for user credentials from the PDA. A program is installed on the PDA that makes such requests to the SSO service on the PC to retrieve all of the user's credentials (usernames, passwords, one time password (OTP) keys, certificates and key pairs) and store them securely in a file on the PDA. This would involve the PC in communicating with a network connected SSO server 310 having an SSO datastore.
 In a further configuration illustrated in FIG. 5, the PDA communicates directory with the SSO server 310 via a TCP/IP connection. The operation of this further configuration is the, same as that of the first, with the exception that the service queried by the program on the PDA resides on the SSO server 310.
 Once the user credentials are stored on the PDA, the user can run a program on the PDA that allows them to retrieve their credentials. This program first prompts them for authorisation details (such as a PIN) and then displays their credentials or, in the case of one time passwords, generates a valid one time password. For security, administrators or users can restrict which credentials are replicated to the PDA.
 It is to be understood that the above embodiments have been provided only by way of exemplification of this invention, and that further modifications and improvements thereto, as would be apparent to persons skilled in the relevant art, are deemed to fall within the broad scope and ambit of the present invention described herein and defined in the claims which follow.
Patent applications by Jason Hart, Fremont, CA US
Patent applications in class Global (e.g., Single Sign On (SSO), etc.)
Patent applications in all subclasses Global (e.g., Single Sign On (SSO), etc.)