Patent application title: RAZOR WITH CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SENSOR
Suman Cherian (Singapore, SG)
Suman Cherian (Singapore, SG)
Olivier Le Neel (Singapore, SG)
Olivier Le Neel (Singapore, SG)
STMicroelectronics Pte Ltd
IPC8 Class: AB26B2140FI
Class name: Cutlery razors combined
Publication date: 2012-07-05
Patent application number: 20120167392
A razor has an electrochemical sensor for sensing various
characteristics, such as biological, chemical, temperature, humidity, and
pressure. The electrochemical sensor is positioned within a razor head of
the razor, but may be attached to and enclosed in the razor head housing
or attached to a razor blade of the razor. The electrochemical sensor may
be positioned at different locations within the housing and on the razor
blades. The electrochemical sensor may be positioned such that a sensing
surface is exposed to a shaving surface of a patient. The razor may also
have various electrical components for processing signals generated by
the electrochemical sensor and determining the presence or concentration
of a chemical or biological marker. The data associated with the signals
may be displayed, transmitted to a separate computing device, or stored
in a memory.
1. A handheld razor comprising: a handle; a razor blade housing coupled
to the handle and having a razor blade therein; and a biological sensor
positioned adjacent to the razor blade and within the razor blade
2. The handheld razor of claim 1, further comprising: a microprocessor located within the handle and electrically coupled to the sensor.
3. The handheld razor of claim 1, further comprising: a communication port located within the handle and configured to transmit data at the biological sensor to a microprocessor outside of the sensor.
4. The handheld razor of claim 1, further comprising: a display positioned on the handle and configured to display alphanumeric values of signals generated by the biological sensor.
5. The handheld razor of claim 1, further comprising: a card slot located within the handle and configured to receive memory cards and store data on the memory cards.
6. The handheld razor of claim 1, wherein the biological sensor is attached to the razor blade.
7. The handheld razor of claim 6, wherein a sensing surface of the biological sensor is exposed to the ambient environment directly adjacent a cutting edge of the razor blade.
8. An apparatus, comprising: a housing; a plurality of razor blades within the housing; and a biological sensor positioned posterior of at least one of the razor blades relative to a direction of shaving.
9. The apparatus of claim 8, wherein the biological is an electrochemical sensor that is enclosed within the razor blade housing.
10. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein the biological sensor includes at least two sensing elements, one of which is photo emitter and one of which is a photo detector.
11. The apparatus of claim 8, wherein the electrochemical sensor is positioned near the shaving edge of the razor blade and a sensing surface of the electrochemical sensor is exposed to the ambient environment.
12. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein a bottom surface of the electrochemical sensor is attached to the razor blade and the top surface of the electrochemical sensor is attached to another razor blade of the razor blade housing.
13. The apparatus of claim 8, further comprising: a biological matter guide attached to an additional razor blade of the razor blade housing, the additional razor blade positioned below the razor blade; and a pad configured to remove material from a surface shaved by the razor.
14. The apparatus of claim 8, wherein the razor blade is attached to a top portion of the razor blade housing and positioned separately from any other razors of the razor blade housing.
15. The apparatus of claim 15, wherein the electrochemical sensor is positioned behind a shaving edge of the razor blade.
16. A razor blade assembly comprising: a shaving edge; a surface adjacent to the shaving edge; and an electrochemical sensor attached to the surface of the razor blade.
17. The razor blade of claim 16, wherein the electrochemical sensor includes a plurality of sensing elements configured to sense a plurality of characteristics.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
 This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/428,826 filed Dec. 30, 2010, the entirety of which is incorporated by reference herein.
 1. Technical Field
 The present application relates to a razor with a sensor for detecting various chemicals and biological materials during shaving.
 2. Description of the Related Art
 Despite many technological advances in medical care and treatment, many tests, such as testing for cancer cells or cardiac markers in blood samples and biological tests, may require a waiting time of several days to weeks to receive results. If the test is for something more serious, such as, cancer cells, a patient may become increasingly anxious and nervous waiting for the results. These feelings of anxiousness and nervousness may be compounded, for example, if the test has to be administered again due to indeterminate results or if the lab administering the test contaminates the sample.
 Waiting for days to weeks for test results is not limited to an out-patient scenario. Before, or even during a surgery, a patient may need to undergo various tests to assess risks associated with the surgery. For example, before administering anesthesia a variety of physical and blood tests are required. These additional tests are usually not scheduled on the same day as the surgery, inconveniencing the patient, who may need to make several appointments that interrupt daily life.
 Furthermore, medical devices capable of delivering results during a patient visit to a clinic are limited in the tests that can be performed. The cost of providing test equipment capable of performing the tests needed for a wide range of conditions is prohibitive for implementing at many locations. For example, a general practice clinic does not have the money, space, or resources to have many different types of medical testing equipment. The only alternative today is to take samples from the patient and send them to a laboratory for testing. This also consumes additional time and resources.
 A solution to providing rapid test results shortly after a sample of biological material is taken is described in the present disclosure. A razor with an embedded biological sensor, such as electrochemical, photochemical, or the like for detecting various chemicals, biological markers, temperature, etc. may be used during certain medical procedures to detect a variety of chemicals and biological markers soon after the sample is taken during shaving.
 The razor has a plurality of razor blades. The sensor is attached to one of the razor blades or positioned inside the head, adjacent to the razor blade. The sensor may alternatively be attached to an outside surface of the razor head of the razor. The sensor generates signals when biological material passes over the sensing surface. These signals are sent to various electrical components for processing, which may include an analog-to-digital converter, a potentiostat, and a microprocessor. The microprocessor processes the signals to determine the presence or concentration of a chemical or biological marker. The data associated with the signals may be displayed on a display, stored in a memory, or transmitted to a separate computing device.
