Patent application title: WIND ENERGY TURBINE SHELL STATION (WETSS)
Halsam Yakoub (Ottawa, CA)
Rima Ghusen (Ottawa, CA)
IPC8 Class: AF03D902FI
Class name: Prime-mover dynamo plants battery
Publication date: 2013-04-11
Patent application number: 20130088012
Wind Energy Shell Turbine Station, WETSS, is a super-tall shell like
frame structure, supports pluralities of small wind turbines, HAWT or
VAWT to harvest wind kinematical energy at large average height,
generates electricity then Hydrogen and store it to generate electricity
consistent with demand by fuel cells.
WETSS typical height to width ratio 4-10, thickness 8-25 m depending on
the seismic region. typical height 1,200-2,000 m, and width or diameter
200-500 m, typical real capacity 750 MW-3.75 GW fluctuating electricity
and 200 MW-1 GW consistent with demand electricity, for 6 m/sec wind
speed sites (13.4 Mile/h).
Typical WETSS requires about 1/500 average land requirements used by
current utility wind turbines.
WETSS is typically made from steel. Seismic and wind design forces are
comparatively very low because WETSS weighs less than 2% of similar size
conventional steel building (Because of shell shape and less floors and
less loads) and because of wind energy consumptions by turbines and
1- A Wind Energy Turbine Shell Station (WETSS) that is a combination of
multi level frame structure surrounds empty space and pluralities of
individual Horizontal Axis or Vertical Axis wind turbines supported by
said multi level frame, where said individual wind turbines harvest wind
energy and generate electricity that is used to generate hydrogen that
chemically stores large part of the harvested energy temporarily as a
chemical medium and then hydrogen is stored in highly pressurized or
liquefied form, then the stored hydrogen is used in fuel cells to
regenerate electricity with regular characteristic of current, frequency
and potential and then WETSS transmits said regular electricity into a
grid after it subject to transformation to compatible voltage and current
to that of a grid, and where the combination of shell like frame
structure and small wind turbines, forms said WETSS, with 100% capacity
credit and where the improvements are: a) Supply wind electricity output
consistent with demand, b) Supply wind electricity with required constant
current, frequency and potential, c) High capacity 100-1000 MW regular
electricity, by building a multi level, shell like frame structure
exclusively as a power station, and using the whole external sides of
said frame structure to place wind turbines, d) Increase functional
height of said wind turbine to about 2000 m that is unprecedented yet
altitude in structure and energy industries, where wind speed increases
considerably and increases outcome of said wind turbines at least five,
5, times more than it's in low altitudes of about 100 high hubs, e)
Decrease the volumetric actual size of said frame structures to include
only a narrow strip, about 10 m-25 m wide (in comparison to said frame
structure total dimensions), that decreases construction costs of WETSS
frame structure in comparison to similar size, totally built, frame
structure, f) Incorporate continuous maintenance in WETSS, all year
around, that allows to reach highest possible operation hours of wind
turbines, g) Reduce noise from HAWT by employing smaller wind turbines,
that have much less noise, on large heights, so that their noises become
too low and doesn't hurt people health, h) Decrease land space required
for each MW more than four hundred, 400, times, that reduces adverse
social impact on wind energy and makes wind energy so competitive, i)
Reduce costs of generating wind energy at least 5 times, without even
including land rental, where the savings become larger if land savings
are included, where the reduction in costs made wind energy very
competitive with all existing energy production including hydro, where
required land for same capacity is smaller than required to hydro and
cost of 1 KWH is almost similar. However, hydro has some detrimental
effects due to submerged fertile lands and displacement of many people,
j) Production of hydrogen for other industry uses on large scale and with
cheaper costs. k) Reduce environmental impact on birds, as utility HAWT
tip velocities are 6-7 times larger than wind speed, while small HAWT
turbines have similar frequency with less radius then with less linear
speed, then they are less dangerous, and where small VAWT have close
speed to wind speed, and where said typical WETSS comprises a) Multi
level frame structure surrounds empty space, partially or completely, b)
Pluralities of individual wind turbines distributed on external perimeter
of each level of said multi level frame and can be slid in and out of
said multi level frame by means of maintenance tracks, arms and posts. c)
Horizontal level platforms on each level of said multi level frame,
between external and internal columns, and stick out to form external
platforms that support said wind turbines, d) Electricity cables,
transformers and electricity measurement devices, e) Maintenance and
erection elevators and employees elevators, f) Fuel cell electricity
generation units that include, converters to DC and transformers to low
standard voltage about 2.06 volt and high Ampere for electrolysis,
Electrolyzors, electrolyte and electrolyte storage tanks, Hydrogen
purifiers, water pipes and water tanks, pumps and pressurizing pumps and
high pressure Hydrogen storage tanks or cooling and hydrogen liquefying
equipments to liquefy hydrogen and store it in cooled liquefied hydrogen
2- Said multi level shell frame in claim 1, has a shell-like frame circular, elliptical, rhombus or polygon horizontal cross sections, either closed cross section or opened as a part of the whole cross section.
