Patent application title: SYSTEM AND METHODS FOR BATTERY MANAGEMENT
Nicky G. Gallegos (Greenville, SC, US)
Michael C. Walker (Simpsonville, SC, US)
IPC8 Class: AH02J700FI
Class name: Electricity: battery or capacitor charging or discharging cell or battery charger structure charging station for electrically powered vehicle
Publication date: 2013-08-29
Patent application number: 20130221919
A battery management system includes several subsystem blocks, an Energy
Storage Master Charger unit, and several battery pack systems. The Energy
Storage Master may interface with the Vehicle Master Controller by way of
CAN or other communication method to an External Charger. Each battery
module within a battery pack may include a Local Module Unit which may
communicate with a Pack Master. The Pack Master may communicate with and
may be controlled by the Energy Storage Master. Thus, there is a
processor to monitor groups of battery cells, a second processor to
collect further information about the cell groups, and a third module
that takes high-level information from each cell group processor to
process and pass on to other vehicle controllers or charger controllers.
An integrated BMS may enable cell monitoring, temperature monitoring,
cell balancing, string current monitoring, and charger control
1. A battery management system comprising: a plurality of local module
units, wherein each local module unit monitors at least a cell voltage,
temperature, humidity and current from a plurality of battery cells; at
least one pack master board for aggregating data from and communicating
with the plurality of local module units; an energy storage master for
interfacing with a vehicle master controller; and an external charger,
the external charger in communication with the vehicle master controller;
wherein the pack master board communicates with the energy storage master
to command charge transfer between the plurality of battery cells.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the system is for an electric vehicle.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein the vehicle master controller interfaces with the external charger through a charging station interface.
4. The system of claim 2, wherein a group of battery cells form a battery module, and a group of battery modules form a battery pack, and a pair of battery packs form a string, and a variable number of strings are included in the electric vehicle; and one local module unit monitors each battery module.
5. The system of claim 1, wherein the pack master board communicates with the plurality of local module units using a serial peripheral interface bus.
6. The system of claim 1, wherein the pack master board communicates with the energy storage master on a controller area network.
7. The system of claim 6, wherein the controller area network is ISO 11898.
8. The system of claim 1, wherein the pack master board communicates with the energy storage master using a single controller area network bus.
9. The system of claim 1, wherein the pack master board monitors die temperature of the plurality of local module units.
10. The system of claim 1, wherein the pack master board communicates with the energy storage master to command charge transfer between the plurality of battery cells by buffering energy into a capacitor from the plurality of battery cells and then transferring the buffered energy into a single battery cell selected from the plurality of battery cells by using the local module unit to turn on transistors moving charge into the selected single battery cell.
11. The system of claim 10, wherein the transistors are capable of passing more than 3 Amps continuously.
12. The system of claim 10, wherein the capacitor is rated for 20 Watts per channel.
13. The system of claim 1, wherein a group of battery cells form a battery module and further comprising an isolated DCDC converter connected to the battery module to charge a selected battery cell from the group of battery cells.
14. The system of claim 1, wherein each local module unit comprises liquid or fuse indicators.
15. The system of claim 10, wherein the local module unit comprises a multi-cell battery stack monitoring microprocessor chip.
16. A method for efficient battery management for an electric vehicle comprising: monitoring a cell voltage, temperature, humidity and current from a plurality of battery cells using a plurality of local module units, wherein a group of battery cells form a battery module and a group of battery modules form a battery pack, and a pair of battery packs form a string; aggregating data from and communicating with the plurality of local module units using at least one pack master board; communicating information to and from the at least one pack master board to and from an energy storage master; communicating information to and from the energy storage master to and from a vehicle master controller; and communicating from the vehicle master control to an external charger, wherein the pack master board communicates with the energy storage master to command charge transfer between the plurality of battery cells when a voltage imbalance is detected.
17. The method of claim 16, further comprising monitoring a state of health of the plurality of battery cells and bypassing a battery cell within a battery pack based on the state of health.
18. The method of claim 16, further comprising disconnecting a battery pack if a short is detected by the plurality of local module units.
19. The method of claim 16, further comprising disconnecting a string if a current imbalance is detected.
20. A battery management system for an electric vehicle comprising: a plurality of primary processor modules to monitor groups of battery cells, wherein each primary processor module monitors at least a cell voltage, temperature, humidity and current of the battery cells; a plurality of secondary processor module to collect information about the groups of battery cells from the plurality of primary processor modules; and a tertiary processor module to collect information from the plurality of secondary processor modules to pass along to a vehicle controller or external charger controllers, wherein the secondary processor modules communicate with the tertiary processor module to command charge transfer between the battery cells.
 This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/379,671, filed Sep. 2, 2010, which application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
 A BMS, or Battery Management System is a device or multiple devices that control some or all aspects of an advanced energy storage system. Some aspects that may be controlled include monitoring voltages of each cell or groups of energy storage cells, monitoring current, monitoring temperatures throughout energy storage units(s), calculating States of Charge (SoC), calculating and/or tracking States of Health (SoH), and/or modifying State of Charge to balance the storage unit voltages or SoC's.
 A BMS may be used in any number of applications ranging anywhere from vehicles to cell phones to laptops to large stationary grid balancing plants. A BMS will typically be used on an advanced battery system consisting of many cells connected in a series/parallel configuration, although occasionally a BMS may be used on a less advanced battery system that needs a longer lifespan from the batteries such as in a vehicle application or an ultracapacitor system requiring precise control over its cell voltages and SoC's.
 The Battery Management System in any system may report information about the system back to a central computer or control aspects of the battery system itself. Much of the function of a BMS will be determined at the design stage of a particular implementation, however it will always be used to collect data about the battery system and calculate important parameters, then either transmit or use that data to adjust aspects of the energy storage system.
 What is needed is an improved battery management system to better balance and manage cells.
 The invention provides improved battery management systems and methods. Various aspects of the invention described herein may be applied to any of the particular applications set forth below. The invention may be applied as a standalone battery management system or as a component of an integrated solution for battery management. The invention can be optionally integrated into existing business and battery management processes seamlessly. It shall be understood that different aspects of the invention can be appreciated individually, collectively or in combination with each other.
 In one embodiment, a battery management system includes: a plurality of local module units, wherein each local module unit monitors at least a cell voltage, temperature, humidity and current from a plurality of battery cells; at least one pack master board for aggregating data from and communicating with the plurality of local module units; an energy storage master for interfacing with a vehicle master controller; and an external charger, the external charger in communication with the vehicle master controller. The pack master board communicates with the energy storage master to command charge transfer between the plurality of battery cells.