 The sensor may be positioned in various locations in the razor. The sensor may be enclosed in the razor head and not attached to a razor blade, such as located above the blades or on the lotion comfort strip. The sensor may also be attached to a razor blade of the razor head. The sensor may be attached to only one razor blade so that the surface opposite the sensing surface is attached to the razor blade. The sensor may alternatively be attached to more than one razor blade so that the sensing surface faces the shaving edges of the razor blades. If the sensor is attached to more than one razor blade, the sensor may be positioned so the sensing surface makes contact with the shaving surface of the patient. The sensor may also be positioned further back from the shaving surface of the patient but still in close enough proximity so the sensing surface is exposed to biological material.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
 The foregoing and other features and advantages of the present disclosure will be more readily appreciated as the same become better understood from the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
 FIG. 1A shows an isometric view of a two-blade razor with an electrochemical sensor located inside the razor head according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.
 FIG. 1B is a block diagram showing the overall system organization of a razor with a biological sensor according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.
 FIG. 2 shows an isometric view of a three-blade razor with an biological sensor located on a razor blade according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.
 FIG. 3 shows an isometric view of a three-blade razor with three biological sensors located inside the razor head according to another embodiment of the present disclosure.
 FIG. 4 shows an isometric view of a three-blade razor with an biological sensor located on a razor blade with a detachable razor head according to yet another embodiment of the present disclosure.
 FIG. 5 shows an isometric view of a two-blade razor with an electrochemical sensor and the microprocessor located on the razor head according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.
 FIG. 6 shows an enlarged view of a razor head with three razor blades and a biological sensor located on one of the razor blades.
 FIG. 7 shows a cross-sectional view of the razor head taken along line 7 shown in FIG. 6 with the biological sensor positioned near the shaving edge of the razor blades.
 FIG. 8 shows a cross-sectional view of a razor head with three razor blades and a biological sensor positioned near the back of the razor blades within the razor head according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.
 FIG. 9 shows a cross-sectional view of a razor head with three razor blades and a biological sensor positioned on the underside of a razor blade and located near the shaving edge of the razor blades.
 FIG. 10 shows an enlarged view of a three-blade razor head according to another embodiment of the present disclosure in which a biological sensor is positioned parallel to the shaving plane of the razor blades and attached to two of the razor blades.
 FIG. 11 shows a cross-sectional view of the three-blade razor head shown in FIG. 10 taken along the line 11.
 FIG. 12 shows an enlarged view of a three-blade razor head according to an embodiment of the present disclosure with three biological sensors positioned within the razor head.
 FIG. 13 shows a cross-sectional view of the three-blade razor head shown in FIG. 12 taken along the line 13.
 FIG. 14 shows an enlarged view of a three-blade razor head with a biological material guide and a biological sensor positioned behind the razor blades within the razor head.
 FIG. 15 is a cross-sectional view of the three-blade razor head of FIG. 14 taken along the line 14.
 FIG. 16 is a cross-sectional view of a four-blade razor head according to another embodiment of the present disclosure with a biological sensor positioned in the top of the razor head behind a fourth razor.
 In the following description, certain specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of various aspects of the invention. However, the invention may be practiced without these specific details. In some instances, well-known structures and methods of forming the structures associated with the semiconductor package have not been described in detail to avoid obscuring the descriptions of the aspects of the present disclosure.
 Unless the context requires otherwise, throughout the specification and claims that follow, the word "comprise" and variations thereof, such as "comprises" and "comprising," are to be construed in an open, inclusive sense, that is, as "including, but not limited to."
 Reference throughout this specification to "one embodiment" or "an embodiment" means that a particular feature, structure, or characteristic described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment. Thus, the appearances of the phrases "in one embodiment" or "in an embodiment" in various places throughout this specification are not necessarily all referring to the same aspect. Furthermore, the particular features, structures, or characteristics may be combined in any suitable manner in one or more aspects of the present disclosure.
 In the drawings, identical reference numbers identify similar features or elements. The size and relative positions of features in the drawings are not necessarily drawn to scale.
 FIG. 1A shows a razor 20 according to one embodiment of the present disclosure. The razor 20 has a razor head 22 and two razor blades 24 positioned so that the cutting edge of the razor blades 24 are exposed to the outside of the razor head 22. The razor 20 has a biological sensor 26 adjacent to the razor blades 24.
 FIG. 1A shows the biological sensor 26 positioned behind one of the razor blades 24. Alternatively the sensor 26 may be affixed to one or more of the razor blades 24. In one aspect of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1A, the sensor 26 is affixed to one of the razor blades 24 (discussed in more detail below). Alternatively, the sensor 26 may be affixed within the razor head 22 so that the sensing surface of the sensor 26 is facing the razor blades 24 (also discussed in more detail below).
 The sensor 26 is a biological sensor that can be configured to detect various types of biological samples. The sensor may be a biochemical sensor, an optical sensor, or other sensor that detects the status of biological material. The biological material sensed may include chemical molecules, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc., but may also include biological organic compounds, such as blood sugar, cardiac markers, cancer markers, hormones, antibodies, virus RNA, etc. By way of example, the sensor 26 may be configured to detect an oxygen level in a patient who is being prepared for a medical procedure. The patient may need to have electrodes attached to a part of the body that may have hair growing out of it. The electrodes will be used to monitor various biological functions, such as heart rate. The electrodes are typically attached to the patient's bare skin, therefore the patient's chest will be shaved. The two-blade razor 20 may be used to remove the hair and also output data about the condition of the patient that is current as of just prior to the medical procedure.