3- Said multi level shell frame in claim 1, comprises structural system of columns and beams installed in constant width around the perimeter of said horizontal cross section, where said constant width is a small fraction of said cross section diameter that makes said cross section appears like a shell, and where said multi level shell frame composed of columns, primary beams, secondary beams, tertiary beams, internal and external horizontal platforms, internal ring walls from the first platform level up to the top level, and said multi level shell frame has both internal and external walls in the ground level and where ground level is extended inwards to include more horizontal space for hydrogen generation equipments and tanks, and ground level is roofed to protect it from accidentally fallen objects and from weather, and where ground level of said shell frame has shelter ceiling extends outside said shell frame boundaries, a distance exceeds the projection of above turbines outside said shell frame.
4- Said horizontal level platforms in claim 1, comprise internal and external platforms, where internal and horizontal platforms are horizontal floors distributed, typically, on equal vertical distances sufficient to accommodate wind turbines, and said internal platforms have constant width along said shell frame circumference, where said constant width is small fraction of said shell cross section diameter and is sufficient to conduct maintenance of said wind turbines using truck mounted cranes, and where said external platforms extend from said internal platforms all around said shell frame or partially under said individual wind turbines.
5- Said wind turbines in claim 1, are installed continuously on said external horizontal platforms with small gaps in the same level and vertical gaps equal to about floor thickness while they are in operational settings, and said wind turbine is retractable inwards by means of vertical post and horizontal maintenance arms, where said vertical post is released by unlocking clamps that fix said vertical post to said shell frame.
6- Said wind turbines in claim 1, are fixed between two said external platforms at two consecutive horizontal levels of said multi level shell frame, where bottom of vertical stationary axis of said wind turbine fixed onto, upside down, U shaped channel fits on and able to slide on horizontal track that is fixed on horizontal supporting elements that are fixed to said external platform and part of said internal platform, a distance sufficient to pull whole said wind turbine inside a level of said multi level frame, for maintenance, and where wind turbine vertical stationary axis has U shaped channel fixed at the top, and where it fits under said top horizontal maintenance track fixed under another said horizontal supporting elements fixed in said top external platform and in top internal platform a distance sufficient to pull whole said wind turbine inside said shell frame on said internal platform for maintenance, and where contacted surfaces between maintenance tracks and U shapes are smooth and greased for easy sliding along said maintenance tracks inwards for maintenance and outwards for operational settings.
7- Said horizontal tracks in claim 1, has a bumper sheet fixed at the external ends and perpendicular to said maintenance track longitudinal axis, where said bumper sheet stops wind turbine from further sliding outwards between said top and bottom maintenance tracks.
8- Said wind turbines in claim 1, attached to two detachable horizontal arms or rods, one at the bottom and one at the top of said wind turbine stationary axis, where either said rods is connected from one end to said wind turbine stationary vertical axis, and from the other end to said vertical post that pushes and pulls said wind turbine inside to slide over said maintenance tracks and pushes said wind turbine outside to operational position on said external platform and where, each said rod is fixed to a vertical open section cylinder has internal diameter equals to said wind turbine internal axel diameter where the height of open cylinder is few inches larger than said arm diameter on each side of maintenance arm diameter and said small cylinder can be attached and detached from said wind turbine stationary axis by means of two bolts and nuts.
