Patent application title: Viral expression plasmids for production of proteins, antibodies, enzymes, virus-like particles and for use in cell-based assays
Toomas Silla (Tartu, EE)
Ingrid Tagen (Tartu, EE)
Jelizaveta Geimanen (Tartu, EE)
Kadri Janikson (Tartu, EE)
Aare Abroi (Tartu, EE)
Ene Ustav (Tartu, EE)
Mart Ustav (Tartu, EE)
Tiiu Mandel (Tartu, EE)
Urve Toots (Tartu, EE)
Andres Tover (Tartu, EE)
Anne Kalling (Tartu, EE)
Radi Tegova (Tartu, EE)
ICOSAGEN CELL FACTORY OU
IPC8 Class: AC12N1585FI
Class name: Animal cell, per se (e.g., cell lines, etc.); composition thereof; process of propagating, maintaining or preserving an animal cell or composition thereof; process of isolating or separating an animal cell or composition thereof; process of preparing a composition containing an animal cell; culture media therefore rodent cell, per se mouse (i.e., mus)
Publication date: 2013-09-12
Patent application number: 20130236958
This disclosure shows that the EBV FR-element comprised of EBNA1
multimeric binding sites can provide the stable maintenance replication
function to the mouse polyomavirus (PyV) core origin plasmids in the
presence of BPV-1 E2 protein and PyV large T-antigen (LT).
1. An expression system to provide extended episomal replication of
hybrid plasmid in eukaryotic cell lines, said system comprising: a) a
vector comprising a polyoma virus core origin according to SEQ ID NO:2,
an FR element of EBV, a selection marker, and a gene of interest operably
linked within an expression cassette expressing the gene in a eukaryotic
cell; and b) a compatible mammalian cell line, where the vector is
expressed, said cell line constitutively expressing EBV EBNA1 protein and
PyV LT protein either in presence or in absence of selective pressure.
2. The system according to claim 1, wherein the FR element comprises at least 21 EBNA1 binding sites.
3. The system according to claim 2, wherein the EBNA 1 binding sites are according to sequences selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 3, 4, and 6.
4. The system according to claim 3, wherein the FR element is according to SEQ ID NO:1.
5. The system according to claim 1, wherein the cell line is of mouse, hamster or human origin.
6. The system according to claim 1, wherein the gene of interest encodes a protein for pharmaceutical use.
7. The system according to claim 6, wherein the protein is a monoclonal antibody.
8. The system according to claim 6, wherein the protein is virus envelope or capside protein.
9. The system according to claim 6, where the protein is fused to an epitope-tag.
10. The system according to claim 9, where the epitope tag has an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:20, 21, 22 and 23.
11. An expression plasmid for use in a mammalian cell expression system, said vector comprising: a) a polyoma virus core origin, b) an FR element of Eppstein Barr Virus (EBV); c) a selection marker; and d) an expression cassette for expression a gene of interest in a eukaryotic cell.
12. The expression plasmid of claim 11, where the polyoma virus core origin is according to SEQ ID NO:2 and the FR element is according to SEQ ID NO:1.
13. The expression plasmid of claim 11, wherein the expression cassette comprises a multicloning site for insertion of the gene of interest, and a promoter.
14. The expression plasmid of claim 13, wherein the promoter is selected from the group consisting of Cytomegalovirus immediate early (CMV)-promoter, EF1.alpha.; EF1.alpha.-HTLV, heIF 4a, β-actine, and Rous Sarcoma Virus proviral Long Termina Repeat (RSV-LTR)-promoter.
15. The expression plasmid of claim 13, wherein the gene of interest encodes a protein for pharmaceutical use.
16. The expression plasmid of claim 15, wherein the protein is a monoclonal antibody.
17. The expression plasmid of claim 15, wherein the protein is virus envelope or capside protein.
18. The expression plasmid of claim 15, where the protein is fused to an epitope-tag.
19. The expression plasmid of claim 18, where the epitope tag has an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:20,21,22, and 23.
20. A cell lien comprising the expression plasmid of claim 11.
 This application is continuation application of non provisional application Ser. No. 12/803,831 which was filed on Jul. 7, 2010 and claimed priority of non provisional patent application Ser. No. 11/351,809 which was filed on Feb. 10, 2006 and claimed priority of provisional application 60/652,390 filed on Feb. 11, 2005, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
 This application contains sequence data provided on a computer readable diskette and as a paper version. The paper version of the sequence data is identical to the data provided on the diskette.
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to production of proteins, antibodies, enzymes and virus like particles in novel engineered animal and human cell lines using eukaryotic hybrid replication origin carrying extrachromosomally replicating expression plasmids. The present invention also relates to short term production of the proteins of interest for research purposes lasting up to 14 days. The present invention also relates to production of the proteins of interest using stable long term extrachromosomal replication of hybrid expression plasmid in engineered eukaryotic cell lines in large quantities in bioreactors or fermentors. The present invention also relates to use of long term extrachromosomal replication of the hybrid expression plasmids in engineered animal and human cells lines for providing expression of the proteins at physiological level in the form of epitope-tagged proteins for the purpose designing cell-based assays for identification of the active drug candidates using High Content Analysis.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 Several eukaryotic DNA viruses maintain their genomes as extrachromosomal multicopy nuclear episomes in proliferating host cells. Such episomal maintenance is characteristic of latent infection of the Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) as well as for Kaposi sarcoma associated Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV8). The latency of the viral genome in dividing cell population requires activity of the viral genome at the two phases of the cell cycle: the viral genome replication during the S phase and proper segregation and partitioning of the replicated genomes into daughter cells during the host cell mitosis. For BPV-1 and two members of the gammaherpesvirus family--EBV and HHV8 an effective segregation of viral genomes into daughter cells and nuclear retention during mitosis is mediated through a single viral protein serving as a molecular linker, which attaches viral genomes to the host mitotic chromosomes. This linker protein is a viral regulatory protein E2 for BPV-1, viral transactivator EBNA1 for EBV and viral transcription repressor LANA1 for HHV8.
 For initiation of the BPV-1 DNA replication in vivo, minimal origin region in cis and two viral proteins--E1 and E2, in trans, are absolutely essential. However, the minimal origin (MO) is not sufficient for stable extrachromosomal replication in dividing cells. An additional element, the Minichromosome Maintenance Element (MME) ensures the long-term episomal persistence of the genome in the presence of viral E1 and the E2 proteins in the dividing cells. In the BPV-1 genome, total of 17 E2 protein binding sites with different affinities to E2 can be identified: 12 of these are locating in the noncoding upstream regulatory region (URR). We have shown that the minichromosome maintenance element (MME) activity can be provided by the subset of the E2 binding sites. The function of multimeric E2 protein binding sites in the stable maintenance of the BPV-1 genomes is to provide the anchoring function for the E2 protein, which therefore tethers MME containing plasmids to mitotic chromosomes. This linkage between the BPV-1 genome and host chromatin ensures also that the viral genome is targeted to the nucleus when the nuclear membrane is reassembled during mitosis. In the case of EBV, the stable maintenance of replicated genomes is achieved due to the EBNA1 protein and FR-element, which is comprised of multimeric EBNA1 protein binding sites.
 We have shown that the BPV1 E2 protein dependent MME (Abroi et al. 2004) and EBV EBNA1 dependent FR (Mannik, Janikson and Ustav, unpublished) segregation/partitioning activities function independently from replication of the plasmids.
 Transfection or infection of permissive cells with polyomavirus genome or replicator results in amplificational replication leading to cell death due to the over-replication. The mechanism of the BPV-1 origin based episomal replication is more complex and controlled. On one hand the first amplificational replication step, resembling in many aspects polyomavirus lytic over-replication is crucial for establishment of the stable episomal replication of the papillomavirus DNA. Such replication leads to increase of expression level of the viral proteins and copy-number of the viral genome. Increase of the E1 protein concentration, however, over certain limit induces the "onion-skin" type replication of the BPV-1 origin and generation of the replication intermediates having tendency for high frequency of DNA rearrangements and integration of the fragments of the viral DNA into chromosomal DNA. To maintain the stability and intactness of the viral genome, virus has to apply certain mechanism to assure proper balance between initiation and elongation of replication fork as well as segregation/partitioning of the viral plasmids during cell division
 Therapeutic protein production in small and large scale is important field of development in pharmaceutical industry, because proteins produced in animal cells have proper processing, post-translational modification and therefore have adequate activity for treatment of the physiological condition. In general, for research purposes, the transient expression systems are used. The expression plasmids equipped with strong promoter driving expression of gene of interest is transfected into the appropriate cells using either chemical transfection (like Lipofectamine 2000) or physical transfection, like electroporation. Transfection could be carried out in small scale, resulting in small amount of produced protein or transfected in large scale (up to 100 liters of cell suspension) allowing harvesting expressed protein in large quantity. Problem with large scale transfections is high cost for expensive transfection agent, large quantity of the expression plasmid, and large cost for maintaining large quantity of the cell culture. In these cases the transient transfection has been optimized for 293 HEK cells. However, therapeutic proteins for human use are mostly produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cells), which have been proved to be safe and effective for production of therapeutic proteins. This is achieved by generating CHO stable super-producer cell lines isolated as result of screening and several subclonings. These steps are time and money consuming and therefore impractical for research applications. Use of CHO cells has turned out to be difficult in transient production assays due to the poor transfection and production capability.
 In order to overcome the shortage of CHO cells in production of therapeutic proteins in transient transfections, use of episomal expression vectors is one of the possibilities enhancing expression plasmid copy-number and maintaining it in the cells for extended time for enlarging fraction of cell producing therapeutic protein as well as improving yield of the protein production.
 The stable episomal maintenance systems described earlier (U.S. Pat. No. 6,479,279) were provided with homologous replication origins. Characteristic for these systems is for example a high mutation frequency, especially recombination. Furthermore, the system does not maintain stably replicating episomes in cells because part of the cells lose their plasmid in every generations. This deficiency of the system can be compensated by application of continuous antibiotic selection pressure on cells in order to eliminate the plasmid-negative cells from the culture. This fact creates serious limits for the system to be used for example in protein production.
 U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/938,864 (Kunaparaju) provides a heterologous system, which is capable of stable episomal replication lasting a couple of weeks. Kunaparaju uses two functional replicons in the expression plasmid--one dependent on wtPyV replication origin and Large T-antigen and second, oriP and EBNA1. Limitations in this system is use of wild type polyomavirus origin equipped with enhancer which we have shown to initiate over-replication and generating too high copy-number of the plasmid leading to death of the cells. Cell adaptation to too high copy-number will include rearrangement of the plasmid leading to genetic instability and therefore incompatibility with the requirements for therapeutic protein production. Second limitation is use of complete oriP, which is comprised of two elements--Dyad Symmetry Element (DUE), which is eukaryotic origin of replication functioning as a result of cellular replication factors and Family of Repeats (FR), which is serving as cis-sequence for EBNA1 dependent segregation/partitioning of the plasmid. It means that Kunaparaju et al. invention uses two viral eukaryotic origins of replication, which may fire independently of each other and generate a conflict between initiation of DNA replication. The present disclosure provides improvements over the problems encountering prior systems.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 The present disclosure provides an extended episomal maintenance system with heterologous replication origin, stable episomal replication lasting longer than with any prior art method, cell viability staying high for longer than with any other known method.
 The present disclosure provides a system where plasmids containing core polyoma virus origin (not containing enhancer function) partition into daughter cells. The system according to this disclosure provides a hybrid system where a unique configuration of polyoma virus origin (core polyomavirus origin not containing enhancer function) is stable for initiation of replication by the large T antigen and is segregated due to the action of helper protein EBNA1 from Epstein-Barr virus acting on multimeric EBNA1 binding sites fused to the PyV enhancerless replication origin during the mitosis.
 An advantage of the present system is that high copy-number extrachromsomal state of chimeric origins is maintained without rearrangement. The present invention further provides a possibility to combine vectors with polyoma virus origin and papilloma origin into a single cell, thereby enabling expression of more than one different recombinant proteins or RNAs in one cell. A further advantage of the current system is that it provides stable episomal maintenance in the cell that lasts up to several months as opposed to all previous systems, which provide maintenance of maximally a few weeks.
 In U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/351,809 we showed how the stable maintenance can be provided with a hybrid plasmid containing the PyV core origin, and MME element containing at least 5 E2-binding sites. We also showed that the extended stable maintenance can be provided also by replacing the enhancer with EBNA1-binding sites of EBV. Here we describe in more details the expression system comprising PyV core origin, and FR element of EBV in various applications.
