Patent application title: MORTARLESS HOLLOW CORE BLOCK WALL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM
Casey Moroschan (Edmonton, CA)
IPC8 Class: AE04B218FI
Class name: Static structures (e.g., buildings) with synthetic resinous component foam
Publication date: 2013-02-14
Patent application number: 20130036696
A system and method of constructing hollow core block walls, either
reinforced or not reinforced with a re-designed block and the use of
expanding polymer resins system as a filling and binding system replacing
the traditional system of binding hollow core blocks with a cementitious
mortar or adhesive.
1. A wall comprising: plural blocks laid in vertically stacked courses,
each course of the vertically stacked courses including blocks laid side
by side, each block of the plural blocks being laid side by side having
one or more vertically extending channels; the blocks of vertically
adjacent courses contacting each other along respective contacting faces
without mortar or adhesive and having aligned vertically extending
channels; the blocks of vertically adjacent courses interlocking with
each other using mating alignment elements in the respective contacting
faces, each channel of each block having a corresponding set of mating
alignment elements; and polyurethane foam extending through at least one
channel of each of the plural blocks.
2. The wall of claim 1 in which the alignment elements of each block corresponding to a channel are symmetrical under rotation by 90 degrees to allow blocks to be stacked at right angles with corresponding alignment elements mated.
3. The wall of claim 1 in which the mating alignment elements surround each channel.
4. The wall of claim 3 in which the mating alignment elements are continuous around each channel.
5. The wall of claim 1 in which each channel and corresponding alignment elements have a square, circular or octagonal shape.
6. The wall of claim 1 in which there is no mortar or adhesive between adjacent blocks laid side by side in a course.
7. The wall of claim 1 further comprising one or more reinforcement members, each reinforcement member extending through vertically adjacent blocks through aligned holes in the vertically adjacent blocks.
8. The wall of claim 1 in which the plural blocks comprise polyurethane blocks.
9. The wall of claim 1 in which the polyurethane foam has a density of two to twelve pounds per cubic feet.
10. The wall of claim 1 in which the blocks include at least a block having more than two channels.
11. A wall comprising: plural blocks laid in vertically stacked courses, each course of the vertically stacked courses including blocks laid side by side, each block of the plural blocks being laid side by side having one or more vertically extending channels; the blocks of vertically adjacent courses contacting each other along respective contacting faces without mortar or adhesive and having aligned vertically extending channels; each block being formed of polyurethane; and polyurethane foam extending through at least one channel of each of the plural blocks.
12. A method of constructing a wall of plural blocks, each block of the plural blocks having one or more vertically extending channels, the method comprising: laying the blocks side by side and in vertical courses, the blocks of vertically adjacent courses contacting each other without mortar or adhesive and having vertically aligned channels; and injecting expanding polymeric resin through at least one vertically extending channel of each of the plural blocks.
13. The method of claim 12 in which the expanding polymeric resin comprises polyurethane foam.
14. The method of claim 12 in which there is no mortar or adhesive between adjacent blocks laid side by side in a course.
15. The method of claim 12 in which the blocks of vertically adjacent courses interlock with each other using alignment elements corresponding to respective vertically extending channels.
16. The method of claim 12 in which the plural blocks comprise polyurethane blocks.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
 This patent application claims the benefit under 35 USC 119(e) of U.S. provisional application no. 61521211 filed Aug. 8, 2011.
 This patent document relates to a system and method to construct walls of polymer, synthetic, cindercrete, clay or other cementitious hollow core building blocks used in the construction of walls, building and other enclosures or enclosed spaces without the use of a cementitious mortar or an adhesive which is used to typically bind the block units in place. The inventor has previously proposed various hollow core walls using polyurethane foam such as disclosed in US published applications nos. 20090025333 and 20110146196.
 A wall is disclosed comprising: plural blocks laid in vertically stacked courses, each course of the vertically stacked courses including blocks laid side by side, each block of the plural blocks being laid side by side having one or more vertically extending channels, the blocks of vertically adjacent courses contacting each other along respective contacting faces without mortar or adhesive and having aligned vertically extending channels and polyurethane foam extending through at least one channel of each of the plural blocks. In an embodiment, mating alignment elements of respective blocks correspond to respective channels of the blocks. In an embodiment, alignment elements in each block corresponding to a channel are symmetrical under rotation by 90 degrees to allow blocks to be stacked at right angles with corresponding alignment elements engaged. In another embodiment, the blocks are made of polyurethane.
 A method is also disclosed of constructing a wall of plural blocks, each block of the plural blocks having one or more vertically extending channels, the method comprising laying the blocks side by side and in vertical courses, the blocks of vertically adjacent courses contacting each other without mortar or adhesive and having vertically aligned channels and injecting expanding polymeric resin through at least one vertically extending channel of each of the plural blocks.