 Other goals and advantages of the invention will be further appreciated and understood when considered in conjunction with the following description and accompanying drawings. While the following description may contain specific details describing particular embodiments of the invention, this should not be construed as limitations to the scope of the invention but rather as an exemplification of preferable embodiments. For each aspect of the invention, many variations are possible as suggested herein that are known to those of ordinary skill in the art. A variety of changes and modifications can be made within the scope of the invention without departing from the spirit thereof.
INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
 All publications, patents, and patent applications mentioned in this specification are herein incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication, patent, or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 The novel features of the invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. A better understanding of the features and advantages of the present invention will be obtained by reference to the following detailed description that sets forth illustrative embodiments, in which the principles of the invention are utilized, and the accompanying drawings of which:
 FIG. 1 illustrates an example of an architecture of a battery management system, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIG. 2 illustrates an example of an overall system architecture of various levels of controllers, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIG. 3 illustrates examples of arrangements and interconnections within packs and strings, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIG. 4 illustrates one example of circuitry used to implement a Local Module Unit, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIG. 5 illustrates an example of the layout of a Local Module Unit, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIG. 6 illustrates an example of the architecture through which the Vehicle Master Controller interfaces with the Energy Storage Master to control operation of battery packs, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIG. 7A illustrates an example of a block diagram of an Energy Storage Master's connections, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIG. 7B illustrates a flowchart of an example of behavior of an Energy Storage Master, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIG. 8 illustrates a block diagram for an example of a Pack Master Unit, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIG. 9 illustrates an example of an architecture for a Pack Master Unit, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIG. 10 illustrates an example of a flowchart illustrating behavior of a Pack Master Unit, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIG. 11 illustrates an example of a block diagram of a Local Module Unit, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIG. 12 illustrates an example of an architecture for a Local Module Unit, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIG. 13 illustrates an example of the timing of the SPI Interface, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 In the following detailed description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the invention. However it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that the invention may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known methods, procedures, components and circuits have not been described in detail so as not to obscure the invention. Various modifications to the described embodiments will be apparent to those with skill in the art, and the general principles defined herein may be applied to other embodiments. The invention is not intended to be limited to the particular embodiments shown and described.
 Lithium Ion battery systems require cell balancing throughout their lifetime in order to maintain a maximum amount of usable energy and cycle life of the batteries. A battery management system (BMS) in accordance with embodiments of the present invention may balance these cells and create a communication and control link to the rest of the system in which the batteries are installed. The effectiveness of the system is highly affected by the way in which this system is organized and implemented. Since all battery types can benefit from cell balancing and this system can react to other chemistries by changing the firmware in a mater pack, systems and methods for implementing a BMS as further described herein can adapt to other types of cell chemistries with proper programs controlling balance and charge.
 In an aspect of embodiments of the present invention, a battery management system (BMS) is provided. As further described below, the physical layout of the BMS may include many Local Module Units (LMU's), with low amounts of processing power to provide local information at a module level. Each Local Module Unit may be attached via a relatively long isolated communication link to an intermediate controller which consolidates information and makes decisions about cell balancing. The intermediate controller may relays macro-level information to an Energy Storage Master (ESM) controller, and the Energy Storage Master may make high level decisions about the Energy Storage System and potentially control charge algorithms and communication. This master level controller may also provide feedback to other controllers on a Controller Area Network (CAN), e.g., ISO 11898 which may define the physical later, although the specific communication language is not important. As a result, a very high rate cell balancing creates the opportunity to balance cells while charging the energy storage system at very high rates. Such rates may exceed five times the C rate of the storage system. Further, the very high rate cell balancing is the key to charging batteries at extreme rates of charge. Balancing can be accomplished suing resistive shunt bleed or active balancing with isolated DC-DC converters or capacitive switching, or any other method known to practitioners of the art.
 System Architecture:
 Referring to FIG. 1, in one embodiment, a battery management system includes several subsystem blocks, an Energy Storage Master unit 100, and Traction Pack Systems 104. The Energy Storage Master may interface with the Vehicle Master Controller (ZR32-A) 101 with a pass through from the Energy Storage Master 100 by way of CAN or other communication method to an External Charger 102. The Vehicle Master Controller 101 may interface with the External Charger 102 either directly or through a charging station interface. The energy storage system may include several strings of batteries 103 in an electric vehicle. Within each of these strings 103, there may be packs 104, and each pack is comprised of several battery modules. The Traction Packs 104 may communicate to the Energy Storage Master 100 by way of a second CAN bus. Two packs 104 may make up a string 103. The packs may be controlled by a pack master, which may communicate with the Energy Storage Master 100 using a single CAN bus for the entire system. Each pack master may communicate with its Local Module Unit using an Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus. The Local Module Unit and Pack Master communications may be isolated. In one embodiment, the battery modules containing 10 prismatic battery cells each, there are 8 battery modules per pack, 2 packs per string, and a variable number of strings per vehicle (typically 3 to 4).
 Referring to FIG. 2, an example of an overall system architecture of various levels of controllers is illustrated. In one embodiment, the system architecture includes three modules, one to monitor groups of battery cells 201, a second processor module to collect further information about the cell groups 202, and a third module 203 that takes high-level information from each cell group processor to process and pass on to other vehicle controllers or charger controllers. In this implementation the cell group monitor 201 can observe anywhere from 4 to 12 cells and monitor up to 8 temperatures in addition to the die temperature of the monitor. In addition, the monitor 201 can control discharge or charge transfer between cells in the group. The second processor module 202 monitors all cell group voltages and temperatures and uses that information to command the discharge or charge transfer between cells in each cell group 201. Up to 16 cell groups can be connected together and controlled with a single processor module 202. In this implementation the third controller module 203 communicates with the processor module through an electrically isolated CAN communication module, however this communication method is not required. Any conductive, opto-isolated, or magnetically coupled physical communication method can be used to communicate via CAN, RS-485, or some other multi-master communication standard known to masters of the art. This communication master controller 203 can be linked with as many cell group controllers 202 as is available via the standard; in this implementation the controller 203 is connected to 6 or 8 cell group controllers 201. Each battery module may include a Local Module Unit which is a board further described below.
 Cell balancing at the cell group module level can be implemented in a number of ways. In one implementation the cell group module 201 may be commanded by the cell group controller 202 to discharge cells at up to 20 W of power per cell, for example. Heat is dissipated through the circuit board and can also be transferred into a heatsink for a faster discharge rate. Removing energy at a high rate enables the battery cells within the module 201 to balance very quickly. Instead of discharging cells into resistors and creating heat, charge balancing can be done via a charge shuttling routine. Energy can be buffered into a capacitor or supercapacitor from one or many cells, then transferred into a single cell by using the cell group module 201 to turn on transistors moving charge into the cell. By using transistor level components rated for the maximum voltage of the module, the system can provide isolation for all cells attached through transistors to the energy storage device. If done in rapid succession, the module 201 can move energy from the overall module 201 into a specific cell resulting in a highly efficient method of balancing. Resistors can still be utilized to drop module voltages with respect to other modules. Using this method allows the cells controlled by the cell group controller 202 to balance fully, and by using intelligent controls, can balance every cell connected to the large network connected to the Energy Storage Master Controller 203. A third balancing possibility would be to use an isolated DCDC converter attached at the module level that could charge an individual cell based on transistor switching at any one cell on the module.
