Patent application title: METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR INCREASING SIALIC ACID PRODUCTION AND TREATING SIALIC RELATED DISEASE CONDITIONS
Daniel Darvish (Sherman Oaks, CA, US)
Yadira Valles-Ayoub (Woodland Hills, CA, US)
HIBM RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
IPC8 Class: AA61K4800FI
514 44 R
Publication date: 2013-01-31
Patent application number: 20130030040
Disclosed herein are methods of expressing UDP-GlcNAc 2-Epimerase/ManNAc
Kinase enzyme (GNE) peptide in a cell of a subject comprising: delivering
into the cell of the subject an isolated nucleic acid expression
construct that comprises a promoter operatively linked to a nucleic acid
sequence encoding a GNE peptide or a therapeutically active fragment
thereof, wherein the GNE peptide has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID
NO:3, wherein upon the delivering into the cell of the subject, the
nucleic acid expression construct initiates expression of the GNE peptide
or a therapeutically active fragment thereof. Also disclosed are methods
of producing a GNE peptide in a cell comprising infecting the cell with
an isolated nucleic acid construct that comprises a promoter operatively
linked to a nucleic acid sequence encoding a GNE peptide or a
therapeutically active fragment thereof, wherein the GNE peptide has the
amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3.
1. A method of expressing UDP-GlcNAc 2-Epimerase/ManNAc Kinase enzyme
(GNE) peptide in a cell of a subject comprising: delivering into the cell
of the subject an isolated nucleic acid expression construct that
comprises a promoter operatively linked to a nucleic acid sequence
encoding a GNE peptide or a therapeutically active fragment thereof,
wherein the GNE peptide has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3,
wherein upon the delivering into the cell of the subject, the nucleic
acid expression construct initiates expression of the GNE peptide or a
therapeutically active fragment thereof.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the isolated nucleic acid expression construct has the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 or SEQ ID NO:2.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the cell of the subject is in a limb of the subject.
4. The method of claim 3, wherein the delivering step comprises a vascular delivery method in conjunction with a temporary vascular occlusion.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the delivery method comprises: a) infusing fluid into the limb of the subject through an intravascular access, wherein the infused fluid comprises nucleic acid expression construct, and wherein the infused fluid perfuses throughout the limb skeletal muscles or targeted tissue; and b) applying increased intravascular and intra-tissue pressure by increasing the volume of the infused fluid.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the nucleic acid expression constructs is delivered in a single dose.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein the single dose comprises a specific concentration of the product irrespective of the total volume being infused, or of a specific molar amount irrespective of the total volume being infused.
8. The method of claim 2, wherein the isolated nucleic acid expression construct further comprises, a transfection-facilitating promoter/enhancer.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein the transfection-facilitating polypeptide comprises an enzymatically active polypeptide able to produce sialic acid.
10. The method of claim 9, wherein the transfection-facilitating polypeptide, or recombinant polypeptide expressed by the isolated nucleic acid expression construct, compromises a hypermorphic form of GNE, producing higher than expected amounts of the sialic acid N-Acetylneuraminate.
11. The method of claim 1, wherein the cell of the subject comprise diploid cells.
12. The method of claim 1, wherein the cell of the subject comprise muscle cells.
13. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject comprises human, ruminant animal, food animal, or work animal.
14. An isolated nucleic acid molecule the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 or SEQ ID NO:2.
15. A method of delivering an encoded GNE enzyme comprising: a) creating an intravenous access at a point below a knee or an elbow of a limb of a subject; b) applying a tourniquet at a point proximal to the rest of the body of the subject than the intravenous access point; c) introducing a single dose of an isolated nucleic acid expression construct into the limb through the intravenous access, wherein the single dose is of sufficient volume to increase intravascular pressure for extravasation of the polynucleotide; wherein, the isolated nucleic acid construct comprises a promoter operatively linked to a nucleic acid sequence encoding a GNE peptide or a therapeutically active fragment thereof, wherein the GNE peptide has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein the isolated nucleic acid construct further comprises a transfection-facilitating polynucleotide.
17. A method of producing a GNE peptide in a cell comprising infecting the cell with an isolated nucleic acid construct that comprises a promoter operatively linked to a nucleic acid sequence encoding a GNE peptide or a therapeutically active fragment thereof, wherein the GNE peptide has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3.
18. The method of claim 17, wherein the cell is a mammalian cell or a bacterial cell.
19. The method of claim 17, wherein the isolated nucleic acid expression construct has the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 or SEQ ID NO:2.
 The present application claims priority to the U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/438,585, filed Feb. 1, 2012, by Darvish et al., the entire disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein, including the drawings.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention is in the field of gene therapy methods and compositions for increasing production of sialic acid in a biological system by delivering the DNA coding region of the key enzyme of Sialic Acid biosynthesis (UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine 2-Epimerase/N-Acetylmannosamine Kinase, GNE)
BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURE
 Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM) is a young-adult onset progressive skeletal muscle wasting disorder, which causes severe physical incapacitation. There is currently no effective therapeutic treatment for HIBM. HIBM is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the GNE gene. The GNE gene encodes for the bifunctional enzyme UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase (GNE/MNK). This is the key rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the first two reactions of cellular sialic acid production. Reduced sialic acid production consequently leads to decreased sialyation of a variety of glycoproteins, including critical muscle proteins such as α-dystroglycan (α-DG), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), or neprilysin, or lead to altered expression of other genes such as ganlioside (GM3) synthase. This in turn leads to muscle degeneration. HIBM is also known as Distal Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles, Nonaka Myopathy, Vacuolar myopathy sparing the quadricepts, or GNE related myopathy.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 Disclosed herein are methods of expressing UDP-GlcNAc 2-Epimerase/ManNAc Kinase enzyme (GNE) peptide in a cell of a subject comprising: delivering into the cell of the subject an isolated nucleic acid expression construct that comprises a promoter operatively linked to a nucleic acid sequence encoding a GNE peptide or a therapeutically active fragment thereof, wherein the GNE peptide has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3, wherein upon the delivering into the cell of the subject, the nucleic acid expression construct initiates expression of the GNE peptide or a therapeutically active fragment thereof.
 Also disclosed are methods of delivering an encoded GNE enzyme comprising: a) creating an intravenous access at a point below a knee or an elbow of a limb of a subject; b) applying a tourniquet at a point proximal to the rest of the body of the subject than the intravenous access point; c) introducing a single dose of an isolated nucleic acid expression construct into the limb through the intravenous access, wherein the single dose is of sufficient volume to increase intravascular pressure for extravasation of the polynucleotide; wherein, the isolated nucleic acid construct comprises a promoter operatively linked to a nucleic acid sequence encoding a GNE peptide or a therapeutically active fragment thereof, wherein the GNE peptide has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3.
 Further, disclosed are methods of producing a GNE peptide in a cell comprising infecting the cell with an isolated nucleic acid construct that comprises a promoter operatively linked to a nucleic acid sequence encoding a GNE peptide or a therapeutically active fragment thereof, wherein the GNE peptide has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1 is a diagram of the NTC8685-GNE expression vector described herein.
 FIG. 2 shows the nucleotide sequence of NTC8685-GNE vector (SEQ ID NO:1).
 FIG. 3 is a diagram of UMVC3-GNE vector.
 FIG. 4 shows the nucleotide sequence of UMVC3-GNE vector (SEQ ID NO:2).
 FIG. 5 shows the amino acid sequence of GNE protein enzyme (SEQ ID NO:3).
 FIG. 6 shows the amino acid sequence of GNE isoforms and Allosteric domain. Common allosteric domain mutations allowing higher Sialic Acid production are illulstrated (R263Q/W/L, and R266Q/W).
 FIG. 7 is a bar graph of sialic acid production in GNE-null CHO cells. In comparison to untreated cells ("Media", "Empty Vector"), sialic acid production was significant greater in cells transfected with GNE plasmids.
 FIG. 8 is a bar graph of Sialic Acid GNE-null CHO cells, comparison of UMVC3 and NTC8685 Vectors.
 FIG. 9 is a bar graph of Sialic Acid content cell fractions of GNE-null CHO cells, comparison of UMVC3 and NTC8685 Vectors.
 FIG. 10 is a bar graph showing the relative in-vitro dose comparison of GNE vecor vs ManNAc
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS
 Disclosed herein are gene therapy methods and compositions for increasing production of sialic acid in a biological system by delivering the DNA coding region of the key enzyme of Sialic Acid biosynthesis (UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine 2-Epimerase/N-Acetylmannosamine Kinase, GNE). Disease conditions that will benefit from increased cellular sialic production, or enhanced GNE functions, include, but not limited to, Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM) or Distal Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles (DMRV). The present methods and compositions also relate to reducing or eliminating non-human sialic acids (e.g. N-Glycolylneuraminate, Neu5Gc) from human cells or tissues. Non-human sialic acids may contribute to various human diseases, and long term reduction of cellular levels of non-human sialic acid may prove beneficial in preventing and treating those disease processes (WO/2010/030666) (Varki 2009). Increasing cellular production of Acetylneuraminate (Neu5Ac) can reduce cellular content of non-human sialic acids.
 Being personally affected by HIBM, the inventor has developed and validated a gene therapy vector (plasmid, naked polynucleic acid) through in-vitro studies over the past 7 years. Through many years of medical literature searches, and evaluation of the data regarding various in-vivo delivery methods and vectors, an elegant and facile delivery method was chosen using a variation of a procedure known as the "Bier Block". Bier Block has been used safely in medical practice for over 100 years (dos Reis 2008).
 As described below, the combination of the specific disease processes, the plasmids, and delivery method has numerous advantages over any others described to date. These advantages allow for facile translation for practical use in human and animal models.
 Disclosed herein are the components of pharmacologic products and methods of delivering the pharmacologic products to the skeletal muscles or other organs (e.g. liver) of animals or human patient (e.g. patient affected with HIBM). The pharmacologic products can be polynucleotides encoding the unmodified or modified forms of GNE protein, polypeptides or amino acid sequences and/or or recombinant proteins, polypeptides or amino acid sequences encoded by the unmodified or modified forms of GNE nucleotide. In some embodiments, the delivery methods include (1) external or internal occlusion of major vessels (arteries, veins, and/or lymphatic system) to achieve vascular isolation of the target organ systems, group of organs/tissues, or body area, and (2) administration of the therapeutic product using vascular (e.g. intravenous) access. In some embodiments, the body organs/tissues/area that are isolated (target organs) are exposed to the compound being delivered, while in other embodiments, the body organs/tissues/area are protected from such exposure.
Description and Improvements of the Therapeutic Gene (GNE)
 In some embodiments, the therapeutic products disclosed herein are polynucleotide (DNA) molecules, while in other embodiments, they are polypeptide (protein, protein fragments, amino acid sequences) molecules. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide molecule, either linear or circular, may contain various elements in addition to the coding sequence that encodes for the GNE protein, or a modified form of the GNE protein, that is or becomes biologically active within a biological system. GNE protein has the sequence (FIG. 3).
 In some embodiments, the therapeutic methods disclosed herein are commonly known as "Gene Therapy", and comprise the administration of the above polynucleotide molecule. In other embodiments, the therapeutic methods disclosed herein are commonly known as "Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT)", and comprise the administration of the GNE protein, or a modified form of the GNE protein, that is or becomes biologically active within a biological system.
 GNE encodes for the key enzyme of sialic acid production (UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-Acetylmannosamine Kinase). Several disease conditions can benefit from increased expression of GNE. The most notable being the severely debilitating progressive muscle wasting disorder known as GNE related myopathy, Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM) and one of its distinct forms known as IBM2, or Distal Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles (DMRV)
 The GNE enzyme components or domains (e.g. series of 10 or more sequential amino acids) may be recombined to enhance desired functions of the GNE gene and reduce or eliminate undesired functions. For example, if production of high amounts of sialic acid (NeuAc) is desired in biological organisms, for example prokaryotes or eukaryotes, one may optimize the epimerase domain of the GNE gene to eliminate or reduce the allosteric inhibitory domain function. In organisms and animals having redundant ManNAc kinase activity, such as other enzymes able to efficiently perform phosphorylation of ManNAc, one may also reduce or eliminate the GNE kinase domain to reduce the size, the minimum effective dose, and/or maximize the maximum tolerable dose in a biological system.
