Patent application title: METHOD AND APPARATUS TO ENHANCE OPTICAL TRANSPARENCY OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES
Babak Nemati (La Jolla, CA, US)
IPC8 Class: AA61B1820FI
Class name: Instruments light application dermatological
Publication date: 2012-07-19
Patent application number: 20120184947
Contemplated methods and compositions use selected agents to clarify
biological tissues, and particularly tissues in vivo. In especially
preferred aspects, the clarification agent is topically applied to
clarify a plurality of layers, wherein the dermal layer that includes a
target object remains unclarified. Light energy is then applied to the
skin in an amount and under a protocol effective to destroy or alter the
target object such that all skin layers avoid thermal damage. For
example, hair follicles, collagen, and/or tattoo pigments located in the
dermal reticular layer of skin are irradiated under a protocol in which
the dermal papillary layer and all epidermal layers are clarified while
the dermal reticular layer remains unclarified. Remarkably, such protocol
significantly reduces thermal damage in the dermis, epidermis, and
1. A method of irradiating a target object in skin comprising: providing
a clarification agent in a topical formulation; ascertaining that the
target object is located in a sub-papillary layer of the skin, wherein
the target further comprises a dye; topically applying the clarifying
agent to at least one layer of epidermis and a papillary layer of dermis
under a protocol effective to achieve clarification of the at least one
layer of epidermis and the papillary layer while providing substantially
no clarification of the sub-papillary layer; irradiating the skin with
laser irradiation having visible light emission at a wavelength of less
than 700 nm and at an energy effective to at least partially destroy the
target object; and wherein the step of irradiating is performed under a
protocol effective to avoid thermal damage in the at least one layer of
epidermis and the papillary layer.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the clarification agent comprises at least one of glycerol, diatrizoate meglumine acid, and glucose.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of topically applying is performed using application of at least one of heat, electrical current, and occlusion.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of topically applying is performed without removal of at least one of stratum corneum and stratum lucidum.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein the topical formulation further includes a penetration enhancer.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the sub-papillary layer of the skin is a reticular layer.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein the dye comprises a metal or melanin.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the target object is selected from the group consisting of a hair follicle, a tattoo, a pigmented lesion, and collagen.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of irradiating comprises irradiation with a laser having an emission wavelength of between 430 nm to 700 nm at an energy of between 10 W to 45 W.
10. A kit comprising: a topical formulation for application to skin comprising a clarification agent in an amount effective to provide clarification of an epidermal layer of the skin and optionally a papillary layer of the skin when applied topically to the skin; and an instruction to apply the formulation under a protocol effective to achieve clarification of at least one epidermal layer and optionally papillary layer of the skin while providing substantially no clarification of a sub-papillary layer of the skin.
11. The kit of claim 10 wherein the clarification agent comprises at least one of glycerol, diatrizoate meglumine acid, and glucose.
12. The kit of claim 10 wherein the formulation further includes a penetration enhancer.
13. The kit of claim 12 wherein the penetration enhancer is selected from the group consisting of sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium octyl sulfate, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, dodecyl pyridinium chloride, octyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, hexadecyl trimethyl ammoniopropane sulfonate, oleyl betaine, cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine, cocamidopropyl betaine, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate, sorbitan monolaurate, polyethyleneglycol dodecyl ether, Triton X-100, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, tetracaine, isopropyl myristate, sodium oleate, methyl laurate, N-decyl-2-pyrrolidone, dodecyl amine, nicotine sulfate, menthol, methyl pyrolidone, cineole, limonene, and ethanol.
14. The kit of claim 10 wherein the protocol includes reference to at least one of application of heat, application of an electric field, and application under occlusion.
15. The kit of claim 10 wherein the instruction further includes a reference to use the formulation in preparation for laser irradiation of a target disposed in a sub-papillary layer.
16. The kit of claim 15 wherein the target is selected from the group consisting of a hair follicle, a tattoo, a pigmented lesion, and collagen.
17. A method of removing hair having a hair follicle, comprising: topically applying a clarification agent to skin such that at least one layer of epidermis and a papillary layer of dermis is clarified while substantially no clarification occurs in a sub-papillary layer of the skin; and irradiating the hair follicle in the sub-papillary layer with visible laser light having a wavelength of above 700 nm at an energy effective to at least partially destroy the hair follicle.
18. The method of claim 17 wherein the step of topical application is performed without at least one of disruption and removal of at least another layer of the epidermis.
19. The method of claim 17 wherein the step of topically applying comprises application to an area of at least 200 cm.sup.2.
20. The method of claim 17 wherein the step of irradiating includes use of a green-blue laser at an energy of between 15 W to 40 W.
RELATED APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
 This application is a continuation application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/262,082 (now U.S. Pat. No. 8,096,982), issued Jan. 17, 2012, which is a continuation-in-part application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/777,640, filed Feb. 7, 2001, which is a divisional of U.S. Pat. No. 6,219,575, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety as if set forth in full.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The field of the invention is compositions and methods for clarification of biological tissues, especially as it relates to application of light energy to sub-epidermal tissue.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to modifying the optical properties of tissue on a transient basis, and more particularly, it relates to a method and apparatus for delivery of a chemical agent to a target tissue, in order to increase the optical transmission through this tissue, on a transient basis.
 It is believed that the administered chemical agent displaces the aqueous interstitial fluid of the tissue, thereby effectively altering the interstitial refractive index, of the tissue. If the index of refraction of the administered chemical is closer to that of the other components of the tissue, the introduction of this chemical will result in a reduction in the heterogeneity of the refractive indices of the tissue, which in turn reduces the level of scattering within the tissue. Since optical attenuation through the tissue is primarily due to absorption and scattering, a substantial change in scattering dramatically affects the optical attenuation characteristics of most biological tissues.
 Previous patents and disclosures relating to the field of this invention have focused on the use of a topical chemical agent for index matching at the tissue-air interface (these prior patents and disclosures are fully identified under the heading "References" at the end of the specifications). For instance, McCarthy, et al. (McCarthy, Fairing, & Buchholz, 1989), disclose the use of an immersion medium (such as glycerol, water, or oil) to match the refractive index of the tissue specimen with that of an objective lens used in their confocal microscope. This approach serves to minimize or eliminate specular reflection, which accounts for approximately 3-4% of loss, when light is irradiated on a tissue-air interface. This approach is well known to one skilled in the art, and Lucas, et al., disclose a similar method as early as 1930 (Lucas, 1930).
 The present invention is distinct from the prior art in that it changes the scattering properties of biological tissues, underlying the surface permeability barrier of tissue covering the said biological tissue, by changing the refractive index of the interstitial fluid within the stroma and the entire volume of the covered biological tissue. While topical administration of immersion fluids affects the optical transmission through biological tissues by only 3-4%, the present invention can improve light transmission through biological tissues by up to five or six hundred percent.