 There is also provided a method of constructing hollow core block walls via a simple redesign of the blocks to include a "keying" system comprising either drilled holes through and/or a tongue and groove configuration of each block on the top and bottom of the interior wall face of each block, stacking and aligning each block and then after a number of courses have been stacked injecting the hollow cores of the blocks with a high density expanding polymer resin. The plural blocks may comprise polymer blocks or other synthetic blocks.
 These and other aspects of the device and method are set out in the claims, which are incorporated here by reference.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
 Embodiments will now be described with reference to the figures, in which like reference characters denote like elements, by way of example, and in which:
 FIG. 1 is a top view of a keyed hollow core block;
 FIG. 2 is a cross section, taken along the 2-2 cross sectional lines in FIG. 1, through a hollow core of a tongue and groove configured block;
 FIG. 3 is a section of wall showing where mortar is typically applied to bind the blocks together;
 FIG. 4 is a section of wall showing simple stacking of the blocks without mortar;
 FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view of a block showing the alignment ports for reinforcement members, and with vertically extending channels filled with a very high density polymer resin systems.
 FIG. 6 is a perspective view of an exemplary block with one channel.
 FIG. 7 is a perspective view of an exemplary block with two channels.
 FIG. 8 is a perspective view of an exemplary block with three or more channels.
 FIG. 9 is an exploded cut-away view of two blocks in adjacent courses.
 FIG. 10 is a cut-away view of two blocks in adjacent courses.
 FIG. 11 is a transparent view of three blocks in a right angle arrangement.
 Immaterial modifications may be made to the embodiments described here without departing from what is covered by the claims.
 Many wall structures, typically no more than three stories in height are constructed of cementitious hollow core blocks. Wall structures may be used for schools, industrial, residential, and commercial buildings. A thin layer of cementitious mortar is used on the top and sides of the blocks as a binding material. The blocks are also typically staggered so that instead of having a block rest directly on the block below, each block, with the exception of the first course of blocks, rests on the two halves of the blocks below it. Time is required for the mortar to cure. The hollow cores are filled with concrete, insulation or are left hollow.
 Walls that are constructed of hollow core blocks and that require insulation typically have a granular form of insulation poured into the cavities after the wall has been constructed and prior to roof work being undertaken. Certain of the cores within a block wall may also be filled with concrete to form a structural column and typically some form of reinforcement is also introduced into the core that is being filled with concrete.
 Referring to FIG. 3, in general, hollow core blocks 10 are assembled so that the blocks are held together with only a relatively thin cementitious mortar bed 12 and this mortar is typically applied along the top exterior perimeter and two of the vertical faces of the block 10. This procedure firstly limits the number of courses 14 that can be constructed each day and as the wall structure 13 is constructed, same has to be shored to prevent collapse due to wind shear. Both of these factors are a result of the fact that the mortar bed 12 is not overly strong and requires time to cure. In some cases, only after the wall structure 13 has been tied into the roof truss can the shoring be removed.
 Referring to FIGS. 1, 2, 4, and 5, a block 10 and a wall 11 are disclosed. The wall 11 (FIG. 4) is disclosed comprising plural blocks 10 (FIGS. 1, 2, and 5) and polyurethane foam 16 (FIGS. 4 and 5). The wall 11 may be constructed by laying plural blocks 10 in vertically stacked courses 14, each course 14 of the vertically stacked courses 14 including blocks 10 laid side by side, each block 10 of the plural blocks having one or more vertically extending channels 18. The blocks 10 of vertically adjacent courses 14 contact (FIG. 4) each other without mortar or adhesive and have aligned vertically extending channels. In one embodiment blocks 10 interlock with each other using mating alignment elements 20, 22 (FIGS. 1, 2, and 5) in upper and lower contacting faces 24, 26, respectively, of the blocks 10. The keying system (mating alignment elements 20, 22) shown is for exemplary purposes only and other suitable keying systems may be used. The blocks of vertically adjacent courses 14 interlock with each other using mating alignment elements 20, 22 in the respective contacting faces 24, 26. Each channel 18 of each block 10 has a corresponding set of mating alignment elements 20, 22. One of the mating alignment elements may have interior edges that coincide with the interior wall of the channel 18, or the mating alignment elements may be set back.