9- Said maintenance post in claim 1 has two clamps function as locks at top and bottom of said maintenance post where each clamp comprises: a) Two threaded rods, each one has a ring goes around a small vertical or horizontal axis fixed into said shell frame and the other end is free, b) A bent steel strip fits around maintenance post partially and has two small straight parts, each straight part has one hole sufficient for the threaded rod to go through, c) Two nuts, Where the clamps are closed, nuts are tightened and said clamps push said rods that push wind turbine axel ends to touch said bumpers, so that wind turbine is fixed in a longitudinal or diagonal direction of said maintenance track, and where said clamps are opened, said a wind turbine can slide using said a maintenance post.
10- Said maintenance and erection elevators and employees elevators in claim 1 are installed next and supported by internal columns and additional other two columns, where said maintenance and erection elevators are large enough to carry an individual wind turbine, columns, beams, floors during construction and continuous maintenance process and less necessarily truck mounted cranes, and where employee elevators are smaller, less load capacity and faster than maintenance elevators, so that no need to use outside large cranes.
11. Said wind turbines in claim 1, generate fluctuating with wind speed electricity that is connected to cables located at one vertical line of said shell frame are serially connected in one electrical isolated cable housed in electrically isolated duct runs through from the top level of said shell frame to the ground level of shell frame, where the cables are connected to a converter-transformer to convert current to DC and reduce potential to low volt matches electrolyzer input voltage and where said electrolyzers fed by said water tank that fed by pure water and provided by float level switches, and where produced hydrogen on cathodes are collected, purified, and pressurized pumped into high pressure tanks or liquefied and stored in cold enough tanks for fuel cell use, where said fuel cell generator output electricity cables are connected to transformer with output matches grid capacity then run through capacity meters to exist erected electricity towers outside said multi level shell frame where said electricity tower are connected to electricity grid.
12- Surfaces of said shell frame in claim 1, are protected with fire insulation material and sufficient number of distinguishers in each level, and in the ground floor.
13- Protection of WETSS, the subject matter of this patent, from design seismic and wind forces by normal structural design practice for low and moderate seismic regions because WETSS is very light and about 2-3% of the weight of a similar perimeter size conventional building, and for very high seismic region protection is made by using combination of the two following devices: a) Friction Pendulum Bearing seismic isolator invented by Zayas, A. Vector, and b) Seismic Controller for Friction Bearings Isolated Structures invented by Haisam Yakoub, (Pending).
14- A method to transform high fluctuation current, frequency and potential of generated wind electricity by said wind turbines, to regular electricity has standard constant current , frequency and potential and consistent with demand, by means of producing hydrogen gas from water, store it temporarily, use the produced hydrogen in fuel cells to generate electricity consistent with demand and not affected by temporary changes in wind speed in short term periods of seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks and months but affected by consumption demand and annual average wind speed in a region.
DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART
 Wind energy has been used for long time since 1200s in Europe, where it was used as Postmills to grind grain between millstones, then was used as Drainage windmills by Dutch, Oil mills to press oil from seeds, Fulling mills, Paint mills, Hulling mills, and Glue mills.
 The end of 20th century and the beginning of 21st century brought important advancement to wind turbines and wind becomes as a possible energy source, alternative to fossil fuel.
 Sun radiation incident on the Earth every year is 5.6×1024 J. Sun energy dispersed in atmosphere layers and Earth surface where it warms the air and generates wind. Primary energy use for the whole world is estimated about 500 EJ that requires 16TW capacity generators. The total consumed energy is less than 0.01% from the solar radiation captured in Earth atmosphere and surface, and less than 0.1% of kinematic energy in wind. That means, wind is a vast source of alternative, sustainable and clean energy.
 Current state of the art utility wind turbine industry uses giant turbines that have approximately 1 MW average generated electrical capacity, throughout the year. However, the inherent disadvantages of utility wind turbines, prevents the current technology from being a feasible alternative to fossil fuel and nuclear energies as it is explained hereafter. Some disadvantages are high fluctuation of output that means too low capacity credit, too large land requirements, loud noise that affects human memories and known as Wind Turbine Syndrome, and danger to birds and bats.