 Although the GNE enzyme, or various components or domains thereof, is also known to have cellular functions besides production of sialic acid (Hinderlich, Salama et al. 2004; Broccolini, Gliubizzi et al. 2005; Krause, Hinderlich et al. 2005; Salama, Hinderlich et al. 2005; Penner, Mantey et al. 2006; Wang, Sun et al. 2006; Amsili, Shlomai et al. 2007; Amsili, Zer et al. 2008; Kontou, Weidemann et al. 2008; Kontou, Weidemann et al. 2009; Paccalet, Coulombe et al. 2010), hyposialylation of critical cellular molecules play an important role in human disease process (Huizing, Rakocevic et al. 2004; Noguchi, Keira et al. 2004; Saito, Tomimitsu et al. 2004; Tajima, Uyama et al. 2005; Ricci, Broccolini et al. 2006; Galeano, Klootwijk et al. 2007; Sparks, Rakocevic et al. 2007; Nemunaitis, Maples et al. 2010).
 Increasing sialic acid and NeuAc/NeuGc ratio in biological systems is desired for several known reasons in human subjects. Mammals produce two different sialic molecules: (1) N-Acetylneuraminic acid (NANA or Neu5Ac), and (2) N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). CMP-NANA is converted to CMP-Neu5Gc by CMP-NANA hydroxylase (CMAH). Unlike other primates and mammals (including cow), humans are genetically deficient in Neu5Gc due to an Alu-mediated inactivating mutation of CMAH (Chou, Hayakawa et al. 2002). Thus, Neu5Ac is the only sialic acid produced by humans and many humans produce antibodies against Neu5Gc (Tangvoranuntakul, Gagneux et al. 2003). The NeuGc found in human tissues and cells are believed to be from food or cell culture media. Humans produce antibodies against NeuGc, potentially contributing to chronic inflammation, and various common disorders in which chronic inflammation is believed to be a significant factor (e.g. cancer, atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorders) (Hedlund, Padler-Karavani et al. 2008; Varki 2009). NeuGc can also promote human diseases, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). A major cause of HUS is Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) infection. A highly toxic Shiga toxin subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) prefers binding to glycan terminating in NeuGc (Lofling, Paton et al. 2009). This information increases our concern that NeuGc may also increase human susceptibility to some infectious agents.
 Thus, it is desired to increase the content of NeuAc (human sialic acid) in food, and reduce the proportion of NeuGc found in meat and milk products. A potentially effective method to accomplish this is to increase GNE expression, and reduce or eliminate the CMAH expression in biological systems or organism used as either human or animal food (e.g. milk, meat, diary, and other animal based products). CMAH may be reduced by either of genetic or metabolic technologies, including, but not limited to, genetic modification of animals to produce CMAH knock-out or knock-down animals, reduction of CMAH enzyme expression by polynucleotide technologies (expressed as inhibitory RNA or antisense oligonucleotide), or inhibition of CMAH enzyme by metabolic substrate analogues. NeuGc may also be reduced in biological systems by overexpression of the enzyme that converts NeuGc to NeuAc.
 With few exceptions, plants do not typically produce sialic acid. GNE and other sialic acid pathway enzymes can be used in plant, vegetable, and fruit crops to increase sialic acid in food.
 Modifications, additions, and/or removal of polynucleotide elements (e.g. promoters, enhancers, repeat elements) can be used to enhance expression in various tissues/organs or developmental stages, which may be desired in various fields of biotechnology including, but not limited to, pharmacologic, food, and cosmetic industries.
 Because skeletal muscle is an important tissue that is readily accessible and that is highly vascularized, it could be used as a factory to produce proteins with therapeutic values (reviewed in (Lu, Bou-Gharios et al. 2003; Ratanamart and Shaw 2006)). Indeed, it has been demonstrated that functional therapeutic proteins can be synthesized by the skeletal muscle and secreted into the blood circulation in sufficient amount to mitigate the pathology associated with disorders such as hemophilia, Pompe disease, Fabry's disease, anaemia, emphysema, and familial hypercholesterolemia. The ability to express recombinant proteins in skeletal muscle is also an important issue for the treatment of neuromuscular disorders such as Duchenne and limb girdle muscular dystrophy. These disorders are caused by mutations of a gene that produces an essential muscle protein One potential treatment for such disorders is gene transfer, whose objective is to introduce into the muscle a normal and functional copy of the gene that is mutated.
 Thus, in one aspect, disclosed herein are methods to utilize muscle as protein factory to over-produce and secrete sialic acid. In some embodiments, the methods disclosed herein result in an increase of Neu5Ac biosynthesis in plasma, and the reduction of Neu5Gc concentration from cells.
Description and Improvement of the Therapeutic Product
 In some embodiments, the therapeutic product is a polynucleotide, while in other embodiments, the therapeutic product is a polypeptide. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide is a DNA molecule, which can comprise the full-length coding region for a protein, the coding region for a domain of a protein, or a coding region for a protein fragment, which is shorter than a recognized and identified domain of a protein. Thus, the polynucleotides disclosed herein can range from oligomers of at least 15 base pairs in length to DNA molecule comprising the full-length coding region for a protein.
 In some embodiments, the polypeptide is a full-length protein, e.g., an enzyme or a receptor, while in other embodiments, the polypeptide is a protein fragment. In some embodiments, the protein fragment corresponds to a recognized and identified domain of a full-length protein, while in other embodiments, the polypeptide is shorter than a recognized and identified domain of a protein. Thus, the polypeptides disclosed herein can range from oligomers of at least 5 amino acids in length to full-length proteins. In some embodiments, the protein fragment is a therapeutically active protein fragment. By "therapeutically active protein fragment" it is meant that the protein fragment under physiological conditions has the same biochemical activity (e.g., catalyzes the same reaction) as the wild-type GNE protein, although it may perform the function at a different rate.
 In some embodiments, the polynucleotide is a linear DNA molecule whereas in other embodiments, the polynucleotide is a circular DNA molecule.
 In some embodiments, the polynucleotide is a circular DNA (plasmid, miniplasmid, or minicircle) able to express the GNE gene in the desired biological system. The NTC8685 vector described in this application has few benefits, which include reduced size, reduced bacterial sequence content, and antibiotic free selection. Other vectors known to those of skill in the art can also be used with the methods described herein.
 In some embodiments, the polynucleotide therapeutic product, whether linear or circular, is administered as naked DNA, combined with other molecules to produce various cationic or anaionic particles, or co-administered with other pharmacological agents (e.g. exipients, vasodialaters, analgesics, etc,) to maximize efficacy of therapy and minimize patient discomfort. Instead of a polynucleotide, other pharmacologic products may be administered using the stated delivery method.
 Unlike in vitro studies, where net positive zeta potential is a more efficient cellular entry of a polyneuleotide, in vivo transduction of skeletal muscle seems to be more efficient using a polynucleotide having a net negative charge (PCT WO/2004/062368).
 In one embodiment, muscle specific promoters may be used to reduce chance of host immune response against the transgene and enhance the duration of intramuscular expression of the transgene. The backbone plasmid elements can be altered to allow for muscle specific expression. The ability to achieve high-level and long-term recombinant protein expression after gene transfer in skeletal muscle is desired in many disease conditions. This can be achieved using promoters and enhancers specific for muscle.
 Several different muscle specific promoters have been described to date. The muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter and truncated versions are the most common muscle specific promoters used (Hauser, Robinson et al. 2000; Yuasa, Sakamoto et al. 2002; Sun, Zhang et al. 2005; Sebestyen, Hegge et al. 2007; Wang, Li et al. 2008). The synthetic C5-12 promoter and similar promoters show promise of being muscle specific while driving high expression of transgene (Li, Eastman et al. 1999). This C5-12 promoter drives expression levels similar to the ubiquitous CMV promoters in AAV vectors (Gonin, Arandel et al. 2005). The C5-12 can be further improved by adding the MCK enhancer (E-Syn promoter) (Wang, Li et al. 2008). The hybrid α-myosin heavy chain enhancer-/MCK enhancer-promoter (MHCK7) promoter also was used for high expression in muscles (Salva, Himeda et al. 2007). The desmin promoter is also recently described as a muscle-specific promoter capable or driving high level expression in muscle cells (Pacak, Sakai et al. 2008; Talbot, Waddington et al. 2010). The upstream enhancer elements (USE, USEx3/AUSEx3) of genes such as the troponin gene is also a promising candidate for developing muscle specific promoters (WO 2008124934 20081023; Blain, Zeng et al. 2010).
 As disclosed herein, the GNE-encoding sequences, and/or the associated delivery vehicles used therewith, may be targeted towards specific cell types, for example, muscle cells, muscle tissue, and the like. For example, the promoter associated with the GNE coding sequence can be made to express GNE only in specific tissues or developmental stages. Alternatively, the expression cassette can be packaged with other molecules, compounds, or biologic moieties (e.g. protein/carbohydrate/lipid containing molecules, part or whole antibody molecules, part or whole cytokine molecules, viral capsids) to generate a biological mixture or specific biological particles designed to bind to and enter specific cell types. This binding or affinity can facilitate the uptake of the DNA into the cell. For delivery into muscle, in particular, anionic, non-liposomal, DNA containing particles are well-suited. However, cationic (liposomal) as well as other DNA containing biological mixtures or particles are also suited for uptake into myopathic muscle with compromised cell wall. In some embodiments, these protein, carbohydrate, and/or lipd containing molecules targeting moieties are, but are not limited to, microbial, plant, microbial, or synthetic compounds (e.g. antibodies, cytokines, lectins, other large or small molecules).
 In some embodiments, polynucleotides products described herein comprise the following elements: 1) Bacterial Control Elements, which are active in bacteria for the purpose of selection and growth process, 2) Eukaryotic Control Elements, which are active in eukaryotic or mammalian cells for the purpose of expression of a therapeutic gene product or recombinant protein, and 3) the GNE coding region, which is the therapeutic gene product or recombinant gene. In some embodiments, prokaryotic/bacterial selection marker is based on antibiotic resistance (e.g. kanamycin resistance, as present in the UMVC3 vector, FIG. 3), or RNA based (e.g. RNA-OUT, present on the NTC8685 vector, FIG. 1). In other embodiments, other elements are used for efficient plasmid production (e.g. pUC orgin depicted in both UMVC3, FIG. 3, and NTC8684, FIG. 1) The nucleotide sequence of NTC8685-GNE vector is set forth in FIG. 2 and in SEQ ID NO:1, while the nucleotide sequence of UMVC3-GNE vector is set forth in FIG. 4. In additional embodiments, eukaryotic promoter, enhancer, introns or other elements are used for efficient transcription and translation of the therapeutic protein encoded by the GNE gene
 To minimize potential spread of antibiotic resistance, prokaryotic selection marker that is not based on antibiotic resistance is preferred by regulatory agencies such as World Heath Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) (Williams, Carnes et al. 2009).
 Rationale for Using Plasmid DNA:
 Clinical use of naked or plasmid DNA (pDNA) to express therapeutic genes is a promising approach to treat muscle disease caused by IBM2. Naked DNA as gene therapy vehicle has an excellent safety record and repeat administration in the same subject can achieve higher expression levels. (Hagstrom, Hegge et al. 2004; Wolff, Lewis et al. 2005; Wolff, Budker et al. 2005; Herweijer and Wolff 2007; Braun 2008; Duan 2008; Zhang, Wooddell et al. 2009) Depending on method of delivery, pDNA delivered to skeletal muscle of rodents or primates is retained in myofibers and expresses the encoded gene product for many months (Danko, Fritz et al. 1993; Danko, Williams et al. 1997; Sebestyen, Hegge et al. 2007). Unlike Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) and other viral vectors which can induce cellular or humoral immunity (Yuasa, Yoshimura et al. 2007; Mingozzi, Meulenberg et al. 2009), pDNA does not typically elicit an immune response against the vector (Hagstrom, Hegge et al. 2004; Romero, Braun et al. 2004; Glover, Lipps et al. 2005; Wolff, Budker et al. 2005), which makes it possible to repeat administrations in same subject. Additionally, compared to viral or based vectors, pDNA is relatively inexpensive to produce in large quantities and remains stable for many months (Walther, Stein et al. 2003; Urthaler, Ascher et al. 2007; Voss 2007).
