Patent application title: GLASS FIBER FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE INSULATION
Albert Lewis (Chino, CA, US)
IPC8 Class: AC03C1300FI
Class name: Ceramic compositions glass compositions, compositions containing glass other than those wherein glass is a bonding agent, or glass batch forming compositions fibers
Publication date: 2012-08-23
Patent application number: 20120214660
A glass composition is provided for the production of high temperature
glass fibers with oxides comprising 1% to 15% Fe2O3+FeO as a
fluidizer to lower liquidus temperature and the fiberizing temperature of
a mix of high temperature oxides. The glass composition has therein an
appropriate content of high temperature oxides to produce glass fiber
with high temperature limits and high burn-through properties.
1. A glass composition for producing high temperature glass fiber wherein
iron oxide comprises 1% to 15% Fe2O3+FeO as a fluidizer medium to lower
the liquidus temperature and the fiberizing temperature of a mix of high
2. A glass composition according to claim 1 wherein the glass composition produces a high temperature fiber mat with a burn-through temperature up to 2,400.degree. F.
3. A glass composition having an iron oxide range according to claim 1, and having the appropriate content of other high temperature oxides to be capable of producing glass fiber having high temperature use limits and high burn-through properties.
4. A glass composition according to claim 1, and having an appropriate iron content, high temperature oxides and other oxides to be capable of producing glass fibers having good chemical resistance.
5. A glass composition having an iron oxide range according to claim 1, and having the appropriate iron content and high temperature oxides and other oxides is adapted to produce glass fibers having good water resistance with minimum use of binder to protect fiber surfaces, said fibers yielding good results according to accelerated aging studies.
6. A glass composition having a high iron content according to claim 1, and having the appropriate iron content and other high temperature oxides is adapted to produce glass fibers having good thermal conductivity, good acoustical, properties, high strength, and high burn through properties.
7. A glass composition for producing glass fiber from a chemistry wherein iron oxide comprises 1% to 15% iron oxide of the oxide weight percent as a fluidizer medium to lower liquidus temperature and fiberizing temperature in order to prevent devitrification of a glass chemistry using other high temperature oxides.
8. A glass composition having an iron oxide range according to claim 7, and having a content of high temperature-oxides capable of producing glass fiber having a temperature use limit greater than 2,400.degree. F.
9. A glass composition according to claim 7 and having iron content, high temperature oxides and other oxides to be capable of producing glass fibers having chemical resistance to water created, as by condensation created by cycling an aircraft to high and low altitudes, the chemical resistant being a result of replacing alkali metal in the glass with iron oxide.
10. A glass composition having an iron oxide range according to claim 7 and such content of high temperature oxides an& other oxides as to produce glass fibers having chemical resistance with less than 4% of a binder coating to protect fiber surfaces, said fibers having tensile strengths greater than 5 pounds on virgin fibers and greater than 1 pound after 30 days of accelerated aging.
11. A glass composition having iron content according to claim 7 and having other high temperature oxides adapted to produce glass fiber having a density range of 0.4-0.6-1.5 pounds per cu. ft. and thermal conductivity with properties of 0.25 to 0.64 (ASTM C177) at temperatures ranging from 50.degree. F. to 400.degree. F., and providing temperature protection over a range of +70.degree. F. to -30.degree. F.
12. A glass composition having iron content according to claim 7 and having other high temperature oxides to produce glass fibers having acoustical properties in excess of those required by applicable regulations ASTM C-243 and ASTM C-90, over a range of 200-4000 db.
13. A glass composition having iron content according to claim 7 and having additional high temperature oxides to produce glass fibers having strength in excess of 300,000 psi on nascent monofilaments and bonded mat strength in excess of 5 pounds.
14. A glass composition having iron content according to claim 7 and having other high temperature oxides adapted to produce glass fibers containing no alumina that have a solubility dissolution rate of 10 to 30 days in human body fluids as determined by in vivo tests in animals.
15. A bio-soluble glass composition with a liquidus temperature of approximately 2400.degree. F. for producing high temperature glass fibers capable of being formed into an insulation blanket having burn through properties compliant with FAA Regulation FAR 25.856(b), said glass composition comprising: at least 74 wt % SiO2; at least 2.6 wt % Fe2O3+FeO ; at least about 8% wt % CaO+MgO+TiO2; up to about 6 wt % Na2O+Li2O+K2O+B2O3, and essentially no other oxides.