 The Relevant Prior Arts is
TABLE-US-00001 Publication Patent Number Classification Date Inventors CN 101191455 (A) F03D3/00; F03D3/04; Jun. 04, 2008 Min Xiang F03D3/06; F03D9/00, et al Y02E10/74
 The most relevant turbines to the WETSS is "method for collecting wind energy by using group composite unit" invented by Min Xiang et al. However, it is very different from WETSS because:
 1. Min Xiang et al use one single power plant on a safe altitude, where a large guiding wheel directs the wind flow into two internal wheels. Min Xiang wind turbine does not have pluralities of wind turbines, however, WETTS is a shell frame structure supports thousands or tenth of thousands of individual wind turbines.
 2. Different from the Min Xiang high altitude building that is an existing building functions for another purpose, WETSS shell frame is solely constructed house wind turbines and all other require devices to generate electricity continuous with demand.
 3. WETSS is the first fixed structure on Earth that reaches unprecedented high altitude up to about 2000 m, to harvest wind energy and electricity generation, and there is no existing structure that reaches or can reach this height with conventional steel unless it utilizes WETSS concepts or extremely high strength steel that is not exist yet.
 4. Min Xiang et al might become a real source of danger to inhabitants as it contains moving parts function in people accommodated buildings that are used usually for different purposes. However, WETSS is built and accessed only by professionals who work in WETSS. People who work in WETSS station are electricians, engineers, managers, and technicians that are trained to work safely in WETSS as their job environment.
 5. Min Xiang et al design does not change irregularity of the generated electricity by their wind turbine, while WETSS transforms electricity form fluctuating to constant frequency, current and voltage and consistent with demand similar in characteristics to electricity produced from fossil fuel.
 Current state of the arts is giant Wind Turbines that have three foil blades operate an approximately 100 m high hub, where they rotate in the foil vertical plane. These utility turbines have nominal (Max) capacities that are reached when wind speed is 12 to 14 m/s and keep this maximum energy output until cut off speed 25-30m/sec. The current state of the art wind turbines have some drawbacks such as:
 They take up too large land areas in wind farms where land between turbines is deemed, usually, out of their normal use because of noise and shade flickers. Nonetheless, WETSS takes less than 0.2% of average land required for current wind turbines for similar capacities (at average wind speed 6 m/s).
 Current states of the arts wind turbines generate noise that is detrimental to human health (Wind Turbine Syndrome). Wind Turbine Syndrome which causes people living near wind farms to have headaches, loss of memory and other illnesses because of vibration and low-frequency noise. However WETSS noise is much lower because speeds of VAWT and HAWT small wind turbines are around operating wind speeds, while tip speed ratio in the state of the arts HAWT is usually 6-7 higher than operating wind speeds.
 Current states of the arts wind turbines kill birds and bats. That danger is not generated by the WETSS where it uses small wind turbines that have lower tip speeds in vicinity of operation wind speed.
 For efficiency factor 0.30 for both the state of the arts HAWT and for WETSS turbines, WETSS generates minimum 5.0 times more energy for 1 m2 than the state of the arts wind turbines, while WETTS generates more than 50 times more than same wind turbine installed on 10 m high hub.
 Current state of the arts wind turbines give electricity has voltage, frequency, current and output (output highly fluctuates) fluctuate all the time as a normal result of wind velocity change over time.
 According to WVIC in Germany and four other studies from Denmark, England and The USA, the current state of the art wind turbines generate energy with about 4-16% capacity credit. The German study concludes that when wind turbines generate 49 GW, they are able to displace only 2 GW of fossil fuel generators because of high fluctuation. That means, the real useful capacities are 6-25 times less than nominal or tag capacities, for 25 GW (England study) and 49 GW (German study) respectively. Nonetheless, WETSS described herein has 100% capacity credit and generates consistent with time and normal electricity that has constant current, frequency and potential. Then WETSS may displace equal capacity of none renewable electricity generators. This equal capacity displacement makes WETSS a real clean, renewable energy alternative to current energy industry.