 The problem that we aim to solve is that production of gene products in animal cell systems is costly and time consuming. This problem has been solved in the present disclosure by providing data, which show that transient expression of gene products in the engineered cells is possible due to the high efficiency of delivery of the expression plasmids. Since the genes of interest are replicated and maintained outside the chromatin in the nucleus, the replicating expression plasmids do not have positional effect of the host cell DNA on expression of the gene of interest like it has been shown for the stable cell lines carrying integrated expression cassettes. The extrachromosomal plasmids go to the progeny in cell division and segregation, maintain transcriptional activity and with the method of the current disclosure, the expression of the gene products can be continued for months. This enables generation of the production of the proteins of interest using cell population with homologous copy-number of extrachromosomal expression plasmids without additional subcloning. Use of the expression system according to this disclosure allows production of therapeutic proteins in research setting using the transient mode of expression. Additional benefit of the system disclosed here is that we can generate cell banks and maintain these in liquid nitrogen, which allows repeated production of the protein of interest. Further, we can use the same cell banks for large scale production of the therapeutic proteins in cost and time effective way.
 Development of stable expression in cell lines takes usually several months or even years. The system that we describe here is enabling generation of production cell culture in transient format as well as stable long-term culture and is much faster and therefore useful and novel. Further more, transient systems so far known do not have capability of maintaining expression plasmid in the cell and therefore they have very limited half-life; i.e. maximally up to 7 days. In addition, those systems may need construction of recombinant viruses, which makes the systems expensive and very time consuming. Our system provides a marked improvement to the existing art; the system according to this disclosure provides a transient expression system that maintains the expression levels for several weeks and even up to several months.
 The present disclosure provides a possibility to develop stable cell lines when the vector according to this disclosure contains a selection marker and the cells are cultivated on a medium containing the selective agent. The present disclosure also provides a possibility to express gene products in a cell line for shorter time when the vector does not contain a selection marker. However, even without using selection pressure the current system provides stable maintenance that lasts longer than with any other comparable system previously known.
 The present disclosure further enables development of a multi-replicon expression system, where more than one gene products are expressed from different replicons and the replicons are locating in same cell. Such a mechanism is useful for example to express different subunits of antibodies or enzyme subunits in one cell or to study interactions of macromolecules expressed in the cell.
 An object of the present disclosure is to provide a mechanism to extended episomal maintenance of polyoma virus core origin.
 Another object of the present disclosure is to provide a mechanism to extended episomal maintenance of polyoma virus core origin plasmids without selective pressure for use in transient production of the proteins.
 Yet another object of the present disclosure is to provide constructs in conjunction with the segregations/partitioning elements from EBV.
 A further object of the present disclosure is to provide cell lines capable of supporting the replication and episomal maintenance of hybrid plasmids.
 A still further object of the present disclosure is to provide a transient system for extended (up to 14 days without selection) expression of gene products in eukaryotic cells allowing expansion of the volume of the production culture an therefore output of the protein of interest.
 An even further object of the present disclosure is to provide cell lines harboring more than one different vector and thereby providing expression of more than one different genes of interest.
 Yet a further object of the present disclosure is to provide a transient system for long lasting production therapeutic, prophylactic or endotoxine free gene products for diagnostic and other applications in eukaryotic cells.
 Another object of the present disclosure is to provide a transient system for long lasting production of RNA or proteins in eukaryotic cells. The cells can be cultivated and gene products can be expressed in small and large scale; from laboratory flasks and Petri dishes up to big fermentors.
 Yet another object of the present disclosure is to provide a system for extended production of proteins, antibodies, enzymes and virus-like particles.
 In patent application Ser. No. 11/351,809, we showed that the BPV-1 E2 protein dependent MME comprising E2 multimeric binding sites can provide extended maintenance replication function to the mouse polyomavirus (PyV) core origin plasmids in the presence of BPV-1 E2 protein and PyV large T-antigen (LT), but fail to do so for the complete PyV origin. In mouse fibroblast cell-lines expressing PyV LT and BPV-1 E2 (COP5/E2), the plasmids carrying PyV core origin linked to at least five multimeric E2 protein binding sites show the capacity for long term episomal replication, which can be monitored for more than 5 months (under selective conditions). Overall structural integrity as well as the intactness of domains of BPV-1 E2 are required for efficient episomal maintenance.
 Our data showed clearly that the large T antigen dependent replication function of the polyomavirus and extended maintenance functions of the BPV-1 are compatible in certain configurations. Further quantitative analysis of the loss of the episomal plasmids carrying hybrid origin showed that MME dependent plasmids are lost with the frequency of 6% per generation.
 Similar hybrid origins comprising the EBV FR-element and polyomavirus replication origin were constructed and studied in the cell lines expressing EBNA1 and polyomavirus large T antigen (LT). Our data suggest convincingly that segregation/partitioning functions of the BPV-1 and EBV can effectively be used for extended episomal maintenance of the polyomavirus core origin.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
 FIG. 1. Schematic representation of mouse polyoma virus core origin of replication and FR (Family of repeats) element. Here, FR element (SEQ ID NO: 1) contains 21 possible EBNA-1 binding sequences. DNA fragments containing EBNA-1 binding sequences are aligned.
 FIG. 2. Schematic representation of new generation expression plasmid.
1. Replication and maintenance in QMCF cells: Maintenance element--(Epstein-Barr Virus Family of Repeats (FR) (SEQ ID NO:1) of Bovine Papilloma type I Minichormosome Maintenance element (MME) SEQ ID NO:7); PyV core origin of replication--murine polyomavirus origin of replication without enhancer (SEQ ID NO:2); 2. Antibiotic selection: SV40 pr--SV 40 promoter (SEQ ID NO:17) controlling expression of Neo resistance gene; Neo/Km--Neomycin/Kanamycin resistance marker (SEQ ID NO:18) for selection of plasmid containing cells in bacteria and eukaryotic cells; 3. Replication in bacteria: pMMB origin of replication (SEQ ID NO:25); 4. Expression cassette: Promoter (CMV (SEQ ID NO:13), hEF1α-HTLV (SEQ ID NO:14), hEF1alpha (SEQ ID NO:8), RSV-LTR (SEQ ID 016), heIF4A (SEQW ID NO:9) or β-actin (SEQ ID NO:12)); Intron--hEF1 alpha intron (SEQ ID NO:19) in 5' position from gene of interest cDNA; MCS--multicloning sequence; polyA--SV40 polyadenylation sequence (SEQ ID NO:15) (regulating expression of Neo/Km and gene of interest simultaneously).
 FIGS. 3 A and B. Strength of different promoters used in pGMCF and pQMME plasmids. Gaussia luciferase gene was used as a reporter and data is represented as relative promoter strength compared to strongest CMV promoter-3' intron containing vector (pQMCF-1/pQMME-1). A. Promoter comparison in different pQMCF vectors. B. Promoter comparison in different pQMCF vectors. Also comparison with old version pQMCF-CMV-0.1 vector is resented in comparison to pQMCF-1.
 FIG. 4. Growth of the CDNF-expressing CHOEBNALT85 cell culture. 48 h after transfection G418 (700 μg/ml) was added. 12 days after transfection expression cell bank was generated. From day 13 to 21 the production phase was performed. Temperature was reduced to 30° C., additional nutrients were added to the medium. The viability of the cell culture was more than 85% during antibiotic selection and production. At day 21 when viability of the culture starts to decline, supernatant of the culture was clarified by centrifugation and filtered through 0.45 μm filter.
 FIG. 5. Analysis of expression of the CDNF by CHOEBNALT85 cells using Western Blot 48 hours after transfection. Lane 1. PageRuler Prestained Protein Ladder (#SM0671, lot: 00036958, Fermentas); lane 2 --17 μL of the supernatant from cells transfected with 1 μg of the CDNF expression vector; lane 3--17 μL of supernatant from the cells transfected with 5 μg of the CDNF expression vector; lane 4-17 μL supernatant from the untransfected CHOEBNALT85 cells; lane 5-17 μL of the untransfected CHOEBNALT85 cell lysate; lane 6-17 μL of the cell lysate transfected with 1 μg of the CDNF expression vector; lane 7-17 μL of the cell lysate transfected with 5 μg of the CDNF expression vector.
 FIG. 6. Southern-Blot analysis of CDNF production plasmids. Lines 1-12 pQMCF-1-CDNF (CDNF expressed under control of CMV promoter). Lines 13-21 pQMCF-2-CDNF (CDNF under control of hEF1α-HTLV promoter). I and II designated cells transfected and grown from production cell bank, respectively. Line 1 and Line 12 designate time point 48 hours after transfection. Lines 2, 6, 13 and 16 designate time point at the beginning of production. All other lines--different time points during CDNF production phase.
 FIG. 7. Growth of the bovine DNaseI-expressing CHOEBNALT85 cell culture. 48 h after transfection G418 (700 μg/ml) was added. 12 days after transfection expression cell bank was generated. From day 13 to 21 the production phase was performed. Temperature was reduced to 30° C., additional nutrients were added to the medium. The viability of the cell culture was more than 85% during antibiotic selection and production. At day 17 when viability of the culture starts to decline, supernatant of the culture was clarified by centrifugation and filtered through 0.45 μm filter.
 FIG. 8. Production of Bovine DNaseI in CHOEBNALT85 Cells after Selection of Plasmid-Positive Cells
1. CHOEBNALT85 [pQMCF-CMV-0.2-DNaseI] culture supernatant (14 μl) 2. CHOEBNALT85 [pQMCF-CMV-0.2-DNaseI] culture supernatant (7 μl) 3. CHOEBNALT85 [pQMCF-CMV-0.2-DNaseI] culture supernatant (3.5 μl) 4. CHOEBNALT85 [pQMCF-CMV-0.2-DNaseI] culture supernatant (1.25 μl) 5. "Ambion" DNaseI (0.25 μg) 6. "Ambion" DNaseI (0.125 μg) 7. "Ambion" DNaseI (0.0625 μg)
 FIG. 9. Production of Bovine DNaseI by CHOEBNALT85 Cells Started from Newly Transfected Cells or from Production Cell Nank.
Line 1. Protein marker (#SM0671, lot: 00052778, Fermentas); Line 2. CHOEBNALT85 [pQMCF-1-DNaseI] culture supernatant before production phase, Line 3. CHOEBNALT85 [pQMCF-1-DNaseI] culture supernatant, 4th day of production Line 4. CHOEBNALT85 [pQMCF-1-DNaseI] culture supernatant, last day of production; Line 5. CHOEBNALT85 [pQMCF-1-DNaseI] culture supernatant, cells were taken from production cell bank (last day of production).
 FIG. 10. Southern-Blot analysis of bovine DNaseI production plasmids. Lines 1-4 Old version pQMCF vector during production phase; Lines 5-9 pQMCF-1-DNaseI (CMV promoter containing vector), Lines 10-14 pQMCF-2-DNaseI (hEF1-HTLV promoter containing vector), Lines 15-21 pQMCF-3-DNaseI (heIF4a promoter-containing vector), Lines 22-26 pQMCF-5-DNaseI (RSV-LTR containing vector).), Lines 27-31 pQMCF-6-DNaseI (hEF1αcontaining vector). Lines 5, 10, 15 22 and 27 exhibit time point 48 h after transfection. All other lines represent samples taken before production phase or during production phase. Line 32--control; Line 33 DNA size marker.
 FIG. 11. Analysis of ETAR-translocation assay. Adherent CHOEBNALT cells were stably transfected with ETAR-EGFP (SEQ ID NO:24) bearing QMCF plasmid. After 4 weeks of G418 selection cells were treated with 300 nM of endothelin-1. Non-endotheline-1 treated cells; 2: ETAR-EGFP internalization in after endothelin-1 treatment. Green--GFP signals from ETAR-EGFP fusion protein; red--cytosol and nucleoli (Nikon Eclipse TE-2000-U; 60×).
 FIG. 12. Detection of ETAR-5E11tag fusion protein in adherent U2OSEBNALTD3 cells. Green--ETAR-5E11tag fusion protein; red--cytosol and nucleoli (ArrayScan VTi 40×).