Method of Delivery. Description and Improvement of the Delivery Method
 In one embodiment of the hydrodynamic infusion, an external tourniquet is placed on the limb of a human being or animal, and the therapeutic product is administered using a peripheral intravenous access using a specific volume (typically 30-50% of the limb volume below the tourniquet) in a specific amount of time or volume flow (typically 1-3 ml/second). This is very similar to commonly used medical procedures known as the "Bier Block", which has been used safely and effectively for more than a century to reduce the exposure and dose of pharmacologic compounds. Bier Block has been used to induce intravenous regional anesthesia (eliminating the need for general anesthesia) in arm or hand surgery (dos Reis 2008; Vlassakov and Bhavani 2010). Similar method is used in oncology by the name of "isolated limb infusion" for the administration of chemotherapeutic compounds to a specific limb, allowing for reduction in dose and exposure to internal organs (Kroon and Thompson 2009). Placing a tourniquet on limbs has also been used effectively for many centuries to reduce bleeding following severe trauma, or to reduce exposure of internal organs to toxins following exposure (e.g. venomous snake and other animal bites).
 When administering gene therapy or biologics using the same or very similar delivery, the delivery method is described in medical literature by multiple names, including "hydrodynamic", "transvenular", "transvenous", "transvascular", "vascular", "retrograde", "limb vein", "peripheral vein", "intravenous", "intravascular", "retrograde", "extravasation", "high pressure", "pressurized", "isolated limb", "vascular isolation", "vascular occlusion", "blood flow occlusion", or any combination thereof (Su, Gopal et al. 2005; Sebestyen, Hegge et al. 2007; Vigen, Hegge et al. 2007; Zhang, Wooddell et al. 2009; Haurigot, Mingozzi et al. 2010; Hegge, Wooddell et al. 2010; Powers, Fan et al. 2010). Despite specific concerns, post-phlebitic syndrome or post-procedure angiopathy has not been noted following performance of vascular occlusion procedures following canine (dog) studies (Haurigot, Mingozzi et al. 2010).
 In some embodiments, disclosed herein, the delivery method has been improved. Human and animal limbs of same volume may be composed of varying ratios of muscle and non-muscle (e.g. fatty or scar) tissues. Muscle is often more vascular and requires higher blood flow that lipid or scar tissue. Thus, administering therapeutic products using a specific volume may not confer optimum distribution of the therapeutic product in limbs of individuals. Limbs with higher muscle/non-muscle tissue may require higher infusion volumes to achieve same therapeutic benefit. Controlling the infusion based on intravascular (or infusion line) pressure and duration of infusion may convey improved distribution of therapeutic product to the target limb. The following alterations of the described method accordingly improve this delivery method:  1) Placing the tourniquet of specific pressure roughly 2-4× the systolic pressure (e.g. 320 mmHg for a human patient).  2) Rapid increase of flow to achieve a specific intravascular (or infusion line) pressure typically below the tourniquet pressure (e.g. if tourniquet pressure is maintained at 320 mmHg, the infusion line pressure maintained 280-300 mmHg)  3) Maintaining the infusion line pressure by controlling infusion flow rate.  4) Maintaining the infusion line pressure for a specific duration of time (15 minutes).  5) Using a specifically designed device to safely achieve parameters described above in 1 and 2. Such device may automatically control the flow rate and pressure of the infusion line based on the set tourniquet pressure. For safetly, such device would automatically stop infusion (flow rate of zero mL/sec) upon detection of parameters such as sudden drop in infusion line pressure, air bubble within the infusion line, or fluid level within the container holding the fluid to be infused.
 By selecting the site of vascular administration distal or proximal to the site of vascular occlusion, one can either expose or protect the target organs, tissues, or body area.
 Rationale for Using HLV Delivery Method:
 Although commonly used for DNA vaccination trials, pDNA delivered by instramuscular (IM) approach is inefficient for muscle diseases demanding delivery of therapeutic product to an entire limb or the whole body (Jiao, Williams et al. 1992). Intravenous (IV) plasmid is cleared rapidly by the liver (Liu, Shollenberger et al. 2007). However, combined with hydrodynamic limb vein (HLV) delivery, pDNA administered IV can effectively and uniformly transfect skeletal muscle of an entire limb in small and large animals including non-human primates (Hagstrom, Hegge et al. 2004), that results in reversible microvasculature damage (Toumi, Hegge et al. 2006; Vigen, Hegge et al. 2007). A single dose can result in long-term gene expression, and the ease of repeat administration makes HLV suitable for delivering GNE transgene to the limbs of IBM2 patients. Using a tourniquet, blood flow in an arm or leg temporarily occluded, and a plasmid DNA solution is rapidly injected intravenously. This elevates the pressure within the occluded region, leading to remarkably efficient migration of the gene vehicle into the adjoining myofibers. Blood flow is restored to normal in 10-20 minutes, with no irreversible or persistent adverse affects. Similar high pressure intravenous approaches are being adopted and adapted for delivery of DNA, and possibly other potential therapeutic molecules, to various organs. (Al-Dosari, Knapp et al. 2005; Arruda, Stedman et al. 2005; Wolff, Lewis et al. 2005; Herweijer and Wolff 2007; Toromanoff, Cherel et al. 2008).
 IBM2/DMRV is an ideal orphan disorder to be treated by pDNA gene delivery using HLV for the following reasons:
 Low GNE expression may be therapeutic: GNE gene is relatively small (cDNA size 2,169 bp, coding for 722 amino acids), functioning as a protein enzyme that is expressed at low levels in skeletal muscle. Expression of low amounts of wild-type, or very low amounts of sialuria form of GNE, may prove remarkably effective or even curative. Additionally, it is possible to use the hypermorphic (Sialuria) form of the GNE gene allowing for very low expressions of the GNE gene to translate to significant therapeutic benefit. This is in sharp contrast to other muscle diseases such as Duchenne' or Becker muscular dystrophies where relatively large amounts of dystrophin (or truncated mini-dystrohpin) are needed to realize therapeutic benefit.
 Treating limbs alone may be sufficient therapy: IBM2 notably affects muscles of arms and legs. Trunk muscles are clinically affected later in disease course. Vital organs, including heart and lungs, are not clinically affected in vast majority of patients. By saving arm and leg function, we can significantly improve quality of life and delay loss of independence.
 Host immune response to the transgene is unlikely: Over 99% of known patients express GNE protein that differs from wild-type by one amino acid (missense mutation). Additionally, GNE is evolutionarily conserved with 98% homology between mice and men at the amino acid level. Thus, the chance of host immune response or producing neutralizing antibodies against the GNE transgene is minimal. Coupling GNE with a muscle specific promoter such as creatine kinase (CK) further reduces chance of host antibody response (Fabre, Bigey et al. 2006).
 Potential for beneficial bystander or distant effects: Unlike dystrophinopathies, where expression of dystrophin (large structural protein) within a myofiber seems to benefit only the site of injection, in IBM2 it is likely that Neu5Ac (small molecule, 9 carbon sugar) will not remain within a limited region of the myofiber. Neu5Ac produced by one myofiber may benefit neighboring myofibers, and ManNAc or Neu5Ac in serum may benefit the myofibers exposed to that serum. Following data further support this hypothesis: (a) Sia deficient mouse models are able to use Neu5Ac present in serum (Malicdan, Noguchi et al. 2009) (b) hyposialylated cells became re-sialylated after their growth medium was supplemented with ManNAc (Schwarzkopf, Knobeloch et al. 2002) and (c) adding 5 mM ManNAc or Neu5Ac, but not GlcNAc, to the media restored the sialic acid content of primary DMRV fibroblasts or myotubes from 60-75% of control to normal levels (Noguchi, Keira et al. 2004). Bystander effect, and possibility of distant effect, was observed in a recent single patient trial (Nemunaitis, Maples et al. 2010). The patient received GNE-lipoplex intramuscular injection of forearm (Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus, ECRL). Transient increase in strength, recombinant GNE (rGNE) expression, and increase of cell surface sialic acid was observed at the injection site and adjacent compartment muscles. Possibility of distant effect was also suggested following the surprising observation that distant muscle groups (trapezius and quadriceps) improved transiently in correlation with left ECRL rGNE transgene expression and increased sialylation (Nemunaitis, Maples et al. 2010).
 Based on available information, GNE plasmid is expected to be a very safe vector for use in IBM2 patients. Generally, naked DNA as gene therapy vehicle has an excellent safety record and repeat administration in the same subject can achieve higher expression levels. (Hagstrom, Hegge et al. 2004; Wolff, Lewis et al. 2005; Wolff, Budker et al. 2005; Herweijer and Wolff 2007; Braun 2008; Duan 2008; Zhang, Wooddell et al. 2009).
 Safety of GNE plasmid: Rodent toxicology studies using GNE-plasmid are currently underway. Preliminary data suggests naked plasmid will prove much safer than GNE-lipoplex that has already been administered to a human patient (Phadke, Jay et al. 2009; Nemunaitis, Maples et al. 2010). We conducted a recent pre-GLP toxicology study of 14 day duration on 12 mice (strain B6;FBV mixed inbred, 6 male and 6 female of age 4-10 months). Male and female mice were divided equally and randomly into experiment and control groups. The experiment group received high dose GNE plasmid (0.6 mg suspended in 0.1 ml normal saline) administered via IV tail, and the control group received only 0.1 ml normal saline. The groups were further divided into 3 dose frequency groups of 2 mice (1 female, 1 male) each as follows: 1) every day administration for 14 days, 2) every other day administration, and 3) once per week. All animals survived the experiment. No significant change were observed between the experiment and the control groups with respect to all measured parameters, which included body weights, temperature, food and water intake, CBC blood tests (performed at pre-dose day 1 and at necropsy on day 15). No significant change in the gross pathology was observed between the experiment and the control groups with respect to 12 organs, including brain, lung, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, intestines, bladder, genitals, lymph nodes, and muscle. The daily human equivalent dose (HED) was 120 mg, and the maximum 14 day total HED was 1440 mg.
 Safety of GNE-lipoplex: In comparison to naked plasmid GNE, the GNE-lipoplex form is more toxic. To produce the lipoplex, the plasmid vector was encapsulated in a cationic liposome composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and cholesterol (GNE-lipoplex). The vector was injected into BALB/c mice, and ingle intravenous (IV) infusion of GNE-lipoplex was lethal in 33% of animals at 100 μg (0.1 mg) dose, with a small proportion of animals in the 40 μg cohort demonstrating transient toxicity (Phadke, Jay et al. 2009). Based on a poster presented at 2010 ASGCT conference (Phadke, Jay et al. 2010), the maximum tolerated dose for administration of multiple injections of GNE-lipoplex in Balb/c mice was (1) 20 μg per injection (Human equivalent dose (HED)=5.2 mg), or (2) a cumulative dose of 80 μg (HED=20.8 mg). In the ongoing dose escalation trial, the patient has received several infusions (0.4, 0.4, 1.0 mg) of 1-3 months apart, and transient grade 1, 2 tachycardia and fever were observed within 12 hours of each infusion. Patient's liver function tests were also reported as transiently elevated, but exact numbers were not reported in the abstract (Nemunaitis, Jay et al. 2010).