 The only prior art known to the inventor which teaches enhancement of tissue transparency by topical administration of chemicals is an abstract authored by Chan, et al., and the inventor, in the Fourteenth Annual Houston Conference on Biomedical Engineering Research (Chan, Nemati, Rylander, & Welch, 1996). This abstract teaches the efficacy of this approach for enhancing the transparency of porcine scleral tissue, in order to perform transscleral cyclophotocoagulation on glaucomatous eyes. However, this abstract does not teach bypassing of the most superficial tissue layer (e.g., stratum corneum, for skin, and conjunctiva, for sclera), in order to administer the topical clarifying agents. Without bypassing the outer-most tissue layer, the underlying target tissue layers are impermeable, and the chemicals administered topically to the outermost tissue layer will not reach the interstitial space of the tissue, and therefore will have no impact on the optical properties of the tissue. The authors indicate that a "360° peritomy was performed on the conjunctiva", but peritomy alone, which is an incision on the conjunctiva at the comeoscleral limbus of the eye, is not sufficient to allow sufficient volume of the clarifying agent to reach the target tissue (in this case, the sclera). In order for this approach to be effective, a full surgical separation of the conjunctiva from the sclera is necessary, to allow the topical chemical agent to permeate into the interstitial space of the sclera.
 One of the objects of this invention is to provide a method and apparatus for enhancing optical transmission through biological tissues. Other objects of this invention will become apparent from the specifications, drawings, and by reference to the appended claims.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention is directed to compositions and methods for at least partial optical clarification of biological tissues and particularly of such tissues in vivo, wherein a clarification agent is applied to temporarily replace water and other fluids from such tissues. Clarified and unclarified tissues are then subjected to irradiation to destroy or modify a target structure in the tissue (which may or may not be clarified).
 In one aspect of the inventive subject matter, a method of irradiating a target object in skin has a step in which a clarification agent in a topical formulation is provided and in which it is ascertained that (a) the target object is located in a sub-papillary layer of the skin, and (b) that the target comprises a dye. In another step of such methods, the clarifying agent is topically applied to at least one layer of epidermis and optionally the papillary layer of dermis under a protocol effective to achieve clarification of the layer of epidermis and optionally the papillary layer while providing substantially no clarification of the sub-papillary layer. In yet another step, the skin is irradiated with laser radiation having visible light emission at a wavelength of less than 700 nm and at an energy effective to at least partially destroy the target object, wherein the step of irradiating is performed under a protocol effective to avoid thermal damage in the at least one layer of epidermis and the papillary layer.
 In another aspect of the inventive subject matter, a method of removing hair will include a step in which a clarification agent is topically applied to the skin such that at least one layer of epidermis and a papillary layer of dermis is clarified while substantially no clarification occurs in a sub-papillary layer of the skin. In another step, the hair follicle is irradiated in the sub-papillary layer with visible laser light having a wavelength of above 700 nm at an energy effective to at least partially destroy the hair follicle.
 Consequently, the inventors also contemplate a kit that includes a topical formulation for application to skin comprising a clarification agent in an amount effective to provide clarification of an epidermal layer of the skin and optionally a papillary layer of the skin when applied topically to the skin. Such kits will further include an instruction to apply the formulation under a protocol effective to achieve clarification of at least one epidermal layer and optionally papillary layer of the skin while providing substantially no clarification of a sub-papillary layer of the skin.
 Various objects, features, aspects and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description of preferred embodiments of the invention.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1 illustrates the optical transmission characteristics of diatrizoate meglumine acid.
 FIGS. 2(a), 2(b), and 2(c) illustrate the results of measurement of the diffuse transmission characteristics for porcine sclera, before and after submersion in glycerol, after 5, 10, and 15 minutes, respectively.
 FIGS. 3(a), 3(b), and 3(c) illustrate the result of measurement of the diffuse transmission characteristics for porcine sclera, before and after submersion in diatrizoate meglumine acid, after 5, 10, and 15 minutes, respectively.
 FIG. 4 illustrates the absorbance of human skin, in-vivo, immediately before and approximately 8 minutes after topical administration of glycerol, over a 460 nm to 800 nm spectral range.
 FIG. 5 illustrates the absorbance of human skin, in-vivo, immediately before and approximately 8 minutes after topical administration of diatrizoate sodium injection solution (25%), over a 460 nm to 800 nm spectral range.
 FIG. 6 illustrates diagrammatically a generalized system for bypassing surface permeability barrier of tissue, administering a topical chemical, and delivery of light.
 FIG. 7 illustrates diagrammatically a suggested pattern for removing the stratum corneum.
 FIG. 8 is a flowchart of a diagnostic algorithm which can be carried out in accordance with the invention.
 FIG. 9 is a flowchart of a treatment algorithm which can be carried out in accordance with the invention.
 Optical transmission through biological tissue is one of the major challenges of all optical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities which are intended to access structures underlying the tissue surface. In diagnostics (e.g., imaging tissue structures with microscopes) the object is to obtain a clear image of embedded structures, or signature optical information (e.g., spectroscopic information) from analytes in the blood stream or within the composition of biological tissues. Such images or optical information are distorted due to the attenuation of light, which is transmitted through, or reflected from, the tissue specimens.
 In therapeutics (e.g., laser treatment of pigmented and vascular lesions) the goal is to selectively cause thermal necrosis in the target structures, without compromising the viability of surrounding tissues. The highly scattering medium of biological tissues, however, serves to diffuse the incident light, and causes thermal damage to tissues surrounding the target structures, impacting the selectivity of the procedure in destroying the target structures. It is therefore important to adopt a strategy which could minimize the optical attenuation of the overlying and surrounding tissues to treatment target structures, in order to minimize collateral tissue damage, and maximize the therapeutic effects at the target tissue.
 When light is irradiated on biological tissues, there are several distinct mechanisms by which light is attenuated. The first attenuation stems from the mismatch of the index of refraction at the tissue interface. This index mismatch results in a reflection from the tissue surface, known as specular reflection.
 When the medium overlying tissue is air, this attenuation is on the order of 3-4%. Once light penetrates into the tissue, there are two mechanisms responsible for light attenuation: absorption and scattering. Attenuation mechanisms of tissue can be characterized by determining the optical properties of tissue.
 The optical properties of tissue provide a practical basis for characterizing light propagation in this medium. The fundamental parameters which describe tissue optics are the absorption coefficient, μm (cm-1), the scattering coefficient, μs (cm-1), and the average cosine of the scattering angle associated with single scattering phase function, g. The probability that a photon is absorbed or conservatively scattered as it propagates in tissue, is given by the product of the path length of the photon, As, and the absorption and scattering coefficients, respectively. The phase function describes the probability, per unit solid angle, that a photon will be scattered into an angle O. The average cosine of the phase function, g (also known as the anisotropy factor) provides a measure of the direction of scattering.