 The blocks 10 of vertically adjacent courses 14A and 14B (FIG. 4) may overlap each other so that each block 10 in a course 14A that is directly above another course 14B overlaps at least two blocks 10C and 10D in the other course 14B (except for end blocks in course). The one or more vertically extending channels 18 of each block 10 in the course 14A that is directly above another course 14B communicate with the one or more vertically extending channels 18C and 18D of the at least two blocks 10C and 10D in the other course 14B. For example in FIG. 4 the channels 18A and 18B communicate with channel 18C of block 10C and channel 18D of block 10D, respectively. Expanding polymeric resin such as polyurethane foam 28 may then be injected through at least one channel 18 of each of the plural blocks 10. In FIGS. 4 and 5 polyurethane foam 28 (FIGS. 4 and 5) extends through at least one channel 18 of each of the blocks 10. Because the channels 18 are aligned in practice, the foam 28 forms one or more foam columns 30.
 In constructing mortarless hollow core block walls 11, aside from the base course 14, blocks 10 may be stacked one upon the other ensuring the tongue 32 (FIGS. 1 and 2) or groove 34 (FIGS. 2 and 5) of the block 10 is always in the vertical position and the blocks 10 may be aligned by ensuring the reinforcing ports 36 (FIGS. 1, 4, and 5) are aligned. Some six to twelve courses 14 of block 10 may be stacked and then the hollow cores filled with a high density polyurethane which will fill and bind the blocks 10 together. The tongue and groove joints 20, 22 at the ends of each block 10 may also be sealed by the expanding polymer resin to provide a barrier to water penetration. Once the blocks 10 have been filled work may recommence on the wall immediately after the blocks 10 are filled because of the quick set up and curing characteristics of the polyurethane system. In some cases the curing takes place in seconds or minutes.
 The tongue 32 and grove 34 construction of the blocks 10 is one example of suitable alignment elements that may be used, and automatically aligns the blocks 10 along the horizontal plane, with alignment ports 36 used to align the blocks 10 along the vertical plane. The base course 14 of the wall structure 11 may be attached by inserting a piece of reinforcement bar 38 through vertically adjacent blocks 10, for example through aligned holes (reinforcing ports 36). The reinforcement member or bar 38 may be sealed with an epoxy or very high density expanding polymer resin system.
 The alignment ports 36 in each of the blocks 10 may be located to ensure that the proportions of each block 10 are such that up to half of each block 10 overlaps up to half of a vertically adjacent block 10 to align the alignment ports 36 of both blocks 10. The alignment port 36 therefore may define a reinforcement channel 40 from the top of the wall 11 to the bottom of the wall 11. Lateral alignment ports (not shown) may also be used as a means to reinforce the wall 11 the length of the wall structure 11 as well. In a similar fashion, blocks 10 or a course 14 of blocks 10 may have horizontal channels (not shown) that align to allow filling with polyurethane foam. Resin (not shown) may be used to fill the annular space between the reinforcing member 38 and the alignment port 36, for example a very high density polymer resin which is not an expanding resin but liquid in form with a relatively quick set-up and curing time such as a polyurea.
 Using expanding polymer resin systems provides a fast and effective method of filling and binding the hollow core blocks 10 to construct building wall structures 11. The strength of the expanding resin systems may negate the need for both shoring and minimizing the number of courses 14 that can be constructed each day. There are additional benefits of using expanding polymer resin. The extremely light weight nature of the expanding polymer resins does not add significant weight to the foundation system. The very high R-value of the expanding resin may provide an insulated wall and given the impermeable nature of polyurethane a vapor barrier may also be provided. The expanding polymer resins may also have excellent sound attenuation characteristics and as such may provide increased sound insulation to treated walls, and may be used to provide a sound wall, such as a sound wall near a roadway (not shown). Additionally, the treatment of walls 11 using expanding polymers may be extremely quick and non-intrusive. Moreover, the methodology disclosed herein may be carried out under any weather conditions without the need for hoarding. During cold blow freezing temperature, cementitious blocks requiring mortar require a costly hoarding and heating system to prevent the mortar from freezing, and such systems are avoided by using expanding polymer.
 Expanding polymer resin is flexible and not brittle, and is more resistant to breaking under conditions where hollow or cement filled cementitious locks will break. For example, during an earthquake, cementitious filled or hollow blocks 10 are brittle and may collapse dramatically within a short period of time. Blocks 10 having hollow channels that are filled with expanding polymer resin may sway together and be bound as a cohesive structure rather than collapsing providing significantly more valuable time to evacuate buildings constructed with hollow core block 10 and which are under seismic attack.
 The expanding polymer resin referenced in this patent application may be of many different types. One example of an expanding polymer resin that may be used to fill the hollow channels 18 is a high density polyurethane foam system. In one example the polyurethane foam has a density of two to twelve pounds per cubic feet.