 FIG. 13. Schematic representation of single-expression (A) and double-expression (B) cassette containing vector for expression of Virus Like Particles (VLP-s)1. Replication and maintenance in QMCF cells: Maintenance element--(Epstein-Barr Virus Family of Repeats (FR)); PyV core origin--murine polyomavirus origin of replication without enhancer element; 2. Antibiotic selection: SV40 pr--SV 40 promoter controlling expression of Neo resistance gene; Neo/Km--Neomycin/Kanamycin resistance marker for selection of plasmid containing cells in bacteria and eukaryotic cells; 3. Replication in bacteria: pMMB origin of replication; 4. Expression cassette: Promoters (CMV for gag protein expression, RSV-LTR or hEF1α-HTLV for protein of interest expression); Intron--hEF1α intron (Intron 1 and intron 2) in 5' position from gene of interest, bgh intron (SEQ ID NO:26) (Intron 3) in 3' position of gag protein expression gene; Gag--HIV-1 or MLV gag protein; 2A--Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A peptide (SEQ ID NO:27); ETAR--G-protein coupled receptor (example protein); polyA--SV40 polyadenylation sequence (PolyA and PolyA2) regulating expression of Neo/Km and gene of interest simultaneously, polyA 1--bgh polyA regulating expression of gag protein.
 FIG. 14. Production of ETAR-pseudotyped HIV-gag based VLP-s using 293EBNALT75 cell line. All samples were ultracentrifuged for VLP purification. Lines 1 and 2 ETAR is detected by BPV E2 tag antibody, lines 5-6 detected using HIV-gag specific antibody. Line 1. Protein marker (#SM0671, lot: 00052778, Fermentas). Line 2. Supernatant of 293EBNALT75 expressing ETAR. Line 3. Supernatant of 293EBNALT75 expressing ETAR and HIV-gag. Line 4. Protein marker (#SM0671, lot: 00052778, Fermentas). Line 5. Supernatant of 293EBNALT75 expressing ETAR. Line 6. Supernatant of 293EBNALT75 expressing HIV-gag.
 FIG. 15. Schematic representation of single- and double-expression cassette containing vector for expression of monoclonal antibodies 1. Replication and maintenance in QMCF cells: Maintenance element--(Epstein-Barr Virus Family of Repeats (FR)); PyV core origin--murine polyomavirus origin of replication without enhancer element; 2. Antibiotic selection: SV40 pr--SV 40 promoter controlling expression of Neo resistance gene; Neo/Km--Neomycin/Kanamycin resistance marker for selection of plasmid containing cells in bacteria and eukaryotic cells; 3. Replication in bacteria: pMMB origin of replication; 4. Expression cassette: Promoters (CMV, RSV-LTR or hEF1α-HTLV for expression of antibody heavy and light chain is used); Intron--hEF1αintron and CMV intron in 5' position from gene of interest) 2A--Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A peptide; IgG HC and IgG LC--coding regions for expression of antibodu heavy- and light chains; polyA--SV40 polyadenylation sequence regulating expression of Neo/Km and gene of interest simultaneously or bgh polyA is used for regulation of expression of antibody light- or heavy chain.
 FIG. 16. Growth of the monoclonal antibody-expressing CHOEBNALT85 cell culture. 48 h after transfection G418 (700 μg/ml) was added. 9 days after transfection expression cell bank was generated. From day 10 to 16 the production phase was performed. Temperature was reduced to 30° C., additional nutrients were added to the medium. The viability of the cell culture was more than 85% during antibiotic selection and production. At day 16 when viability of the culture starts to decline, supernatant of the culture was clarified by centrifugation and filtered through 0.45 μm filter.
 FIG. 17. Western-Blot analysis of partially humanized (chimeric) tyrosinase A antibody expressed by CHOEBNALT85 cells. Line 1. Protein marker (#SM0671, lot: 00052778, Fermentas); Line 2. Non-transfected CHOEBNALT85 cell growth medium; Line 3. Supernatant of CHOEBNALT85 cell line expressing recombinant monoclonal partially humanized (chimeric) tyrosinase A antibody; Line 4. Positive control (ImmunoPure Human IgG Whole Molecule 31154, Pierce).
 FIG. 18. Western-Blot analysis of partially humanized (chimeric) tyrosinase A antibody expressed by CHOEBNALT85 cells. Line 1. Supernatant of CHOEBNALT85 cell line expressing recombinant monoclonal partially humanized (chimeric) tyrosinase A antibody, time point before production phase; Lines 2 and 3. Supernatant of CHOEBNALT85 cell line expressing recombinant monoclonal partially humanized (chimeric) tyrosinase A antibody, time point during production phase; Line 4. Supernatant of CHOEBNALT85 cell line expressing recombinant monoclonal partially humanized (chimeric) tyrosinase A antibody, time point at the end of production phase.
 FIG. 19. Southern-Blot analysis of pFRG-EFFP and pFRG-EGFP-FR (without FR element). Lines 1-4 pFRG-EGFP; Lines 5-8 pFRG-EGFP-FR (without FR element). Time points of analysis in figure: Line 1 and 5. 48 hours after transfection; Lines 2 and 6 14 days after transfection; Lines 3 and 7 21 days after transfection; Lines 4 and 8 22 days after transfection.
 FIG. 20. Schematic representation of PyV hybrid origin constructs used in flow cytometry analysis (A). Time course of long-term EGFP (B) or short-term d1EGFP (C,D) expression in the presence or absence of G418 selection for various cell lines. COP5E2/PuroMMEG (B); COP5E2/PuroMMEG* (C); COP5EBNA1/PuroFRG* cell line (D).
 FIG. 21A-F is a schematic illustration of the novel vectors according to this disclosure. The vectors are called pQMCF1-pQMCF6 A. pQMCF1 contains CMV promoter-driven expression cassette. B. pQMCF2 contains EF1α-HTLV promoter-driven expression cassette. C. pQMCF-3 contains heIF4a promoter-driven expression cassette D. pQMCF-4 contains β-actine promoter-driven expression cassette. E. pQMCF-5 contains RSV-LTR promoter-driven expression cassette. F. pQMCF-6 contains hEF1αpromoter-driven expression cassette.pQMCF-6 Single-cutting restriction sites are shown in map and the sequence.
 FIG. 22 A-F is a schematic illustration of the novel vectors according to this disclosure. The vectors are called pQMME 1-6. A. pQMME-1 contains CMV promoter-driven expression cassette. B. pQMME-2 contains hEF1α-HTLV promoter-driven expression cassette. C. pQMME-3 contains heIF4a promoter-driven expression cassette. D. pQMME-4 contains human β-actin promoter-driven expression cassette. E. pQMME-5 contains RSV-LTR promoter-driven expression cassette. F. pQMME-6 contains RSV-LTR promoter-driven expression cassette. Single-cutting restriction sites are shown in the maps.
 FIG. 23 A-B is a schematic illustration of the novel VLP expression vectors according to this disclosure. A. pQMCF-VLP-srcgag1 vector contains two expression cassettes: CMV promoter-driven expression cassette for srcgag protein (cDNA sequence according to SEQ ID NO:26) and hEFLalpha.-HTLV promoter-driven expression cassette for ETAR expression. B. pQMCF-VLP-hangag1 vector contains two expression cassettes: CMV promoter-driven expression cassette for srcgag protein and hEF1α-HTLV promoter-driven expression cassette for ETAR expression. Single-cutting restriction sites are shown in the maps and the sequence.
 FIG. 24 is a schematic illustration of the novel monoclonal antibodies expression vectors. A. Map of partially humanized (chimeric) tyrosinase A antibody expression vector (two expression cassettes: CMV promoter-driven antibody light chain expression cassette and RSV-LTR promoter-driven expression cassette for antibody heavy chain expression cassette). Single-cutting restriction sites are shown in the map. Expression cassettes of antibody light- and heavy chain are locating in same direction. B. Map of partially humanized (chimeric) tyrosinase A antibody expression vector (two expression cassettes: CMV promoter-driven antibody light chain expression cassette and RSV-LTR promoter-driven expression cassette for antibody heavy chain expression cassette). Single-cutting restriction sites are shown in the map. Expression cassettes of antibody light- and heavy chain are locating in opposite direction.
 FIG. 25 is Southern-Blot analysis of pQMME-1-EGFP and in U2OSEBNALTE2 adherent cell line. Lines 1-3 and 4-6 exhibit results of plasmid stability in two different U2OSEBNALTE2 cell lines. Lines 1 and 4 show results of time points 48 hours after transfection. Lines 2 and 6 show results of time points 32 days after transfection. Lines 3 and 6 show results of time points 52 days after transfection.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 In this disclosure the following terms are used as defined below:
 "Papillomavirus" refers to a member of the papilloma family of viruses, including but not limited to bovine papillomavirus (BPV) and human papillomavirus (HPV).
 "Polyomavirus" refers to a member of polyoma family of viruses, including but not limited to mouse polyomavirus (PyV).
 "Polyomavirus core origin" refers to a minimal cis-sequence within a polyomavirus that is necessary for initiation of DNA synthesis. The PyV core origin is essentially according to SEQ ID NO: 2. The core origin of PyV is located at nucleotides 5232-5297/1-88 in total 154 bp (5232 and 88 included) in sequence PLY2CG (Genebank accession number J02288). The polyomavirus core origin is also referred as PyV core origin or as minimal core origin.
 The Minimum origin (MO) of BPV1 is defined as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,479,279.
 FR element refers to Epstein-Ban virus family of repeats. It comprises at least 16 EBNA1-binding sites. SEQ ID NO:1 gives nucleotide sequence of one alternative synthetic FR-element. In this element 21 EBNA binding sites were used. The EBNA 1-binding sites in the FR-element do not need to be similar to each other. The EBNA1-binding sites may be according to any one of SEQ ID NO: 3-6: (SEQ ID NO: 3 GGGTATCATATGCTGACT; SEQ ID NO: 4: GGGTATCATATGCTGACT; SEQ ID NO: 5 GGATAGCATATGCTACCC; SEQ ID NO:6: GGATAGCATATACTACCC) In the vectors according to this disclosure the EBNA-1 binding sites are separated by spacers.
 "EBNA1" refers to viral transactivator for EBV and is encoded by nt 7421-8043 in EBV sequence with Genbank accession number V01555.
 "E1" refers to the protein encoded by nt 849-2663 of BPV subtype 1, or to nt 932-2779 of HPV of subtype 11, or to equivalent E1 proteins of other papillomaviruses, or to functional fragments or mutants of a papillomavirus E1 protein, i.e. fragments or mutants of E1 which possess the replication properties of E1.
 "E2" refers to the protein encoded by nt 2594-3837 of BPV subtype 1; or to nt 2723-3823 of HPV subtype 11, or to equivalent E2 proteins of other papillomaviruses, or to functional fragments or mutants of a papillomavirus E2 protein, i.e. fragments or mutants of E2 which possess the replicating properties of E2.
 "Minichromosomal maintenance element" (MME) refers to a region of the papilloma viral genome to which viral or human proteins essential for papilloma viral replication bind, which region according to this invention is essential for stable episomal maintenance of core origin in a host cell. Preferably, the MME is a sequence containing multiple binding sites for E2. According to this disclosure the MME contains at least 5 E2 binding sites. The sequential binding sites which constitute the MME need not be identical in sequence, but must be able to bind E2. SEQ ID NO:7 is one preferred example of MME.
 "E2 binding site" (E2BS) refers to the minimum sequence of papillomavirus double-stranded DNA to which the E2 protein binds. E2 binding site may be of BPV or of HPV. The affinities of the E2 binding sites vary and according to this disclosure E2 binding site means a high affinity binding site. The E2 binding site may be according to SEQ ID NO: 4, preferably it is according to SEQ ID NO: 5. It may also be according to SEQ ID NO:9. In the vectors according to this disclosure the repetitive E2 binding sites are separated by spacers.
 "Heterologous replication origin" refers to a system where the replication origin locates in a vector containing MME or FR-element of another virus species.
 "A host cell" which is stably transformed according to the disclosure is a eukaryotic cell and preferably a mammalian cell, most preferably a human, mouse or hamster cell. The cell may be derived from any tissue. The host cell may be derived from CHO (hamster), COP (mouse) or human cell lines HEK293 or U2OS: CHOEBNALT85 is a cell line derived from CHO and expressing EBV EBNA1-protein and PyV-LT protein. 293EBNALT75 is a cell line derived from 293 and expressing EBV EBNA1-protein and PyV LT-protein. U2OSEBNALTD3 is a cell line derived form U2OS and expressing EBV EBNA1-protein and PyV LT-protein.
 "A gene of interest" refers to a gene encoding a gene product of interest such as a protein or RNA of interest.
 "A gene product" refers to a product of the gene of interest. The product may be an expression product on RNA level or it can as well be an expressed protein or peptide. The gene products may be used for example as therapeutic or prophylactic purposes. The gene products may be endotoxine free products for diagnostic purpose. These uses are exemplary only and one skilled in the art would realize that there are other purposes as well according to this disclosure.