 Scattering is purely in the forward direction when g is 1 or 0 is 0°; the light is purely backscattered when g is -1, or O equals 180°. An isotropic scattering is specified by g equaling 0. Most of the recent advances in modeling light-tissue interaction have been based on the radiative transport theory. The radiative transport theory provides a heuristic model that deals directly with the transport of power through turbid media. In this model, the distribution of light propagating through a turbid medium is given by the radiative transfer equation (Chandrasekar, 1960):
s ∇ L ( r , s ) = - ( μ a + μ s ) L ( r , s ) + μ s ∫ 4 π p ( s , s ' ) L ( r , s ' ) ω ' ##EQU00001##
where μa [cm-1] is the absorption coefficient, p s [cm-1] signifies the scattering coefficient, p(s,s') [sr-1] is the phase function representing the contribution of scattered light from the s' direction to s, and do' denotes the differential solid angle in the s' direction. According to the radiative transport theory, the radiance L(r, s) [W m-2 sr-1] of light at position r traveling in the direction of the unit vector s is reduced due to absorption and scattering of the medium (first term on the right hand side of equation 1) and increased by the scattered contribution from s' to s direction (second term on the right hand side of equation 1). The phase function is generally assumed to be a function only of the angle between s and s'. Therefore p(s,s')=p(ss')=p(cos O). When the integral of the phase function is normalized to one, p(s,s') represents the probability density function for scattering from direction s' to s.
 Even though in general the phase function varies from particle to particle, for most applications an approximate phase function is chosen such that the most important features of the scattering process are characterized. In isotropic media, the phase function is simply 1/(47r). In anisotropic media (such as most biological tissues), the average cosine of the phase function, g, is utilized to describe the degree of anisotropy of the medium:
g = ∫ 4 π p ( s s ' ) ( s s ' ) ω ##EQU00002##
 Scattering in a turbid medium is due to the heterogeneity of the refractive index of the constituent elements in the medium. The main constituent of tissue, water (by approximately 80%), has a refractive index of 1.33, whereas the refractive index of collagen is 1.45, and the refractive index of other constituents of tissue are also different from water, by a magnitude sufficient to result in a high level of optical scattering within the tissue. Any approach which serves to minimize this heterogeneity, will have a substantial impact on reducing the scattering within the tissue, leading to a higher optical transmission through the tissue.
 One approach is by applying compression. In the case of sclera, for instance, a number of investigators have reported that when a fiberoptic contact probe is used to compress scleral tissue, the optical transmission through the sclera is increased. Vogel et al. (Vogel, Dlugos, Nuffer, Birngruber et al., 1991) have recently demonstrated that the difference in transmission diminishes with fiber contact if strong pressure is applied to the sclera. This increase in transmission due to fiber contact may be explained by the displacement of ground substance caused by the pressure of fiber tip. The thinning of the sclera and the reduction of the distance between collagen fibrils (due to the pressure exerted by the fiber) leads to changes in the interference of the light scattered from adjacent fibrils (Vogel et al., 1991). In this case, it is believed that more water than proteins and mucopolysaccharides are displaced, and that the concentration of the remaining ground substance increases and its refractive index becomes closer to that of the collagen fibrils, thereby reducing the heterogeneity of the refractive index of the constituents of the sclera. As a result, when a contact fiber is used to compress sclera, scattering is reduced, and consequently the transmission is increased. These effects are stronger when increased pressure is applied to the sclera (Cantor et al., 1989).
 Another approach which has been used is the application of glycerol, topically, to enhance visualization through edematous corneas to allow adequate gonioscopic and ophthalmoscopic examinations. It has been long since known that glycerol applied topically in concentrations from 50% to 100% is effective in clearing edematous corneas, within two minutes following administration (Flood et al., 1989). It should be noted, however, that this method of applying hyperosmotic topical agents has been limited only to the cornea, and the prior art does not suggest such application for any other tissue type. Moreover, the method of topical administration of such chemical agents is ineffective in altering the optical properties of tissues other than the cornea, so long as the surface permeability barrier of tissue of the tissue (e.g., stratum corneum for the skin) is in place.
 The present invention involves the application of a clarifying chemical agent to biological tissues, which are covered by a surface permeability barrier of tissue, in-vivo, ex-vivo, or in-vitro, for the purpose of augmenting the optical transmission through these tissues. While the basis of this effect has not been established definitively, in a number of experiments described below, it has been shown that optical transmission through tissues can be substantially enhanced, on a transient basis, using the topical administration of chemicals such as diatrizoate meglumine acid (commercially known as Hypaque®), glycerol, or glucose (hereinafter referred to as "clarifying agents"). It is possible that the tissue transport phenomena replace a portion of the tissue's water content with the above chemical agents, and the optical properties of these chemicals alter the bulk optical properties of the tissue such that the optical transmission through the tissue is increased. In time, the same transport phenomena replace these agents with water, restoring the tissue's original optical properties.
 In the case of these clarifying agents, it is possible that the higher refractive index of these fluids (more than that of water, and closer to the refractive index of collagen and other constituents of tissue), leads to a reduction in the heterogeneity of refractive indices of the constituents of tissue, and therefore reduces the overall scattering of light as it is transmitted through the tissue. This method can be termed "interstitial refractive index matching", or IRIM.
 Glycerol is a trihydric alcohol, a naturally occurring component of body fat. It is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract rapidly, but at a variable rate. As such, topical administration of glycerol is not expected to cause any adverse effects, and should be a completely safe approach for altering the optical properties of tissues, prior to light irradiation.
 Diatrizoate meglumine acid, which is commercially known as Hypaque®, is a radiographic injection solution. In the case of Hypaque®, the increased transmission through the tissue may be due to IRIM, or optical transmission characteristics which are superior to that of water, or a combination of both effects. In an experiment, a cuvette was filled with diatrizoate meglumine acid and its optical transmission characteristics were evaluated using a Varian CARY 5ETM UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The transmission characteristics were similar to that of a "high-pass filter", and the chemical exhibited very low transmission for wavelengths below approximately 400 nm, and very high transmission for wavelengths above 400 nm (see FIG. 1). Experiments demonstrating the effects of TRIM are described below.
A. In-Vitro Animal Experiments
 Porcine eyes were enucleated immediately post-mortem, and were transported to the laboratory in a wet gauze pad, held at 4° C. during transport in a well-insulated cooler. Each eye was inflated with saline. Limbal conjunctiva and Tenons capsule were dissected and excised using a pair of blunt Wescott scissors. A No. 64 Beaver blade was then used to outline 20 mm×20 mm sections of the sclera from the limbus to the equator of the globe. Incisions were deepened to the supra-choroidal space. Sections of sclera were then lifted off the intact choroid and ciliary body. Scleral thickness was measured and was determined to be 1.65 mm on average.