 In addition to removing hair so the electrodes may be attached to the patient's bare skin, various biological information will be simultaneously obtained. As the razor blades 24 of the two-blade razor 20 remove hair, small layers of skin and other biological material, including minute blood droplets are also removed from the body. The hair, skin, and blood droplets come into contact with the sensor 26 which generates signals indicative of chemical reactions from the oxygen in the blood droplets, the temperature of the biological material, pressure indicative that material is present on the sensor, such as when a hair presses against the sensor 26, etc.
 The signals generated at the sensor 26 are carried through to other electrical components for processing and identification. For example, the generated signals are carried from electrodes 47 in the sensor 26 to an analog-to-digital ("ND") converter 48 that transforms the received signals into digital data. (See FIG. 1B.) The generated signals may also be carried to a potentiostat that controls and senses electrical changes due to a chemical reaction in the sensor 26.
 The digital signals output from the A/D converter are subsequently processed by a microprocessor 50 that is designed to determine what type and concentration of chemical is being sensed based on the generated signals. The microprocessor 50 may then output the determination results to an output device, such as an Input/Output (I/O) slot 30, a communication module 31, and a display 32.
 The sensor 26 shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B is an integrated chip sensor having various electrical layers making up the electrical components (not shown) that process the generated signals. On a topmost layer of the chip, conductive layers form electrodes 47 for sensing biological materials, such as chemicals, blood, bacteria, sugar and other molecules. It may also include an environmental sensor which senses temperature, pressure and other environmental factors that are not biological material. The electrodes 47 are connected to a next layer within the sensor 26 that includes an A/D converter 48 and other sensor components such as a potentiostat. The ND converter is on the same silicon chip integrated with the sensors. Connected to the next layer within the same chip as sensor 26 is the microprocessor 50.
 The specific details of the types of electrochemical sensors that can detect and output electrical signals based on chemicals in the skin and blood of a patient are disclosed in co-pending applications Ser. No. 13/016,086 filed Jan. 28, 2011; Ser. No. 13/170,058 filed Jun. 27, 2011 and Ser. No. 13/176,599 filed Jul. 5, 2011. The electrodes 47 can be any type of sensing electrodes, such as electromechanical, electro optical, photo detectors, electrochemical or other combinations which output an electrical signal representative of a sensed biological parameter. The electrodes 47 may include a potentiostat on the same substrate and other membranes, layers or materials to assist in sensing the target parameter and converting it into an electrical signal. As previously noted, many sensor electrodes are known in the art which contain various membranes that absorb a chemical element, compound, biological sample or other molecule and convert the sensing of the presence of the molecule into an electrical signal. Electrodes are also known that emit light at certain frequencies and then sense changes in the light after it passes through the human tissue. Many such electrodes are known in the art today for sensing various gases such as O2, CO2, CO, and N2, as well as for biological samples such as cardiac markers, blood glucose, blood alcohol iron in the blood, blood oxygen levels and the like.
 Additional types of electrodes with membranes are now being developed and will be developed in the future in many different laboratories for even more extensive biological sensing such as for various cancer markers, including specific types of cancer, genetic variations, liver disease, kidney function, flu, malaria, e coli, and various other biological functions. Any of these biological sensors and electrodes that are developed in the future can be used for the electrodes 47 of the present invention.
 The results of the microprocessor are transmitted from the sensor 26 to the output circuits 100 within a razor handle 28 to which the razor head 22 is attached. The razor handle 28 may comprise any of the Input/Output (I/O) slot 30, the communication module 31, and the display 32 for receiving data from the sensor 26, all of which are examples of output circuits. The I/O slot 30 is configured to receive electronic cards, such as a SIM card, a memory card, a connection to a computer or the like for reading from and writing to the processor 50. For example, data from the sensor 26 may be stored on a memory card inserted into the I/O slot 30 or downloads to a computer with a USB-type connection.
 The communication module 31 is configured to wirelessly communicate the data from the sensor 26 to a separate computing device (not shown). The display 32 is configured to show various indicators, such as that a sufficient sample of biological material has been obtained at the sensor 26, then after a short time, output results from the sensor 26. It may also display battery power level, free space in the memory, that data has been sent to a computer, and other system functions.
 In some embodiments, the display 32 may show the results of the test, such as the blood glucose level. In other embodiments, the test results are too complicated to show on a single screen. In such cases, the razor 20 will be coupled to a computer via I/O slot 30 or via the communication module 31 following the collection of data by shaving. The data will be downloaded to a computer which will further analyze the data and output it to a physician for a diagnosis or other medical treatment.
 The razor handle 28 also has an on/off button 34, a reset button 36, and a battery 38. The on/off button 34 turns the two-blade razor 20 on and off. The reset button 36 is used to reset the display 32 and trigger a new sensing operation for the sensor 26. The battery 38 supplies power to the two-blade razor 20 and may be a permanent battery or a replaceable battery, depending on whether the two-blade razor 20 is a one-time use or multiple use razor. The sensor 26 is coupled to the I/O slot 30, the communication module 31, the display 32, the on/off button 34, the reset button 36, and the battery 38 within the razor handle 28.
 FIG. 1B shows a block diagram of a razor blade electronic system 98 according to the present disclosure and is generally representative of each razor as shown in FIGS. 1A-16. The razor blade electronic system 98 has a sensor 26 with electrodes 47 that are affixed within the razor head 22 of the razor. As explained herein, the sensor 26 can be either on the razor blades or within the razor head. According to various embodiments, the electrodes 47, an ND converter and potentiostat 48, and a microprocessor 50 are formed on a single semiconductor chip comprising a fully integrated sensor 26. Alternatively, the electrodes 47 may be formed separately and coupled to the A/D converter and potentiostat 48, and the microprocessor 50 which are on a separate chip. In yet additional embodiments, the electrodes 47 and the ND converter and potentiostat 48 may be formed on a single semiconductor chip and coupled by wires to the microprocessor 50 on a separate chip. The microprocessor 50 is further coupled to various other circuits such as communication component 31, the display 32, on/off switch 34 and I/O slot 30. A memory 102 is provided, either on the same chip as the microprocessor 50 or on a separate chip.