 "Helper protein" refers to various viral proteins including viral regulatory proteins E1, E2, EBNA1, and LT.
 "Extended episomal replication": refers to long term (during 20-30 cell generations) replication and maintenance of the expression plasmids and expression of protein of interest after transfection into the engineered cell without selective pressure
 We describe here a mechanism of extended replication of chimeric origins. We have developed PyV origin based constructs in conjunction with the segregation/partitioning elements from the EBV and the cell lines capable of supporting the replication and episomal maintenance of these plasmids. Polyomaviruses exhibit replication patterns that are uncoupled from the regulatory mechanisms of the host cell, so that each viral genome replicates many times within each cell cycle to the maximal level. The complete polyomavirus origin (wild type origin) includes transcriptional and replicational enhancer sequences, which dictate the origin activity and the efficiency of replication in specific cells by determining the availability of the replication factors and nucleotides. Papillomavirus origin replication control is similar to polyomavirus replication in the first, amplificational phase of the replication. However, in the latent replication phase copy number control mechanism is applied, which assures the controlled initiation of replication of the episomal viral genome in the latent replication phase. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) uses entirely cellular replication machinery for initiation of the latent origin oriP replication, which strictly replicates once per cell cycle. Although the BPV-1 and polyomaviruses use the host replication machinery for viral genome replication, the initiation of replication is achieved by viral factors, while for stable maintenance with the EBV entirely cellular initiation and elongation machinery is used. The polyomavirus replicational enhancer can be exchanged with binding sites for different factors such as c-Jun and Ga14, without loosing its ability to promote replication (Guo et al., 1996).
 The inventive step in this disclosure includes the finding that substitution of the wild-type PyV enhancer with at least 16 synthetic EBNA1 binding sites for the EBV protein, can replace replication enhancer function and makes it dependent on E2 protein. Similarly as in the previous disclosure (U.S. application Ser. No. 11/351,809) where addition of five or ten E2 binding sites to PyV wt origin did not cause additional replication activation, addition of the EBNA 1 binding sites to a PyV wt origin did not cause additional replication activation. Therefore, the viral origin seems to achieve in a host cell a maximum activity when a strong enhancer is present and after that point enhancement of replication is not possible, even if additional enhancer elements are added. This may be because of limitation of cellular factors or saturation of the nucleus with the active genetic elements. Accordingly, we observed many dead cells after transfection with PyV wt origin constructs.
 It is known that EBNA1 protein of the EBV is necessary and sufficient for linking of the FR containing plasmids to the chromatin. The novelty of this disclosure includes the finding that FR functions outside of its natural replication origin and provides extended maintenance function only for constructs, which contain PyV core origin. In the case of wt PyV origin very strong transient replication was observed, however, it was impossible to rescue stable episomal replication of these plasmids, even after antibiotic selection for origin constructs. It is important to note that stably maintained constructs were in episomal state, no integration to host chromosomes was detected.
 According to the present disclosure, EBV EBNA1 protein-dependent FR-element can provide extended maintenance functions to the PyV core origin plasmids in the presence of viral trans-factors. We have used stable replication assay and flow cytometric EGFP reporter expression assay for the analysis of the kinetics of the extended maintenance of the episomes. In the case of the BPV-1 and PyV, the origin of replication is fired several times during their amplificational replication in host cell S-phase and even during the stable replication of the BPV-1 the origin is not restricted to precisely once in each cell cycle. At the same time the EBV latent origin oriP replicates strictly once per cell cycle, the same way as chromosomal DNA. The present disclosure suggests that the extended maintenance of the episomes provided by the function of MME or FR-element, is not connected to the mode of replication of the episome. FR-element can provide an extended maintenance function to both types of origins--in its natural context within EBV latent origin oriP and in our hybrid replicon together with PyV core origin (SEQ ID NO:2).
 The present disclosure also shows that the replication function is not connected to the stable maintenance function of the virus--replication origins of different viruses can be combined with different stable maintenance elements without the loss of either function. It has been shown previously that the cellular receptors of BPV-1 E2 protein and EBV EBNA1 protein, which link the episomes to mitotic host chromatin and therefore provide the stable maintenance function, are different. The present disclosure suggests that the different localization of the episome on mitotic chromosomes does not interfere with the replication of PyV core origin.
The Rate of Loss of Episomal Plasmids is Lower than in Control Plasmids
 We have analyzed the episomal maintenance of the pMMEG, pMMEG* and pFRG* plasmids (Materials and Methods) in cells cultured without geneticine selection. These plasmids contained PyV minimal core origin (SEQ ID NO: 2) and either BPV-1 Minichromosome maintenance element (MME) or EBV FR-element. The viral trans-factors (either PyV LT and BPV1 E2 or PyV LT and EBV EBNA1 protein) were stably expressed in the cell line. For the analysis of the plasmid loss we measured the expression of the reporter gene EGFP (or d1EGFP) with flow cytometry. In the case of plasmids containing the PyV minimal core origin and BPV-1 MME the rate of episomal loss was ˜6% per cell division in the absence of geneticine selection. For plasmids containing PyV minimal origin and EBV FR-element, the rate of episomal loss was faster (˜13%), but compared to the 22-30% rate of loss of the control plasmids (pEGFP-C1 and pd1EGFP-N1), which contained neither replication origin nor segregation element, this rate is still significantly lower. The rate of loss of plasmids containing PyV minimal core origin and FR-element (pFRG*) is also different from the previously published results of the rate of loss of several replicating plasmids that contained FR-element as stable maintenance factor, where the rate of loss was 2.1-7.8% (Wade-Martins et al., 1999) but it is very similar to the 15% rate of loss previously estimated for oriP containing plasmids (Hung et al., 2001). We have verified the requirement of FR-element in long-term experiment. For that we have deleted FR element from the pFRG-EGFP plasmid. Plasmids with or without FR element were electroporated into CHOEBNALT85 cells. Samples for Southern-Blot analysis were taken from different time-points (48 hours, 14, 21 and 22 days after transfection). As shown in FIG. 19, lines 1-4 plasmid (pFRG-EGFP) could be detected from all time points observed. At the same time plasmid (pFRG-EGFP-FR without FR element could be detected only 48 hours after transfection. In all other time points no plasmid could be detected within CHOEBNALT85 cells.
 The examples presented below are meant to be descriptive and by no mean limiting the various embodiments of the present invention.
Materials and Methods Used in the Examples
 For constructing hybrid replicons (FIG. 1), containing PyV origin (core origin), we used vector pUC19 as the basic backbone where we cloned 1, 5 or 10 head-to-tail copies of high-affinity E2 binding site 9. PyV wt and core origin were amplified by PCR from vectors pmu1046/CAT and pmu1047/CAT using primers Py4963 (5'-AGGGAGCTACTCCTGATG-3'') (SEQ ID NO:10) and Py174 (--CTACCACCACTCCGACTT-3'') (SEQ ID NO:11). Amplified PyV origin fragments were digested with enzymes EheI and BelI and inserted between BamHI and HincII sites of pUC19 vector containing different number of BPV-1 E2 binding sites. In the vector the E2 binding sites exists together with spacers.
 For constructing hybrid replicons (FIG. 1), containing PyV origin (core origin), we used vector pUC19 as the basic backbone and FR element originated from EBV genome (Strain 95-8; GenBank: V01555.2). FR element was cloned into the pUC19 containing Py core origin (SEQ ID NO: 2). Sequence of FR element used in plasmids comprised at least 16 EBNA1-binding sites separated by spacer sequences. FIG. 1 shows and FR element containing 21 EBNA1 binding sites and having a sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 1 For construction of new generation pQMCF plasmids, modified pFRG vector (pFRG-shorty-SV40 pA) without expression cassette for protein of interest was used. Plasmids containing different promoters (CMV, hEF1α, heIF4a, RSV-LTR, β-actine and hEF1α-HTLV) and hEF1α intron in 5' position from protein of interest were constructed in pUC19 cloning vector. DNA fragments containing different promoters with intron sequence were cloned into pFRG-shorty-SV40pA which contains also SV40 polyA sequence (FIG. 2). SV40 PolyA sequence regulating expression of Neomycine resistance and gene of interest simultaneously. After that multi-cloning sequence containing sites for single-cutting enzymes for cloning of genes of interest were added into the vectors (Table 1).
 For construction of new generation pQMCF plasmids, modified pFRG vector (pFRG-shorty-SV40 pA) without expression cassette for protein of interest was used. Plasmids containing different promoters (CMV, hEF1α, heIF4a, RSV-LTR, β-actine and hEF1α-HTLV) and hEF1α intron in 5' position from protein of interest were constructed in pUC19 cloning vector. DNA fragments containing different promoters with intron sequence were cloned into pFRG-shorty-SV40pA which contains also SV40 polyA sequence (FIG. 2). SV40 PolyA sequence regulating expression of Neomycine resistance and gene of interest simultaneously. After that multi-cloning sequence containing sites for single-cutting enzymes for cloning of genes of interest were added into the vectors (Table 1).
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 pQMCF and pQMME vectores and promoters used for expessin of protein Plasmid Promoter MCS pQMCF-1 CMV Intron-Pfl23II-SfaAI-NheI-Bsp1407I-SgsI- Bsp119I-BoxI-polyA pQMCF-2 hEF1α-HTLV Intron-Pfl23II-SfaAI-NheI-Bsp1407I-SgsI- Bsp119I-BoxI-polyA pQMCF-3 heIF4a Intron-Pfl23II-SfaAI-NheI-Bsp1407I-SgsI- Bsp119I-BoxI-polyA pQMCF-4 hβ-actin Intron-Pfl23II-SfaAI-Bsp1407I-SgsI- Bsp119I-BoxI-EcoRI-polyA pQMCF-5 RSV-LTR Intron-Pfl23II-SfaAI-NheI-Bsp1407I-SgsI- Bsp119I-BoxI-polyA pQMCF-6 hEF1α Intron-Pfl23II-SfaAI-NheI-Bsp1407I-SgsI- Bsp119I-BoxI-EcoRI-polyA
 For construction of antibody- or VLP-expressing vectors another expression cassette containing CMV, hEF1α-HTLV or RSV-LTR promoter for expression of antibody light- or heavy chain or gag protein was added into the pQMCF-1 plasmid.
 Construction of cell lines. For construction of cell lines, which express BPV-1 wt E2 protein and its mutant forms E39A and R68A, the vector pBabePuro was linearized using enzyme SalI and was ligated with equal amount of E2 expression vectors (pCGE2, pCGE2/R68, pCGE2/E39), which were linearized with XhoI endonuclease. 1 μg of ligated hybrid plasmids was electroporated into COP5 cell line. COP5 cell line is derived from mouse C127 cells (ATCC CRL-1804) and described in Tyndall et al. 1981. Electroporation experiments were preformed with a Bio-Rad Gene Pulser with capacitance and voltage settings of 975 μF and 220 V. For selection puromycin (2 μg/ml) was added. The expression of the proteins was analyzed by Western blot.
 A cell line which expresses wt E2 and carries neomycine selection cassette was constructed by the same protocol described above, using vector pBabeNeo instead of pBabePuro.
 A cell line expressing PyV T-antigens and EBV EBNA1 protein was generated as a result of transfection of the NotI linearized plasmid pBabePuro/EBNA1 (EBNA1 coding sequence inserted into EcorI/SalI sites in pBabePuro vector) into COP5 cell line and selection for puromycin (2 μg/ml). The expression of the proteins was analyzed by Western blot. The cell line was named COP5EBNA1/Puro.
 Sometimes cell line CHO4.15 was used. This cell line is derived from CHO-K1 cell line (ATCC CCL 61) and described in Ustav 1993. CHO, HEK293 and U2OS derived cell lines expressing EBV EBNA1, PyV LT, BPV E2 were constructed using the same method as used for construction of COP derived cell lines.
 Cells and transfection. COP5 cells (Tyndall et al., 1981) and its derivatives COP5E2/Puro, COP5E2/Neo COP5R68/Puro, COP5E39/Puro, COP5EBNA1/Puro expressing polyomavirus T-antigens and BPV-1 wt E2 or its mutant forms or EBNA1 were grown in Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium ("Difco") supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. For selection G418 (500 μg/ml) or puromycin (2 μg/ml) were added, depending on selection marker. Electroporation experiments were performed with a Bio-Rad Gene Pulser with capacitance and voltage settings of 975 μF and 220 V, respectively.