 Three prepared sections of sclera were each then placed between quartz slides, and then between two flat aluminum plates. The tissue sample assembly was then fixed against the input port of a diffuse reflectance accessory (integrating sphere) of a Varian Cary 5ETM UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, and diffuse transmission was measured for wavelengths ranging from 350 nm to 750 nm. The three tissue samples were then submerged in separate containers of glycerol, the first being submerged for 5 minutes, the second for 10 minutes, and the third for 15 minutes. Each sample was then again placed in the tissue assembly and was fixed against the input port of the diffuse reflectance accessory of the spectrophotometer, and the diffuse transmission was measured again over the same wavelength range as above. These measurements were also carried out, using three other scleral samples, and diatrizoate meglumine acid as the IRIM agent. The results for these measurements are shown in the FIGS. 2 (a-c), and 3 (a-c).
 From the results shown in FIG. 2, it can be seen that the diffuse transmission through the sclera was increased by up to 240%, 660%, and 1090%, for samples which were submerged in glycerol for 5, 10, and 15 minutes respectively, with the most pronounced increase occurring at 750 nm wavelength (the longest wavelength for which measurements were carried out). Similarly, the results shown in FIG. 3 illustrate that the diffuse transmission through the sclera was increased by up to 200%, 395%, and 975%, for samples which were submerged in diatrizoate meglumine acid for 5, 10, and 15 minutes respectively, with the largest increase occurring at 750 nm wavelength (the longest wavelength for which measurements were carried out). It is noteworthy that the samples became so transparent (grossly) that when placed against print, letters of the alphabet were clearly discernable through the tissue.
B. In-Vivo Animal Experiments
 In order to assess the longitudinal effects of topical administration of glycerol or diatrizoate meglumine acid on the sclera, in-vivo experiments were carried out on two rabbits, and the eyes were examined for signs of inflammation once a day for approximately 1 week.
 Each rabbit was put under anesthesia using an intra-muscular injection of Rompin® and Ketamine®. The conjunctiva serves as the permeability barrier for the sclera, and therefore, the conjunctiva was surgically separated from the sclera and the distal surface of the sclera was exposed. Topical drops of glycerol were administered on one eye, and of diatrizoate meglumine acid in the contra-lateral eye, for both rabbits. In the case of glycerol, the sclera turned clear, almost instantaneously (in less than 5 seconds), whereas in the case of diatrizoate meglumine acid, the sclera turned clear in approximately 1 minute. The conjunctiva was stretched over the sclera, again, and stay sutures were used to re-attach the conjunctiva to the limbal region. Ocumycin® was administered topically to both eyes which had undergone surgery, to prevent infection. After approximately 5-10 minutes, the sclera in both eyes became opaque, again. Follow up examination on days 1, 3, and 5 showed no signs of inflammation on either eye.
C. In-Vivo Human Experiments
 In order to investigate the applicability of the above method to the human model, and to skin tissue, additional experiments were carried out, using topical glycerol (99.9%, Mallinckrodt, Inc.) and diatrizoate sodium injection fluid, USP, 25% (Hypaque® Sodium, 25%, by Nycomed, Inc., Princeton, N.J.).
 Two skin surfaces on the forearm were shaved and cleaned prior to measurements. A tape-strip method was used to remove the stratum corneum. Droplets of glycerol were then topically administered on one site, and droplets of the diatrizoate sodium injection fluid were administered on the second site, which was separated from the first site by 5 cm (a sufficient distance to ensure that the topical drug administered on one site does not interfere with the drug administered on the other site, through diffusion). The topical drugs administered formed an approximate circle of 1 cm in diameter. The drugs were left to diffuse into the tissue for approximately 8 minutes.
 Surface reflectance measurements were made immediately after tape stripping of the skin (prior to topical administration of the drugs), and subsequently, approximately 8 minutes after topical administration of the drugs. A CSI Portable Diffuse Reflectance Spectrometer, developed by Canfield Scientific Instruments, Inc. (Fairfield, N.J.), was used for these surface measurements. This device is similar in standard absorption spectrometers, with the exception that the light source is a tungsten halogen lamp, and the sample chamber is replaced with a quartz fiber optic assembly. One leg of the bifurcated fiber optic bundle is coupled to the lamp and the other leg is coupled to the spectrometer. The joined end of the fiber bundle (approximately 3 mm in diameter) was placed in contact with the skin surface from which measurements were made. The measurements were made across a 330 nm to 840 nm spectral range, with a 0.5 nm resolution. The integration time for the measurements was set at 50 kHz.
 FIGS. 4 and 5 illustrate the results from the above measurements. The data displayed in these graphs have been limited to a range of 480 nm to 800 nm to remove the portions of the spectra which were fraught with noise. The tape stripping of the skin causes a mild irritation of the skin, leading to a transient erythema. This erythema was noticed in both sites immediately after tape stripping, and subsided by the time the measurement after topical administration of the drug was made. As such, the spectra measured prior to topical administration of the drugs clearly demonstrate the higher concentration of blood immediately below the surface, as evidenced by the strong oxyhemoglobin peaks at approximately 530 nm and 560 nm.
 FIGS. 4 and 5 demonstrate that the topical administration of glycerol and diatrizoate sodium injection solution, respectively, lead to an increase in absorbance of tissue, in-vivo, of up to 60.5% and 107% respectively. This increase in tissue-absorbance is believed to be caused by IRIM, leading to a reduction of the scattering of the superficial layers of the skin, thereby allowing a larger percentage of light to reach (and get absorbed by) the native chromophores of the skin (melanin and blood), thereby increasing the measured absorbance of the tissue.
 It is important to note that further studies are necessary to optimize the above experiments. For instance, the tape-stripping method for removing the stratum corneum is generally unreliable in producing complete removal of this layer. Furthermore, the optimal diffusion time through human skin, for the above drugs, has not yet been determined. As such, the above experiments are only intended as a proof of principle for the use of IRIM in increasing transparency in human tissue, in-vivo. The results, while compelling, are not intended to demonstrate the full potential of this powerful technique in altering the optical properties of human tissue.
 The apparatus of the present invention comprises the following components: a) apparatus for bypassing the surface permeability barrier of tissue, such as the stratum corneum for the skin, or the conjunctiva for the eye; b) apparatus for topically or interstitially applying a chemical agent; and c) apparatus for delivery or collection of light for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Since each of these components consists of devices which are individually known to those skilled in the art, they are shown diagrammatically in FIG. 6. The preferred embodiment of this invention may be a combination of all three components, or different combinations of the above in twos.