 FIG. 2 shows a three-blade razor 20 according to another embodiment of the present disclosure. The three-blade razor 20 has a detachable razor head 42 that has three razor blades 24. The razor head 42 is attached to the razor handle 28, with a plug in coupling 54. The handle 28 includes at I/O slot 30, the communication component 31, the display 32, the on/off button 34, the reset button 36, and the battery 38. According to the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, the three-blade razor 20 has the electrodes 47 for the sensor 26 positioned on a middle one of the razor blades 24 so that at least a portion of the sensing surface of the sensor 26 is exposed to the ambient environment outside the three-blade razor 20. Known techniques may be used to affix the electrodes 47 to the razor blades 24. Alternatively, the electrodes 47 may be positioned on any one of the razor blades 24 including behind the razor blades 24 as shown in FIG. 1A.
 In addition, in the embodiment of FIG. 2, the microprocessor 50 is in the handle 28 of the razor 20. In some systems, the microprocessor 50 will be expensive and it will be desired to reuse the microprocessor many times. Usually, the electrodes 47 can be used only one time. After a single use, the electrodes 47 will be covered in biological fluid from the patient and thus cannot be used again. After the one use, the razor blades with the electrodes 47 are discarded. In one embodiment, the microprocessor 50 is on a separate chip from the A/D converter 48 and the electrodes 47. The combination of these components makes up the entire sensor 26. In this case, only the head 42 of the razor is removed at joint 54 and discarded and a new head 42 is attached for use on the next patient. The components in the handle, such as the I/O 30, display 32, battery, etc., are reused several times.
 In an alternative embodiment as shown in FIG. 3, the three-blade razor 20 has a razor head 22 with three electrodes 47 positioned on the razor blades 24. Having three electrodes 47, as opposed to one, increases the sensing surface exposure to the chemical and biological material, and increases the number of signals generated, thus increasing accuracy and robustness of detecting the chemical and biological materials, and in addition may also detect other data independently such as temperature, pressure, etc. Although FIG. 3 shows three electrodes 47, more than three electrodes 47 may be affixed to the razor blades 24. In one embodiment, the electrodes 47 are positioned on and affixed behind the middle razor blade. Alternatively, the electrodes 47 may be positioned on more than one razor blade 24, such as one electrode 47 on each razor blade 24, and positioned so that the sensing surface of the electrode 47 is exposed to the ambient environment outside the three-blade razor 44, similar to the sensor 26 shown in FIG. 5.
 According to another alternative embodiment, the electrodes 47 shown in FIG. 3 may be different types of sensors. For example, one of the electrodes 47 may be a cardiac marker sensor, one of the electrodes 47 may be a pressure sensor, and other electrodes 47 may be an electrochemical electrode for a blood alcohol sensor. Each type of sensor 26 may be positioned on the razor blades 24, within the razor head 22, or both.
 The electrodes 47 shown in FIG. 3 are not part of a single integrated chip sensors with an ND converter 48, a potentiostat, and a microprocessor 50, as is the fully integrated sensor 26. Instead, according to one embodiment, the electrodes 47 are semiconductor dies formed only with sensing electrodes on the surface. To process the signals generated by the electrodes 47, electrical components 48, 50 are coupled to the electrodes 47 with wires. The electrical components 48, 50 include the ND converter, the potentiostat, and the microprocessor. The electrodes 47 are coupled to the electrical components 48, 50 by wires affixed to the razor blades 24 or within the razor head 22.
 The electrodes 47 are coupled to the electrical components 48, 50 through wires affixed to the razor blade 24 to which the electrodes 47 are attached. The electrical components 48, 50 are housed within an end of the razor head 46 and may further be coupled to the communication component 31, the I/O slot 30, the display 32, the on/off button 34, the reset button 36, and the battery 38.
 In an alternative embodiment, the electrodes 47 are formed of a semiconductor die integrating the sensing electrodes, the A/D converter 48 and the potentiostat. The integrated electrodes 47 are connected to the microprocessor 50 and may be positioned within the razor head 46 or in the handle. Integrating the ND converter 48 and the potentiostat on the same semiconductor die as the electrodes permits the output signal to be in digital form. This reduces noise introduced into the signals during transmission to the processor 50. The output of the chip is therefore a digital signal to the microprocessor 50 and is more immune to noise.
 FIG. 4 shows another embodiment in which a three-blade razor 20 has a detachable razor head 42. The three-blade razor 52 has a connection joint 54 at which the razor head 42 connects to the razor handle 28. The razor handle 28 also has a cap 56 that may screw or snap onto the razor handle 28. The cap 56 encloses the battery 38 inside the razor handle 58 and may be removed to replace the battery 38. The three-blade razor 52 has the sensor 26 that is coupled to the electrical components in the razor handle 28 through various electrical connections at the connection line 54. For example, the sensor 26 may be connected to the I/O slot 30, the communication component 31, the display 32, the on/off button 34, the reset button 36, and the battery 38 using male electrical connections within the razor head 42 that mate with female electrical connections within the razor handle 28, or vice versa. The razor head 42 is designed to securely attach to the razor handle 28 and not fall off or move during use, but also to be easily removed and replaced for each new patient.