 Safety of Hydrodynamic Limb Vein (HLV) delivery method: Potential side effect of the hydrodynamic delivery method has been studied in non-human primates at double the tourniquet pressures proposed for the current study. The procedure was determined to be safe, without any non-reversible or long-lasting side effects (Vigen, Hegge et al. 2007; Hegge, Wooddell et al. 2010). Its procedure is similar to the Bier Block used for regional anesthesia and surgical homeostasis that has been used safely and effectively for over a century. The main difference is that exsanguination is unnecessary and duration of the procedure is typically 15 minutes in HLV (Hegge, Wooddell et al. 2010). Histologic studies in non-human primates have shown that the HLV procedure caused transient muscle edema but no significant muscle damage (Hagstrom, Hegge et al. 2004; Toumi, Hegge et al. 2006). T2-weighted MRI images in non-human primates also showed that the procedure caused transient muscle edema but there was no persistent muscle derangement such as a compartment syndrome (Vigen, Hegge et al. 2007). Magnetic resonance angiography in nonhuman primates revealed vascular effects consistent with a transient effect on capillary permeability but no long-term abnormalities of concern (Vigen et al., 2007). These initial studies were performed using much higher tourniquet pressures (700 mmHg) than we are proposing (310 mmHg). Also, the injection volume of 45-50% of the limb volume was used in these studies, and we are proposing an injection/limb volume of 35%. We believe the plasmid will enter myopathic fibers more effectively than normal muscle due to reduced integrity of the muscle cell walls, thus justifying the reduced pressures and injection volumes. Using these similar pressures, a volume escalation study in adult patients suffering from muscular dystrophy is underway at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Powers, Fan et al. 2010).
 In summary, the HLV delivery method using pDNA is considered mature technology that has proven effective and safe in non-human primates, and is ready to be tested in clinical therapeutic trials (Wells 2004; Al-Dosari, Knapp et al. 2005; Herweijer and Wolff 2007). The main disadvantage of this approach is the inability to easily transfect diaphragm, heart, and trunk/neck muscles without invasive methods to temporarily clamp the major internal vessels (e.g. surgical, laparoscopic, or transcutaneous balloon-occlusion). Although this disadvantage is significant for many muscular dystrophies, it is not nearly as important in patients affected by IBM2. Many IBM2 patients live into their senior years, their heart and lungs have not been reported to become clinically affected, trunk/neck muscles seem to remain strong until late in disease course, and there exists significant potential for bystander or distant effect. Thus, HLV delivery of pDNA for delivering GNE transgene to limb skeletal muscles is an attractive therapeutic option for IBM2 that may delay loss of physical independence, and offer significant hope for many IBM2 patients.
 The GNE-encoding sequences and related compositions may contain any conventional non-toxic pharmaceutically-acceptable carriers, adjuvants or vehicles. In some cases, the pH of the formulation may be adjusted with pharmaceutically acceptable acids, bases or buffers to enhance the stability of the formulated composition or its delivery form. For example, sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspensions may be formulated according to the known art using suitable dispersing or wetting agents and suspending agents. The sterile injectable preparation may also be a sterile injectable solution, suspension or emulsion in a nontoxic parenterally acceptable diluent or solvent. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that may be employed are water, Ringer's solution, U. S. P. and isotonic sodium chloride solution. In addition, sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose, any bland fixed oil may be employed, including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. In addition, fatty acids such as oleic acid may be used in the preparation of injectables.
 According to certain embodiments, a Plasma-Lyte® carrier may be employed and used to deliver a GNE-encoding sequence, particularly for parenteral injection. (Baxter Laboratories, Inc., Morton Grove, Ill.). Plasma-Lyte® is a sterile, non-pyrogenic isotonic solution that may be used for intravenous administration. Each 100 mL volume contains 526 mg of Sodium Chloride, USP (NaCl); 502 mg of Sodium Gluconate (C6H11NaO7); 368 mg of Sodium Acetate Trihydrate, USP (C2H3NaO2 H2O); 37 mg of Potassium Chloride, USP (KCl); and 30 mg of Magnesium Chloride, USP (MgCI2>>6H2O). It contains no antimicrobial agents. The pH is preferably adjusted with sodium hydroxide to about 7.4 (6.5 to 8.0).
 The injectable formulations used to deliver GNE-encoding sequences may be sterilized, for example, by filtration through a bacterial-retaining filter, or by incorporating sterilizing agents in the form of sterile solid compositions, which can be dissolved or dispersed in sterile water, Plasma-Lyte® or other sterile injectable medium prior to use.
 In order to prolong the expression of a GNE-encoding sequence within a system (or to prolong the effect thereof), it may be desirable to slow the absorption of the composition from subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. This may be accomplished by the use of a liquid suspension of crystalline or amorphous material with poor water solubility. The rate of absorption of the composition may then depend upon its rate of dissolution, which, in turn, may depend upon crystal size and crystalline form.
 Alternatively, delayed absorption of a parenterally administered GNE-encoding sequence may be accomplished by dissolving or suspending the composition in an oil vehicle. Injectable depot forms may be prepared by forming microencapsule matrices of the GNE-encoding sequence in biodegradable polymers such as polylactide-polyglycolide. Depending upon the ratio of GNE-encoding sequence material to polymer and the nature of the particular polymer employed, the rate of GNE-encoding sequence release can be controlled. Examples of other biodegradable polymers include poly(orthoesters) and poly(anhydrides). As described above, depot injectable formulations may also be prepared by entrapping the GNE-encoding sequence in liposomes (or even microemulsions) that are compatible with the target body tissues, such as muscular tissue.
 In addition to methods for modulating the production of sialic acid in a system, the present invention further encompasses methods for producing wild-type GNE in a system. According to such embodiments, the system (e.g., the muscle cells of a human patient) may comprise a mutated endogenous GNE-encoding sequence (e.g., the GNE-M712T sequence). In other words, the present invention includes providing, for example, a cell or muscular tissue that harbors a mutated (defective) GNE-encoding sequence with a functional wild-type GNE encoding sequence. The wild-type GNE encoding sequence may be delivered to such a system using, for example, the liposomes or lipid nanoparticles described herein, via parenteral injection.
 According to additional related embodiments of the present invention, methods for treating, preventing, and/or ameliorating the effects of Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM2) are provided. Such methods generally comprise providing a patient with a therapeutically effective amount of a wild-type GNE-encoding nucleic acid sequence. In certain embodiments, the wild-type GNE-encoding nucleic acid sequence may, preferably, be delivered to a patient in connection with a lipid nanoparticle and a carrier similar to that of Plasma-Lyte®, via parenteral injection.
 The phrase "therapeutically effective amount" of a wild-type GNE-encoding nucleic acid sequence refers to a sufficient amount of the sequence to express sufficient levels of wild-type GNE, at a reasonable benefit-to-risk ratio, to increase sialic acid production in the targeted cells and/or to otherwise treat, prevent, and/or ameliorate the effects of HIBM2 in a patient. It will be understood, however, that the total daily usage of the wild-type GNE-encoding nucleic acid sequence and related compositions of the present invention will be decided by the attending physician, within the scope of sound medical judgment.
 One of the advantages of the methods described herein is that, because the polynucleotides are administered to the affected limb directly, as opposed to a systemic administration, the therapeutically effective amount that is administered is less than that in the methods described previously. Therefore, the present methods reduce or eliminate many of the side effects that are associated with the methods described previously.
 The specific therapeutically effective dose level for any particular patient may depend upon a variety of factors, including the severity of a patient's HIBM2 disorder; the activity of the specific GNE-encoding sequence employed; the delivery vehicle employed; the age, body weight, general health, gender and diet of the patient; the time of administration, route of administration, and rate of excretion of the specific GNE-encoding sequence employed; the duration of the treatment; drugs used in combination or contemporaneously with the specific GNE-encoding sequence employed; and like factors well-known in the medical arts.
 Upon improvement of a patient's condition, a maintenance dose of a GNE-encoding sequence may be administered, if necessary. Subsequently, the dosage or frequency of administration, or both, may be reduced, as a function of the symptoms, to a level at which the improved condition is retained when the symptoms have been alleviated to the desired level.
 According to yet further embodiments of the invention, novel compositions are provided for expressing wild-type GNE in a system. The compositions preferably include a wild-type GNE-encoding nucleic acid sequence. As described herein, the GNE-encoding nucleic acid sequence may comprise various transcriptional control elements, such as a promoter, termination sequence, and others. A non-limiting example of a composition encompassed by the present invention includes the pUMVC3-GNE expression vector described herein, shown in FIG. 3. so as described relative to other embodiments of the present invention, the GNE-encoding nucleic acid sequence may be disposed within or connected to an appropriate vehicle for delivery to a system, such as a liposome or lipid nanoparticle. Still further, according to such embodiments, the delivery vehicle may, optionally, be decorated with agents that are capable of recognizing and binding to target cells or tissues, such as muscle cells or muscle tissues.
Expression of Exogenous GNE in CHO-Lec3 Cells
 In the following example, several GNE expression vectors from human cDNA were created. Three different GNE forms, wild type, M712T, and R266Q, were robustly expressed in GNE deficient cells (Lec3 cells). All enzymes demonstrated similar protein expression levels, albeit distinct enzymatic activities. As the following will show, the transfected GNE expressing cell lines produced significantly more sialic acid than untransfected cells.
 GNE Cloning. Parental vectors containing the GNE cDNA were provided by Daniel Darvish (HIBM Research Group, Encino, Calif.) and included pGNE-NB8 (wild type), pGNE-MB18 (M712T mutant), and pGNE-R266Q (R266Q mutant). The destination vector, pUMVC3, was purchased from Aldevron (Fargo, N. Dak.). The subcloning vector, pDrive (Qiagen, Valencia, Calif.) 1 was used to shuttle the R266Q mutant from the parent vector to the destination vector.
 GNE cDNA inserts (wildtype and M712T) were produced by reverse transcription of RNA isolated from patient whole blood. The R266Q isoform was produced using standard mutagenesis PCR techniques using specifically designed primers. cDNA was then amplified using specifically designed primers bearing EcoR1 and BamH1 recognition 5' tails, and subsequently subcloned into the pUMVC3 expression vector (Aldevron) by T4 ligation (Invitrogen). Competent E. coli cells (Invitrogen) were then transformed with the pUMVC3 expression vector.
 Positive pUMVC3-GNE clones were grown overnight in 175 mis LB broth+50 μg/ml Kan and 150 mis culture was used for a Qiagen (Valencia, Calif.) HiSpeed Plasmid Maxi kit according to the manufacturer protocols.
 DNA.lipid complex. The DNA:lipid complex used in this example was produced by mixing, at room temperature, 1,2-Dioleoyl-3-Trimethylammonium-Propane (DOTAP) with test DNA (pUMVC3-GNE). DOTAP is a commercially-available lipid particle that is offered by Avanti Polar Lipids, Inc. (Alabaster, Ala.). The DOTAP was mixed with the pUMVC3-GNE DNA in a manner to achieve the desired total volume, which exhibited a final ratio of 0.5 μg DNA:4 mM DOTAP1 in a final volume of 1 μl.
 Cell Culture. GNE-deficient CHO-Lec3 cells were provided by Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The cells were grown at 37° C. in 5% CO2 in α-MEM media supplemented with 4 mM L-glutamine and 10% heat inactivated, Fetal Bovine Serum. Cells for transient transfections were plated at 1×106 cells per well in 6-well plates and grown overnight. Lec3 cells were weaned to reduced serum conditions by reducing the FBS by 2.5% per passage.
 Transient Transfections. Lec3 cells were transfected for 6 hours with DNA:lipid complex per well in OptiMEM (Invitrogen, Carlsbad Calif.), then the media was changed to normal α-MEM growth media and the cells were cultured overnight. DNA:lipid complexes were formed by mixing 4 μg DNA+10 μl Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturers protocol. Twenty-four hours post-transfection, cells were harvested by trypsin digest and washed once with PBS before subsequent western blot or enzyme/sugar assays.
 Sialic Acid Quantitation. Approximately 4×106 cells were used for the quantification of membrane-bound sialic acid by the thiobarbituric acid method. Cells were resuspended in water and lysed by passage through a 25 gauge needle 20 times and centrifuged. The supernatant was used for Bradford protein estimation and the remaining pellet was resuspended in 100 μl 2M acetic acid and incubated for 1 hour at 800 C to release glycoconjugate-bound sialic acids. 137 μl of periodic acid solution (2.5 mg/ml in 57 mM H2SO4) were added and incubated for 15 minutes at 37° C. Next, 50 μl of sodium arsenite solution (25 mg/ml in 0.5 M HCl) were added and the tubes were shaken vigorously to ensure complete elimination of the yellow-brown color. Following this step, 100 μl of 2-thiobarbituric acid solution (71 mg/ml adjusted to pH 9.0 with NaOH) were added and the samples were heated to 100° C. for 7.5 minutes. The solution was extracted with 1 ml of butanol/5% 12M HCl and the phases were separated by centrifugation. The absorbance of the organic phase was measured at 549 nm. The amount of sialic acid was measured as nmol sialic acid/mg of protein.