 In order for the topical chemical agent (e.g., glycerol) to affect the tissue stroma (i.e., below the surface layer), it is necessary for this substance to permeate through, or bypass, the surface permeability barrier of tissue. The stratum corneum is a sheet of essentially dead cells which migrate to the surface of the skin. It is well known that dry stratum corneum is relatively impermeable to water soluble substances, and it serves to maintain the hydration of the skin, by providing a barrier for evaporation of the water content of the skin, and also by serving as a barrier for fluids exterior to the body to diffuse into the skin.
 Therefore, in order to allow a topically administered chemical agent to be transported into the skin, a strategy needs to be adopted to bypass the stratum corneum. Likewise, the conjunctiva of the eye needs to be bypassed, or surgically removed, for access to the sclera; the same is true for the epithelium of mucosal tissues. Hereinafter, this surface tissue layer will be referred to as the "surface permeability barrier of tissue", or SPBT, and the underlying tissue layer, as "covered biological tissue" or CBT.
 In order to bypass the SPBT, and reach the CBT, a driving force can be applied to move molecules across the SPBT; this driving force can be electrical (e.g., iontophoresis, electroporation) or it may be physical, or chemical force, such as that provided by a temperature gradient, or a concentration gradient of a clarifying agent, or of a carrier agent (carrying clarifying agent) for increasing the permeability of the surface permeability barrier of tissue; alternatively, the driving force may be due to acoustic or optical pressures, as described by Weaver, et al. (Weaver, Powell, & Langer, 1991).
 In the case of the stratum corneum, one configuration for component 1 of FIG. 6 can be an electric pulse generator for inducing electroporation of the stratum corneum. This system, for instance, can be similar to the apparatus described by Prausnitz, et al. (Prausnitz et al., 1997).
 Alternatively, component 1 may consist of a mechanical device with adhesive tape on the distal end, which may be brought in contact with the skin for tape stripping the stratum corneum. With each adhesion and detachment of the tape from the skin surface, a layer of the stratum corneum can be removed. The component may include means of advancing the tape with each application, so that a fresh tape surface can be used in each application.
 More generally, component 1 may consist of a device which physically breaches the surface permeability barrier of tissue by abrasion, to expose the underlying tissue (CBT) which has a greater permeability. In the case of skin, this method is commonly known as dermabrasion.
 Alternatively, component 1 may be an ablative solid state laser, such as any one of the following lasers: Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, Ho:YAG, Tm:YAG, Er:YSGG, Er:Glass, or an ablative semiconductor diode laser, such as a high-powered GaAs laser, or an ablative excimer laser, such as an ArFI or a XeCI laser. These lasers can be used to ablate the stratum corneum in its entirety with each pulse, over the surface area covered by the laser spot size. The short ablation depth of such lasers in human tissue (for instance, in the case of Er:YAG, an ablation depth on the order of 5-10 μm) allows for a rapid removal of the stratum corneum with each laser pulse.
 Alternatively, component 1 may be an ultrasonic generator, causing poration of the stratum corneum, for instance as described by Kost (Kost et al., 1998). This approach is sometimes referred to as sonophoresis, or phonophoresis.
 In yet an alternative configuration, component 1 may be a radiofrequency generator, selectively ablating a finite volume of the stratum corneum with each application, in a similar manner, for instance, as described by Manolis et al. (Manolis, Wang, & Estes, 1994) for ablation of arrhythmogenic cardiac tissues.
 Alternatively, component 1 may be a microfabricated microneedle array, long enough to cross the SPBT, but not long enough to reach the nerve endings of the tissue, as that conceived, for instance, by the needle array developed by Henry et al. (Henry, McAllister, Allen, Prausnitz et al., 1998). The clarifying agent can be topically administered onto the SPBT and the microneedle array can then be inserted through the same surface permeability barrier of tissue. The insertion of the needle array will produce an array of apertures through the SPBT, which will then cause an increase in the permeation of the clarifying agent to the covered tissue (CBT).
 Alternatively, electrical arcing may be used to ablate the SPBT. This may be done by an electrical generator that delivers electrical arcs at its delivery probe tip. Since stripping a large surface area of the stratum corneum, for instance, may be detrimental for the viability of the skin, the openings may be formed in an array of channels, or apertures, as shown in FIG. 7.
 Finally, component 1 may be a dispenser for a chemical enhancer or carrier agent for transdermal drug delivery. In the case of the skin, for instance, it has long since been recognized that the permeability of tissue can be increased above its natural state by using penetrating solvents, which when combined with a drug and applied to the skin, greatly increase transdermal drug delivery. An example of one such chemical enhancer is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Other examples include different alcohols such as ethanol.
 In the case of the conjunctiva, it is possible to surgically separate the conjunctiva from the sclera, prior to administration of the topical chemical. Component 1 can consist of a device to create a surgical flap of the conjunctiva, which can subsequently be sutured back onto the intact ocular tissues. Likewise, for the epithelium of mucosa, it is possible to use the same device to create openings in the underlying tissue.
 For both the conjunctiva and the mucosa, all of the porative approaches (e.g., electroporation, ultrasonic poration, RF poration, microneedle array, chemical enhancement of trans-membrane delivery, or iontophoresis) may be used as component 1.
 In yet another alternative configuration, the chemical may be injected interstitially, using an apparatus similar to a syringe with a hypodermic needle, in order to bypass the surface tissue layer. This approach is more invasive, but the apparatus may be simpler. Component 2 in FIG. 6, is an applicator for administering the chemical topically. One possible configuration is a syringe, which dispenses the desired chemical over the tissue.
 Finally, Component 3 of the overall system is the optical delivery or collection apparatus, which may be a fiber optic probe (single or multi-fiber probe), or an articulated arm with specialized optics, depending on the optical delivery system, or optical imaging systems for image acquisition, such as a microscope.
 Since virtually all diagnostic and treatment procedures in the field of biomedical optics involve the probing of light into biological media, the invention described here has broad applications across a wide range of optical procedures. The method described here essentially serves to augment optical penetration of biological tissues, whether for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
 A. Diagnostics
 The present method enhances any optical method that attempts to investigate objects or structures imbedded, or fluids within tissues, or analytes that exist within the blood or other biological fluids. Since this method serves to enhance transmission across a broad spectral range, it can be used in routine white-light microscopy to probe at focus planes underneath the surface. Alternatively, it could be used for spectroscopic (e.g., reflectance, fluorescence, or raman) information gathering.
 For the same reason as above, this invention can be used for confocal microscopy to penetrate deep into the covered tissue, CBT, (e.g., on the order of millimeters) to examine a variety of cellular information, including cellular structures, imbedded tissue appendages, and various pigmented and non-pigmented lesions.