16. The glass composition of claim 15, wherein the Fe2O3+FeO have a combined wt % of not more than about 10.
17. The glass composition of claim 16, wherein the Fe2O3+FeO have a combined wt % of about 3.
18. The glass composition of claim 16, wherein the Fe2O3+FeO have a combined wt % of about 8.
19. The glass composition of claim 16, wherein the i Fe2O3+FeO have a combined wt % of about 5.
20. The glass composition of claim 16, wherein the Fe2O3+FeO have a combined wt % of about 10.
21. The glass composition of claim 16, wherein the SiO2 has a wt % of not less than about 75.
22. The glass composition of claim 17, wherein the SiO2 has a wt % of not less than about 77.
23. The glass composition of claim 15, wherein the combined wt % of CaO and MgO is at least 10.
24. The glass composition of claim 15, wherein the wt % of CaO is at least about 5 and of MgO is at least about 3.
25. A glass fiber made from the glass composition of claim 15, wherein the wt % of Fe2O3+FeO is less than 11.95%.
26. A glass fiber made from the glass composition of claim 15, wherein the wt % of CaO+MgO+TiO2 is less than about 15%.
27. A glass fiber made from the glass composition of claim 15, wherein the wt % of Fe2O3+FeO is less than about 11.95% and the wt % of CaO+MgO+TiO2 is less than about 15%.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
 This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 11/442,419 (filed May 26, 2006) which is a continuation in part of application Ser. No. 11/260,548 (filed Oct. 27, 2005), now U.S. Pat. No. 7,189,671 (issued Mar. 13, 2007).
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INENTION
 The present invention relates to bio-soluble glass compositions, particularly to glass compositions having good fiberizing characteristics, high strength, high durability at high temperatures, high modulus of elasticity, very good thermal and acoustical properties, good water repellency, good chemical resistance and high temperature resistance, and represents an improvement to my U.S. Pat. No. 6,998,361
 There has long existed a demand for fiber glass compositions for successful formation into fibers, particularly for use for insulation and acoustical purposes, which can meet current FAA burn-through requirements.
 The problems in achieving these desired characteristics at reasonable costs, have long been known in the glass art, but no satisfactory composition has been available for the forming of long and small diameter glass fibers of 0.5 to 2.0 microns, which are desired characteristics.
 Problems associated with the achieving of such characteristics and the provision of appropriate products at reasonable costs, have long been known in the glass making art.
 Although high temperature glass compositions have been provided in the prior art, they have been subject to the shortcomings of having a short working temperature range or of being too expensive to produce because of the high costs of raw material, low productivity, and high energy requirements.
 The present invention resolves the problems by utilizing iron oxide (Fe2O3 and FeO) in the glass. The amount of iron in the glass was varied based on the amounts of other ingredients contained in the higher temperature glasses. A range of 1% to 15% of iron was utilized in experiments relative to the high temperature glass studies.
 Fibers for aircraft insulation are of particular importance, particularly for commercial aircraft. The Federal Aviation Administration has long dictated that aircraft be made safer, and has issued a new regulation No. FAR 25.856(b) requiring burn-through protection for all OEM aircraft beginning in 2008.
 Aircraft have been destroyed and people's lives lost by fire and crashes. Examples include an MD-11 aircraft which was burned and was destroyed in Canada, and an MD-80 aircraft which was destroyed by fire and crashed in Texas, as well as many other examples. These particular crashes were blamed on insulation blankets which caught fire and burned because the blanket embodied relatively low-temperature fibers which melted in a short time at high temperatures.
 An object of the present invention is the production of glass fibers utilizing iron oxide as a fluidizer. Through the use of iron oxide, the viscosity and refining time is reduced, thus requiring less time to provide freedom from impurities and/or entrapped gases. This enables continuous or discontinuous fibers to be manufactured with relative ease. Iron oxide with other high temperature melting oxides are used to produce high temperature resistance properties, good thermal insulation and acoustical properties, high strength, and high modulus of elasticity. The glass compositions containing iron oxide according to the invention can be formed into long and/or short stable glass fibers.
 An object of the invention is the provision of a glass composition having high strength and being adapted to be drawn into long, strong glass fibers.
 Substantial cost reductions are provided by the present invention because of the utilization of relatively inexpensive raw materials, low energy use, high temperature resistance, good insulation, good acoustical properties, and high strength.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 To achieve the very good thermal and acoustical properties that meet aerospace requirements requires that the fibers have a diameter of 0.5 to 2.0 microns.
 During the current and previous research efforts it was found that to develop a direct replacement of insulation material for aircraft to meet the required burn-through, acoustical, thermal and other properties required that the fibers be within the 0.5 to 2.0 micron range.
 In the course of research and development work relative to the present invention, a wide range of fiber diameters were investigated, such range being from 0.5 to 5.0 microns. High temperature values were obtained throughout such range which satisfies the FAA burn-through requirement under Regulation FAR 25.856(b). High temperature insulation values were obtained throughout the range, independent of fiber diameters. However, these fiber materials would only be useful as acceptable replacement products if the thermal and acoustical properties could be satisfied. This required the fiber diameter be reduced to a range of 0.5 to 2.0 microns.