 The following procedure is an alternative procedure to the one described above.
 Cell culturing and biological assay testing: Lec3 CHO cells (Hong 2003) obtained from Dr. Pamela Stanley (Albert Einstein College of Medicine) were initially grown in α-MEM media containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Invitrogen), received subsequent passages of α-MEM FBS medium by 2.5% decrements until 0% FBS, and trypsinized prior to transfection. Four sets of transfections were prepared in triplicate using 2.0×106 CHO cells, 2.5 mL of Freestyle Media (Invitrogen), 500 μl of Opti-MEM (Invitrogen), 10 μl of Lipofectamine (Invitrogen) and 4 μg of DNA (except for the no vector set) and incubated at 37° C. in 5% CO2. Sets prepared included GNE wild-type pUMVC3 vector, GNE M712T pUMVC3 vector, GNE R266Q pUMVC3 vector, empty vector, and no vector media. Cells were collected 48 hours post-transfection, washed with PBS, and resuspended in lysis buffer. Sialic acid content was detected using a modified version of the Leonard Warren method (Warren 1959) and measured with NanoDrop-1000 Spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific) at 549 nm using the UBV-Vis module. A standard curve was created with known sialic acid concentrations and denoted a clear linear association between absorbance and sialic acid concentration.
 GNE clones. The GNE cDNA clones that were tested included a human wild type cDNA and two human mutant cDNAs. The mutants included the M712T GNE deficient clone and the R266Q sialuria clone. Sialuria is a human disease caused by point mutations in the CMP-sialic acid binding site of GNE, leading to a loss of feedback inhibition and mass production of sialic acids. GNE cDNAs were subcloned from their original vectors to the expression vector, pUMVC3, by restriction digest cloning. Clones were screened by directional restriction enzyme digest to confirm the GNE insert was in the correct orientation. Positive clones were sequenced in both orientations to confirm that no mutations occurred during the cloning process. The resulting chromatograms were compared against the GNE sequence from GenBank (accession # NM--005467) and the wild type did not exhibit any mutations, while the M712T and R266Q clones contained only the expected point mutations. Positive pUMVC3-GNE clones were scaled using a maxi prep plasmid purification procedure and sequenced again to confirm that no mutations occurred. These DNA stocks were used for all subsequent experiments.
 Wt-GNE mRNA quantitation. CHO-Lec3 cells were grown in 10% serum and transiently transfected with pUMVC3-GNE-wt DNA for 24 hours to quantitate the amount of recombinant GNE RNA that was expressed. Total RNA was extracted and RT-qPCR was performed to amplify a 230 bp fragment from the GNE transcript. Serial dilutions of pUMVC3-GNE-wt were used to determine that the concentration of GNE-wt expressed in transfected Lec3 cells was equal to 4.1 pg/μl. The dynamic range of the qPCR was from 5 ng-5 fg and there was no GNE mRNA product detected in control (untransfected) CHO-Lec3 cells (the cT value for untransfected cells was greater than 42 cycles, which is less than 5 fg). Therefore, recombinant GNE mRNA expression was detected in transfected Lec3 cells, while untransfected cells had undetectable amounts of GNE mRNA.
 Sialic acid assays. Transfected Lec3 cells also were tested for cell surface sialic acid expression. All Lec3 samples had approximately 6.0 nmol/mg membrane bound sialic acid, with the exception of Lec3 cells transfected with the R266Q GNE1 which had a 1.5-fold higher amount (FIG. 7). The R266Q GNE lacks the feedback inhibition of GNE and is known to cause an overproduction of intracellular sialic acids. Lec3 cells seem to be undersialylated, and this could only be overcome by expression of the sialuria mutant and not by the about 100-fold overexpression of wild-type GNE compared to wild-type CHO cells. No significant differences between wild type (wt) and M712T GNE were observed.
 Comparison of UMVC3 and NTC8685 GNE plasmids: Transfection studies comparing sialic acid production of both vectors correlated well with each other (FIGS. 8 and 9). Slightly higher production of sialic acid was noted with NTC8685 vector. Additional in-vitro studies using other cell types and in-vivo studies will be conducted.
 Silic acid production by provision of ManNAc. The level of Sialic acid production was measured by supplementing cell culture media with N-Acetylmannosamine (ManNAc). Besides provision of ManNAc, all other cell culture variables were identical to transfection studies (FIG. 10).
 Preliminary high dose plasmid toxicity. We conducted a recent pre-GLP toxicology study of 14 day duration on 12 mice (strain B6;FBV mixed inbred, 6 male and 6 female of age 4-10 months). Male and female mice were divided equally and randomly into experiment and control groups (Table 1). The maximum feasible dose (MFD) in a mouse model was 60014 per injection. Limitation was based on solubility of plasmid (6 μg/μl) and total volume per injection (100 μL). Considering mouse weight of 30 g and human weight of 70 kg, the human equivalent dose (HED) for mouse dose of 600 μg is 113.82 mg.
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Total Frequency of Weight (g) Toxicity Toxicity Toxicity Weight Toxicity Weight Plasmid infusion Mice Day 1 24 h 48 hr Day 7 Day 7 Day 14 Day 14 Dose Control Group Every day 1M 29.54 None None None 28.8 None 28.96 0 (100 normal 1F 29.99 None None None 26.6 None 26.74 0 saline) Every other 1M 32.69 None None None 32.9 None 31.95 0 day 1F 21.88 None None None 20.6 None 20.23 0 Once per 1M 27.76 None None None 27.5 None 26.91 0 week (day 1 1F 22.24 None None None 22.5 None 23.55 0 and 7) Experiment Group Every day 1M 27.59 None None None 26.8 None 27.68 8.4 mg (600 ug plasmid 1F 27.28 None None None 24.7 None 21.78 8.4 mg in 100 uL NS) Every other 1M 31.54 None None None 29.6 None 29.39 4.2 mg day 1F 23.35 None None None 21.9 None 23.71 4.2 mg Once per 1M 30.37 None None None 28 None 29.8 1.2 mg week (day 1 1F 24.55 None None None 23 None 23.38 1.2 mg and 7)
 The experiment group received high dose GNE plasmid (0.6 mg suspended in 0.1 ml normal saline) administered via IV by tail vein, and the control group received 0.1 ml normal saline. The groups were further divided into 3 dose frequency groups of 2 mice (lfemale, 1 male) each as follows: 1) Every day administration for 14 days, 2) Every other day administration, and 3) Once per week. All animals survived the experiment. No significant change were observed between the experiment and the control groups with respect to all measured parameters, which included body weights, temperature, food and water intake, CBC blood tests (performed at days 1 and 15). Following necropsy on day 15, no significant change in the gross pathology was observed between the experiment and the control groups with respect to 12 organs, including brain, lung, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, intestines, bladder, genitals, lymph nodes, and muscle.
 Although illustrative embodiments of the present invention have been described herein, it should be understood that the invention is not limited to those described, and that various other changes or modifications may be made by one skilled in the art without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention.