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION,
 Wind Energy Turbine Shell Station (WETSS) is a novel design combines, for the first time, the most advanced small or medium size wind turbines in a simple and large structure made to support wind turbines on large heights, where wind speeds are higher. Then generated electricity are stored temporarily in a chemical medium, so that it is regenerated again consistent with demand by fuel cells and most importantly, with stable characteristics of frequency, current and potential that are not affected by wind speed changes in short times of minutes, hours, days, weeks and months. In addition, the design overcomes the other disadvantages in the current state of the arts wind energy industry as explained herein.
 A Wind Energy Turbine Shell Station (WETSS) is a multi level shell like frame structure reaches high altitude of 1000-2000 m and has a preferred circular horizontal section that might be diamond or square as well. Every level in the multi level structure is a typically 8-25 m strip or internal platform that goes around the horizontal section and every strip is connected to above and bottom level strip or internal platform by means of 4-5 m wide ramps that are adjacent to the internal side of the frame shell structure. Level typical height is 7-10 m. Typical diameter or width of the horizontal section is 200-500 m and typical heights are 1000-2000 m and typical number of levels is 100- 200 levels.
 Every level or few levels are served by a truck mounted crane with accompanied team of professionals around 3-5 people in every shift, where there they perform continuous maintenance of the turbines in their levels. The whole structure is served by four or more elevators, two to carry people and 2 or more to carry equipments and wind turbines to the required levels. Washrooms are built in each floor under the ramps, one washroom under each ramp. All equipments for generating hydrogen, store it, transform, and convert electricity are installed in the ground floor, where additional space can be added to accommodate the required Hydrogen tanks and all other equipments other than wind turbines and truck mounted cranes that stay all the times in their levels.
 Wind turbines are installed and distributed on external platforms that are connected to the main body from inside during construction process. The structure is built typically from high strength structural steel, while the floors are made from light steel floor sheets. Typical capacity of WETSS is 200-1000 MW of regular electricity and 750-3,750 MW of fluctuating capacity.
 The frame structure supports pluralities of individual Horizontal Axis or Vertical Axis wind turbines, where said individual wind turbines harvest wind energy and generate electricity that is used to generate hydrogen that chemically stores large part of the harvested energy temporarily in a chemical medium such as Hydrogen using electrolyzers in the ground floor. Hydrogen is stored in highly pressurized or liquefied form in tanks in the ground floor, then the stored hydrogen is used in sufficient capacity fuel cells. Fuel cell capacity is the WETSS capacity for regular electricity. Fuel cells regenerated electricity with regular characteristic of current, frequency and potential and then WETSS transmits said regular electricity into a grid after it subjects to transformation to compatible voltage and current to that of a grid by using sufficient transformers in the ground floor.
 WETSS uses any efficient small vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) or horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). The inventor however, proves theoretically that when available VAWT and HAWT have similar 30% efficiency, in a 6 msec (13.4 mph) average wind speed environment, and for 4 msec (8.95 mph) cut in speed for both turbines, and 12 msec (26.84 mph) HAWT rating wind speed for small HAWT, the VAWT will have larger pool of energy of about 11% more than HAWT and might be 11% more efficient.
 The proof is illustrated in the graphs in FIG. 7 and 8, where FIG. 8 shows that the total harvested energy on long term of year is: (By integrating areas under the energy graphs in FIG. 8) HAWT,
E H = E tot E 6 = 1.69 ##EQU00001##
 Most possible harvested energy in one year period=1.69×E6x0.30=0.507E6 VAWT,
E v = E tot E 6 = 1.88 ##EQU00002##
 Most possible harvested energy in one year period=1.88×E6x0.30=0.564E6
E V E H = 0.564 0.507 = 1.11 ##EQU00003##
 VAWT speed and generated power can be proportional, all the time, to wind speed until cut off speed. However, HAWT generates constant energy for wind speed equals or grater than the turbine rating speed.