 According to the embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the electrodes 47 comprises the electrodes for sensing chemical or biological material, temperature, pressure, or the like, and is coupled to an electrical component 53 within the razor handle 28 through the electrical connections at the connection line 54. The electrical component 53 comprises the ND converter 48, the potentiostat, and the microprocessor for processing the signals generated by the electrodes 47. In the embodiment of FIG. 4, the head 42 can be made for a lower cost since it does not include the processor 50. The head 42 is discarded after each use and a new head is attached and coupled at joint 54 for electrical connection to the other components of razor 28.
 FIG. 5 shows another embodiment according to the present disclosure of a two-blade razor 20 having a sensor 26 positioned on the outside of the razor head 22, posterior of all blades. As the two-blade razor 20 shaves a surface of skin, the sensor 26 comes into contact with biological material after all the blades have passed over the skin. The sensor 26 is closely adjacent to the razor blades, but is not physically coupled to a razor blade. The sensor 26 generates signals as previously discussed, and displays the output on the display 32 or transmits the output using the communication component 31. As seen in FIG. 5, the sensor 26 comprises at least the electrodes 47 and is coupled to the electrical component 53, which may include the ND converter 48, the potentiostat, and the microprocessor 50. Alternatively, the electrical component 53 may only comprise the microprocessor 50 and is coupled to the sensor 26, and can include the electrodes 47, the ND converter 48, and the potentiostat. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 5, the sensor 26 is positioned flat on the middle razor head 42 and is affixed using any known technique of attaching a semiconductor chip to a PCB, plastic or rubber surface. Since affixing dies to PCBs, plastics or other insulator sis well known in the art, the details for affixing the sensor 26 at the end of razor blade head 42 need not be described in further detail.
 The embodiments shown in FIGS. 1, 3 and 5 are one-time use fully disposable razors. Because the razor 20 are fully disposable, only one of the display 32, the I/O slot 30, and the communication component 31 may be present on the razor 20 to reduce the cost of the razor. For example, the two-blade razor 20 as shown in FIG. 1A may be modified to have the display 32 but not the I/O slot 30 or the communication component 31. Thus, when the sensor 26 generates signals as biological material interacts with the electrodes on the sensor 26, the microprocessor in the sensor 26 produces alphanumerical values that are shown on the display 32. Once the alphanumerical values are shown on the display 32, they may be recorded by a medical professional or other person and no long-term data is saved.
 As another example, the three-blade razor 20 of FIG. 2 may have only the I/O slot 30 but not the display 32 or the communication component 31. A memory card or computer connection cord may be inserted into the I/O slot 30 to store the alphanumerical values or data output by the microprocessor in the sensor 26. After the data is stored, the memory card may be removed and inserted into a separate computing device to download and associate the data with the patient's medical record, or simply to read the results of the data. In yet another alternative embodiment, any of the razor 20 may only have the communication component 31 that wirelessly communicates the data from the sensors 26 to the separate computing device. Thus, various combinations of electronics can be placed on the razor 20.
 FIG. 6 shows an enlarged view of the razor head 42 from FIG. 4. The sensor 26 is coupled to the electrical components shown in FIGS. 1A-5 of the razor handle 28 via insulated wires 68, which are affixed to the razor blade using any known technique of securely attaching insulated wires to a metal surface. The insulated wires 68 are insulated to prevent stray currents, short circuiting if wet, and introduction of noise into the system. The insulated wires 68 are coupled to the sensor 26 via a chip connection port 64 and are coupled to the electrical components of the razor handle 28 via connection port 66.
 The insulated wires 68 provide the power source, ground, and data lines to and from the sensor 26. In an alternative embodiment, the insulated wires 68 provide the power source and the data lines, but the razor blade to which the sensor 26 is attached provides a ground for the sensor 26. A metal grounding pad (not shown) formed on the underside of the sensor 26 makes contact with the razor blade and is used to ground the sensor 26 to the razor blade.
 The sensor 26 shown in FIG. 6 is made of a substrate 58, an insulating surface 60, electrodes 62, and the chip connection port 64. The electrodes 62 of FIG. 6 are specific examples of one embodiment in which the electrodes 62 are on the integrated substrate 58 that correspond to the electrodes 47 referred to in the prior figures. The substrate 58 is made of an electrically insulating material that is capable of being bonded to a metal surface. The substrate 58 may be made of silicon or silicon coated in an insulating material such as silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, a polyimide, or the like. The insulating surface 60 may be made of a polymer material, such as a polyimide, that is resistant to mechanical stresses, does not degrade when exposed to chemical compounds and water, and is electrically and thermally insulating. The insulating surface 60 covers the upper surface of the substrate 58 that forms the base of the sensor 26 and on which the electrodes 62 are formed. The insulating surface 60 has openings that expose metal layers formed on the top of the semiconductor die, and which form the electrodes 62. As stated previously, the electrodes 62 are one embodiment of the electrodes 47 from FIG. 1B. These electrodes 62 comprise various types, including electrodes used for temperature, pressure, and chemical or biological material sensors.
 FIGS. 7-9 show cross-sectional views of three different embodiments of the razor head 42 and different locations for the sensor 26. Each of the embodiments shown in FIGS. 7, 8, and 9 show razor blades 24. The razor blades 24 are supported and attached within the razor head 42 using conventional supporting structures.