 COP5E2/Puro cells transfected with neomycin-constructs were selected with G418 at 500 μg/ml. COP5E2/Neo cells co-transfected with pBabePuro (Morgenstern, J. P., and H. Land. 1990) were selected with puromycin at 2 μg/ml. After transfection with plasmids carrying geneticine resistance marker and GFP coding sequence, COP5EBNA1/Puro cell line was grown in IMDM medium containing 500 μg/ml G418 (medium contained no puromycin).
 The CHOEBNALT 85 cells are adapted to serum-free suspension culture in 1:1 mixture of CD CHO and 293 SFMII medium supplemented with L-Glutamine, HT Supplement and puromycin (20 μg/ml). CD CHO Medium (Invitrogen Cat. No. 10743-029) supplemented with 8 mM Lglutamine and 20 m1/1 HT Supplement and• 293 SFM II Medium (Invitrogen Cat. No. 11686-029) supplemented with 4 mM Lglutamine.
 Electroporation were performed with a Bio-Rad Gene Pulser with capacitance and voltage settings of 975. F and 230 V. 6×106 CHOEBNALT 85 cells were transfected with pQMCF plasmids. 48 hours after transfection G418 is added at final concentration 700 μg/ml.
 The 293EBNALT 75 cells are adapted to serum-free suspension culture in 1:1 mixture of Pro293s-CDM and 293 SFMII medium supplemented with L-Glutamine and puromycin. To prepare a 293 medium for 293EBNALT 75 cells mix in equal amounts: Pro293s-CDM (BioWhittaker® Cat. No. 12002-026) and 293 SFM II Medium (Invitrogen Cat. No. 11686-029), supplemented with 4 mM L-Glutamine and puromycin to the final concentration of 0.8 μg/mL. For electroporation 4106 viable cells were taken. Electroporation settings are 975 μF and 150V. 48 hours after transfection G418 is added at final concentration 10 μg/ml.
 The U2OSEBNALTD3 cells are grown in DMEM high Glucose (4.5 g/L) with Sodium Pyruvate and Lglutamine (PAA E15-843 or equivalent); 10% Foetal Bovine Serum (FBS)(PAA E15-151 or equivalent) in the presence of Puromycin (2 μg/mL). For transfection 3.5 106 cells from dish containing cells growing in logarithmic growth phase with 70-80% confluency were used. Electroporation settings are 250V; 975 μ.F.
 Southern Blot Analysis
 Total DNA was extracted from cells following standard protocol. Extraction of low-molecular-weight DNA from cells as well as analysis of origin constructs levels in both low molecular weight and total DNA preparation were performed as described previously (Ustav and Stenlund, 1991; Piirsoo and Ustav 1996). Specific probes were labeled with [32P]dCTP by random-hexamer-primed synthesis using DecaLabel kit (Fermentas, Lithuania). Hybridizing species were visualized by autoradiography. Radioactive signals on the blots were quantified on PhosphorImager using ImageQuant software (Molecular Dynamics, Amersham Biosciences, UK).
 Cells (1.5×107) were lysed with ice-cold 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-phosphate-buffered saline on ice, collected in a 15--mil tissue culture tube, and sonicated. From this step an aliquot for the Bradford assay was taken. SDS was diluted to 0.1% by adding ice-cold radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 150 mM NaCl, 1% NP-40, 0.5% dexycholate, 0.1 mM dithiotreitol (DDT), 0.5 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, protease inhibitors). The insoluble fraction was sedimented by centrifugation at 5,000×g for 15 min. The soluble fraction was transferred to a new tube and incubated with 5H4, 3E8, 1'E4 and 3F12 antibodies over night at 4 C. Then protein G-Sepharose (Amersham Biosciences) was added and incubated for 1 h. Sepharose beads where washed three times with RIPA buffer and resuspended in SDS loading buffer and subjected to immunoblotting analysis with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated eE11 (subclone of MAb 3F12(antibody (Quattromed AS, Tartu, Estonia).
 Total protein from the same number of cells lysed in standard loading buffer supplemented with 100 mM DDT was separated by electrophoresis on 8% polyacrylamide-SDS gel and transferred to Immobilon-P membrane (Millipore, USA). Antibody 1E4 (Kurg et al., 1999) was used to detect E2 proteins. Antibodies BM3167 and BM1083 (DPC Biermann) was used to detect EBNA1 protein. Peroxydase-conjugated goat-anti mouse antibody and the enhanced chemoluminescence detection kit (Amersham Biosciences) were used for subsequent developing of the blot, using a standard protocol provided by the supplier.
 The plasmid rescue assay was performed for detection of the episomal state of the plasmid as described previously in Mannik et al 2003. Two micrograms of uncut genomic DNA was electrotransformed in to Escherichia coli strain DH10B. The electorcompetent cells were prepared and the transformations were performed using a Pulser apparatus and 2-mm electroporation cuvette (Bio-Rad Laboratoires, Hercules, Calif.) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The cells were recovered by centrifugation and were grown on medium containing ampiclillin at 100 μg/ml. Plasmid DNA from single colonies was purified and analyzed using restriction endonucleases.
 Flow Cytometry Analysis
 EGFP expression was analysed by flow cytometry using Becton-Dickinson FACSCalibur flow cytometer with associated CellQuest software. 100 000-200 000 signals were analysed from each sample. The threshold for autofluorescence was set to 99% of the signals from the mock-transfected control cells. All the signals above the threshold were considered to correspond to EGFP-positive cells. For calculating the episomal rates of loss in the FIG. 8, EGFP expression data was analyzed on days 0 and 12 (pEGFP-C1, pd1EGFP-N1), on days 0 and 55 for pMMEG, on days 0 and 37 for pMMEG* and on days 0 and 30 for pFRG*. For this calculation first order rate-of-loss model was used: rate of loss λ=(-1/t)(ln Nt/N0). No is the percentage of the green cells at the beginning of the experiment of non-selective conditions and Nt is the percentage of the green cells after t generations.
 Expression of Luciferase Analysis
 The expression analysis was done in CHO4.15 E2 cell line with plasmids carrying different regulatory elements and recombinant EGFP-luciferase gene. The cells were electroporated with the equimolar amounts of the EGFP-luciferase vectors. For negative control the cells were transfected with carrier DNA only. In different time-point, the cells were washed with PBS and lyzed with appropriate amount of 1*CCLR ragent (Promega). Luciferase activities in the samples were measured using Luciferase Assay System kit (Promega) and plate reading luminometer (Tecan). Different dilutions of the samples in 1*CCLR buffer were used for verifying that all measurements are done at linear range. For normalisation of the activities of to the total protein in the samples, these were diluted 4 times with water. Thereafter, BCA assay kit (Pierce) was used for measurements.
 Total protein from the same number of cells or supernatant of equal number of cells were taken for analysis. Cells were lysed in standard loading buffer (Laemmli buffer) supplemented with 100 mM DDT. Supernatant of the cells was mixed with Laemmli buffer with or without DDT. Samples were separated by electrophoresis on 8 to 12% polyacrylamide-SDS gel and transferred to Immobilon-P membrane (Millipore, USA). Antibody 1E4 (Kurg et al., 1999) was used to detect E2 proteins. Antibodies BM3167 and BM1083 (DPC Biermann) was used to detect EBNA1 protein. Peroxydase-conjugated goat-anti mouse antibody and the enhanced chemoluminescence detection kit (Amersham Biosciences) were used for subsequent developing of the blot, using a standard protocol provided by the supplier. For detection of DNaseI, CDNF or ETAR protein expression appropriate antibodies were used and for visualization of expression alkaline-phosphatase conjugated secondary antibodies were used.
PyV Hybrid Origin Constructs Including PyV Core Origin and EBV FR Element and Construction of Plasmids for Extended Episomal Maintenance
 FIG. 1 schematically shows mouse polyoma virus core origin of replication (SEQ ID NO:2) and FR (Family of repeats) element. Here, FR element (SEQ ID NO: 1) contains 21 possible EBNA-1 binding sequences. Table 1 above and FIG. 21 show the novel QMCF-plasmids according to this disclosure. pQMCF1 contains CMV promoter-driven expression cassette. pQMCF2 contains EF1α-HTLV promoter-driven expression cassette. EF1α-HTLV promoter GenBank J04617.12 and HTLV leader sequence GenBank AB513134). pQMCF-3 contains heIF4a promoter-driven expression cassette. (heIF4a GenBank J04617.1) pQMCF-4 contains β-actine promoter-driven expression cassette. pQMCF-5 contains RSV-LTR promoter-driven expression cassette.
Comparison of BPV-1 MME and EBV FR Element in Providing Segregation/Partitioning Function to the PyV Core Origin Plasmids
 Maintenance of plasmids containing PyV core origin, MME or FR, selection marker (geneticine resistance) and green fluorescent protein marker (either long half-life EGFP or short half-life d1EGFP) was analyzed by flow cytometry. The flow cytometry analysis was conducted in the COP5EBNA1/Puro cell line with plasmid containing PyV core origin, FR-element, selection marker (geneticine resistance) and green fluorescent protein marker (short half-life d1EGFP) (pFRG*). In this case the replication function of the plasmid is provided by PyV core origin and LT protein and the segregation/partitioning function is provided by FR-element and EBNA1 protein of the EBV. The results are similar to the flow cytomery analysis with plasmids pMMEG and pMMEG* in COP5E2/Puro cell line. Transfected cells were grown in continuous culture in the presence or absence of geneticine for up to 75 days. Selection of the transfected COP5EBNA1/PuroFRG* for geneticine resulted in the cell culture, which had approximately 40% d1EGFP positive cells (FIG. 20 D). When the geneticine selection was removed the percentage of d1EGFP-positive cells decreased from 40% to 1% in 30 days. When the geneticine selection on COP5E2/PuropFRG* cell line was restored at this point, the proportion of EGFP expressing cells increased back to the initial level (FIG. 20D). These results show that episomal persistence of the plasmid occurs with certain efficiency, which is different from 100%. Clearly also, EBNA1/FR and E2/MME elements confer comparablee segregation/partitioning funcitions for the PyV core origin reporter plasmids in the cell models.
 To exclude the possibility that the loss of EGFP fluorescence is due to inactivation of the promoter of EGFP, we also analyzed the DNA content in the cells. After removal of geneticin selection total DNA was extracted from cells and digested with MluI (linearizes pMMEG* and pFRG* plsamids) and DpnI. Equal amonts of total DNA were then anlayzed using Southern blotting with a radiactively labelled probe against the pMMEG* or pFRG* plasmid. The loss of the episomal plasmid DNA from the cells grown without Geneticin selection correlates with the flow cytometry analysis (results not shwon). On the other hand, these results indicate that EGFP fluorescence was indeed measured from plasmids which exists in the episomal state. In the cse of pasmid integration the hybridization signals remained constant.
Production of Recombinant Proteins and Generation of Cell-Based Assay (CBA) Test-System for Development Drug Candidates
 We have constructed set of new expression plasmids containing polyoma virus (PyV) core origin (SEQ ID NO: 2) in combination with Family of Repeats (FR) of Epstein-Barr Virus, an element for extrachromosomal genome maintenance of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or MME (minichromosome maintenance element) from Bovine Papilloma virus (BPV-1) in proliferating cells. (construction of the plasmids is described above and in previous patent application Ser. No. 11/351,809 which is incorporated herein by reference; and plasmids are shown in FIG. 22). Such hybrid origin uses mouse polyomavirus (PyV) Large-T antigen for initiation of plasmid replication during S-phase of the cell cycle and EBV EBNA-1 or BPV E2 protein for segregation/partitioning of the extrachromosomal plasmid into the daughter cells during cell division. We engineered six different promoters--four human originated cellular promoters (EF1α; EF1α-HTLV; heIF 4a; β-actine) and two viral promoters Cytomegalovirus immediate early (CMV) and Rous Sarcoma Virus proviral Long Terminal Repeat (RSV-LTR) driven expression cassettes in new expression vectors (FIG. 21). Different strength of selected promoters allows modulation of the protein of interest expression depending on purpose of use of expression system. In all cases the expression cassettes were equipped with hEF Lalpha. intron (GenBank J04617.1) locating at 5' position from gene of interest coding sequence. SV40 polyadenylation (polyA) sequence regulating expression of Neo/Km and gene of interest simultaneously is used in protein of interest expression cassettes. New generation plasmids are suitable for expression of recombinant proteins or target-proteins for generation of CBA-s. Cell lines for expression of recombinant proteins and for generation of cell based assays are different. For protein expression modified suspension cell lines based on CHO or HEK293 are used. For generation of CBA-modified CHO, HEK293, U2OS adherent cell lines are suitable.