 Other BMS systems, have a number of faults which are addressed by embodiments of the present invention. For example, other BMS systems may require a significant number of wires (e.g., 144 per pack) which can result in extra assembly work, large wiring harnesses, more failure points, and added weight. In addition, other BMS systems often have insufficient voltage resolution which may not be sufficient to balance individual cells with nominal voltages of 2.3V. Lastly, other BMS systems may be inadequate for fast charging of energy storage systems at 6 C rates. In particular, active balancing of cells during charge events may not be able to be achieved.
 By utilizing a multi-cell battery stack monitoring microprocessor chip, for example LT-6802-1 from Linear Technology, the complexity of writing required may be greatly reduced. Thus, less wiring may be required to gather data from groups of cells and send consolidated information from each cell and module which can be aggregated back to the energy storage master for decision making. A multi-cell battery stack monitoring microprocessor chip may be used as the central processor on the Local Module Unit. This may enable a simplification of the BMS which may allow removal of excess wiring (e.g., the removal of 140 wires per pack). Voltage resolution may also be improved, for example, with overall string voltage and current with selectable cell voltages at a high resolution of +/-0.05V.
 Use of a multi-cell battery stack monitoring microprocessor chip, for example LT-6802-1 from Linear Technology, may have several benefits including: enabling fast charging at 6 C rates, active balancing during fast charging at 6 C rates, using 20 W bleed resistors per cell versus 1 W typical. Other benefits may include: humidity or water detection in battery packs (may aid in detection of compromised integrity of back pack enclosures and may provide advanced warning of potential field issues), efficient cell balancing (shuttling energy between cells versus resistive dissipation of heat), and bypass capability per cell to allow limp home mode (providing emergency power to limp home under derated conditions, and where an intermittently functioning cell would typically trigger the pack to be taken offline line, an intermittent cell could be bypassed allowing some power from the pack to be used for vehicle propulsion).
 Thus, a multi-master implementation may control battery groups independently and send information about the pack to the Energy Storage Master and the rest of the battery groups. The information that is distributed between the controllers can be used for purposes such as energy tracking, verification of sensor feedback, and distribution of battery group information to allow balancing and management between groups. The Energy Storage Master controller can utilize battery group information such as State of Charge, Current, Voltage, Temperature, and other relevant information to interface with chargers or vehicle controllers. For example, if a short is ever detected through the BMS, the system may disconnect each sub-pack in the string where the fault is detected and that will isolate the fault. Thus, the BMS further ensures a level of safety which is necessary in the event of a major crash or failure of the isolation system.
 Thus, an integrated BMS may enable cell monitoring, temperature monitoring, cell balancing, string current monitoring, and charger control integration. The BMS may be integrated into battery packs to give early warning to potential problems with weaker battery cells within the string of a battery back. The BMS may give feedback on cell voltages and temperatures within the battery modules in order to ensure a healthy battery pack.
 Referring to FIG. 3, examples of arrangements and interconnections within packs and strings are shown. The power connections in a string may consist of two packs in series and those series packs may be paralleled with two other packs. Each pack may consist of eight Local Module Units connected in series. Each Local Module Unit may balance ten battery cells also connected in series. Each cell may have a nominal voltage of 2.3V or some other nominal voltage relating to lithium chemistry batteries. The cell voltage can range from 2.0V to 2.8V depending upon its state of charge and whether it is being charged or discharged. Nominal system voltages are therefore 23V per Local Module Unit, 184V per pack and 368V per string. Maximum voltages are 28V per Local Module Unit, 224V per pack and 448V per string. All power should be (but does not necessarily need to be) isolated from the vehicle chassis. The Local Module Units may be connected together to communicate with each other using standard communication protocols. For example, the SPI communication protocol may allow all of the Local Module Units to communicate at the same time. Further, each Local Module Unit may have an address to identify whether that Local Module Unit should communicate with the Pack Master.
 In one embodiment, the electronic assemblies may be designed such that there is sufficient design margin to account for component tolerances and the manufacturer's specifications are not be exceeded. With respect to electrical maximums, in one embodiment, the pack level maximum voltage is 224VDC, the string level maximum voltage 448VDC, and the pack level maximum operating current range is -1200 ADC to 1200 ADC.
 In one embodiment, signal and low power wiring will be selected to meet the following table:
TABLE-US-00001 AWG ohms/kft Max current A 12 20 14 15 16 18 20 10.15 11 22 16.14 7 24 25.67 3.5 26 40.81 2.2 28 64.9 1.4 30 103.2 0.86
 Each connection may have its maximum expected current specified so that the appropriate wire gauge and connector pin ratings can be easily determined. Further, in one embodiment, any wiring that is not off the shelf may be 18 AWG or larger.
 In one embodiment, high power wires are selected to meet the following table:
TABLE-US-00002 length in test for total circuit for secondary voltages only - do not use this table for 600 Volt in-line applications AMPS 100' 150' 200' 250' 300' 350' 400' 100 4 4 2 2 1 1/0 1/0 150 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 200 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 250 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 300 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 350 1/0 3/0 4/0 400 2/0 3/0 450 2/0 4/0 500 3/0 4/0 550 3/0 4/0 600 4/0 REQUIRED CABLE SHOWN IN AWG NUMBERS The total circuit length includes both welding and ground leads (Based on 4-Volt drop) 60% duty cycle.
 In one embodiment, the bus bar may be 1/8'' by 1'' cross section or larger.
 With respect to timing, in one embodiment, a fault is detected in 500 mS or less. The 500 mS determination is based on a communications failure happening, and waiting 5× the communications data rate before triggering a fault. In this embodiment, this is expected to be the longest time for a failure to be detected so as to prevent damage to batteries by heat, voltage (under/over), and current.
 In one embodiment, the contactor must be opened within 500 mS after a fault is detected and response to commands must occur in 300 mS (100 ms Pack Master (PM) to EMC), 100 mS Energy Storage Master (ESM) to Vehicle Master Controller (VMC), and 60-75 mS VMC to contactor).
 In one embodiment, the CAN communicates at 125 kbps, which impacts the maximum bus length per the table below.