 FIG. 9, shows that small wind turbines installed at H=10 m, generate 0.10 KW/m2 electricity, and states of the arts utility wind turbines, HAWT, installed with hub height, H=100 m, generate electricity 0.66 KW/m2 , while the same small wind turbines installed on a WETSS H=2000 m, (throughout height as explained herein), generate average electricity 3.35 KW/m2. Compared generated electricity is irregular and fluctuates with wind speed.
 According to WVIC in Germany, when total wind turbine penetration capacities in a grid exceed 49 GW, the states of the arts wind turbines have only 4% capacity credit. Most of countries in the world consume more than 49 GW in one hour, then 4% is applicable to all those countries, (Canada, USA, Germany, Italy, Japan, China, England . . . )
 FIG. 10 shows that when useful capacity of states of the arts utility wind turbines, HAWT, is 4% of nominal (tag) capacity (for penetration capacity exceeds 49 GW), HAWT capacity becomes 0.09 KW/m2 of swept area. However, WETSS H=2000 m, capacity becomes 0.89 KW /m2 of swept area when it generates regular electricity due to the application of two other efficiency factors, 0.65 for electrolysis and 0.41 for fuel cells respectively.
Much Smaller Space
 Space required by utility wind turbine averages between 8.5-33 hectare/MW, in Europe and The USA respectively and for 0.3 efficiency factor. Where fluctuating electricity is assumed to be completely useful where it's mixed with fossil fuel based electricity. While for total capacities exceed 49 GW (capacity credit is 4% the required space becomes 53-206 hectare/MW, where wind energy is used without being mixed with other existing fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear or other electricity that has standard constant characteristics.
 However, for a WETSS, required space for fluctuating electricity is 0.03-0.08 hectare/MW, and the required space for regular electricity and proportional with demand is 0.10-0.25 hectare/MW.
 Function of a WETSS described herein is to transform kinematical energy in wind to electrical energy has constant current, potential and frequency, and consistent with demand. Then output electricity, doesn't fluctuate with wind speed fluctuation over short periods of time, minutes, hours, days, weeks and months. However, average possible output is relevant and proportional to annual average wind speed in a region.
 None filtered or highly fluctuated generated electricity by installed wind turbines is used to generate hydrogen from water and store it temporarily. Then stored hydrogen feeds fuel cells to generate electricity has constant current and frequency and consistent with demand and connect it to a public grid after transform it to compatible voltage and current.
 WETSS encompasses large numbers of wind turbines, around the perimeter of its frame structure, and connects the output of the turbines to electrolyzers that generate Hydrogen. To speed up electrolysis process and avoid wasting of energy, supplied potential to electrolyzers should be around 2.06 v, while supplied current should be as high as possible. Current might range 500,000-1000,000 Ampere.
 The used small wind turbines in WETSS can be any efficient small or medium size horizontal axis (HAWT) or vertical axis (VAWT) wind turbine. However, similar size VAWT might generate less noise and is slightly less dangerous to birds. One half of the installed wind turbines that face wind, works at a time, while the other half on leeward is at halt at the time, until wind direction changes and triggers other half of the total wind turbines in the windward side to start up and generate electricity.
 Furthermore, operating velocity range for WETSS is relevant to that of used HAWT or VAWT that usually range from 3-40 m/s.
 Cut out speed for small and medium size HAWT and VAWT are close and range from 25-50m/s. Nonetheless, cut out speed in VAWT should be limited to lowest possible speed that minimizes KWH costs of fabrication. For example, in 6 m/sec environment, the difference between increase in generator costs and additional generated electricity, determines whether cut out wind speed 25 msec or cut out 20 m/sec is recommended. Cut out speed 25m/sec leaves out 10-5 E6 J, while considering cut out wind speed 20 msec leaves out 0.0011 E6 , where E6 is available energy for average annual wind speed 6 m/sec, assuming that wind speed is constant continuously throughout the year. In other words, the decision about cut out wind speed in a VAWT is a trade off between additional costs of the generators, and the additional gained harvested energy throughout the life cycle of generators, that is known usually as 20-25 years.