 Optical coherence tomography (OCT), is a diagnostic method which relies on the reconstruction of scanned interferometric information from backscattered light from the tissue. This method is also limited in its resolution by the extent of optical penetration through the superficial layers, to probe embedded objects. The present method could again serve to substantially augment the utility of OCT in investigating objects/structures imbedded in tissue.
 Another application is the collection of fluorescence from fluorophores imbedded in tissue, as a diagnostic means of assessing presence or absence of biological parameters. The present method could enhance the signal to noise ratio of such a detection scheme. Another application is in sensing of analytes within biological fluids in the tissue. For instance, the present invention may be used to non-invasively measure spectroscopic information from fluids such as the blood or interstitial fluid, in order to determine glucose concentration, or cholesterol level. Another application for this method is in the use of other optical imaging methods for tumor detection, such as photon migration and optical tomography techniques. Another application is in the use of photodynamic means of diagnosis of diseased/abnormal tissues. The depth of penetration of the activating light generally limits photodynamic methods. The present invention will allow deeper penetration of visible-wavelength radiation for photodynamic activation. FIG. 8 illustrates a typical algorithm for applying the present invention for a diagnostic procedure.
 B. Therapeutics
 The present method is applicable to a wide array of therapeutic means involving embedded objects in the tissue. In the field of ophthalmology, it encompasses all transscleral procedures, including transscleral cyclophotocoagulation, and transscleral retinopexy.
 In the field of dermatology, applications include (but are not limited to) optical (or laser) targeting of all skin appendages, including the hair follicle (for permanent laser hair removal), pigmented and vascular lesions, tattoo removal, sebaceous glands (for acne treatment), subcutaneous fat (for optical liposuction), and eccrine glands (for permanent treatment of body odor).
 The present method is applicable for photodynamic therapy of various cancerous tissues, augmenting the delivery of light to the photosensitizers bound to diseased tissues. As described above, the present invention significantly enhances the depth of penetration of light across a broad wavelength range. FIG. 9 illustrates a typical algorithm for applying the present invention to a therapeutic procedure.
 Finally, the present invention also improves the efficacy of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, when energy sources from other segments of the electromagnetic spectrum are used (e.g., radiofrequency, and microwaves). Since IRIM also affects the overall elastic properties of tissues, acoustic signals traveling through tissue could also be affected, leading to a deeper penetration for ultrasonic waves for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
 C. Further Contemplated Uses and Compositions
 In further contemplated aspects of the inventive subject matter, only partial clarification is performed on a variety of biological tissues, and especially contemplated tissues include those that are accessible from the outside of a mammal, and particularly human. Thus, suitable target tissues include skin, sclera, mucous membranes, lingual tissue, and the tympanic membrane. The inventors contemplated that partial clarification is particularly advantageous to reduce thermal damage to a tissue component. It should be especially noted that, while tissue clarification is employed, the tissue component that comprises the target object of laser irradiation will remain substantially unclarified. Using such partial clarification, it is contemplated that the thermal damage to the irradiated tissue will be substantially reduced, if not even entirely avoided.
 While not wishing to be bound by any theory or hypothesis, the inventors contemplate that most of the thermal damage using laser irradiation may be due to relatively high structural inhomogeneity of the epidermal layers and the papillary layer. In contrast, it has been argued that the largest thermal damage should be expected in the optically most dense tissue with the highest water content, which includes the sub-papillary dermis (most typically the reticular layer) and the hypodermis. Therefore, protection of the dermal reticular layer from clarification while at the same time clarification of epidermal layers and the papillary layer for the purpose of irradiation of a target object in the dermal reticular layer is unexpected and generally not motivated in the art.
 Thus, the inventors particularly contemplate a method of irradiating a target object in skin, wherein in one step a clarification agent in a topical formulation is provided. In another step it is ascertained that the target object is located in a sub-papillary layer of the skin, wherein the target most typically comprises a dye. In yet another step, the clarifying agent is topically applied to at least one layer of epidermis and/or the dermal papillary layer under a protocol effective to achieve clarification of the layer of epidermis and/or the papillary layer. Notably, contemplated protocols will provide substantially no clarification of the sub-papillary layer. In a still further step of contemplated methods, the skin is then irradiated with laser irradiation having visible light emission at a wavelength of less than 700 nm and at an energy effective to at least partially destroy the target object, wherein the step of irradiating is performed under a protocol effective to avoid thermal damage in the layer of epidermis and the papillary layer.
 For better reference, the following description of the various layers of skin is provided following a view from the outside to the inside of a body: The epidermis is the outmost layer of skin and generally thinner than the dermis. Depending on the location, the thickness will vary. The epidermis has a characteristic layer of dead cells that form the stratum corneum. In certain locations (e.g., lips, palms), the stratum lucidum is found below the stratum corneum, while the malpighian layer (typically including the stratum granulosum and stratum spinosum) is generally present throughout the body and located below the stratum corneum and stratum lucidum. The stratum germinativum provides the germinal cells necessary for the regeneration of the layers of the epidermis and is located directly below the malpighian layer.
 Following the stratum germinativum are the dermal layers that make up the dermis that is generally comprised of vascularized, dense, irregular connective tissue with primarily type I collagen and elastin fibers. In most locations, blood vessels perfuse part of the dermis, which is divided into two anatomically distinct regions, the papillary dermis and the sub-papillary reticular dermis: The papillary dermis is composed of loose connective tissue (typically comprising thin bundles of collagen mixed with elastin, fibrocytes and stromal matrix), capillaries and Meissner's corpuscles that project into the dermal papillae. The reticular layer is below the papillary layer and contains dense irregular connective tissue (typically comprising thicker bundles of collagen and elastin, fewer fibrocytes and stromal matrix), blood vessels (e.g., vascular plexus that supplies dermal papillae as well as the eccrine and folliculosebaceous glands), lymph vessels, adipocytes, hair follicles, and nerves.
 Below the dermis is the hypodermis, which comprises a layer of loose connective tissue immediately deep to the dermis of the skin. The hypodermis typically includes loosely arranged elastic fibres and fibrous bands anchoring the skin to deep fascia. The hypodermis further includes various fatty deposits, blood vessels on route to dermis, lymphatic vessels on route from dermis, hair follicle roots, the glandular part of some sudiferous glands, and neural structures (e.g., free endings, and/or Panicinian corpuscles).