TABLE-US-00003 Bit Rate Bus Length Nominal Bit-Time 1 Mbit/s 30 m 1 μs 800 kbit/s 50 m 1.25 μs 500 kbit/s 100 m 2 μs 250 kbit/s 250 m 4 μs 125 kbit/s 500 m 8 μs 62.5 kbit/s 1000 m 20 μs 20 kbit/s 2500 m 50 μs 10 kbit/s 5000 m 100 μs
 The cable length of stub may be limited to 1 meter. The system may monitor all cell voltages, currents and temperatures, and bleed off excess voltages in the form of radiated heat. Noise from several possible on-board sources such as Traction Motor/Controller 12.5 kHz, VFD's ˜4 kHz, etc. may be handled such that they do not cause non-operation. In some embodiments, this may be accomplished by way of Galvanic Isolation at levels up to 2500 VDC. Voltage spikes from the charging system with primary fundamental at 7 kHz with first harmonic at 14 kHz also do not disable the system. In some embodiments, this may be accomplished by way of Galvanic Isolation at levels up to 2500VDC at the Local Module Unit and CAN transceiver.
 In one embodiment, the system may incorporate electronics which meet AEC-Q200-REV C and AEC-Q101-REV-C Automotive Grade requirements from -40 C to +125 C. To meet safety standards, all high voltage arrays may be clearly labeled and the system may not have any exposed voltages over 35V. It may be desired that a differential temperature between any packs be less than 20 C. This could be an indication of some sort of cell imbalance or failure. Upper string and lower string are expected to have differences exceeding this amount, so only packs within the same string may be compared. The maximum charging current may be up to 1,100 A for the entire bus and not to exceed 325 A per pack. The opening of overhead emergency hatches may disable charging.
 FIG. 4 illustrates one example of circuitry used to implement a Local Module Unit. In FIG. 5, an example of the layout of a Local Module Unit is shown. FIG. 5 illustrates one layer of a prototype Local Module Unit board. This board may be used to monitor cell voltages and temperatures at the module level and report information about the module to a microcontroller. In some instances, the microcontroller may be located on the Local Module Unit itself and may report higher level information to another microcontroller.
 Vehicle Master Controller:
 Referring to FIG. 6, an example of the architecture through which the Vehicle Master Controller interfaces with the Energy Storage Master to control operation of battery packs is illustrated. The Vehicle Master Controller may interface with the Energy Storage Master which may receive aggregated data from each of the battery packs through Pack Master Boards on each battery pack. Each pack may have its own BMS and therefore may operate as a complete unit independently from other packs, but may also integrate with a master controller to provide greater overall functionality, such as functionality that may be achieved through aggregation and consolidation of information to the Vehicle Master Controller.
 In one embodiment, as shown in FIG. 6, each battery module 600 may have a Local Module Unit 601 which feeds data to a Pack Master 610. The Pack Master 610 may then send aggregated data back to an Energy Storage Master which may interface with a Vehicle Master Controller. The energy storage master unit may communicate with all Pack Master units 610, a bus controller, and a curbside charger(s), and may keeps track of voltage, current 604, temperature, humidity, state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) for all cells within each of the battery modules 600. Thus, each pack may be addressable and may be queried as to the health and status at any time. If there is ever a problem with an individual battery cell, an entire string may be automatically removed from service to allow the vehicle to continue operating in a reduced capacity mode until a vehicle returns from operation. The Energy Storage Master controller may provide information to the Vehicle Master Controller when necessary and may create a user-friendly energy storage interface to the vehicle. Thus, it may be possible to have greater visibility into the operation of the vehicle.
 To accomplish the communication, each battery pack may have a BMS harnessing, BMS boards that maintain the cells attached to each battery module 600, a contactor 611 and a fuse 612. All of the modules 600 may be connected in series with a bus-bar 613 and may be secured in place and contact a heat-sink along the back side which may flow coolant through the vehicle electrical cooling system. The cooling system may remove the heat radiated from the road surface and may additionally help to reject a small amount of heat generated by the battery cells and electrical connections. The BMS, contactor 611 and fuse 612 may have a compartment at the end for the pack that is accessible from underneath or the top of the pack in the event that a repair is necessary.
 In one embodiment, the Vehicle Master Controller (VMC) may be responsible for receiving the battery data from the Energy Storage Master, displaying state of charge and other battery information to a vehicle operator, and controlling the status of the contactors based on data received from the Energy Storage Master. When a contactor 611 is open, it may mean that it is disabled and not making a connection, and when a contactor 611 is closed, it may mean that it is enabled and connected. If the contactor 611 is off, it may be based on local warning or error signals using the CAN request to Vehicle Master Controller via the Energy Storage Master. The Vehicle Master Controller may have additional functions not related to the BMS system.
 The Vehicle Master Controller may have various contactors installed in the vehicle--(1) HV contactors (precharge, HV+, HV-), (2) battery contactors (string 1, string 2, string 3, string 4), (3) overhead charge contactors (AutoChg+, AutoChg-), and manual charge contactors (ManChg1+, ManChg1-, ManChg2+, ManChg2-).
 Error conditions may result in a CAN message request for the pack contactor 611 to open or disconnect. Some conditions may result in a request for the contactor 611 to open immediately. For example, if voltage in excess of 440 Volts for a bus (equivalent to 220 Volts per pack) is detected, the following contactors may be opened as quickly as possible in the following order, and the operator may be notified of a serious fault: (1) open charge contactors, (2) open HV contactors, and (3) open battery contactors. As another example, if the current is in excess of 350 Amps, either charging or discharging, and this condition has existed continuously for five seconds, a request may be made to open the contactor for the string exceeding this limit. In another example, if the temperature is in excess of 65 degrees Celsius, a request may be made to open a string contactor and notify the operator of a fault.