 Rather than the frame structure, and consistency with demand, what is considerably important and unique in WETSS is that maintenance process is on going continuous process, since installation, the whole year around, and 24/7. In other words, more than 99.0% of operated turbines, at a time, (half of total wind turbines) are expected to work 365 days. That because maintenance staff observes continuously turbines using monitors and computers in each platform. Monitoring tells when turbines need maintenance and what they need, while all others are operating. Most probably 99.33% of turbines will be operating the whole year around, assuming every one turbine is maintained once a year.
 As a result, average annual operation hours for each turbine is 0.9933×8760=8701 hours/year.
 In cost analysis, the total number of all turbines is considered, while in energy calculation, only half number of the turbines is considered, because the other half is at halt, at a time.
 In addition, the additional covered space in ground level provides more space for additional hydrogen units installation, so that the total hydrogen production and storage capacities are enough to make the electricity generated by fuel cells consistent with demand.
 Fluctuation in wind energy generated electricity and supplied to electrolyzers, affects the generated quantities of Hydrogen that is pumped to Hydrogen tank storages, either pressurized, liquefied, or temporarily combined with other solid or liquid materials.
 However, the total quantities of generated hydrogen are affected mainly by annual average wind speed in the region. While total capacity of hydrogen storages, depends on wind fluctuation over months, consumer demand fluctuation and capacity of used WETSS. Capacity of Hydrogen storage is estimated by calculating Ei/Eave, relative monthly need and excess, where Ei(KWH) is monthly consumed energy depending on actual standard existing or predicted consumption charts, Eave(KWH) is monthly average demand that equals monthly average generated electricity by fuel cells. Then calculate relative cumulative energy need ratio, and excess ratio relative to average monthly demand or need. Then total energy required to be stored in Hydrogen is the difference between largest positive excess and largest absolute negative number in cumulative chart. FIG. 11 shows that 0.90 Eave+0.06 Eave=0.96 Eave (Eave, average monthly energy demand) is required to stored in Hydrogen, to stay consistent with demand supply. Then Hydrogen storage weight can be calculated by dividing 0.96 Eave by 36 kwh that is the medium Hydrogen Heating Value. Then required stored Hydrogen weight=0.96×Eave/(36×0.41)=0.0678×0.96 Eave (Kg H2). Where, 0.41 is efficiency factor for fuel cells.
 That can be converted to volume capacity according to used pressure in storage or if liquefying technique is used. In addition, monthly average consumption of energy equals to, Eave=Eavew×0.61, Where Eavew is monthly average energy generated by WETSS turbines according to estimated average annual wind speed, and 0.61 is efficiency of electrolysis process. Moreover, using WETSS technology will not only reduce electricity price sharply, but will provide for production of Hydrogen for industrial purposes, and for transportation.
 In addition, using WETSS reduces heavy burdens of managing wind electricity balance that became very difficult and costly with the state of the arts current wind turbines.
 Typical level height is 7-10 m, and typical distance between columns and between mean beams is 8-12 m, total width of a platform 8-20 m.
 The way to build this high structure is to use several truck mounted cranes in ground floor to build the fist platform and install maintenance elevators and staff elevators simultaneously.
 Then lifting the cranes to the first floor by maintenance elevators or by building ramps that connect ground floor to the first floor. Each floor in WETSS has two ramps. Ramps to be built to connect the first level to the second level. Then when first level is done, truck mounted cranes move to the second floor using the new ramp, and elevators that are installed simultaneously with the shell frame construction. Construction materials are lifted to the first floor by maintenance and construction elevators. External platform are pre-made or are built on site, four lifting rings are welded to an external prefabricated platform. Then by using cranes, the external platforms are welded to the shell frame by welding four or more steel plates between the flanges of the shell frame beams and the external platform beams.
 When external platforms and a whole level are ready, cranes and staff move to a higher level. Wind turbine installation can be started after cranes move two or three levels ahead and by using other several truck mounted cranes.
 Hydrogen units are to be installed after finishing construction of ground floor and first floor. However, the passages to elevators should be clear all the time of construction in the shell frame for frame workers until construction of last floor is done. Electrical work might be started when part of electrolyzers, and hydrogen storage tanks, proportional to installed wind turbines, are ready to use. Electricity might start to be generated from this stage, including generating hydrogen, store it under pressure and starting a fuel cell generator to work and supply electricity to grid and for installation and construction processes. The required time to finish a 2,000 m structure might take 9-24 months depending on financing, material supply, and availability of construction workers.