A. Testing of pQMCF and pQMME Expression Vectors Using Gaussia Luciferase as Test System in Transient Expression of Reporter Gene
 To characterize new expression vectors we use gaussia luciferase as reporter system. For analysis of pQMCF vectors suspension CHOEBNALT85 and 293EBNALT75 cell line was used, for analysis of pQMME vectors CHOmLTE2 63 cell line was used. In FIG. 3A, results of gaussia luciferase activities using different vectors in suspension CHOEBNALT85 and 293EBNALT75 is shown. In FIG. 3B, results of gaussia luciferase activities using different vectors in suspension CHOmLTE2 is shown.
 Activity of luciferase was measured 24 hours after transfection. As shown in FIG. 2A, CMV promoter in pQMCF-1 is approximately two times higher compared to our initial vector pQMCF-CMV-0.1 (modified plasmid pFRG). Also in pQMME-1 CMV promoter exhibits highest activity compared to all other promoters. All other promoters in pQMCF show two to four times lower activity compared to pQMCF-1 vector (FIG. 3). In pQMME expression vectors hEF1α, heIF4a and RSV-LTR promoters are approximately two-times weaker than CMV promoter. Other two promoters (β-actin and hEF1α) exhibit 10-15 times lower activity compared to CMV promoter. Differences in promoter strength in QMCF cell lines makes these useful for expression of those proteins which high-level expression is toxic to the cells and allows modulate protein of interest expression level.
 Activity of luciferase was measured 24 hours after transfection. As shown in FIG. 3, CMV promoter in pQMCF-1 is approximately two times higher when compared to another pQMCF-CMV-0.1 vector containing different configuration of expression cassette (CMV-promoter and 3' intron). All other promoters show two to four times lower activity as compared to pQMCF-1 vector (FIG. 3) which makes these promoters useful for expression of proteins which are toxic to the cells in high-levels.
B. Use of the Novel Constructs, Vectors and Cell Lines of this Disclosure for Expression of Human Neurotrophic Factors e.g. Expression of Human CDNF
 cDNA encoding human CDNF protein (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q49AHO) was cloned into all new pQMCF vectors (pQMCF-1 to pQMCF-6, vectors are shown in FIG. 21) and expressed in CHOEBNALT85 cell line. In FIG. 4, growth of the CHOEBNALT85 cells expressing CDNF [pQMCF-1-CDNF] is shown.
 The expression of the CDNF was analyzed in the cells as well as in culture media after transient transfection using electroporation of the QMCF vector encoding CDNF. Transfection efficiency of the CHOEBNALT85 suspension cells was around 85%. As shown on FIG. 5, CDNF is expressed effectively in cells carrying the leader peptide as well as processed CDNF. At the same time only processed CDNF can be found in the culture media, indicating that only processed form of the CDNF is secreted out of the cells. Approximately 9-12 days after transfection production cell bank could be generated (1 107 cells/vial). Human CDNF expression by cells taken from expression cell bank is comparable to the expression started by newly transfected CHOEBNALT85 cells.
Stability of pQMCF Expression Vectors
 We have seen that one important reason for plasmid instability during production phase is the dependence of the protein of interest on the expression level. The stress generated due to the over-expression of the protein depends strongly on the physiological effect of the protein and level of expression. We have analyzed by Southern-Blot method the intactness of the input plasmid in CHOEBNALT85 suspension cell line 48 h after transfection, after selection, and before production phase and during production. As shown in FIG. 5 in the CDNF expression vector (pQMCF-2-CDNF) containing EF1α-HTLV promoter (HTLV leader sequence--GeneBank AB513134; hEF1. alpha. promoter--GenBank J04617.1) exhibits the least plasmid rearrangements and reduction of the plasmid copy-number as compared to CMV promoter driven vector (pQMCF-1-CDNF) both during the expression of CDNF originated from transfection and production cell bank (for more detailed information is provided in FIG. 6 legend).
C. Expression of Recombinant Bovine DNaseI Using the Novel Constructs Vectors and Cell Lines of this Disclosure
 cDNA of Bovine DNaseI protein was cloned into the different pQMCF expression vectors (pQMCF-1 to pQMCF-6, see FIG. 21). For production of CDNF 1 μg of plasmid DNA (expression vector) was used for transfection of the 4 106 CHOEBNALT85 suspension cells. 48 hours after transfection 700 μg/ml of G418 is added to the growth medium. Duration of G418 selection depends on transfection efficiency and rate of toxicity of protein of interest to the appropriate cell line. In most cases 75-80% transfection efficiency is achieved with CHOEBNALT85 suspension cells. After G418 selection production phase (7 days) is performed. Production phase is started with 6106 cells/ml, temperature is shifted to 30° C., feed is added to the cell culture (FIG. 7). After production phase supernatant is clarified and frozen prior the use. Similarly to CDNF production, there was no significant difference between bovine DNaseI production started from transfected cells or from production cell bank (data not shown).
 For selection of plasmid-containing cells 48 h after transfection G418 (700 μg/ml) was added and cells were grown additionally 10 days. 4 vials (1×107) cells were frozen as expression cell bank. For production of bovine DNaseI in 200 ml volume 1 vial from expression cell bank was taken and grown 6 days to reach to the 200 ml volume (4×106 cells/ml). After 7-days of production phase the viability of culture was 83% containing 8 106 cells/ml. Supernatant of the cells was clarified, frozen down and analyzed for DNaseI expression level using semi-quantitative Western-Blot method (FIG. 8).
 Bovine DNaseI expression by cells taken from expression cell bank is comparable to the expression started by newly transfected CHOEBNALT85 cells (FIG. 9).
 Stability of pQMCF expression vectors. We have analyzed by Southern-Blot analysis the stability of plasmid in CHOEBNALT85 suspension cell line 48 h after transfection, before production phase and during production. As shown in FIG. 10, new generation pQMCF vectors are much more stable (FIG. 10, Lines 5-26) as compared to pFRG-type plasmid (FIG. 10, Lines 1-4).
Examples of Cell-Based Assays (CBA) Generated by QMCF Plasmids and Cell Lines
 We developed adherent cell lines based on U205, CHO and HEK293 stably expressing Mouse Polyomavirus (PyV) Large-T antigen for initiation of plasmid replication during S-phase of the cell cycle and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) EBNA-1 protein for segregation/partitioning of the extrachromosomal plasmid into the daughter cells during cell division. Adherent, monolayer growth of cell culture allows use of these cell lines as cell-based assay test-systems. New generation pQMCF expression plasmids (pQMCF-1 to pQMCF-6, as shown in FIG. 21) are suitable for this approach. cDNA of target protein is inserted into the pQMCF expression vector, adherent QMCF cell lines are transfected by electroporation, plasmid-containing cells are selected by G418 and protein expression or translocation is detected. For detection target proteins are fused with EGFP* (in the case of target-protein-EGFP fusion systems) or by N- or C-terminal epitope-tag sequences. Appropriate fluorescent monoclonal anti-epiotpe-tag antibodies are used for protein localization visualization. We have developed 4 different epitope-tags, which allow detecting more than one target-protein localization within same cell-based assay simultaneously. Detection of more than one target-protein within same cell gives good possibility to reconstruct signal-pathways and investigate possible side effects of drug candidate.
 Epitope-tag sequences used for target-protein detection:
TABLE-US-00002 (SEQ ID NO: 20) 6G5 - TVKAKLLSVE (SEQ ID NO: 21) 5E11 - SSTSSDFRDR (SEQ ID NO: 22) HIV-1 p24 - TPQDLNTMLNTVGGH (SEQ ID NO: 23) 9A2.1 - LSSKAVNHIRSVWKDLLEDT
A. Endothelin a Receptor (ETAR-EGFP) Translocation Assay.
 Adherent CHOEBNALT cells were transfected with expression plasmid containing ETAR-EGFP fusion protein under the control of CMV promoter. 800 ng of expression plasmid was transfected into 4 106 CHOEBNALT adherent cells. 48 hours after transfection 400 μg/ml of G418 is added to the growth medium. Duration of G418 selection depends on transfection efficiency and rate of toxicity of target protein into the appropriate cell line. After G418 selection cells were treated with 300 nM endothelin (ETAR internalization effector) and visualized by fluorescent microscopy (FIG. 11).
B. Endothelin a Receptor (ETAR-5E11 Tag) Detection Using Fluorescent Dye Labelled Antibody Directed Against Epitope Tag.
 Adherent U2OSEBNALTD3 cells were transfected with expression ETAR-5E11tag-fusion plasmid. 800 ng of expression plasmid was transfected into 4×106 CHOEBNALT adherent cells. 48 hours after transfection cells were fixed and permeabilized and IF (immunofluorescence) analysis was performed using Thermo Scientific DyLight488 fluorescent dye conjugated anti 5E11 epitope-tag antibody (FIG. 12).
Expression of Virus Like Particles (VLP-s)
 Expression of viral envelope or capside proteins results self-assembly of virus like particles (VLP-s). VLPs could be produced in different cell systems, including mammalian, insect, yeast and plant cells. One good possibility to produce membrane proteins in functional and correct conformational manner is expression of these proteins in composition of virus like particles (VLP-s). VLP-s could be used for different approaches e.g. vaccine development, investigation of receptor functions and also for expression of different membrane proteins.
 We have constructed expression vectors for production of membrane-bound proteins eg. ion-channels, receptors, viral glycoproteins in composition of gag protein-based VLP-s using new generation pQMCF vectors (FIG. 21,23) and the mammalian cell lines as described in this application. All expression vectors for production of VLP-s carry maintenance, replication and antibiotic selection elements as described above.
 Two different types of expression vectors are constructed: single- or two-expression cassettes-containing vectors. (FIGS. 12A and B respectively). Also, two different types of gag proteins, HIV-1 and MLV (murine leukemia virus) gag proteins are used for formation of VLP-s.
 As it is shown in FIG. 9, strong CMV promoter is used for expression of gag protein or in the case of single expression cassette-containing vector also protein of interest expression. Gag and protein of interest expression is divided in single-expression cassette vector by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A peptide (FIG. 10A). As expression of ion channels and receptor proteins is sometimes toxic to the cells, we use two "weaker" RSV-LTR or hEF1α-HTLV promoters for protein of interest expression.
A. Expression of Endotheline A Receptor (ETAR) in HIV-1 gag Protein-Based VLP-s
 Production of VLP-s by Use of Novel Constructs, Vectors and Cell Lines of this Disclosure
 We found in our experiments that for production of VLP-s HEK293-based cell line 293EBNALT75 gives more stable VLP expression than CHOEBNALT85 cell line. For production of VLP-s 1 μg of plasmidial DNA (expression plasmid) for transfection of the 4×106 293EBNALT75 cells. 48 hours after transfection 10 μg/ml (293EBNALT75) G418 is added to the growth medium. Duration of G418 selection depends on transfection efficiency and rate of toxicity of protein of interest to the appropriate cell line. In most cases 30-50% transfection efficiency is achieved with 293EBNALT75 cells. After G418 selection production phase (3-5 days) is performed. Production phase is started with 6×106 cells/ml, temperature is shifted to 30° C. After production phase supernatant is clarified and VLP-s are purified by ultracentrifugation or precipitation and gel-filtration.
 In FIG. 14, production of ETAR-pseudotyped HIV-gag based VLP-s is shown. ETAR protein (P25101) is tagged by 5E11 epitope tag (U.S. Pat. No. 7,189,540) and appropriate antibody was used for detection of protein expression. VLP-s are produced by 293EBNALT75 cell line in small, 20 ml medium volume. Compared to cells expressing only ETAR protein (Line 2), type II ETAR-pseudotyped VLP-s are formed efficiently (Line 3, FIG. 14).
Production of Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies
 All expression vectors for production of monoclonal antibodies carry maintenance, replication and antibiotic selection elements as described above. Antibody expression vectors contain two separate expression cassettes (FIG. 24). All DNA elements (promoters, introns, polyA sequences) in expression cassettes were chosen as different as possible.
 Two different types of antibody expression vectors are constructed: single- or two-expression cassettes-containing vectors. (FIGS. 15 A and B respectively).
A. Expression of Partially Humanized (Chimeric) Tyrosinase a Antibodies
 We have validated methods for generation of production system for recombinant murine- or partially humanized (chimeric) tyrosinase A antibodies. cDNA-s encoding variable regions of IgG1 antibody light- or heavy chains were generated from appropriate hybridoma culture and recombinant IgG1 antibody-expressing vectors were generated fusing antibody variable regions-encoding DNA fragments to the antibody constant regions. Recombinant antibody expression plasmids were transfected into the CHOEBNALT85 cells and antibodies were produced, purified and in vitro antigene-binding affinity was measured in comparison with tyrosinase A antibody expressed and purified from hybridoma culture.