 Various warning conditions may be reported in a CAN message. These conditions may result in a contactor being opened, but a determination may be made by the EMC or Vehicle Master Controller based on the information provided by the Pack Master 610. Along with the warning messages, the system may work to respond to a problem or correct a problem, for example, by cell balancing. Warning messages and system responses may include the following:
 (1) Voltage in excess of 430V for the vehicle (equivalent to 215V per pack): Vehicle shall terminate charging and open the charge contactors between 500 mS and 1.5 S after detection of over-voltage condition;
 (2) Under-voltage: Normal operation shall continue. No warnings will be provided. State of charge should be an indicator of this warning;
 (3) Voltage imbalance: If any two strings are within 10V of each other, they can be connected. If there is a greater than 10V or 10% SoC difference between two strings, connect only the string contactor for the higher voltage of SoC. Report lower performance to driver while the strings are disconnected. When the higher voltage or SoC string depletes to the point where it is within 10V of another string, the other string can be connected;
 (4) Current imbalance: For a measured Current Imbalance (at the Energy Storage Master Level) of greater than 100 A between strings, the string that is different shall: (a) If overall string current is ±20 A, request string disable. (b) If overall string current is greater than ±20 A; do not disable and indicate a Warning Flag to the operator;
 (5) Temperature in excess of +58 C: The operator shall be notified of a temperature warning, and the charge and discharge shall be derated according to the following limits: 70% of nominal for temperatures from -30 C to 70 C and SOC from 0 to 100%, 50% of nominal for temperatures from -30 C to 70 C and SOC from 0 to 100%, and 0% of nominal for temperatures from -30 C to 70 C and SOC from 0 to 100%. In practice, any derating may be achieved with the system simply by programming the cutoff limits in a lookup table. This may be useful for derating the pack based on temperature of the cells to prevent damage;
 (6) Temperature below -25 C: Normal operation will be allowed. It is expected that during operation, the cell temperatures will increase;
 (7) Lose Pack Contactor/Battery Cell/Battery Error: The problem string contactor will be commanded to open. The contactor will remain open until the condition no longer exists;
 (8) Lose more than 1 string: All of the problem string contactors will be commanded to open. The contactor will remain open until the condition no longer exists. The driver shall be informed of the warning;
 (9) Loss of communications with Energy Storage Master: Keep contactors connected. Indicate yellow alarm at dash;
 (10) Loss of communications with Pack Master(s): Keep contactors connected. Indicate yellow alarm at dash;
 (11) Master Switch turned off while charging: The following events must occur in sequence: (a) Disable Charging, (b) Disable Charger Contactors, (c) Disable HV Contactors, and (d) Disable Battery Contactors;
 (12) Emergency Hatch Open: The following events must occur in sequence: (a) Disable Charging, (b) Disable Charger Contactors, (c) Display screen text, "Hatch Open! Close hatch & re-dock to continue charging," and (d) Latched off until vehicle movement;
 (13) Vehicle Movement while charging: The following events must occur in sequence: (a) Disable Charging, and (b) Disable Charger Contactors;
 (14) Fused Contactors: A secondary detection method may be used for warning. During normal operation, when no faults have been detected, the contactors may be configured as follows during each of the operation states of the vehicle:
 (1) Vehicle Powered Off: All Contactors Open;
 (2) Vehicle Overhead Charging: HV Contactors Closed, Battery Contactors Closed, Overhead Charge Contactors Closed;
 (3) Vehicle Manual Charging, Port 1: ManChg 1±Closed, HV Contactors Closed, Battery Contactors Closed;
 (4) Vehicle Manual Charging, Port 2: ManChg 2±Closed, HV Contactors Closed, Battery Contactors Closed, Overhead Charge Contactors Open; and
 (5) Vehicle Running: HV Contactors Closed, Battery Contactors Closed, Manual Charge Contactors Open, Overhead Charge Contactors Open.
 Energy Storage Master (ESM) Unit:
 Referring to FIG. 7A, an Energy Storage Master's connections block diagram is shown. The Energy Storage Master 700 may have several capabilities. Its main function is to interpret Vehicle Master Controller commands to and from the Pack Masters (via connections 701 and 702). It also collects a database for display to the Vehicle Master Controller for High/Low/Average Voltage, SOC, SOH, and High/Low/Average temperatures for the Traction Packs. It keeps track of which cell has Temperature or Voltage extremes. It also has the ability to interface with the Fast Charge System relating required Voltages and Currents indicated by SOC.
 Referring to FIG. 7B, the Energy Storage Master: (1) receives and decodes messages from the Pack Master (711), (2) encodes and transmits messages to the Pack Master (718), (3) receives and decodes messages from the Vehicle Master Controller (711), (4) encodes and transmits messages to the Vehicle Master Controller, (5) consolidates all messages from Pack Masters and send data to the Vehicle Master Controller (719), (6) updates string data and determines how many strings are present (712), (7) determines if charge mode is requested (714), and (8) runs a charge algorithm for the correct one of four available charge states (715).
 The Energy Storage Master may run on an internal loop for sending CAN bus messages. For example, the Energy Storage Master internal main loop may run on a 100 ms, 250 ms, and 1000 ms period for sending CAN bus messages, and the messages therefore may be sent at the following times each second: 100 ms, 200 ms, 250 ms, 300 ms, 400 ms, 500 ms, 600 ms, 750 ms, 800 ms, 900 ms and 1000 ms. FIG. 7B illustrates a behavioral block diagram for the actions of the Energy Storage Master.
 In one embodiment, connectors and pinouts for the Energy Storage Master may be as follows:
Interface Name: ESM CAN
 The cable harness that connects to this interface is XCAN.
Connector PN: Deutsch DT 06-3S
 TABLE 1 ESM CAN Bus Pin Out Pin Signal Description Current Voltage Isolation A CAN Hi Blk 10 mA 5 V 500 Vcont B CAN Low Red 10 mA 5 V 500 Vcont C Shield Shield 10 mA +/-0.3 V
Interface Name: ESM Power
 The cable harness that connects to this interface is TBD.
Connector PN: Omron S82S-7705
 TABLE 2 5 V ESM Power Pin Out Pin # Signal Description Current Voltage Twisted VIN 5 VDC 5 V (Pink) 400 mA 24 V GND GND Ground (White) 400 mA 24 V
 Pack Master Unit:
 FIG. 8 illustrates a block diagram for an example of a Pack Master Unit 800. In one embodiment, the Pack Master Unit 800 has several capabilities and its primary function is to provide power as half of a string of battery cells. In one embodiment, the position of the Pack Master Unit 800 as the upper or lower unit in a string is interchangeable. The Pack Master Unit 800 may also monitor all Cells located inside Battery Module units and alert the Energy Storage Master if certain operation limits are exceeded. The Pack Master Unit 800 may communicate with the Energy Storage Master via CAN message protocols. The Pack Master Unit 800 may communicate to Local Module Units via SPI from the Pack Master to the Local Module Unit. The micro controller may utilize a JTAG programming interface or any other programming interface known to experts in the art. Optimally, a bootloader program may be loaded to the Pack Master Unit which allows programming via the communication CAN bus.
 Referring to FIG. 9, a pack master unit 910 may convert pack power (50-240VDC) to 24-28VDC for a contactor and 3-5VDC for pack master 910, communicates to Local Module Units 901 inside of the pack, controls contactor 911 inside pack for pack power externally enabled/disabled, monitors individual cell voltages and command shunt to bleed resistor if required, monitors temperature inside individual battery modules, monitors humidity inside the pack, monitors pack current 912 (+-30 A, +-300 A), and galvanically be isolated from anything external to the pack.