 By using this technique, of building from inside, building high shell frame structure becomes as easy and cheap as building a mid-rise.
Seismic and Wind Protection of the Shell Frame Structural Integrity and Functionality
 WETSS, typical material is steel that is ductile material. WETTS is very light structure in comparison with other totally built steel structures and with concrete structures. This light weight makes reaching the height of atmosphere boundary layer, 2000m, possible.
 WETSS sustain high seismic and wind design forces, where it sustains more to 1.25 g max acceleration earthquakes and any wind design forces in the world or more than 300 km/h wind speed. However for some rare great earthquakes, using seismic isolation might reduce WETSS costs. Seismic isolation for continuous serviceability and immediate use of WETSS structures can be done by means of the combination of:
 1. Friction pendulum bearings, that are used for seismic isolation, and is invented and fabricated by A. Vector Zayas, and
 2. Seismic controllers invented by Haisam Yakoub, (Pending).
 A friction pendulum bearing is typically installed under a column and over a footing where each column requires one bearing.
 Nonetheless, required number of seismic controllers is less than required number of friction pendulum bearings, typically 5-15% number of columns (that is equal to number of bearings), where seismic controller attenuates bearing responses during an earthquake to sufficient limits, while it dissipates sufficient wind energy under design wind loads and makes the structure stable under any wind load.
Airplane Crash Protection
 To avoid incidental crashes, aircraft flashing warning lights are installed all around shell frame and along the height on regular standard interval as required by existing, in force regulations or/and laws. Warning flashing lights function usually at nights.
 If potential airplane crash is high, a truss hat on top roof might be build so that loads transferred to truss hat and then to adjacent intact columns.
 Truss hat should is designed to transfer the whole vertical loads of potentially crushed columns, to horizontal distance about 60-80 m depending on considered airplane wing span in the design for potential crash. As a result cross sections of truss hat, along shell frame diagonal, are identical in all directions, because a possible crash can be at any point of the shell frame.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1 FIG. 1--WETSS with VAWT installed on it as an option, PLAN
 FIG. 2 FIG. 2--WETSS with HAWT installed on it as another option, PLAN
 FIG. 3 FIG. 3--WETSS, Front View, Height/Width or Diameter=about 4.0, for Height=2,200 m, Width or Diameter is about 550 m, and thickness of the shell or strip width=10-25 for economical and strong enough designs according to seismic regions where wind is usually not the dominant design load in WETSS because of the openings all around, high consumption of energy by turbinces, and no suction factor affects WETSS.
 FIG. 4--Maintenance Tracks and Support Elements Hold VAWT or HAWT on External Platform in Operational Setting, Plan. (VAWT can be replaced with HAWT).
 FIG. 5--Maintenance Tracks and Element Supports Hold VAWT External Platform in Operational Setting, Side View. VAWT can be replaced with HAWT.
 FIG. 6--Maintenance Tracks, Rods and their Supports, Section A-A
 FIG. 7, Rayleigh Distribution of Wind Speed, where Assumed Average Wind Speed=6 m/Sec.
 FIG. 8, Long Term Distribution of Energy for VAWT and HAWT Assuming Random Rayleigh Distribution for Wind Speeds.
 FIG. 9, Effects of Operational Height on Harvested Energy Density, (Output Efficiency Factors=0.3, and Electricity Output Fluctuates with Wind Speed). That means, comparison is made with direct turbine electricity outputs, before temporary storage in Hydrogen and fuel cell electricity regeneration to have more control over electricity characteristics and quantity over time.
 FIG. 10, Most Probable Harvested Energy Intensity (WETSS has Regular Electrical Output, Large HAWT has 4% Capacity Credit). That means comparison takes place between the electricity output that can replace equivalent amount of existing electricity or energy generation plants.
 FIG. 11, Calculate Required Energy Stored in Hydrogen Relative to Average Monthly Consumption, Eave
Patent applications in class BATTERY
Patent applications in all subclasses BATTERY