 The cementitious block 10 in this patent application may be a type of hollow core block, for example including concrete, cindercrete or clay blocks. In some embodiments the blocks 10 comprise blocks of one or more of brick, stone, marble, granite, travertine, limestone, glass, synthetic, cindercrete, concrete, clay, or cementitious material. Polymer blocks, which are synthetic and may be non-cementitious, may also be used. Polymer blocks such as polyurethane blocks may provide better heat and sound insulation than traditional cement blocks, and are particularly advantageous when used with a polyurethane foam channel filling material. Other synthetic blocks may be used in some embodiments.
 The ports created in the hollow shells may be created by drilling, chiseling, chopping, coring, punching, hammering or any other method.
 In the embodiments of the methods disclosed herein, the expandable polymeric resin may be expanding polymeric resin that comprises a high density, closed cell expanding two component polyurethane foam system. The resin may be hydro-insensitive. In some embodiments, the polymeric resin is a high density, two-part, closed cell expanding polymeric resin system, such as a polyurethane system. The particular foam system used may be tailored to meet specific design applications relating to tensile strength, compressive strength, shear strength, flexural strength and other structural characteristics. Other expandable substances having similar properties may be used. Using polyurethane blocks is particularly advantages with the use of expanding polyurethane resin in the channels, since the expanding resin will not unduly melt the blocks yet binds strongly to the blocks.
 In the case of use of a polyurethane resin system for the internal binder, depending on the application, the polyurethane binder in the channels may have a compressive strength of 5500 psi for applications requiring concrete like vertical and horizontal strength down to 70 psi for lighter weight applications, such as when the blocks are used as fill under bridges or for roads. Setting time of the polyurethane resin system in any of the disclosed embodiments is preferably less than 10 minutes to enable rapid construction of walls with the blocks.
 Referring to FIGS. 6-11, exemplary wall constructions, including walls with blocks having more than two channels, are shown in which each block contains alignment elements corresponding to each channel that fit with a block of like construction in two positions that are rotationally offset by 90 degrees about an axis centered in and parallel to the respective corresponding channel. Each block has an upper contacting face 64 and a lower contacting face 66, and includes alignment elements in each of the upper contacting face and the lower contacting face. As shown in FIGS. 6-10, on the upper contacting face 64, the alignment elements may take the form of a tongue 62 that surrounds the corresponding channel. In some embodiments, the mating alignment element is continuous such as tongue 62, while in other embodiments the mating alignment element is formed of discrete elements spaced apart such as in a castellation configuration. The corresponding mating alignment element on the opposed side of the block may have a corresponding mating shape as shown at 82.
 The tongues 62 and corresponding grooves 82 may have any suitable mating cross-section such as square as shown. The tongues 62 may be located on the upper contacting face 64, and a corresponding groove 82 may be located on the lower contacting face 66. The tongues 62 and grooves 82 are designed to form a close but not necessarily a friction fit. Various shapes may be used for the alignment elements. If 90° symmetry of the blocks is required (such that a 90° rotation produces the same shape), then the tongues 62 and grooves 82 used may also have 90° symmetry. For example, the tongues 62 and grooves 82 may be round, square (as shown) or octagonal, with the respective channels correspondingly shaped in cross-section. If 90° symmetry is not required, many other shapes are available. In FIG. 6, an embodiment of a block with one channel 60 is shown. In FIG. 7, an exemplary embodiment of a block with two channels 70 is shown. As shown by FIG. 8, blocks may have three or more channels 80. Referring to FIGS. 9 and 10, the tongues 62 on the upper contacting face 64 of a lower block fits into the grooves 82 of the lower contacting face 66 of an upper block. Having the tongues 62 and grooves 82 of a block in a square pattern on a block provides a suitable shape that allows blocks to be placed parallel to each other or at right angles to each other as shown at 90 in FIG. 11.
 The use of foam columns extended through the walls 11 of the disclosed embodiments negates the need for mortar between at least vertically adjacent blocks and in other cases between laterally adjacent blocks laid side by side in a course. In some cases laterally adjacent blocks abut across respective faces that contain no keying or alignment elements as shown, since the polyurethane foam extended through channels 18 will ensure a sufficiently tight fit between the blocks 10 to preclude the need for mortar or alignment elements.
 Mortarless walls 11 may look neater, fit more easily together, be constructed at less expense, to more predictable wall dimensions such as wall width or wall height, and with little or no need to level check at each course, than walls 13 constructed with mortar. Re-inforcing bars may be placed in the channels that are filled with the polyurethane foam.
 In the claims, the word "comprising" is used in its inclusive sense and does not exclude other elements being present. The indefinite article "a" before a claim feature does not exclude more than one of the feature being present. Each one of the individual features described here may be used in one or more embodiments and is not, by virtue only of being described here, to be construed as essential to all embodiments as defined by the claims.
Patent applications by Casey Moroschan, Edmonton CA
Patent applications in class Foam
Patent applications in all subclasses Foam