 In FIG. 10, an example of a flowchart illustrating behavior of a Pack Master Unit is illustrated. In step 1001, the SPI Bus is read. If 1 second has elapsed in step 1002, then the temperature is measured from one module in step 1003. In step 1004, the Pack Master Unit may check for a Pack enable message. Every 250 mS, in step 1005, the CAN bus is read from the LMU and the module Voltage is read and converted to float. In step 1006, the measure of the Current Transducer is taken over a median of 100 samples. If the current is less than 30 A in step 1007, in step 1008 the Pack Master Unit may use a high current channel. Otherwise, the Pack Master Unit may use the low current channel in step 1009. In Step 1010, the Pack Master Unit may determine State of Charge using open circuit voltage if the current is less than a certain threshold. Otherwise, the Pack Master Unit may determine State of Charge using a Coulomb count. In step 1011, the Pack Master Unit may enable the contactor using CAN request to Vehicle Master Controller via the Energy Storage Master.
 In one embodiment, voltage ranges for the Pack Master Unit range from 5VDC+-30 mV, from Isolated Power Supply Unit (V-Infinity PTK15-Q24-S5-T or equivalent. For the SPI: 5.0VDC TTL level, CAT 5e non-shielded connector. With respect to isolation, in one embodiment 500V continuous isolation and in one embodiment, 2500V peak isolation (i.e. continuous and intermittent short bursts). There may be two primary software loops, one running every 250 mS and the other running every 100 mS, for example.
 In one embodiment, connectors and pinouts for the Pack Master Unit may be as follows:
Interface: Pack Signal
 The external pack signal cable is a custom cable that connects each pack master to the junction box.
Connector PN: Harting 0914002 2751
Mate Connector PN: Harting 0914002 2651
 TABLE 3 External Pack Signal Pin Out Pin # Signal Description Current Voltage Isolation Twisted 1 24 V SW 24 V Switched 400 mA 24 V 2 GND Ground, 24 V return 400 mA +/-0.3 V 3 Contactor+ Contactor control positive 1.5 A pk 28 V 4 Contactor- Contactor control negative 1.5 A pk 28 V 5 CAN A CAN bus signal A 10 mA 5 V 500 Vcont 6 CAN B CAN bus signal B 10 mA 5 V 500 Vcont 7 Shield Shielding +/-0.3 V 8 Case GND Chassis ground +/-0.3 V
The external pack signal connector will connect to four different connectors in the pack master through the internal pack Y cable.
Interface: 24V Pack Power Supply Module
 24V is supplied to the pack power supply module. Pack Y cable mate.
Connector PN: DT06-45
Mate Connector PN: DT04-4P
 TABLE 4 24 V Pack Power Supply Module Pin Out Pin # Signal Description Current Voltage Twisted 1 GND Ground 400 mA 28 V 2 24 V SW 24 V Switched 400 mA 28 V 3 Unused 4 Unused
Interface: 5V PackMaster Power
 24V is supplied to the pack power supply module. Pack Y cable mate.
Connector PN: DT06-25
Mate Connector PN: DT04-2P
 TABLE 5 5 V PackMaster Power Pin # Signal Description Current Voltage Twisted 1 GND Ground 400 mA 5 V 2 24 V SW 24 V Switched 400 mA 5 V
Interface: Contactor Control
 24 to 28V, 1.5 Apk for 32 ms transition and 0.1 A hold current for a Gigavac GX15. Pack Y cable mate.
Connector PN: Spade
Mate Connector PN: Spade Recept.
 TABLE 6 Contactor Control Pin Out Pin # Signal Description Current Voltage Twisted Coil+ (red) Contactor control 1.5 A pk 28 V positive Coil- (black) Contactor control 1.5 A pk 28 V negative
Interface: Pack Master CAN
 The cable harness that connects to this interface is XCAN. Pack Y cable mate (Deutsch DT04-3P).
Connector PN: Deutsch DT 06-3S
Mate Connector PN: Deutsch DT04-3P
 TABLE 7 Pack Master CAN Bus Pin Out Pin Signal Description Current Voltage Isolation A CAN Hi Blk 10 mA 5 V 500 Vcont B CAN Low Red 10 mA 5 V 500 Vcont C unused
Interface: Case Ground
 This is attachment to case on the pack master. Pack Y cable mate.
Connector PN: Ring Term.
Mate Connector PN: Bolt
 TABLE 8 Pack Master Case GND Pin Out Pin # Signal Description Current Voltage Case GND Case ground 400 mA +/-0.3 V
Interface: Pack Master SPI
 The cable harness that connects to this interface is CAT5e.
Connector PN: AMP 43860-0001
 Mate Connector PN: RJ45 style
TABLE-US-00012 TABLE 9 Pack Master SPI Communication Pin Out Pin # Signal Description Current Voltage Isolation Twisted 1 CS SPI Chip Select 10 mA 5 V 500 Vcont Pair 3 2 MISO SPI master in slave out 10 mA 5 V 500 Vcont Pair 3 3 MOSI SPI master out slave in 10 mA 5 V 500 Vcont Pair 2 4 SCK SPI clock 10 mA 5 V 500 Vcont Pair 1 5 GND Ground 120 mA +/-0.3 V 500 Vcont Pair 1 8 NC No Connect Pair 4 7 NC No Connect Pair 4 6 5 V Power 120 mA 5 V 500 Vcont Pair 2
Analog Signal Connectors
 Two current transformers (CT) may be used to measure the current in and out of the pack master. One may be scaled for 0 A-30 A measurement and the other 0 A-350 A measurements.
Interface: CT Pre-Conditioning
 The CT Pre-Conditioning connector connects to the hall effect sensors for current monitoring.
Connector PN: Delphi PA6-GB20
Mate Connector PN: Delphi PA66-GF25
 TABLE 10 CT Pre-Conditioning Pin Out Pin # Name Description Current Voltage Twisted B 5 V Sensor Power 100 mA 5 V C GND Sensor Ground 100 mA +/-0.3 V D Hall 1 First hall -30 A to 10 mA 5 V 30 A A Hall 2 Second hall -350 A to 10 mA 5 V 350 A
High Power Connectors
 The high power path may be fused at 500 Amps. 0000 AWG welding cable or copper buss bars may be selected for high current conductors. The ampacity of 4/0 welding cable may be 600 A with a temperature rise of 20 C. The fuse rating must be below the wiring rating in order for it to open before damage to the wiring occurs.
Interface: Pack Voltage
 The pack voltage harness is used to connect the pack's battery voltage to other pack masters and to the junction box.
Mate Connector PN:
 TABLE 11 Pack Voltage Pin Out Pin # Signal Description Current Voltage 1 Battery + Positive battery voltage 500 A 500 V 2 Battery - Negative battery voltage 500 A 500 V
Interface: LMU Terminal
 The LMU terminal is used to connect the LMU's battery voltage to the pack masters.
Connector PN: Terminals
Mate Connector PN:
 TABLE 12 LMU Terminal Pin Out Pin # Signal Description Current Voltage 1 Battery + Positive battery voltage 500 A 220 V 2 Battery - Negative battery voltage 500 A 220 V
Interface: Fuse Terminal
 The Fuse terminals are connected to the minus to fuse cable and fuse to contactor cable.