 For production of partially humanized (chimeric) tyrosinase A antibody 1 μg of plasmid DNA (expression vector) was used for transfection of the 4×106 CHOEBNALT85 cells. 48 hours after transfection 700 μg/ml of G418 is added to the growth medium. Duration of G418 selection depends on transfection efficiency and rate of toxicity of protein of interest to the appropriate cell line. In most cases 75-80% transfection efficiency is achieved with CHOEBNALT85 cells. After G418 selection production phase (6 days) is performed. Production phase is started with 6×106 cells/ml, temperature is shifted to 30° C., feed is added to the cell culture (FIG. 16). After production phase supernatant is clarified and frozen prior usage.
 In FIG. 18 expression of partially humanized (chimeric) tyrosinase A antibody was verified by Western-Blot analysis. In FIG. 16 expression of partially humanized (chimeric) tyrosinase A antibody was analyzed from different time points of growth. As shown in FIG. 18, significantly larger amount of monoclonal antibody is detected at the end of production (FIG. 18, Line 4).
Stability of pQMME in U2OSEBNALTE2 Cell Lines
 Southern-Blot Analysis of pQMME Plasmid in U2OSEBNALTE2 Cell Lines
 We have analyzed stability of plasmid pQMME (FIG. 22) in U2OSEBNALTE2 cell line. For construction of U2OSEBNALTE2 cell line BPV E2 protein-expressing concatamer is inserted into U2OSEBNALTD3 cell line. EGFP-expression plasmid pQMME-1-EGFP is transferred into the U2OSEBNALTE2 cell line and cells are grown under the G418 selection constantly passaging for more than 8 weeks. Samples for plasmid analyses were taken 48 hours, 32 days and 52 days after transfection. As shown in FIG. 25, plasmid remains stable during all experiment.
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271622DNAartificial sequencechemically synthesized 1gggtatcata tgctgactgt atacgcatga ggatagcata tgctacccgg atacagatta 60ggatagcata tactacccag atatagatta ggatagcata tgctacccag atatagatta 120ggatagccta tgctacccag atataaatta ggatagcata tactacccag atatagatta 180ggatagcata tgctacccag atatagatta ggatagccta tgctacccag atatagatta 240ggatagcata tgctacccag atatagatta ggatagcata tgctatccag atatttgggt 300agtatatgct acccagatat aaattaggat agcatatact accctaatct ctattaggat 360agcatatgct acccggatac agattaggat agcatatact acccagatat agattaggat 420agcatatgct acccagatat agattaggat agcctatgct acccagatat aaattaggat 480agcatatact acccagatat agattaggat agcatatgct acccagatat agattaggat 540agcctatgct acccagatat agattaggat agcatatgct atccagatat ttgggtagta 600tatgctaccc atggcaacat ta 6222212DNAartificial sequencechemically synthesized 2gccagtcctg ttttgacaag ttgcctctgg aagcctctac aatgcctctc ttctttttct 60ccagagtaag cggaggccag gggcccccgg cctctgctta atactaaaaa aaacagctgt 120tgtcatagta atgattgggt ggaaacattc taggcagatc tagtcgggag gaaaattact 180gtgttggagg ccctccgcca tcttctgaag ct 212319DNAartificial sequencechemically synthesized 3cgggtatcat atgctgact 19419DNAartificial sequencechemically synthesized 4aggatagcat atgctaccc 19519DNAartificial sequencechemically synthesized 5aggatagcat atactaccc 19619DNAartificial sequencechemically synthesized 6aggatagcct atgctaccc 197206DNAartificial sequencechemically synthesized 7ctgtaccgtt gccggtcgga tctgtaccgt tgccggtcgg atctgtaccg ttgccggtcg 60gatctgtacc gttgccggtc ggatctgtac cgttgccggt cggatctgta ccgttgccgg 120tcggatctgt accgttgccg gtcggatctg taccgttgcc ggtcggatct gtaccgttgc 180cggtcggatc tgtaccgttg ccggtc 2068244DNAHomo sapiens 8gctccggtgc ccgtcagtgg gcagagcgca catcgcccac agtccccgag aagttggggg 60gaggggtcgg caattgaacc ggtgcctaga gaaggtggcg cggggtaaac tgggaaagtg 120atgtcgtgta ctggctccgc ctttttcccg agggtggggg agaaccgtat ataagtgcag 180tagtcgccgt gaacgttctt tttcgcaacg ggtttgccgc cagaacacag ctgaagcttc 240gagg 2449528DNAHomo sapiens 9ctagatgatt tccttcatcc ctggcacacg tccaggcagt gtcgaatcca tctctgctac 60aggggaaaac aaataacatt tgagtccagt ggagaccggg agcagaagta aagggaagtg 120ataaccccca gagcccggaa gcctctggag gctgagacct cgcccccctt gcgtgatagg 180gcctacggag ccacatgacc aaggcactgt cgcctccgca cgtgtgagag tgcagggccc 240caagatggct gccaggcctc gaggcctgac tcttctatgt cacttccgta ccggcgagaa 300aggcgggccc tccagccaat gaggctgcgg ggcgggcctt caccttgata ggcactcgag 360ttatccaatg gtgcctgcgg gccggagcga ctaggaacta acgtcatgcc gagttgctga 420gcgccggcag gcggggccgg ggcggccaaa ccaatgcgat ggccggggcg gagtcgggcg 480ctctataagt tgtcgatagg cgggcactcc gccctagttt ctaaggaa 5281018DNAartificial sequencechemically synthesized 10agggagctac tcctgatg 181118DNAartificial sequencechemically synthesized 11ctaccaccac tccgactt 18121528DNAHomo sapiens 12ctagagttcc atgtccttat atggactcat ctttgcctat tgcgacacac actcaatgaa 60cacctactac gcgctgcaaa gagccccgca ggcctgaggt gcccccacct caccactctt 120cctatttttg tgtaaaaatc cagcttcttg tcaccacctc caaggagggg gaggaggagg 180aaggcaggtt cctctaggct gagccgaatg cccctctgtg gtcccacgcc actgatcgct 240gcatgcccac cacctgggta cacacagtct gtgattcccg gagcagaacg gaccctgccc 300acccggtctt gtgtgctact cagtggacag acccaaggca agaaagggtg acaaggacag 360ggtcttccca ggctggcttt gagttcctag caccgccccg cccccaatcc tctgtggcac 420atggagtctt ggtccccaga gtcccccagc ggcctccaga tggtctggga gggcagttca 480gctgtggctg cgcatagcag acatacaacg gacggtgggc ccagacccag gctgtgtaga 540cccagccccc ccgccccgca gtgcctaggt cacccactaa cgccccaggc ctggtcttgg 600ctgggcgtga ctgttaccct caaaagcagg cagctccagg gtaaaaggtg ccctgccctg 660tagagcccac cttccttccc agggctgcgg ctgggtaggt ttgtagcctt catcacgggc 720cacctccagc cactggaccg ctggcccctg ccctgtcctg gggagtgtgg tcctgcgact 780tctaagtggc cgcaagccac ctgactcccc caacaccaca ctctacctct caagcccagg 840tctctcccta gtgacccacc cagcacattt agctagctga gccccacagc cagaggtcct 900caggccctgc tttcagggca gttgctctga agtcggcaag ggggagtgac tgcctggcca 960ctccatgccc tccaagagct ccttctgcag gagcgtacag aacccagggc cctggcaccc 1020gtgcagaccc tggcccaccc cacctgggcg ctcagtgccc aagagatgtc cacacctagg 1080atgtcccgcg gtgggtgggg ggcccgagag acgggcaggc cgggggcagg cctggccatg 1140cggggccgaa ccgggcactg cccagcgtgg ggcgcggggg ccacggcgcg cgcccccagc 1200ccccgggccc agcaccccaa ggcggccaac gccaaaactc tccctcctcc tcttcctcaa 1260tctcgctctc gctctttttt tttttcgcaa aaggagggga gagggggtaa aaaaatgctg 1320cactgtgcgg cgaagccggt gagtgagcgg cgcggggcca atcagcgtgc gccgttccga 1380aagttgcctt ttatggctcg agcggccgcg gcggcgccct ataaaaccca gcggcgcgac 1440gcgccaccac cgccgagacc gcgtccgccc cgcgagcaca gagcctcgcc tttgccgatc 1500cgccgcccgt ccacacccgc cgaccggt 152813606DNAHuman cytomeglovirus 13ggctggatcg gtcccggtgt cttctatgga ggtcaaaaca gcgtggatgg cgtctccagg 60cgatctgacg gttcactaaa cgagctctgc ttatatagac ctcccaccgt acacgcctac 120cgcccatttg cgtcaatggg gcggagttgt tacgacattt tggaaagtcc cgttgatttt 180ggtgccaaaa caaactccca ttgacgtcaa tggggtggag acttggaaat ccccgtgagt 240caaaccgcta tccacgccca ttgatgtact gccaaaaccg catcaccatg gtaatagcga 300tgactaatac gtagatgtac tgccaagtag gaaagtccca taaggtcatg tactgggcat 360aatgccaggc gggccattta ccgtcattga cgtcaatagg gggcgtactt ggcatatgat 420acacttgatg tactgccaag tgggcagttt accgtaaata ctccacccat tgacgtcaat 480ggaaagtccc tattggcgtt actatgggaa catacgtcat tattgacgtc aatgggcggg 540ggtcgttggg cggtcagcca ggcgggccat ttaccgtaag ttatgtaacg gggcgagctc 600gaattc 60614532DNAartificial sequencechemically synthesized 14gctccggtgc ccgtcagtgg gcagagcgca catcgcccac agtccccgag aagttggggg 60gaggggtcgg caattgaacc ggtgcctaga gaaggtggcg cggggtaaac tgggaaagtg 120atgtcgtgta ctggctccgc ctttttcccg agggtggggg agaaccgtat ataagtgcag 180tagtcgccgt gaacgttctt tttcgcaacg ggtttgccgc cagaacacag ctgaagcttc 240gaggggctcg catctctcct tcacgcgccc gccgccctac ctgaggccgc catccacgcc 300ggttgagtcg cgttctgccg cctcccgcct gtggtgcctc ctgaactgcg tccgccgtct 360aggtaagttt aaagctcagg tcgagaccgg gcctttgtcc ggcgctccct tggagcctac 420ctagactcag ccggctctcc acgctttgcc tgaccctgct tgctcaactc tacgtctttg 480tttcgttttc tgttctgcgc cgttacagat ccaagctgtg accggcgcct ac 53215269DNAsimian virus 15aattaacatt taaatgatct accacatttg tagaggtttt acttgcttta aaaaacctcc 60cacacctccc cctgaacctg aaacataaaa tgaatgcaat tgttgttgtt aacttgttta 120ttgcagctta taatggttac aaataaagca atagcatcac aaatttcaca aataaagcaa 180tagcatcaca aatttcacaa ataaagcatt tttttcactg cattctagtt gtggtttgtc 240caaactcatc aatgtatctt atcatgtcg 26916527DNARous sarcoma virus 16ctgctccctg cttgtgtgtt ggaggtcgct gagtagtgcg cgagcaaaat ttaagctaca 60acaaggcaag gcttgaccga caattgcatg aagaatctgc ttagggttag gcgttttgcg 120ctgcttcgcg atgtacgggc cagatatacg cgtatctgag gggactaggg tgtgtttagg 180cgaaaagcgg ggcttcggtt gtacgcggtt aggagtcccc tcaggatata gtagtttcgc 240ttttgcatag ggagggggaa atgtagtctt atgcaatact cttgtagtct tgcaacatgg 300taacgatgag ttagcaacat gccttacaag gagagaaaaa gcaccgtgca tgccgattgg 360tggaagtaag gtggtacgat cgtgccttat taggaaggca acagacgggt ctgacatgga 420ttggacgaac cactgaattc cgcattgcag agatattgta