 In one aspect, the target object comprises a dye or a pigment. In most preferred aspects, the target object is pigmented and therefore susceptible to absorption of the irradiated light. For example, where the pigment or dye is melanin, the target object is a hair papilla or hair follicle (wherein additional pigments or dyes may be supplied to the follicle using methods well known in the art). In another example, the pigment may be a metal containing tattoo pigment. However, it should be appreciated that non-pigmented target objects are also contemplated herein and that such objects especially include collagen and elastin in the reticular layer. Therefore, the target object is most typically located in a sub-papillary layer of skin, and even more typically in a reticular layer of the dermis and/or the hypodermis. The location of the target object can typically be determined from sources well known in the art, or be determined using skin biopsy and light microscopy following well established procedures. For example, it is well known that the hair follicles and/or hair papillae are located in the sub-papillary layer (here: the reticular layer of the dermis), while the location of a tattoo pigment may be ascertained by biopsy and light-microscopy. Further contemplated target objects include pigmented lesions other than tattoos, wherein the pigment may be of natural origin (most typically from within the body in which the pigmented lesion is found). For example, alternative pigmented lesions include age spots, hyperpigmented areas, melasmas, as well as blood vessels, and vascular lesions.
 With respect to the clarification agent, all of the above discussed agents are deemed suitable for use herein. However, especially preferred clarification agents include those that are pharmaceutically acceptable and metabolized and/or excreted within a relatively short period (e.g., 50% metabolized/excreted within 24 hours) of time. Among other suitable agents, particularly preferred clarification agents include polyols (e.g., glycerol), diatrizoate meglumine acid, and glucose (dextrose). Further preferred agents and aspects of such agents are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,275,726 to Chan, which is incorporated by reference herein. Suitable concentrations of clarification agents will be in the range of between about 5-95 wt %, more typically between 10-85 wt %, and most typically between about 30-75 wt % of the topical formulation.
 Contemplated clarification compositions and formulations can be prepared using various protocols, and a particular composition will typically determine (at least in part) a particular protocol. There are numerous methods and protocols known in the art, and exemplary protocols and formulations are described in "Topical Drug Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, and Penetration" by Vinod P. Shah, Howard I. Maibach (Editor), Plenum Pub Corp; ISBN: 0306443678, or in "Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers" by Eric W. Smith (Editor), Howard I. Maibach (Editor), CRC Press; ISBN: 0849326052, or in "Pharmaceutical Skin Penetration Enhancement" by Kenneth A. Walters, Jonathan Hadgraft (Editor), Marcel Dekker; ISBN: 0824790170, or in "Drug Permeation Enhancement: Theory and Applications" by D. S. Hseih, Ed. (Dekker, New York, 1994), all of which are incorporated by reference herein.
 Consequently, contemplated compositions and formulations are typically preparations for topical application, and particularly include preparations in form of a cream, gel, lotion, ointment, salve, or a paste. Alternatively, contemplated compositions and formulations may also include preparations in liquid form (e.g., a syrup, tincture, spray, drops, etc.), all of which may or may not be applied with a patch. Most preferably, such formulations will include a penetration enhancer, which may be ionic, zwitter ionic, neutral, etc. Therefore, contemplated penetration enhancers include sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium octyl sulfate, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, dodecyl pyridinium chloride, octyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, hexadecyl trimethyl ammoniopropane sulfonate, oleyl betaine, cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine, cocamidopropyl betaine, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate, sorbitan monolaurate, polyethyleneglycol dodecyl ether, Triton X-100, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, tetracaine, isopropyl myristate, sodium oleate, methyl laurate, N-decyl-2-pyrrolidone, dodecyl amine, nicotine sulfate, menthol, methyl pyrolidone, cineole, limonene, and ethanol.
 Depending on the particular type of topical formulation, removal of at least one epidermal layer (e.g., stratum corneum) and/or dermal layer (typically papillary layer) may be preferred. There are numerous manners of such removal known in the art, and all of those are deemed suitable for use herein. Among other methods, epidermal layers can be removed using tape stripping, dermabrasion, laser resurfacing, chemical peels, etc. Alternatively, in less preferred aspects, contemplated clarification agents may also be injected or otherwise transported to mechanically or optically disrupted epidermal/dermal layers. However, it is generally preferred that the clarification agent is topically applied without removal the stratum corneum and/or stratum lucidum.
 Where desirable, contemplated formulations (with or without penetration enhancer) may also be delivered to the site of clarification using methods and devices that increase the rate of delivery to the tissue that is to be clarified. Among other contemplated devices and methods, it is especially preferred that the delivery of the clarification agent is assisted by heat (e.g., chemically or electrically generated), electrical current (e.g., electrophoresis, iontophoresis, electroporation, etc.), pressure (e.g., using ultrasound or low-frequency [<20 kHz] vibration), and occlusion (e.g., under film or bandage).
 Therefore, application quantities, area, and duration will vary considerably. However, it is generally preferred that the application of the topical formulation will be preceding the laser irradiation, and will be typically equal or less than 2 hours, more typically less than 60 minutes, and most typically less than 30 minutes prior to laser irradiation. Furthermore, and again depending on the type of application, it is generally contemplated that the topical formulation is applied to an area of at least 50 cm2, more typically at least 100 cm2, and most typically at least 300 cm2. Duration of application will typically vary between several minutes and several hours, and more typically between 10 minutes and 120 minutes, and most typically between 10 minutes and 60 minutes. With respect to the actual amount of clarification agent applied, it is generally preferred that the amount is sufficient to clarify at least one layer of the epidermis, and optionally the papillary layer of the dermis, while providing substantially no clarification of the sub-papillary layer. The term "substantially no clarification of the sub-papillary layer" as used herein means that the difference in light reflection, refraction, and/or scattering between treated and untreated skin and with respect to the sub-papillary layer is less than 20% of the maximum achievable value, and more typically less than 10% of the maximum achievable value as can be measured by methods well known in the art. Viewed from another perspective, the target structure will remain in the reticular or other tissue layer in a substantially unclarified, and more typically entirely unclarified environment. Viewed from a different perspective, in certain aspects of the inventive subject matter no clarification is provided in the reticular layer, while in other aspects some clarification (equal or less than 10% of maximum clarification), while in still other aspects minor clarification (equal or less than 20% of maximum clarification) is provided in the reticular layer. Thus, appropriate amounts of topical formulation will vary. However, in preferred aspects, suitable quantities will be in the range of between 5 microgram and 100 milligram, and more preferably between 50 microgram and 10 milligram.
 Once clarified, it is contemplated that the skin or other tissue is irradiated with a laser light (or other light source, preferably with monochromatic or narrow band [equal or less than 100 nm bandwidth] filtered light) in the visible and/or near infrared range having a per square centimeter intensity of less than 100 W, more typically less than 75 W, even more typically less than 50 W, and most typically between 10 W and 45 W. Thus especially suitable lasers will provide a radiation of between 5-60w/cm2. There are numerous medical lasers, and especially lasers for the treatment of skin associated conditions known in the art (e.g., continuous, pulsed, etc.), and all of such lasers are contemplated herein. However, particularly preferred lasers include those with an emission wavelength of between 430 nm to 700 nm, including green-blue lasers and red lasers. It should be recognized that the particular choice of laser will depend at least in part on the particular purpose. For example, it is contemplated where the compositions and methods according to the inventive subject matter are employed in a method of hair removal, green-blue or near infrared lasers may be suitable. On the other hand, where collagen and/or elastin remodeling is desired, suitable lasers may emit light in the green light or infrared range. In yet another example, where a tattoo dye is to be removed, suitable lasers will typically emit light at or above about 550 nm.