Connector PN: Terminals
Mate Connector PN:
 TABLE 13 Fuse Terminal Pin Out Pin # Signal Description Current Voltage 1 Battery - Negative battery voltage 500 A 220 V
Interface: Contactor Terminal
 The Contactor terminals are connected to the fuse to contactor cable and contactor to LMU terminal
Connector PN: M8×1.25 Power Terminals
Mate Connector PN:
 TABLE 14 Fuse Terminal Pin Out Pin # Signal Description Current Voltage 1 Battery - Negative battery voltage 500 A 220 V
 Local Module Unit:
 Referring to FIG. 11, an example of a block diagram of a Local Module Unit is illustrated. In one embodiment, the primary function of the Local Module Unit is to monitor the Pack Cells located inside Battery Module units sending Voltage and temperature conditions to the Pack Master. The Local Module Unit may also switch on bleed resistors when told to by the Pack Master. As shown in FIG. 11, the LTC6802-2 is a data acquisition IC capable of measuring the voltage of 12 series connected battery cells. An input multiplexer connects the batteries to a 12-bit delta-sigma analog to digital converter (ADC). Communication between the LTC6802-2 and a host processor is handled by a SPI compatible serial interface. The LTC6802-2 also contains circuitry to balance cell voltages. The host processor writes values to a configuration register inside the LTC6802-2 to control the switches. The open connection detection algorithm assures that an open circuit is not misinterpreted as a valid cell reading. The primary cell voltage A/D measurement commands (STCVAD and STOWAD) automatically turn off a cell's discharge switch while its voltage is being measured. The discharge switches for the cell above and the cell below will also be turned off during the measurement. Two self test commands can be used to verify the functionality of the digital portions of the ADC. It is important to note that the LTC6802-2 makes no decisions about turning on/off the internal MOSFETs. If signal from Pack Master is removed for more than 2.5 seconds, the Local Module Unit will turn off all bleed resistors in the on state and go into a standby condition.
 As shown in FIG. 12, in one embodiment, a BMS may include a Local Module Unit 1201 which is a board that is attached to each battery module 1200 and gathers cell voltage 1202, temperature 1203, current 1204 and humidity 1205 from the cells in each battery module 1200. A Local Module Unit may continuously monitor individual cell voltages 1202, continuously monitor cell temperature 1203, be capable of shunting individual cell voltage to a bleed resistor, can have many temperature, voltage or other sensors attached at the module level. In one example, a Local Module Unit may have total power dissipation per cell at 32 W Maximum, 20 W Bleed Resistor and 12 W Mosfet Switch, can bypass a disabled cell with ˜7 Amps carry current, can have up to 8 temperature monitors, and can have 4 temperature monitors and 4 peripheral monitors.
 The Local Module Unit may be mounted directly to the Battery Module Unit, and an SPI Isolation Board may be mounded to the Local Module Unit. The SPI Isolation Board may isolate SPI signals from the Local Module Unit to the Pack Master. In one embodiment, the SPI Isolutioni Board isolates signal levels from the Local Module Unit to the Pack Master side at 2500V RMS for 1 minute per UL1577. In one embodiment, the SPI Isolation Board requires an external power source of 5VDC+-0.5VDC and has a current range of 2.45 mA to 90 mA. In one embodiment, the SPI Isolation Board will provide positive indication of power applied. The SPI Isolation Board may pass Clock signal when SPI is interrupted or removed.
 In one embodiment, pinouts and connections for the Local Module Unit and SPI Isolation Board may be as follows:
Interface: J1, J2
 The cable harness that connects to this interface is CAT5e.
Connector PN: AMP 43860-0001
Mate Connector PN:
 TABLE 15 SPI Communication Pin Out Signal Pin Description Current Isolation CS 1 Chip Select 10 mA 500 Vcont SDO 2 Serial Data Out 10 mA 500 Vcont SDI 3 Serial Data In 10 mA 500 Vcont SCLK 4 Clock 10 mA 500 Vcont GND 5 Ground 120 mA 500 Vcont NC 6 No Connection GND 7 Ground 120 mA 500 Vcont 5 VDC In 8 5 VDC 120 mA 500 Vcont
Interface Name: Cell Balancing Interface
Connector: Molex MX150, 0194180038
 The cable harness that connects to this interface is Battery Monitor.
Connector PN: Molex MX150, 0194290015
Mate Connector PN:
 TABLE 16 LMU to Battery Cell Interface Signal Pin Current Cell 1 - 1 Cell 1 + Cell 2 - 2 Cell 2 + Cell 3 - 3 Cell 3 + Cell 4 - 4 Cell 4 + Cell 5 - 5 Cell 5 + Cell 6 - 6 Cell 6 + Cell 7 - 7 Cell 7 + Cell 8 - 8 Cell 8 + Cell 9 - 9 Cell 9 + Cell 10 - 10 Cell 10 + 11 NC 12
Connector Name: NTC Interface
 The cable harness that connects to this interface is Battery NTC.
Connector PN: Molex MX150, 0194290010
Mate Connector PN:
 TABLE 17 LMU to NTC Interface Signal Pin Current NTC 1 + 1 NTC 1 - 2 NTC 2 + 3 NTC 2 - 4 NTC 3 + 5 NTV 3 - 6
 The timing of the SPI Interface may operate in accordance with FIG. 13, as shown.
 Integration within Vehicle:
 In one embodiment, the design of the energy storage system accommodates space constraints of a vehicle. For example, a battery pack may be placed within the floor structure of a vehicle, below the floor surface, on a low floor transit bus and be able to maintain road clearance and approach/departure angles necessary to comply with bus standards, for example those set by the American Public Transit Association. Thus, a bus may also have a conventional bus seating pattern.
 A large capacity (50 Ah) cell in a series string of batteries may be placed in parallel with additional strings and thus is significantly safer to operate in the event of a catastrophic failure than a parallel set of cells in series. Because lithium cells typically fail shorted, if a failed cell is in parallel with many other cells, then the other cells would typically discharge as much energy as possible into the damaged cell. Typically cells are put in parallel first to reduce the cost of battery management systems since each cell voltage must be measured. Because of the unique larger capacity cell, paralleling batteries before placing them in series is no longer necessary thus increasing the safety of the entire pack. Additionally, the anode change in the cell chemistry provides for an intrinsically safe cell that is also at a much higher power density. Further variations on the number of strings of batteries allow the size of the energy storage system to vary without having to add more controls to the vehicle or change anything with other strings.
 Integration of a cooling system may maintain the packs at temperatures within the limits of the battery chemistry contained within the packs. In the event of no system cooling, the energy storage system may be operated for multiple hours in a fast charge mode without exceeding the recommended operating temperatures.