1415266DNAHomo sapiens 1ccgcctaatg agcgggcttt tttttcttag ggtgcaaaag gagagcctgt aagcgggcac 60tcttccgtgg tctggtggat aaattcgcaa gggtatcatg gcggacgacc ggggttcgag 120ccccgtatcc ggccgtccgc cgtgatccat gcggttaccg cccgcgtgtc gaacccaggt 180gtgcgacgtc agacaacggg ggagtgctcc ttttggcttc cttcccctac cggtctgcct 240cgcgcgtttc ggtgatgacg gtgaaaacct ctgacacatg cagctcccgg agacggtcac 300agcttgtctg taagcggatg ccgggagcag acaagcccgt cagggcgcgt cagcgggtgt 360tggcgggtgt cggggcgcag ccatgaccca gtcacgtagc gatagcggag tgtatactgg 420cttaactatg cggcatcaga gcagattgta ctgagagtgc accatatgcg gtgtgaaata 480ccgcacagat gcgtaaggag aaaataccgc atcaggcgct cttccgcttc ctcgctcact 540gactcgctgc gctcggtcgt tcggctgcgg cgagcggtat cagctcactc aaaggcggta 600atacggttat ccacagaatc aggggataac gcaggaaaga acatgtgagc aaaaggccag 660caaaaggcca ggaaccgtaa aaaggccgcg ttgctggcgt ttttccatag gctccgcccc 720cctgacgagc atcacaaaaa tcgacgctca agtcagaggt ggcgaaaccc gacaggacta 780taaagatacc aggcgtttcc ccctggaagc tccctcgtgc gctctcctgt tccgaccctg 840ccgcttaccg gatacctgtc cgcctttctc ccttcgggaa gcgtggcgct ttctcatagc 900tcacgctgta ggtatctcag ttcggtgtag gtcgttcgct ccaagctggg ctgtgtgcac 960gaaccccccg ttcagcccga ccgctgcgcc ttatccggta actatcgtct tgagtccaac 1020ccggtaagac acgacttatc gccactggca gcagccactg gtaacaggat tagcagagcg 1080aggtatgtag gcggtgctac agagttcttg aagtggtggc ctaactacgg ctacactaga 1140agaacagtat ttggtatctg cgctctgctg aagccagtta ccttcggaaa aagagttggt 1200agctcttgat ccggcaaaca aaccaccgct ggtagcggtg gtttttttgt ttgcaagcag 1260cagattacgc gcagaaaaaa aggatctcaa gaagatcctt tgatcttttc tacggggtct 1320gacgctcagt ggaacgaaaa ctcacgttaa gggattttgg tcatgagatt atcaaaaagg 1380atcttcacct agatcctttt aaattaaaaa tgaagtttta aatcaatcta aagtatatat 1440gagtaaactt ggtctgacag ttaccaatgc ttaatcagtg aggcacctat ctcagcgatc 1500tgtctatttc gttcatccat agttgcctga ctcctgcaaa ccacgttgtg gtagaattgg 1560taaagagagt cgtgtaaaat atcgagttcg cacatcttgt tgtctgatta ttgatttttg 1620gcgaaaccat ttgatcatat gacaagatgt gtatctacct taacttaatg attttgataa 1680aaatcattag gtacccctga tcactgtgga atgtgtgtca gttagggtgt ggaaagtccc 1740caggctcccc agcaggcaga agtatgcaaa gcatgcatct caattagtca gcaaccaggt 1800gtggaaagtc cccaggctcc ccagcaggca gaagtatgca aagcatgcat ctcaattagt 1860cagcaaccat agtcccgccc ctaactccgc ccatcccgcc cctaactccg cccagttacg 1920gggtcattag ttcatagccc atatatggag ttccgcgtta cataacttac ggtaaatggc 1980ccgcctggct gaccgcccaa cgacccccgc ccattgacgt caataatgac gtatgttccc 2040atagtaacgc caatagggac tttccattga cgtcaatggg tggagtattt acggtaaact 2100gcccacttgg cagtacatca agtgtatcat atgccaagta cgccccctat tgacgtcaat 2160gacggtaaat ggcccgcctg gcattatgcc cagtacatga ccttatggga ctttcctact 2220tggcagtaca tctacgtatt agtcatcgct attaccatgg tgatgcggtt ttggcagtac 2280atcaatgggc gtggatagcg gtttgactca cggggatttc caagtctcca ccccattgac 2340gtcaatggga gtttgttttg gcaccaaaat caacgggact ttccaaaatg tcgtaacaac 2400tccgccccat tgacgcaaat gggcggtagg cgtgtacggt gggaggtcta tataagcaga 2460gctcgtttag tgaaccgtca gatcgcctgg agacgccatc cacgctgttt tgacctccat 2520agaagacacc gggaccgatc cagcctccgc ggctcgcatc tctccttcac gcgcccgccg 2580ccctacctga ggccgccatc cacgccggtt gagtcgcgtt ctgccgcctc ccgcctgtgg 2640tgcctcctga actgcgtccg ccgtctaggt aagtttaaag ctcaggtcga gaccgggcct 2700ttgtccggcg ctcccttgga gcctacctag actcagccgg ctctccacgc tttgcctgac 2760cctgcttgct caactctagt tctctcgtta acttaatgag acagatagaa actggtcttg 2820tagaaacaga gtagtcgcct gcttttctgc caggtgctga cttctctccc ctgggctttt 2880ttctttttct caggttgaaa agaagaagac gaagaagacg aagaagacaa accgtcgtcg 2940acatggagaa gaatggaaat aaccgaaagc tgcgggtttg tgttgctact tgtaaccgtg 3000cagattattc taaacttgcc ccgatcatgt ttggcattaa aaccgaacct gagttctttg 3060aacttgatgt tgtggtactt ggctctcacc tgatagatga ctatggaaat acatatcgaa 3120tgattgaaca agatgacttt gacattaaca ccaggctaca cacaattgtg aggggagaag 3180atgaggcagc catggtggag tcagtaggcc tggccctagt gaagctgcca gatgtcctta 3240atcgcctgaa gcctgatatc atgattgttc atggagacag gtttgatgcc ctggctctgg 3300ccacatctgc tgccttgatg aacatccgaa tccttcacat tgaaggtggg gaagtcagtg 3360ggaccattga tgactctatc agacatgcca taacaaaact ggctcattat catgtgtgct 3420gcacccgcag tgcagagcag cacctgatat ccatgtgtga ggaccatgat cgcatccttt 3480tggcaggctg cccttcctat gacaaacttc tctcagccaa gaacaaagac tacatgagca 3540tcattcgcat gtggctaggt gatgatgtaa aatctaaaga ttacattgtt gcactacagc 3600accctgtgac cactgacatt aagcattcca taaaaatgtt tgaattaaca ttggatgcac 3660ttatctcatt taacaagcgg accctagtcc tgtttccaaa tattgacgca gggagcaaag 3720agatggttcg agtgatgcgg aagaagggca ttgagcatca tcccaacttt cgtgcagtta 3780aacacgtccc atttgaccag tttatacagt tggttgccca tgctggctgt atgattggga 3840acagcagctg tggggttcga gaagttggag cttttggaac acctgtgatc aacctgggaa 3900cacgtcagat tggaagagaa acaggggaga atgttcttca tgtccgggat gctgacaccc 3960aagacaaaat attgcaagca ctgcaccttc agtttggtaa acagtaccct tgttcaaaga 4020tatatgggga tggaaatgct gttccaagga ttttgaagtt tctcaaatct atcgatcttc 4080aagagccact gcaaaagaaa ttctgctttc ctcctgtgaa ggagaatatc tctcaagata 4140ttgaccatat tcttgaaact ctaagtgcct tggccgttga tcttggcggg acgaacctcc 4200gagttgcaat agtcagcatg aagggtgaaa tagttaagaa gtatactcag ttcaatccta 4260aaacctatga agagaggatt aatttaatcc tacagatgtg tgtggaagct gcagcagaag 4320ctgtaaaact gaactgcaga attttgggag taggcatttc cacaggtggc cgtgtaaatc 4380ctcgggaagg aattgtgctg cattcaacca aactgatcca agagtggaac tctgtggacc 4440ttaggacccc cctttctgac actttgcatc tccctgtgtg ggtagacaat gatggcaact 4500gtgctgccct ggcggaaagg aaatttggcc aaggaaaggg actggaaaac tttgttacac 4560ttatcacagg cacaggaatc ggtggtggaa ttatccatca gcatgaattg atccacggaa 4620gctccttctg tgctgcagaa ctgggccacc ttgttgtgtc tctggatggg cctgattgtt 4680cctgtggaag ccatgggtgc attgaagcat acgcctctgg aatggccttg cagagggagg 4740caaaaaagct ccatgatgag gacctgctct tggtggaagg gatgtcagtg ccaaaagatg 4800aggctgtggg tgcgctccat ctcatccaag ctgcgaaact tggcaatgcg aaggcccaga 4860gcatcctaag aacagctgga acagctttgg gtcttggggt tgtgaacatc ctccatacca 4920tgaatccctc ccttgtgatc ctctccggag tcctggccag tcactatatc cacattgtca 4980aagacgtcat tcgccagcag gccttgtcct ccgtgcagga cgtggatgtg gtggtttcgg 5040atttggttga ccccgccctg ctgggtgctg ccagcatggt tctggactac acaacacgca 5100ggatctacta gtaagatctt tttccctctg ccaaaaatta tggggacatc atgaagcccc 5160ttgagcatct gacttctggc taataaagga aatttatttt cattgcaata gtgtgttgga 5220attttttgtg tctctcactc ggaaggacat aagggcggcc gctagc 526626162DNAHomo sapiens 2tggccattgc atacgttgta tccatatcat aatatgtaca tttatattgg ctcatgtcca 60acattaccgc catgttgaca ttgattattg actagttatt aatagtaatc aattacgggg 120tcattagttc atagcccata tatggagttc cgcgttacat aacttacggt aaatggcccg 180cctggctgac cgcccaacga cccccgccca ttgacgtcaa taatgacgta tgttcccata 240gtaacgccaa tagggacttt ccattgacgt caatgggtgg agtatttacg gtaaactgcc 300cacttggcag tacatcaagt gtatcatatg ccaagtacgc cccctattga cgtcaatgac 360ggtaaatggc ccgcctggca ttatgcccag tacatgacct tatgggactt tcctacttgg 420cagtacatct acgtattagt catcgctatt accatggtga tgcggttttg gcagtacatc 480aatgggcgtg gatagcggtt tgactcacgg ggatttccaa gtctccaccc cattgacgtc 540aatgggagtt tgttttggca ccaaaatcaa cgggactttc caaaatgtcg taacaactcc 600gccccattga cgcaaatggg cggtaggcgt gtacggtggg aggtctatat aagcagagct 660cgtttagtga accgtcagat cgcctggaga cgccatccac gctgttttga cctccataga 720agacaccggg accgatccag cctccgcggc cgggaacggt gcattggaac gcggattccc 780cgtgccaaga gtgacgtaag taccgcctat agactctata ggcacacccc tttggctctt 840atgcatgcta tactgttttt ggcttggggc ctatacaccc ccgcttcctt atgctatagg 900tgatggtata gcttagccta taggtgtggg ttattgacca ttattgacca ctccaacggt 960ggagggcagt gtagtctgag cagtactcgt tgctgccgcg cgcgccacca gacataatag 1020ctgacagact aacagactgt tcctttccat gggtcttttc tgcagtcacc gtcgtcgacg 1080gtatcgataa gcttgatatc gaattcatgg agaagaatgg aaataaccga aagctgcggg 1140tttgtgttgc tacttgtaac cgtgcagatt attctaaact tgccccgatc atgtttggca 1200ttaaaaccga acctgagttc tttgaacttg atgttgtggt acttggctct cacctgatag 1260atgactatgg aaatacatat cgaatgattg aacaagatga ctttgacatt aacaccaggc 1320tacacacaat tgtgagggga gaagatgagg cagccatggt ggagtcagta ggcctggccc 1380tagtgaagct gccagatgtc cttaatcgcc tgaagcctga tatcatgatt gttcatggag 1440acaggtttga tgccctggct ctggccacat ctgctgcctt gatgaacatc cgaatccttc 1500acattgaagg tggggaagtc agtgggacca ttgatgactc tatcagacat gccataacaa 1560aactggctca ttatcatgtg tgctgcaccc gcagtgcaga gcagcacctg atatccatgt 1620gtgaggacca tgatcgcatc cttttggcag gctgcccttc ctatgacaaa cttctctcag 1680ccaagaacaa agactacatg agcatcattc gcatgtggct aggtgatgat gtaaaatcta 1740aagattacat tgttgcacta cagcaccctg tgaccactga cattaagcat tccataaaaa 1800tgtttgaatt aacattggat gcacttatct catttaacaa gcggacccta gtcctgtttc 1860caaatattga cgcagggagc aaagagatgg ttcgagtgat gcggaagaag ggcattgagc 1920atcatcccaa ctttcgtgca gttaaacacg tcccatttga ccagtttata cagttggttg 1980cccatgctgg ctgtatgatt gggaacagca gctgtggggt tcgagaagtt ggagcttttg 2040gaacacctgt gatcaacctg ggaacacgtc agattggaag agaaacaggg gagaatgttc 2100ttcatgtccg ggatgctgac acccaagaca aaatattgca agcactgcac cttcagtttg 2160gtaaacagta cccttgttca aagatatatg gggatggaaa tgctgttcca aggattttga 2220agtttctcaa atctatcgat cttcaagagc cactgcaaaa gaaattctgc tttcctcctg 2280tgaaggagaa tatctctcaa gatattgacc atattcttga aactctaagt gccttggccg 2340ttgatcttgg cgggacgaac ctccgagttg caatagtcag catgaagggt gaaatagtta 2400agaagtatac tcagttcaat cctaaaacct atgaagagag gattaattta atcctacaga 2460tgtgtgtgga