tttaagtgcc tagctcgata 480caataaacgc catttgacca ttcaccacat tggtgtgcac ctccaag 52717330DNAsimian virus 17aggcctccaa aaaagcctcc tcactacttc tggaatagct cagaggccga ggcggcctcg 60gcctctgcat aaataaaaaa aattagtcag ccatggggcg gagaatgggc ggaactgggc 120ggagttaggg gcgggatggg cggagttagg ggcgggacta tggttgctga ctaattgaga 180tgcatgcttt gcatacttct gcctgctggg gagcctgggg actttccaca cctggttgct 240gactaattga gatgcatgct ttgcatactt ctgcctgctg gggagcctgg ggactttcca 300caccctaact gacacacatt ccacagggtc 33018795DNAartificial sequencechemically synthesized 18atgattgaac aagatggatt gcacgcaggt tctccggccg cttgggtgga gaggctattc 60ggctatgact gggcacaaca gacaatcggc tgctctgatg ccgccgtgtt ccggctgtca 120gcgcaggggc gcccggttct ttttgtcaag accgacctgt ccggtgccct gaatgaactg 180caggacgagg cagcgcggct atcgtggctg gccacgacgg gcgttccttg cgcagctgtg 240ctcgacgttg tcactgaagc gggaagggac tggctgctat tgggcaaagt gccggggcag 300gatctcctgt catctcacct tgctcctgcc gagaaagtat ccatcatggc tgatgcaatg 360cggcggctgc atacgcttga tccggctacc tgcccattcg accaccaagc gaaacatcgc 420atcgagcgag cacgtactcg gatggaagcc ggtcttgtcg atcaggatga tctggacgaa 480gagcatcagg ggctcgcgcc agccgaactg ttcgccaggc tcaaggcgcg catgcccgac 540ggcgaggatc tcgtcgtgac ccatggcgat gcctgcttgc cgaatatcat ggtggaaaat 600ggccgctttt ctggattcat cgactgtggc cggctgggtg tggcggaccg ctatcaggac 660atagcgttgg ctacccgtga tattgctgaa gagcttggcg gcgaatgggc tgaccgcttc 720ctcgtgcttt acggtatcgc cgctcccgat tcgcagcgca tcgccttcta tcgccttctt 780gacgagttct tctga 79519943DNAhomo sapiens 19ctgaaatgga agaaaaaaac tttgaaccac tgtctgaggc ttgagaatga accaagatcc 60aaactcaaaa agggcaaatt ccaaggagaa ttacatcaag tgccaagctg gcctaacttc 120agtctccacc cactcagtgt ggggaaactc catcgcataa aacccctccc cccaacctaa 180agacgacgta ctccaaaagc tcgagaacta atcgaggtgc ctggacggcg cccggtactc 240cgtggagtca catgaagcga cggctgagga cggaaaggcc cttttccttt gtgtgggtga 300ctcacccgcc cgctctcccg agcgccgcgt cctccatttt gagctccctg cagcagggcc 360gggaagcggc catctttccg ctcacgcaac tggtgccgac cgggccagcc ttgccgccca 420gggcggggcg atacacggcg gcgcgaggcc aggcaccaga gcaggccggc cagcttgaga 480ctacccccgt ccgattctcg gtggccgcgc tcgcaggccc cgcctcgccg aacatgtgcg 540ctgggacgca cgggccccgt cgccgcccgc ggccccaaaa accgaaatac cagtgtgcag 600atcttggccc gcatttacaa gactatcttg ccagaaaaaa agcgtcgcag caggtcatca 660aaaattttaa atggctagag acttatcgaa agcagcgaga caggcgcgaa ggtgccacca 720gattcgcacg cggcggcccc agcgcccaag ccaggcctca actcaagcac gaggcgaagg 780ggctccttaa gcgcaaggcc tcgaactctc ccacccactt ccaacccgaa gctcgggatc 840aagaatcacg tactgcagcc aggggcgtgg aagtaattca aggcacgcaa gggccataac 900ccgtaaagag gccaggcccg cgggaaccac acacggcact tac 9432010PRTartificial sequencechemically synthesized 20Thr Val Lys Ala Lys Leu Leu Ser Val Glu 1 5 10 2110PRTartificial sequencechemically synthesized 21Ser Ser Thr Ser Ser Asp Phe Arg Asp Arg 1 5 10 2215PRTartificial sequencechemically synthesized 22Thr Pro Gln Asp Leu Asn Thr Met Leu Asn Thr Val Gly Gly His 1 5 10 15 2320PRTartificial sequencechemcially synthesized 23Leu Ser Ser Lys Ala Val Asn His Ile Arg Ser Val Trp Lys Ser Leu 1 5 10 15 Leu Glu Asp Thr 20 242025DNAartificial sequencechemcially synthesized 24ttacttgtac agctcgtcca tgccgagagt gatcccggcg gcggtcacga actccagcag 60gaccatgtga tcgcgcttct cgttggggtc tttgctcagg gcggactggg tgctcaggta 120gtggttgtcg ggcagcagca cggggccgtc gccgatgggg gtgttctgct ggtagtggtc 180ggcgagctgc acgctgccgt cctcgatgtt gtggcggatc ttgaagttca ccttgatgcc 240gttcttctgc ttgtcggcca tgatatagac gttgtggctg ttgtagttgt actccagctt 300gtgccccagg atgttgccgt cctccttgaa gtcgatgccc ttcagctcga tgcggttcac 360cagggtgtcg ccctcgaact tcacctcggc gcgggtcttg tagttgccgt cgtccttgaa 420gaagatggtg cgctcctgga cgtagccttc gggcatggcg gacttgaaga agtcgtgctg 480cttcatgtgg tcggggtagc ggctgaagca ctgcacgccg taggtcaggg tggtcacgag 540ggtgggccag ggcacgggca gcttgccggt ggtgcagatg aacttcaggg tcagcttgcc 600gtaggtggca tcgccctcgc cctcgccgga cacgctgaac ttgtggccgt ttacgtcgcc 660gtccagctcg accaggatgg gcaccacccc ggtgaacagc tcctcgccct tgctcaccat 720tttgtcgtca tcgtctttgt agtcgttcat gctgtcctta tggctgctcc ggtctgtgtt 780gtggttgttt tgatcgtggt tcttccactg gatgcttgtt ccgttcatgg ggaccgaggt 840catcagactt ttggactggt aacagcagca gcagaggcat gactggaaac aatttttaaa 900tttcttgctc acaaaataca gagctatggg gtttatacat gaattcatgg ttgccaagtt 960aataccgatg taatccatga gcagtaagaa actaagtaat tcacatcggt tcttgtccat 1020ctcgttatac acagttttct tcaatatacg gcttaaatga agagggaacc agcaaagagc 1080aaaaattaca accaagcaga aaactgtttt tgccacttct cgacgctgct taagatgttc 1140actgagggca attctcaagc tgccattcct tctgttcaac atctcacaag tcatgagggt 1200gtagaagatc gcagtgcaca ccaagggcat acagaaatag aacccgaaga gccaccagtc 1260ctttacatct tggtagaact ccatgaattt tgatgtggca ttgagcatac aggttttatg 1320ctgttcaccc ctatattcaa agggtaccat gacgaagcca atcgcttcag gaatggccag 1380gataaaggac aggatccaga tggagacaat ttcaatggca gttaccaaag gaatcccaat 1440tccctgaaca cgactccagg aggcaactgc tctgtacctg tcaacactaa gagcgcagag 1500gttgaggacg gtgatcccca ccgaggactt ctgcaaaaag gggaacagct tgcaaagaaa 1560tacgccaaag tcattgtgat caaaaggcca gcgcccagcc agcagcttaa atacattgat 1620agggagatca atgaccacat agataaggtc tccaagggca agactggcta tcagcgcgtt 1680ggggccattc ctcatacatt tgttctggta aatgatcctg agcagagttg cattccccac 1740cattcccacg atgaaaatag tacaagatat cacagtgtta atgtatttga aagctgaagt 1800aattttagtc tgctgtgggc aatagttgtg cattgagcca ttgctgggta ggaccaaatt 1860agtgggttga tgagtggtaa ccaggaagct gagctctgtg ccacgaaaag tggtgaaatc 1920atccacatga ttgcttagat ttgtgctgta tctctcagga ttatcactga ttacacatcc 1980aaccagtgcc agccaaaagg atgccctgag gcaaagggtt tccat 202525584DNAartificial sequencechemcially synthesized 25gcgttgctgg cgtttttcca taggctccgc ccccctgacg agcatcacaa aaatcgacgc 60tcaagtcaga ggtggcgaaa cccgacagga ctataaagat accaggcgtt tccccctgga 120agctccctcg tgcgctctcc tgttccgacc ctgccgctta ccggatacct gtccgccttt 180ctcccttcgg gaagcgtggc gctttctcat agctcacgct gtaggtatct cagttcggtg 240taggtcgttc gctccaagct gggctgtgtg cacgaacccc ccgttcagcc cgaccgctgc 300gccttatccg gtaactatcg tcttgagtcc aacccggtaa gacacgactt atcgccactg 360gcagcagcca ctggtaacag gattagcaga gcgaggtatg taggcggtgc tacagagttc 420ttgaagtggt ggcctaacta cggctacact agaagaacag tatttggtat ctgcgctctg 480ctgaagccag ttaccttcgg aaaaagagtt ggtagctctt gatccggcaa acaaaccacc 540gctggtagcg gtggtttttt tgtttgcaag cagcagatta cgcg 584261433DNAHIV 26atgggatcct ccaagagtaa gcccaaggac cacatcgtgt gggccagccg cgagctggag 60cgcttcgccg tgaaccccgg cctgctcgag accagcgaag gctgccgcca gatcatgggc 120cagctccagc ccagcctcca gaccggcagc gaggagctgc gcagcctgta caacaccgtg 180gccaccctgt actgcgtgca ccagaagatc gaggtgaagg acaccaagga ggccctggac 240aaggtggagg aggagcagaa caacagcaag aagaaggccc agcaggaggc cgccgacgcc 300ggcaaccgca accaagtcag ccagaactac cccatcgtgc agaacctgca gggccagatg 360gtgcaccagg ccatcagccc ccgcaccctg aacgcctggg tgaaggtggt ggaggagaag 420gccttcagcc ccgaggtgat ccccatgttc agcgccctga gcgagggcgc taccccccag 480gacctgaaca ccatgctgaa caccgtgggc ggccaccagg ccgccatgca gatgctgaag 540gagaccatca acgaggaggc cgccgagtgg gaccgcctgc accccgtgca cgccgggccc 600atcgcccccg gccagatgcg cgagccccgc ggcagcgaca tcgccggcac caccagcacc 660ctccaggagc agatcggctg gatgaccaac aaccccccca tccccgtggg cgagatctac 720aagcgctgga tcatcctggg cctgaacaag atcgtccgca tgtacagccc caccagcatc 780ctggacatca agcagggccc caaggagccc ttccgcgact acgtggaccg cttctacaag 840accctgcgcg ccgagcaggc cacccaggag gtgaagaact ggatgaccga gaccctgctg 900gtgcagaacg ccaaccccga ctgcaagacc atcctcaagg ccctgggacc cgccgccacc 960ctggaggaga tgatgaccgc ctgccaaggc gtgggaggcc caggccacaa ggccagagtg 1020ctggccgagg ccatgagcca ggtgaccggc agcgctgcca tcatgatgca gagaggcaac 1080ttcagaaacc agagaaagac cgtgaagtgc ttcaactgcg gcaaggaggg acacatcgcc 1140agaaactgca gagctcccag aaagaagggc tgctggaagt gcggaaagga gggacaccag 1200atgaaggact gcaccgagag acaggccaac ttcctgggca agatctggcc cagccacaag 1260ggcagacccg gcaacttcct gcagagcaga cccgagccca ccgctcctcc cgaggagagc 1320ttcagattcg gcgaggccac cgctcctagc cagaagcagg agcccatcga caaggagctg 1380tacccactgg ccagcctgaa gagcctgttc ggcagcgacc caagcagcca gat 14332772DNAFoot and mouth disease virus 27gcaccggtga aacagacttt gaattttgac cttctcaagt tggcgggaga cgtggagtcc 60aaccctgggc cc 72
Patent applications by Aare Abroi, Tartu EE
Patent applications by Andres Tover, Tartu EE
Patent applications by Anne Kalling, Tartu EE
Patent applications by Ene Ustav, Tartu EE
Patent applications by Ingrid Tagen, Tartu EE
Patent applications by Jelizaveta Geimanen, Tartu EE
Patent applications by Kadri Janikson, Tartu EE
Patent applications by Mart Ustav, Tartu EE
Patent applications by Radi Tegova, Tartu EE
Patent applications by Tiiu Mandel, Tartu EE
Patent applications by Toomas Silla, Tartu EE
Patent applications by Urve Toots, Tartu EE
Patent applications in class Mouse (i.e., Mus)
Patent applications in all subclasses Mouse (i.e., Mus)