 The battery pack may also be fully IP67 compliant and reject dust and water if submerged. The pack may be connected to the vehicle by two IP67 rated connectors as the only electrical connections to the vehicle which can be unlatched and pulled off quickly for ease of maintenance. All contacts on the connector may be touch-safe and de-energized when the connector is removed. Further, wiring and terminations within the pack may be sized and secured for a full 12 year cycle life of the vehicle. Impedance matching between packs may be gauged by comparing current flow through parallel strings, therefore allowing predictive maintenance of wiring and terminal attachments within the strings.
 In one embodiment, the energy storage modules include multiple battery cells (for example, 10 cells, each at 2.3V, 50 Ah). The module housing may be designed to mechanically integrate and protect the cells as well as provide cooling and controls support. Battery management system connectors may be integrated into the front of the module for quick connection of an externally mounted battery management system board. Terminals may be offset and tapped for vertical installation of attachment bolts and ease of assembly. Modules may be isolated from each other to protect against potential short circuiting. This may be accomplished through material selection and post processing of aluminum heat sinks. If a short is ever detected through the battery management system, the system may disconnect each sub-pack in the string which will isolate the fault to ensure safety in the event of a major crash or failure of the isolation system.
 In some embodiments, the energy system may be able to accept very high charge and discharge rates as well as carry a large amount of energy. Lithium titanate technology may be able to charge from 0% SOC to 90% SOC in as little as 1 minute (60 C rate) at the cell level and as little as 6 minutes (10 C rate) on the vehicle level. In some embodiments, the acceptable temperature range is -30° C. to 70° C. Within that range, in some embodiments, the system may deliver over 90% of the available energy in the pack giving an unprecedented range of temperatures in which a vehicle can operate.
 All concepts of the invention may be incorporated or integrated with other systems and methods of battery management, including but not limited to those described in U.S. Patent Publication No. 2008/0086247 (Gu et al.), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
 While preferred embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described herein, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that such embodiments are provided by way of example only. Numerous variations, changes, and substitutions will now occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the invention. It should be understood that various alternatives to the embodiments of the invention described herein may be employed in practicing the invention. It is intended that the following claims define the scope of the invention and that methods and structures within the scope of these claims and their equivalents be covered thereby.
 Aspects of the systems and methods described herein may be implemented as functionality programmed into any of a variety of circuitry, including programmable logic devices (PLDs), such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), programmable array logic (PAL) devices, electrically programmable logic and memory devices and standard cell-based devices, as well as application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). Some other possibilities for implementing aspects of the systems and methods include: microcontrollers with memory, embedded microprocessors, firmware, software, etc. Furthermore, aspects of the systems and methods may be embodied in microprocessors having software-based circuit emulation, discrete logic (sequential and combinatorial), custom devices, fuzzy (neural network) logic, quantum devices, and hybrids of any of the above device types. Of course the underlying device technologies may be provided in a variety of component types, e.g., metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technologies like complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS), bipolar technologies like emitter-coupled logic (ECL), polymer technologies (e.g., silicon-conjugated polymer and metal-conjugated polymer-metal structures), mixed analog and digital, etc.
 It should be noted that the various functions or processes disclosed herein may be described as data and/or instructions embodied in various computer-readable media, in terms of their behavioral, register transfer, logic component, transistor, layout geometries, and/or other characteristics. Computer-readable media in which such formatted data and/or instructions may be embodied include, but are not limited to, non-volatile storage media in various forms (e.g., optical, magnetic or semiconductor storage media) and carrier waves that may be used to transfer such formatted data and/or instructions through wireless, optical, or wired signaling media or any combination thereof. Examples of transfers of such formatted data and/or instructions by carrier waves include, but are not limited to, transfers (uploads, downloads, email, etc.) over the Internet and/or other computer networks via one or more data transfer protocols (e.g., HTTP, FTP, SMTP, etc.). When received within a computer system via one or more computer-readable media, such data and/or instruction-based expressions of components and/or processes under the systems and methods may be processed by a processing entity (e.g., one or more processors) within the computer system in conjunction with execution of one or more other computer programs.
 Unless specifically stated otherwise, as apparent from the following discussions, it is appreciated that throughout the specification, discussions utilizing terms such as "processing," "computing," "calculating," "determining," or the like, may refer in whole or in part to the action and/or processes of a processor, computer or computing system, or similar electronic computing device, that manipulate and/or transform data represented as physical, such as electronic, quantities within the system's registers and/or memories into other data similarly represented as physical quantities within the system's memories, registers or other such information storage, transmission or display devices. It will also be appreciated by persons skilled in the art that the term "users" referred to herein can be individuals as well as corporations and other legal entities. Furthermore, the processes presented herein are not inherently related to any particular computer, processing device, article or other apparatus. An example of a structure for a variety of these systems will appear from the description below. In addition, embodiments of the invention are not described with reference to any particular processor, programming language, machine code, etc. It will be appreciated that a variety of programming languages, machine codes, etc. may be used to implement the teachings of the invention as described herein.
 Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, throughout the description and the claims, the words `comprise,` `comprising,` and the like are to be construed in an inclusive sense as opposed to an exclusive or exhaustive sense; that is to say, in a sense of `including, but not limited to.` Words using the singular or plural number also include the plural or singular number respectively. Additionally, the words `herein,` `hereunder,` `above,` `below,` and words of similar import refer to this application as a whole and not to any particular portions of this application. When the word `or` is used in reference to a list of two or more items, that word covers all of the following interpretations of the word: any of the items in the list, all of the items in the list and any combination of the items in the list.
 The above description of illustrated embodiments of the systems and methods is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the systems and methods to the precise form disclosed. While specific embodiments of, and examples for, the systems and methods are described herein for illustrative purposes, various equivalent modifications are possible within the scope of the systems and methods, as those skilled in the relevant art will recognize. The teachings of the systems and methods provided herein can be applied to other processing systems and methods, not only for the systems and methods described above.
 The elements and acts of the various embodiments described above can be combined to provide further embodiments. These and other changes can be made to the systems and methods in light of the above detailed description.
 In general, in the following claims, the terms used should not be construed to limit the systems and methods to the specific embodiments disclosed in the specification and the claims, but should be construed to include all processing systems that operate under the claims. Accordingly, the systems and methods are not limited by the disclosure, but instead the scope of the systems and methods is to be determined entirely by the claims.
 While certain aspects of the systems and methods are presented below in certain claim forms, the inventor contemplates the various aspects of the systems and methods in any number of claim forms. Accordingly, the inventor reserves the right to add additional claims after filing the application to pursue such additional claim forms for other aspects of the systems and methods.
Patent applications in class Charging station for electrically powered vehicle
Patent applications in all subclasses Charging station for electrically powered vehicle