 In further contemplated aspects of the inventive subject matter, it is preferred that the laser energy will be selected such as to at least partially destroy the target object. The term "at least partially destroy the target object" as used herein refers to a functional and/or structural disruption of the target object. For example, where the target object is a hair follicle or hair papilla, at least functional destruction results in a damage of the follicle or papilla to a degree such that production of additional hair from that follicle or papilla will be slowed down, or more typically, cease entirely. In either case, the remaining hair (if present) may either fall out or be otherwise removed from the skin. Similarly, where the target object is collagen and/or elastin, at least partial destruction is typically a structural alteration (typically induced by heat) in which at least some of the polymeric fibers contract to at least some degree. Thus, the term "irradiating is performed under a protocol effective to avoid thermal damage" as used herein applies to all or almost all dermal tissues (at least one of epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis) excluding the target structure and means that that in non-target object tissue no or substantially no thermal damage is observed. For example, where the target object is a hair follicle or papilla, irradiation will produce thermal damage to the follicle or papilla, but not to tissue surrounding the follicle or papilla it should be particularly noted that by clarification of tissue layers above the reticular layer, inadvertent damage is reduced in such tissue layers. Moreover, as such tissue layers cause less loss of light intensity due to scattering, reflection, and/or refraction, it should be noted that lasers can be used at reduced power output and/or exposure time from laser radiation can be reduced.
 Therefore, in yet another aspect of the inventive subject matter, the inventors contemplate a kit that includes a topical formulation for application to skin, wherein the formulation includes a clarification agent in an amount effective to provide clarification of an epidermal layer of the skin and optionally a papillary layer of the skin when applied topically to the skin. Such formulation is then typically associated with an instruction to apply the formulation under a protocol effective to achieve clarification of at least one epidermal layer and optionally papillary layer of the skin while providing substantially no clarification of a sub-papillary layer of the skin. Association of the instruction with the formulation may be performed in numerous manners, ad especially preferred associations include providing a label onto a container with the topical formulation, or a package insert in a package that contains the topical formulation. Alternatively, contemplated associations may also be indirect in form of a separate set of instructions (which may be printed, displayed, or otherwise visibly perceptible), a sales or regulatory information, and/or a written or oral presentation.
 Suitable instructions may further include a reference to use the formulation in preparation for laser irradiation of a target disposed in a sub-papillary layer, wherein the most preferred targets include hair follicles and hair papillae, tattoo dyes, and/or collagen and elastin, each of which most preferably disposed in a sub-papillary layer of skin. Therefore, the inventors also contemplate a method of removing hair having a hair follicle in which a clarification agent is topically applied to skin such that at least one layer of epidermis and a papillary layer of dermis is clarified while substantially no clarification occurs in a sub-papillary layer of the skin. In another step, the hair follicle is irradiated in the sub-papillary layer with visible laser light having a wavelength of above 700 nm at an energy effective to at least partially destroy the hair follicle. As preferred above, it is also contemplated that in such methods the step of topical application may be performed without at least one of disruption and removal of at least another layer of the epidermis. In such methods, it is further typically preferred to apply the topical formulation in a relatively large area prior to irradiation as described above, and most preferably in an area of at least 100 cm2, and more typically at least 200 cm2.
 McCarthy, J. J., Fairing, J. D., & Buchholz, J. C. (Inventors). (1989 Feb. 7). I. Tracor Northern (Assignee). Confocal tandem scanning reflected light microscope. (U.S. Pat. No. 4,802,748).  Lucas, F. F. (1930). The architecture of living cells--recent advances in methods of biological research--optical sectioning with the ultra-violet microscope. N.A.S.  Chan, K. F., Nemati, B., Rylander, I. H. G., & Welch, A. J. (1996). Chemically enhanced scleral transmission: a new approach for transscleral cyclophotogcoagulation. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Houston Conference on Biomedical Engineering Research Houston.  Vogel, A., Dlugos, C., Nuffer, R., Birngruber, R. et al. (1991). Optical Properties of human sclera and their significance for transscleral laser applications. Laser Surg Med, 11(4), 331-340.  Cantor, L. B., Nichols, D. A., Katz, L. J., Moster, M. R., Poryzees, E., Shields, J. A., & Spaeth, G. L. (1989). Neodymium-YAG transscleral cyclophotocoagulation. The role of pigmentation. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 30(8), 1834-1837.  Flood, T. P. et al. (1989). Hyperosmotic Agents. Duane's Biomedical Foundation of Ophthalmology (Vol. 3p. 5). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippencott Company.  Weaver, J. C., Powell, K. T., & Langer, R. S. Jr. (Inventors). (1991 May 28). Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Assignee). Control of transport of molecules across tissue using electroporation. (U.S. Pat. No. 5,019,034).  Prausnitz, M. R. et al. (1997). Reversible skin permeabilization for transdermal delivery of macromolecules. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst, 14(4), 455-483.  Kost, J. et al. (1998). Phonophoresis. B. Berner, Dinh Steven M. et al. (Editors), Electronically controlled drug delivery (pp. 215-228). Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, Inc.  Manolis, A. S., Wang, P. J., & Estes, N. A. 3. (1994). Radiofrequency catheter ablation for cardiac tachyarrhythmias. Annals of Internal Medicine, 121(6), 452-461.  Henry, S., McAllister, D. V., Allen, M. D., Prausnitz, M. R. et al. (1998). Microfabricated microneedles: a novel approach to transdermal drug delivery. T. Pharm Sci, 87(8), 922-925.
 Thus, specific embodiments and applications of methods and apparatus to enhance optical transparency of biological tissues have been disclosed. It should be apparent, however, to those skilled in the art that many more modifications besides those already described are possible without departing from the inventive concepts herein. The inventive subject matter, therefore, is not to be restricted except in the spirit of the appended claims. Moreover, in interpreting both the specification and the claims, all terms should be interpreted in the broadest possible manner consistent with the context. In particular, the terms "comprises" and "comprising" should be interpreted as referring to elements, components, or steps in a non-exclusive manner, indicating that the referenced elements, components, or steps may be present, or utilized, or combined with other elements, components, or steps that are not expressly referenced. Furthermore, where a definition or use of a term in a reference, which is incorporated by reference herein is inconsistent or contrary to the definition of that term provided herein, the definition of that term provided herein applies and the definition of that term in the reference does not apply.
Patent applications by Babak Nemati, La Jolla, CA US
Patent applications in class Dermatological
Patent applications in all subclasses Dermatological