agctgcagca gaagctgtaa aactgaactg cagaattttg ggagtaggca 2520tttccacagg tggccgtgta aatcctcggg aaggaattgt gctgcattca accaaactga 2580tccaagagtg gaactctgtg gaccttagga cccccctttc tgacactttg catctccctg 2640tgtgggtaga caatgatggc aactgtgctg ccctggcgga aaggaaattt ggccaaggaa 2700agggactgga aaactttgtt acacttatca caggcacagg aatcggtggt ggaattatcc 2760atcagcatga attgatccac ggaagctcct tctgtgctgc agaactgggc caccttgttg 2820tgtctctgga tgggcctgat tgttcctgtg gaagccatgg gtgcattgaa gcatacgcct 2880ctggaatggc cttgcagagg gaggcaaaaa agctccatga tgaggacctg ctcttggtgg 2940aagggatgtc agtgccaaaa gatgaggctg tgggtgcgct ccatctcatc caagctgcga 3000aacttggcaa tgcgaaggcc cagagcatcc taagaacagc tggaacagct ttgggtcttg 3060gggttgtgaa catcctccat accatgaatc cctcccttgt gatcctctcc ggagtcctgg 3120ccagtcacta tatccacatt gtcaaagacg tcattcgcca gcaggccttg tcctccgtgc 3180aggacgtgga tgtggtggtt tcggatttgg ttgaccccgc cctgctgggt gctgccagca 3240tggttctgga ctacacaaca cgcaggatct actaggatcc agatcttttt ccctctgcca 3300aaaattatgg ggacatcatg aagccccttg agcatctgac ttctggctaa taaaggaaat 3360ttattttcat tgcaatagtg tgttggaatt ttttgtgtct ctcactcgga aggacatatg 3420ggagggcaaa tcatttaaaa catcagaatg agtatttggt ttagagtttg gcaacatatg 3480cccattcttc cgcttcctcg ctcactgact cgctgcgctc ggtcgttcgg ctgcggcgag 3540cggtatcagc tcactcaaag gcggtaatac ggttatccac agaatcaggg gataacgcag 3600gaaagaacat gtgagcaaaa ggccagcaaa aggccaggaa ccgtaaaaag gccgcgttgc 3660tggcgttttt ccataggctc cgcccccctg acgagcatca caaaaatcga cgctcaagtc 3720agaggtggcg aaacccgaca ggactataaa gataccaggc gtttccccct ggaagctccc 3780tcgtgcgctc tcctgttccg accctgccgc ttaccggata cctgtccgcc tttctccctt 3840cgggaagcgt ggcgctttct catagctcac gctgtaggta tctcagttcg gtgtaggtcg 3900ttcgctccaa gctgggctgt gtgcacgaac cccccgttca gcccgaccgc tgcgccttat 3960ccggtaacta tcgtcttgag tccaacccgg taagacacga cttatcgcca ctggcagcag 4020ccactggtaa caggattagc agagcgaggt atgtaggcgg tgctacagag ttcttgaagt 4080ggtggcctaa ctacggctac actagaagaa cagtatttgg tatctgcgct ctgctgaagc 4140cagttacctt cggaaaaaga gttggtagct cttgatccgg caaacaaacc accgctggta 4200gcggtggttt ttttgtttgc aagcagcaga ttacgcgcag aaaaaaagga tctcaagaag 4260atcctttgat cttttctacg gggtctgacg ctcagtggaa cgaaaactca cgttaaggga 4320ttttggtcat gagattatca aaaaggatct tcacctagat ccttttaaat taaaaatgaa 4380gttttaaatc aatctaaagt atatatgagt aaacttggtc tgacagttac caatgcttaa 4440tcagtgaggc acctatctca gcgatctgtc tatttcgttc atccatagtt gcctgactcg 4500gggggggggg gcgctgaggt ctgcctcgtg aagaaggtgt tgctgactca taccaggcct 4560gaatcgcccc atcatccagc cagaaagtga gggagccacg gttgatgaga gctttgttgt 4620aggtggacca gttggtgatt ttgaactttt gctttgccac ggaacggtct gcgttgtcgg 4680gaagatgcgt gatctgatcc ttcaactcag caaaagttcg atttattcaa caaagccgcc 4740gtcccgtcaa gtcagcgtaa tgctctgcca gtgttacaac caattaacca attctgatta 4800gaaaaactca tcgagcatca aatgaaactg caatttattc atatcaggat tatcaatacc 4860atatttttga aaaagccgtt tctgtaatga aggagaaaac tcaccgaggc agttccatag 4920gatggcaaga tcctggtatc ggtctgcgat tccgactcgt ccaacatcaa tacaacctat 4980taatttcccc tcgtcaaaaa taaggttatc aagtgagaaa tcaccatgag tgacgactga 5040atccggtgag aatggcaaaa gcttatgcat ttctttccag acttgttcaa caggccagcc 5100attacgctcg tcatcaaaat cactcgcatc aaccaaaccg ttattcattc gtgattgcgc 5160ctgagcgaga cgaaatacgc gatcgctgtt aaaaggacaa ttacaaacag gaatcgaatg 5220caaccggcgc aggaacactg ccagcgcatc aacaatattt tcacctgaat caggatattc 5280ttctaatacc tggaatgctg ttttcccggg gatcgcagtg gtgagtaacc atgcatcatc 5340aggagtacgg ataaaatgct tgatggtcgg aagaggcata aattccgtca gccagtttag 5400tctgaccatc tcatctgtaa catcattggc aacgctacct ttgccatgtt tcagaaacaa 5460ctctggcgca tcgggcttcc catacaatcg atagattgtc gcacctgatt gcccgacatt 5520atcgcgagcc catttatacc catataaatc agcatccatg ttggaattta atcgcggcct 5580cgagcaagac gtttcccgtt gaatatggct cataacaccc cttgtattac tgtttatgta 5640agcagacagt tttattgttc atgatgatat atttttatct tgtgcaatgt aacatcagag 5700attttgagac acaacgtggc tttccccccc cccccattat tgaagcattt atcagggtta 5760ttgtctcatg agcggataca tatttgaatg tatttagaaa aataaacaaa taggggttcc 5820gcgcacattt ccccgaaaag tgccacctga cgtctaagaa accattatta tcatgacatt 5880aacctataaa aataggcgta tcacgaggcc ctttcgtctc gcgcgtttcg gtgatgacgg 5940tgaaaacctc tgacacatgc agctcccgga gacggtcaca gcttgtctgt aagcggatgc 6000cgggagcaga caagcccgtc agggcgcgtc agcgggtgtt ggcgggtgtc ggggctggct 6060taactatgcg gcatcagagc agattgtact gagagtgcac catatgcggt gtgaaatacc 6120gcacagatgc gtaaggagaa aataccgcat cagattggct at 61623722PRTHomo sapiens 3Met Glu Lys Asn Gly Asn Asn Arg Lys Leu Arg Val Cys Val Ala Thr1 5 10 15Cys Asn Arg Ala Asp Tyr Ser Lys Leu Ala Pro Ile Met Phe Gly Ile 20 25 30Lys Thr Glu Pro Glu Phe Phe Glu Leu Asp Val Val Val Leu Gly Ser 35 40 45His Leu Ile Asp Asp Tyr Gly Asn Thr Tyr Arg Met Ile Glu Gln Asp 50 55 60Asp Phe Asp Ile Asn Thr Arg Leu His Thr Ile Val Arg Gly Glu Asp65 70 75 80Glu Ala Ala Met Val Glu Ser Val Gly Leu Ala Leu Val Lys Leu Pro 85 90 95Asp Val Leu Asn Arg Leu Lys Pro Asp Ile Met Ile Val His Gly Asp 100 105 110Arg Phe Asp Ala Leu Ala Leu Ala Thr Ser Ala Ala Leu Met Asn Ile 115 120 125Arg Ile Leu His Ile Glu Gly Gly Glu Val Ser Gly Thr Ile Asp Asp 130 135 140Ser Ile Arg His Ala Ile Thr Lys Leu Ala His Tyr His Val Cys Cys145 150 155 160Thr Arg Ser Ala Glu Gln His Leu Ile Ser Met Cys Glu Asp His Asp 165 170 175Arg Ile Leu Leu Ala Gly Cys Pro Ser Tyr Asp Lys Leu Leu Ser Ala 180 185 190Lys Asn Lys Asp Tyr Met Ser Ile Ile Arg Met Trp Leu Gly Asp Asp 195 200 205Val Lys Ser Lys Asp Tyr Ile Val Ala Leu Gln His Pro Val Thr Thr 210 215 220Asp Ile Lys His Ser Ile Lys Met Phe Glu Leu Thr Leu Asp Ala Leu225 230 235 240Ile Ser Phe Asn Lys Arg Thr Leu Val Leu Phe Pro Asn Ile Asp Ala 245 250 255Gly Ser Lys Glu Met Val Arg Val Met Arg Lys Lys Gly Ile Glu His 260 265 270His Pro Asn Phe Arg Ala Val Lys His Val Pro Phe Asp Gln Phe Ile 275 280 285Gln Leu Val Ala His Ala Gly Cys Met Ile Gly Asn Ser Ser Cys Gly 290 295 300Val Arg Glu Val Gly Ala Phe Gly Thr Pro Val Ile Asn Leu Gly Thr305 310 315 320Arg Gln Ile Gly Arg Glu Thr Gly Glu Asn Val Leu His Val Arg Asp 325 330 335Ala Asp Thr Gln Asp Lys Ile Leu Gln Ala Leu His Leu Gln Phe Gly 340 345 350Lys Gln Tyr Pro Cys Ser Lys Ile Tyr Gly Asp Gly Asn Ala Val Pro 355 360 365Arg Ile Leu Lys Phe Leu Lys Ser Ile Asp Leu Gln Glu Pro Leu Gln 370 375 380Lys Lys Phe Cys Phe Pro Pro Val Lys Glu Asn Ile Ser Gln Asp Ile385 390 395 400Asp His Ile Leu Glu Thr Leu Ser Ala Leu Ala Val Asp Leu Gly Gly 405 410 415Thr Asn Leu Arg Val Ala Ile Val Ser Met Lys Gly Glu Ile Val Lys 420 425 430Lys Tyr Thr Gln Phe Asn Pro Lys Thr Tyr Glu Glu Arg Ile Asn Leu 435 440 445Ile Leu Gln Met Cys Val Glu Ala Ala Ala Glu Ala Val Lys Leu Asn 450 455 460Cys Arg Ile Leu Gly Val Gly Ile Ser Thr Gly Gly Arg Val Asn Pro465 470 475 480Arg Glu Gly Ile Val Leu His Ser Thr Lys Leu Ile Gln Glu Trp Asn 485 490 495Ser Val Asp Leu Arg Thr Pro Leu Ser Asp Thr Leu His Leu Pro Val 500 505 510Trp Val Asp Asn Asp Gly Asn Cys Ala Ala Leu Ala Glu Arg Lys Phe 515 520 525Gly Gln Gly Lys Gly Leu Glu Asn Phe Val Thr Leu Ile Thr Gly Thr 530 535 540Gly Ile Gly Gly Gly Ile Ile His Gln His Glu Leu Ile His Gly Ser545 550 555 560Ser Phe Cys Ala Ala Glu Leu Gly His Leu Val Val Ser Leu Asp Gly 565 570 575Pro Asp Cys Ser Cys Gly Ser His Gly Cys