 FIG. 7 shows a cross-sectional view of the razor head 42 taken along line 7 from FIG. 6. Each razor blade 24 contains a cutting edge 25 and an upper surface 27 directly above the cutting edge 25 and an underside 29. The cutting edge 25 is the edge which directly contacts the object being cut and is extremely sharp. The sensor 26 is positioned near the front of the cutting edges of the razor blades 24. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 7, the sensor 26 is positioned on the upper surface of the second razor blade of a three-blade system. Normally, in a three-blade system, the second blade projects slightly more than the first blade and therefore cuts closer to the surface than the first blade. In this embodiment, the first blade will remove the shaving cream and a first layer of hair, and the second blade, projecting slightly further out of the razor head 42, will shave much closer to the skin and remove skin cells and flecks of blood contained in the cells. The biological material, as it is removed by the blade, will fall across the blade including across the sensor 26, where it may contact the electrodes 47 and the desired parameters be sensed. In addition, the third blade will be directly above the sensor and it is also projects further than the first blade. As the third blade cuts, some of the material that the third blade cuts will fall down onto the sensor 26. Thus, the sensor 26 receives biological material from two cutting locations, the blade on which it sits and also the third blade directly above it. Positioning the sensor after the leading blade permits the first blade to remove some amount of the hair, the shaving cream and clear the surface to the bare skin.
 Positioning the sensor 26 nearer the cutting edges of the razor blades 24 allows biological material to more easily come into contact with the sensor 26 and is more easily rinsed clean.
 In the embodiment of FIG. 7, a heater 33 is positioned adjacent the biological sensors and the razor blades. In one embodiment, the heater 33 is part of the integrated circuit itself and is closely adjacent the sensors as described in pending U.S. application Ser. No. 13/176,599, filed Jul. 5, 2011. As explained in the application Ser. No. 13/176,599, having a heater adjacent the sensor can aid in the proper and efficient operation of the sensor 26. In other embodiments, the heater 33 is coupled to one or more of the blades 24 and heats one or more of the metal razor blades 24 as well as sensor 26. If the heater 33 is of the type that will also heat the razor blades 24, it may be positioned at a different location on the blade, not directly adjacent to and not in contact with the sensor 26. Since metal is generally a good conductor of heat, the razor blade 24 can be heated at one of the ends by the heater 33 and the heat transferred through the blade 24 to the sensor 26. In this embodiment, the blade 24 and the sensor 26 positioned on that blade are heated as a unit.
 The embodiment shown in FIG. 8 shows the sensor 26 positioned further from the shaving edge near the rear of the razor blades 24. The sensor 26 shown in FIG. 8 is below the topmost razor blade and more enclosed in the razor head 42 than the sensor 26 positioned as shown in FIGS. 6 and 7. Positioning the sensor 26 further away from the shaving edge of the razor blades 24 will protect the sensor 26 from damage and reduce the risk of dislodging the sensor during shaving. Placing the sensor 26 at the rear of the blades is in a location in which material will wash over the blade as water is forced through the blades. Thus, as biological material is picked up in the water cream and then the razor is washed, any biological material present will be caught up in the water and washed past the sensor 26 and onto the electrodes 47 for sensing. Alternatively, the sensor 26 may be positioned along the length of the underside 29 of one of the razor blades 24 as shown in FIG. 9. Positioning the sensor 26 on the underside of the razor blade allows biological material to be forced onto the surface of the sensor 26 as the razor blades 24 move down a shaving surface and will catch material cut by the cutting edge 25 of the first and second blades.
 FIGS. 7, 8, and 9 have the razor blades 24 offset from one another in the amount they projection from the razor head 42 so that if one razor blade misses a hair, the other two razor blades will shave even closer and cut the missed hair as the razor head 42 passes over the shaving surface. The sensor 26 is positioned posterior, in a shaving direction, from the first cutting blade. In one embodiment, the razor blades 24 may be equally projecting and spaced apart in the vertical direction from one another. Alternatively, one or more of the razor blades 24 may be projecting more than the other razor blades 24. For example, the bottommost razor blade shown in FIGS. 7, 8, and 9 is recessed more than the other two razor blades. Additionally, the vertical spacing between the razor blades 24 may be different in between each razor blade. For example, the topmost razor blade may be positioned closer to the middle razor blade than the middle razor blade is to the bottommost razor blade.
 In one aspect, varying the spacing and positioning of the razor blades may depend on the placement of the sensor 26. For example, if the sensor 26 is positioned on the underside of the middle razor blade as shown in FIG. 8, then the shaving edge of the bottommost razor blade may be positioned further back than the other two razor blades. Additionally, the spacing between the middle razor blade and the bottommost razor blade may be greater than the spacing between the topmost razor blade and the middle razor blade. Positioning the razor blades 24 in this way may increase the amount of biological material the sensor 26 is exposed to.
 In one embodiment, one or more of the razor blades 24 will be projecting more than normally would be used in a standard shaving head on commercial razor blades. Generally, on a commercial razor blade, the blades 24 are recessed slightly as compared to the sidewalls of the head an amount designed to cut the hair but not so close as to actually cut layers of the skin or cut the person being shaved. The razor blade projections of the present invention may be slightly modified, since the goal is to shave sufficiently close to ensure that some skin is scraped by the razor blade 24 and that sufficient scraping is done to slightly rub the skin and remove small amounts of blood. Accordingly, one of the razor blades, such as the middle blade or the topmost blade, may be projecting a small additional amount, such as a quarter or a tenth of a millimeter more than would be standard in a razor blade. As the first razor blade passes over the skin, all the hair is cut and the skin is wiped clean of shaving cream and other debris. As the second blade 24 passes over the skin it projects slightly further than the other blade and may cut into one of the upper layers of skin to ensure that some skin cells as well as some blood is removed from the biological sample. In normal razor used daily, the razor blades 24 are set back sufficiently far to avoid frequent skin irritation and cutting of the upper layers of skin so that razor rash and skin burn are avoided when shaving every day, but since the razor 20 will be used only once per patient on a single doctor visit, razor burn from repeated close shaving is not a concern. Accordingly, the razor blades 24 may be adjusted to shave extra close to ensure that a few skin cells having blood therein, or some small flecks of blood, are obtained by the razor 20.