 The glass fibers were prepared utilizing specific raw materials which included silica, iron oxide, alkali metal oxides, and alkaline earth metal oxides.
 Glasses of the present invention were prepared by melting raw glass-making material in the following range of temperatures: between about 2,600° F. to about 2,950° F., utilizing conventional refractory containers.
 Glass compositions according to the invention have a liquidus temperature of approximately 2,400° F., which is suitable for glass forming.
 The glass can be formed into fibers for insulation and acoustical components using the centrifugal rotary process (vertical and horizontal), or blowing and flame processes. The glass can also be drawn into continuous and stable fibers.
 The material of the invention differs from other high-temperature glass in that the fibers of the invention differ from prior art in that the material of the invention has good resistance to devitrification at the forming temperature, and requires lower processing energy than other high temperature fibers at a Log 3 viscosity.
 The molten glass may also be formed into continuous fibers on a conventional drawing wheel at speeds of 4,000 to 12,000 feet per minute at temperatures between 2,400° F. to about 2,600° F. Speeds between about 3,000 to about 4,000 feet per minute are preferable in order to provide optimum filament properties. Continuous fibers may be drawn from about 9 microns to about 14 microns in diameter. Diameters of about 9 microns are preferred. Non-continuous fibers were produced using the centrifugal, blowing and flame processes having fiber diameters ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 microns.
 In the course of the research work, it was determined that the long term results obtained are provided by amorphous glass fibers being converted during long term burn-through tests into a ceram glass which forms a fiber mat wherein the fiber integrity is maintained, thus preventing high temperatures from penetrating the insulation blanket containing the fibers according to the invention.
 Temperatures as high as 2,450° F. for several hours failed to burn-through the aircraft insulation blankets.
 The initial work conducted under this effort followed the work described in my U.S. Pat. No. 6,998,361. The objective is to improve the desired properties while reducing the complexity of the process, by the selection and use of different and fewer oxides.
 The glass composition was mixed using conventional glass-making materials and was melted in a refractory furnace. The resultant glasses were successfully fiberized into continuous and non-continuous glass fibers. Set forth below are illustrative examples of exemplary embodiments of the present invention:
TABLE-US-00001 Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Oxides wt % wt % wt % wt % SiO2 81.00 74.80 76.78 73.53 Na2O 2.40 1.90 0 4.97 CaO 8.30 9.70 4.89 6.77 MgO 6.10 4.10 2.83 3.31 Fe2O3 + FeO 2.60 8.30 5.00 10.00 TiO2 0 1.20 0 1.40 K2O 0 0 6.00 0
 In this research work, resultant fibers were collected an a metal conveyor, and maintained thereon during the rest of the manufacture process. Typical raw materials used were: silica sand, iron oxide, soda ash, pot ash, lithium carbonate, boric acid, borax, dolomite limestone, dolime, and titania dioxide. Compositions according to the present invention provided a reduction in cost when compared to other high temperature insulation materials being tested as a replacement for fiber blankets currently being used in aircraft.
 Fibers according to the present invention, for insulation blankets for aircraft, may have the following components in the following specified ranges of percentages:
TABLE-US-00002 COMPOSITIONAL RANGE Oxide Oxide Weight % SiO2 46.47 to 81.57 B2O3 0 to 9.00 Na2O 0 to 9.80 Li2O 0 to 10.00 K2O 0 to 5.70 CaO 0 to 18.00 MgO 0 to 10.00 Fe2O3 + FeO 0 to 11.95
 High temperature fibers are less expensive because of the use of low cost raw materials, lower energy and higher productivity in processing them into glass fibers. In addition, it has been determined that less binder is required than in commercially available insulation fibers due to the improved surface condition and high strength of the fibers.
 Insulation fiber diameters may range from about 0.5 to 5.0 microns. All of the above-outlined processes may be utilized to manufacture glass fibers in the above noted diameter range.
 The preferred fiber diameter range for aircraft fibrous blankets is 0.5 to 2.0 microns. The chemical components of the glass compositions described herein provide a tightly bonded surface that results in a very high strength and high chemical resistance which are characteristics required in aircraft.
 Another advantage of fiber blankets made of the above noted compositions is their ability to repel liquids when treated properly.
 It will be understood that various changes and modifications may be made from the preferred embodiments discussed above without departing from the scope of the present invention, which is established by the following claims and equivalents thereof.
Patent applications by Albert Lewis, Chino, CA US
Patent applications in class Fibers
Patent applications in all subclasses Fibers