Ile Glu Ala Tyr Ala Ser 580 585 590Gly Met Ala Leu Gln Arg Glu Ala Lys Lys Leu His Asp Glu Asp Leu 595 600 605Leu Leu Val Glu Gly Met Ser Val Pro Lys Asp Glu Ala Val Gly Ala 610 615 620Leu His Leu Ile Gln Ala Ala Lys Leu Gly Asn Ala Lys Ala Gln Ser625 630 635 640Ile Leu Arg Thr Ala Gly Thr Ala Leu Gly Leu Gly Val Val Asn Ile 645 650 655Leu His Thr Met Asn Pro Ser Leu Val Ile Leu Ser Gly Val Leu Ala 660 665 670Ser His Tyr Ile His Ile Val Lys Asp Val Ile Arg Gln Gln Ala Leu 675 680 685Ser Ser Val Gln Asp Val Asp Val Val Val Ser Asp Leu Val Asp Pro 690 695 700Ala Leu Leu Gly Ala Ala Ser Met Val Leu Asp Tyr Thr Thr Arg Arg705 710 715 720Ile Tyr4400PRTHomo sapiens 4Met Glu Thr Tyr Gly Tyr Leu Gln Arg Glu Ser Cys Phe Gln Gly Pro1 5 10 15His Glu Leu Tyr Phe Lys Asn Leu Ser Lys Arg Asn Lys Gln Ile Met 20 25 30Glu Lys Asn Gly Asn Asn Arg Lys Leu Arg Val Cys Val Ala Thr Cys 35 40 45Asn Arg Ala Asp Tyr Ser Lys Leu Ala Pro Ile Met Phe Gly Ile Lys 50 55 60Thr Glu Pro Glu Phe Phe Glu Leu Asp Val Val Val Leu Gly Ser His65 70 75 80Leu Ile Asp Asp Tyr Gly Asn Thr Tyr Arg Met Ile Glu Gln Asp Asp 85 90 95Phe Asp Ile Asn Thr Arg Leu His Thr Ile Val Arg Gly Glu Asp Glu 100 105 110Ala Ala Met Val Glu Ser Val Gly Leu Ala Leu Val Lys Leu Pro Asp 115 120 125Val Leu Asn Arg Leu Lys Pro Asp Ile Met Ile Val His Gly Asp Arg 130 135 140Phe Asp Ala Leu Ala Leu Ala Thr Ser Ala Ala Leu Met Asn Ile Arg145 150 155 160Ile Leu His Ile Glu Gly Gly Glu Val Ser Gly Thr Ile Asp Asp Ser 165 170 175Ile Arg His Ala Ile Thr Lys Leu Ala His Tyr His Val Cys Cys Thr 180 185 190Arg Ser Ala Glu Gln His Leu Ile Ser Met Cys Glu Asp His Asp Arg 195 200 205Ile Leu Leu Ala Gly Cys Pro Ser Tyr Asp Lys Leu Leu Ser Ala Lys 210 215 220Asn Lys Asp Tyr Met Ser Ile Ile Arg Met Trp Leu Gly Asp Asp Val225 230 235 240Lys Ser Lys Asp Tyr Ile Val Ala Leu Gln His Pro Val Thr Thr Asp 245 250 255Ile Lys His Ser Ile Lys Met Phe Glu Leu Thr Leu Asp Ala Leu Ile 260 265 270Ser Phe Asn Lys Arg Thr Leu Val Leu Phe Pro Asn Ile Asp Ala Gly 275 280 285Ser Lys Glu Met Val Arg Val Met Arg Lys Lys Gly Ile Glu His His 290 295 300Pro Asn Phe Arg Ala Val Lys His Val Pro Phe Asp Gln Phe Ile Gln305 310 315 320Leu Val Ala His Ala Gly Cys Met Ile Gly Asn Ser Ser Cys Gly Val 325 330 335Arg Glu Val Gly Ala Phe Gly Thr Pro Val Ile Asn Leu Gly Thr Arg 340 345 350Gln Ile Gly Arg Glu Thr Gly Glu Asn Val Leu His Val Arg Asp Ala 355 360 365Asp Thr Gln Asp Lys Ile Leu Gln Ala Leu His Leu Gln Phe Gly Lys 370 375 380Gln Tyr Pro Cys Ser Lys Ile Tyr Gly Asp Gly Asn Ala Val Pro Arg385 390 395 4005369PRTHomo sapiens 5Met Glu Lys Asn Gly Asn Asn Arg Lys Leu Arg Val Cys Val Ala Thr1 5 10 15Cys Asn Arg Ala Asp Tyr Ser Lys Leu Ala Pro Ile Met Phe Gly Ile 20 25 30Lys Thr Glu Pro Glu Phe Phe Glu Leu Asp Val Val Val Leu Gly Ser 35 40 45His Leu Ile Asp Asp Tyr Gly Asn Thr Tyr Arg Met Ile Glu Gln Asp 50 55 60Asp Phe Asp Ile Asn Thr Arg Leu His Thr Ile Val Arg Gly Glu Asp65 70 75 80Glu Ala Ala Met Val Glu Ser Val Gly Leu Ala Leu Val Lys Leu Pro 85 90 95Asp Val Leu Asn Arg Leu Lys Pro Asp Ile Met Ile Val His Gly Asp 100 105 110Arg Phe Asp Ala Leu Ala Leu Ala Thr Ser Ala Ala Leu Met Asn Ile 115 120 125Arg Ile Leu His Ile Glu Gly Gly Glu Val Ser Gly Thr Ile Asp Asp 130 135 140Ser Ile Arg His Ala Ile Thr Lys Leu Ala His Tyr His Val Cys Cys145 150 155 160Thr Arg Ser Ala Glu Gln His Leu Ile Ser Met Cys Glu Asp His Asp 165 170 175Arg Ile Leu Leu Ala Gly Cys Pro Ser Tyr Asp Lys Leu Leu Ser Ala 180 185 190Lys Asn Lys Asp Tyr Met Ser Ile Ile Arg Met Trp Leu Gly Asp Asp 195 200 205Val Lys Ser Lys Asp Tyr Ile Val Ala Leu Gln His Pro Val Thr Thr 210 215 220Asp Ile Lys His Ser Ile Lys Met Phe Glu Leu Thr Leu Asp Ala Leu225 230 235 240Ile Ser Phe Asn Lys Arg Thr Leu Val Leu Phe Pro Asn Ile Asp Ala 245 250 255Gly Ser Lys Glu Met Val Arg Val Met Arg Lys Lys Gly Ile Glu His 260 265 270His Pro Asn Phe Arg Ala Val Lys His Val Pro Phe Asp Gln Phe Ile 275 280 285Gln Leu Val Ala His Ala Gly Cys Met Ile Gly Asn Ser Ser Cys Gly 290 295 300Val Arg Glu Val Gly Ala Phe Gly Thr Pro Val Ile Asn Leu Gly Thr305 310 315 320Arg Gln Ile Gly Arg Glu Thr Gly Glu Asn Val Leu His Val Arg Asp 325 330 335Ala Asp Thr Gln Asp Lys Ile Leu Gln Ala Leu His Leu Gln Phe Gly 340 345 350Lys Gln Tyr Pro Cys Ser Lys Ile Tyr Gly Asp Gly Asn Ala Val Pro 355 360 365Arg 6364PRTHomo sapiens 6Met Pro Ile Gly Asp Cys Ser Val Ala Ala Lys Pro Arg Lys Gln Leu1 5 10 15Leu Cys Ser Leu Phe Gln Thr Thr Leu Gly Tyr Arg Ala Arg Ala Ser 20 25 30Gly Trp Lys Pro Met Val Ile Cys Arg Gly Ser His Ala Phe Lys Asp 35 40 45Leu Ile Asn Thr Tyr Arg Met Ile Glu Gln Asp Asp Phe Asp Ile Asn 50 55 60Thr Arg Leu His Thr Ile Val Arg Gly Glu Asp Glu Ala Ala Met Val65 70 75 80Glu Ser Val Gly Leu Ala Leu Val Lys Leu Pro Asp Val Leu Asn Arg 85 90 95Leu Lys Pro Asp Ile Met Ile Val His Gly Asp Arg Phe Asp Ala Leu 100 105 110Ala Leu Ala Thr Ser Ala Ala Leu Met Asn Ile Arg Ile Leu His Ile 115 120 125Glu Gly Gly Glu Val Ser Gly Thr Ile Asp Asp Ser Ile Arg His Ala 130 135 140Ile Thr Lys Leu Ala His Tyr His Val Cys Cys Thr Arg Ser Ala Glu145 150 155 160Gln His Leu Ile Ser Met Cys Glu Asp His Asp Arg Ile Leu Leu Ala 165 170 175Gly Cys Pro Ser Tyr Asp Lys Leu Leu Ser Ala Lys Asn Lys Asp Tyr 180 185 190Met Ser Ile Ile Arg Met Trp Leu Gly Asp Asp Val Lys Ser Lys Asp 195 200 205Tyr Ile Val Ala Leu Gln His Pro Val Thr Thr Asp Ile Lys His Ser 210 215 220Ile Lys Met Phe Glu Leu Thr Leu Asp Ala Leu Ile Ser Phe Asn Lys225 230 235 240Arg Thr Leu Val Leu Phe Pro Asn Ile Asp Ala Gly Ser Lys Glu Met 245 250 255Val Arg Val Met Arg Lys Lys Gly Ile Glu His His Pro Asn Phe Arg 260 265 270Ala Val Lys His Val Pro Phe Asp Gln Phe Ile Gln Leu Val Ala His 275 280 285Ala Gly Cys Met Ile Gly Asn Ser Ser Cys Gly Val Arg Glu Val Gly 290 295 300Ala Phe Gly Thr Pro Val Ile Asn Leu Gly Thr Arg Gln Ile Gly Arg305 310 315 320Glu Thr Gly Glu Asn Val Leu His Val Arg Asp Ala Asp Thr Gln Asp 325 330 335Lys Ile Leu Gln Ala Leu His Leu Gln Phe Gly Lys Gln Tyr Pro Cys 340 345 350Ser Lys Ile Tyr Gly Asp Gly Asn Ala Val Pro Arg 355 3607293PRTHomo sapiens 7Met Glu Lys Asn Gly Asn Asn Arg Lys Leu Arg Val Cys Val Ala Thr1 5 10 15Cys Asn Arg Ala Asp Tyr Ser Lys Leu Ala Pro Ile Met Phe Gly Ile 20 25 30Lys Thr Glu Pro Glu Phe Phe Glu Leu Asp Val Val Val Leu Gly Ser 35 40 45His Leu Ile Asp Asp Tyr Gly Asn Thr Tyr Arg Met Ile Glu Gln Asp 50 55 60Asp Phe Asp Ile Asn Thr Arg Leu His Thr Ile Val Arg Gly Glu Asp65 70 75 80Glu Ala Ala Met Val Glu Ser Val Gly Leu Ala Leu Val Lys Leu Pro 85 90 95Asp Val Leu Asn Arg Leu Lys Pro Asp Ile Met Ile Val His Gly Asp 100 105 110Arg Phe Asp Ala Leu Ala Leu Ala Thr Ser Ala Ala Leu Met Asn Ile 115 120 125Arg Asn Pro Ile Leu His Ile Glu Gly Gly Glu Val Ser Gly Thr Ile 130 135 140Asp Asp Ser Ile Arg His Ala Ile Thr Lys Leu Ala His Tyr His Val145 150 155 160Cys Cys Thr Arg Ser Ala Glu Gln His Leu Ile Ser Met Cys Glu Asp 165 170 175His Asp Arg Ile Leu Leu Ala Gly Cys Pro Ser Tyr Asp Lys Leu Leu 180 185 190Ser Ala Lys Asn Lys Asp Tyr Met Ser Ile Ile Arg Met Trp Leu Gly 195 200 205Asp Asp Val Asn Pro Lys Ser Lys Asp Tyr Ile Val Ala Leu Gln His 210 215 220Pro Val Thr Thr Asp Ile Lys His Ser Ile Lys Met Phe Glu Leu Thr225 230 235 240Leu Asp Ala Leu Ile Ser Phe Asn Lys Arg Thr Leu Val Leu Phe Pro 245 250 255Asn Ile Asp Ala Gly Ser Lys Glu Met Val Arg Val Met Arg Lys Lys 260 265 270Gly Ile Glu His His Pro Asn Phe Arg Ala Val Lys His Val Pro Phe 275 280 285Asp Gln Phe Ile Gln 2908179PRTHomo sapiens 8Met Ile Glu Gln Asp Asp Phe Asp Ile Asn Thr Arg Leu His Thr Ile1 5 10 15Val Arg Gly Glu Asp Glu Ala Ala Met Val Glu Ser Val Gly Leu Ala 20 25 30Leu Val Lys Leu Pro Asp Val Leu Asn Arg Leu Lys Pro Asp Ile Met 35 40 45Ile Val His Gly Asp Arg Phe Asp Ala Leu Ala Leu Ala Thr Ser Ala 50 55 60Ala Leu Met Asn Ile Arg Ile Leu His Ile Glu Gly Gly Glu Val Ser65 70 75 80Gly Thr Ile Asp Asp Ser Ile Arg His Ala Ile Thr Lys Leu Ala His 85 90 95Tyr His Val Cys Cys Thr Arg Ser Ala Glu Gln His Leu Ile Ser Met 100 105 110Cys Glu Asp His Asp Arg Ile Leu Leu Ala Gly Cys Pro Ser Tyr Asp 115 120 125Lys Leu Leu Ser Ala Lys Asn Lys Asp Tyr Met Ser Ile Ile Arg Met 130 135 140Trp Leu Gly Ser Lys Glu Met Val Arg Val Met Arg Lys Lys Gly Ile145 150 155 160Glu His His Pro Asn Phe Arg Ala Val Lys His Val Pro Phe Asp Gln 165 170 175Phe Ile Gln931PRTHomo sapiens 9Thr Leu Val Leu Phe Pro Asn Ile Asp Ala Gly Ser Lys Glu Met Val1 5 10 15Arg Val Met Arg Lys Lys Gly Ile Glu His His Pro Asn Phe Arg 20 25 301031PRTHomo sapiens 10Thr Leu Val Leu Phe Pro Asn Ile Asp Ala Gly Ser Lys Glu Met Val1 5 10 15Gln Val Met Arg Lys Lys Gly Ile Glu His His Pro Asn Phe Arg 20 25 301131PRTHomo sapiens 11Thr Leu Val Leu Phe Pro Asn Ile Asp Ala Gly Ser Lys Glu Met Val1 5 10 15Trp Val Met Arg Lys Lys Gly Ile Glu His His Pro Asn Phe Arg 20 25 301231PRTHomo sapiens 12Thr Leu Val Leu Phe Pro Asn Ile Asp Ala Gly Ser Lys Glu Met Val1 5 10 15Leu Val Met Arg Lys Lys Gly Ile Glu His His Pro Asn Phe Arg 20 25 301331PRTHomo sapiens 13Thr Leu Val Leu Phe Pro Asn Ile Asp Ala Gly Ser Lys Glu Met Val1 5 10 15Arg Val Met Gln Lys Lys Gly Ile Glu His His Pro Asn Phe Arg 20 25 301431PRTHomo sapiens 14Thr Leu Val Leu Phe Pro Asn Ile Asp Ala Gly Ser Lys Glu Met Val1 5 10 15Arg Val Met Trp Lys Lys Gly Ile Glu His His Pro Asn Phe Arg 20 25 30
Patent applications by Daniel Darvish, Sherman Oaks, CA US
Patent applications by Yadira Valles-Ayoub, Woodland Hills, CA US
Patent applications by HIBM RESEARCH GROUP, INC.