 To the user, the razor blade will not be perceived as cutting the skin or as removing blood. Rather, it will be perceived as an extra close shave. Because the sensor 26 has the electrodes 47 and all the components integrated closely adjacent to each other, incredibly small samples, such as a few molecules of blood, a few skin cells or a micro liter of biological material will be sufficient in order to carry out the desired tests. Even in standard shaving, small amounts of skin and flecks of blood are removed from the body and enter the razor. If such amounts of biological material are deemed sufficient for the tests to be performed by the sensor 26, then a standard razor blade placement for blades 24 can be used. If the parameters being tested by the sensor 26 require more aggressive sampling, then one or more of the blades 24 can be slightly advanced to project just slightly farther from the housing in order to ensure removal of some cells from the upper layer of skin and ensure that sufficient samples are obtained.
 A razor blade 20 according to the embodiments herein has the advantage that it can be used in a number of settings. In a first embodiment, it can be used in a doctor's office by a nurse or other clinical technician as they collect data prior to the interview with the physician. Alternatively, it may be used in a hospital just prior to surgery in order to collect final data prior to applying anesthesia to the patient and carrying out other medical procedures. In one preferred embodiment, the razor is provided to individual people in their homes and the patient performs the shaving using the razor in the home. The patient may then look at the display 32 to see the output. In addition, the patient may link the razor to their home computer using communication link 31 via wireless connection or via a cord coupled to their computer through the I/O slot 30. The computer contains a software program to download the data from the razor and transmit it to the physician's office for further analysis and for storage. In addition, the software may be installed on the computer that performs a detailed analysis of the data having been collected by the razor and provides an output to the patient immediately on the computer screen providing some of the results of the tests which have just been carried out. The data can be stored in the computer locally and compared against similar tests carried out on subsequent days so that a long-term record is kept of the patient's health status including such features as daily blood glucose tests, the time of day that the test was taken and other features which may be important for long-term monitoring and testing. The data record can be stored locally at the computer or, at any time, the entire data file can be transferred to the physician's office for analysis by a professional doctor.
 When carrying out the shaving, the skin can be prepared by any acceptable technique according to those preferred by the patient. For example, standard shaving cream can be used of a type commonly available. Alternatively, a lubrication layer, such as soap, lotion, gel or other layer can be applied to the skin in order to provide more comfort when performing the shaving. Alternatively, the bare skin can be shaved without the application of any kind of lubrication. Normally, shaving without a lubricant such as a gel, or a cream results in razor burn and more irritation to the skin. However, in this particular invention, some slight irritation to the skin is acceptable, and for some tests may even be desirable. One of the goals of the razor is to dislodge skin cells, blood cells and other biological material from the skin surface of the user. Accordingly, for some tests shaving the area without the application of lubrication will result in collection of more data samples. It will also ensure the material collected is more likely to be biological material rather than contain extraneous matter such as cream or gel. Thus, shaving without the application of any cream or gel is advantageous in some embodiments since the electrodes are more likely to receiver actual biological matter directly thereon rather than the lubricant.
 Of course, any location of the patient can be shaved. For most tests, however, certain areas might be more desirable for shaving than other depending on the test to be carried out. For example, it may be acceptable to shave the back of the hand, the leg or an inconspicuous location such as the middle of the back for a number of tests to be carried out. In other tests, a specific part of the body may be more desirable to be shaved to increase the collection of the biological matter of most interest. For example, if a test is being performed of skin cancer or mole then it is appropriate to shave that area which is suspected of having the skin cancer thereon and which may have a higher likelihood of containing certain cancer markers. In addition, some areas of the skin are known to be particularly thin, such as the inner thigh, and therefore shaving areas at the inner thigh aids in more easy collection of deeper layers of skin and also blood cells and in some instances additional fat cells. Thus, depending on the test to be carried out, there may be specific parts of the body on which the shaving is preferred to be carried out.
 According to one method of carrying out the present invention, the location on the patient's skin to be shaved is washed and dried. It may be washed with sterile or medically pure water to ensure that no chemicals in the water affect the samples to be collected. Usually, tap water will not include blood or skin cells, therefore, if the test being performed is for markers in the blood, such as cardiac markers or cancer markers, washing with standard tap water is acceptable, but if the test is for bacterial or certain chemicals, washing with sterile water is preferred.
 After the area is washed and confirmed clean, the razor 20 containing the sensor 26 is passed over the skin in a normal manner of shaving, cutting the hair and removing some biological samples from the patient. The display 30 will indicate if sufficient biological material has been collected to permit testing to occur. If enough data is collected, the test will then be carried out; if there is not enough material collected, the display will show an indication to carry out the step of shaving again with the same razor. This is repeated until a valid sample is obtained. Once sufficient material is collected, the sensor 26, in combination with the processor 50 conducts the tests and outputs the results. The results will be output to an appropriate source based on the test being carried. For example, a blood glucose test will show the results on the display 30. Similarly, a test for blood alcohol levels, vitamin levels, (such as vitamin B in an older patient), other medical maintenance test will be shown on the display 30. Tests of a sensitive or confidential nature will not be displayed on the display 30. For example, tests for certain cancers, cardiac markers, diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, swine flu and the like will normally have the results transmitted to a computer and then to the physician for further study and consultation with the patient rather than show the results directly on the display 30. Transmitting the results rather than immediately display them is done to permit proper medical counseling, for privacy issues, and, if needed, a second set of tests.
 FIGS. 10 and 11 show another embodiment according to the present disclosure. FIG. 10 shows the razor head 42 with three razor blades 24 and the sensor 26 affixed in between the topmost razor blade and the bottommost razor blade. The sensor 26 is coupled to the electrical components in the razor handle 28 via insulated wires 70, 72. The sensor 26 is positioned such that the sensing surface having sensor ports 62 is exposed to and makes direct contact with the skin as the razor head 42 is used.
 FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view of the razor head 42 taken along line 11 in FIG. 10. As seen in FIG. 11, the sensor 26 is positioned and affixed between two of the razor blades 24. The sensor 26 is affixed at the shaving edge of the razor blades 24 so that the ports 62 come into direct contact with the skin of the patient. The sensor 26 will rub directly on the surface being tested, such as a person's skin. Thus, direct sensing of the skin surface can be carried out.
Because the razor blades 24 are staggered and the head swivels, the sensor 26 is positioned at an angle that is parallel to the shaving plane of the razor head 42 and will directly abut the skin. For some tests, it is desirable for the sensor 26 to be in physical contact with the skin surface being sensed. In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 10 and 11, the sensor projects from the head 42 in such a way that as the blades pass over the skin the sensor itself physically contacts and rubs against the skin. The sensor is positioned aft of at least the first blade and preferably aft of the first two razor blades. By positioning the sensor 26 posterior to the first two razor blades, the hairs are cut and the skin is cleaned of debris and shaving cream, after which the sensor 26 rubs against the smooth skin. The sensor 26 may include electrodes which sense data directly from being in physical contact with the skin surface itself. This may include pulse oximeters, or other biological tests carried based on optical tests. For example, the sensor 26 may include one or more LEDs which emit a light into the skin and one or more photodetectors which detect the transmitted light after it has passed through the skin.
 One of the ports 62 of FIGS. 10 and 11 may contain an electrode 47 and a membrane for biochemical sensing. Another port 62 may contain an LED and an adjacent port 62 may contain an optical detector tuned to sense light from the LED after it passes through the skin of the patient. As is well known, when certain wavelengths of light, such as infrared, ultraviolet, or certain frequencies of visible light pass through the skin and blood, certain parameters of the skin and the blood can be sensed. For example, the oxygenation levels in the blood, the presence of jaundice in the skin, the response of certain types of skin cancers and other biological factors can be sensed by passing light through the skin and sensing the change in characteristics of the light, such as which frequencies are absorbed, how the frequencies are reflected, and the light is modified as it passes through the skin. light of certain frequencies. Placing an optical sensor in the sensor 26 in a razor blade provides the distinct advantage that the surface being sensed has been cleaned and removed of all extraneous debris immediately prior to the test. In some cases, the surface might be slightly moist with a very thin layer of fluid between the sensor and the skin and filling the pores of the skin, which may enhance the optical coupling of the light waves and increases the likelihood that good data can be obtained for some types of optical tests.
 In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 10 and 11, the sensor 26 may be electrically coupled to one or more of the razor blades 24 via the insulated wires 70, 72. For example, the insulated wire 72 may have two wires to provide power to the sensor 26. A first wire may be coupled to a first one of the razor blades 24 that is connected to ground. A second wire may be coupled to a second one of the razor blades 24 that is connected to the battery 38. To communicate data associated with the signals generated at the sensor 26, the insulated wire 70 is coupled via the connection port 66 to the electrical components within the razor handle 28, such as the I/O slot 30, the communication module 31, and the display 32. The insulated wires 70, 72 are attached and secured within the razor head 42 using known techniques.
 FIGS. 12 and 13 show another embodiment according to the present disclosure. FIG. 12 shows an isometric view of a razor head 42 with three razor blades 24. The razor head 42 has three sensors 26 positioned within it. The sensors 26 are coupled to the electrical components within the razor handle 28 via the insulated data lines 70 and the insulated power lines 72. The insulated data lines 70 and insulated power lines 72 connect to the connection port 66, which interfaces with the electrical components within the razor handle 28. The insulated data lines 70 and the insulated power lines 72 are affixed to the inside of the razor head 74 using known methods. The embodiment of FIG. 12 also illustrates that a number of different sensors can be positioned inside a single razor head at different locations and of different types. For example, one sensor can be positioned on the top surface 72 of the second blade while another sensor is positioned on a bottom surface of the same blade. Similarly, in the same head 42, one sensor may be positioned as shown in FIGS. 10 and 11 to directly abut the skin, while another sensor may be in a recessed position such as shown in FIGS. 8 and 13, to collect data as the material is washed over the surface. An embodiment of the type shown in FIGS. 12 and 13 is particularly beneficial to be used in combination with the embodiments of FIGS. 2 and 4 in which the microprocessor 50 is on the handle and the head 42 contains individual sensors 26 with just the electrodes 47 and the ND converters 48 thereon. In this embodiment, numerous sensors are electrically coupled via the connection joint 54 to the processor 50 for sensing many different biological parameters of the patient. If a different set of parameters is to be sensed, a different head can be attached to the razor 20 and still use the same handle and processor 50. Further, the same razor handle may be used for multiple patients by simply the head replaced.
 FIG. 13 shows a cross-sectional view of the razor head 74 taken along line 13 of FIG. 12. The sensors 26 shown in FIGS. 12 and 13 are positioned at an angle inside the razor head 74 so that the biological material removed while shaving is carried (indicated by arrows) from the shaving edges of the razor blades 24 to the surface of the sensors 26. Positioning the sensors 26 inside the razor head 74 protects the sensors 26 from physical damage as well as reduces the risk of dislodging any of the sensors 26 during shaving.
 FIGS. 14 and 15 show yet another embodiment according to the present disclosure. A three-blade razor head 76 with razor blades 24 is attached to the razor handle 28. The three-blade razor head 76 has a sensor 26 positioned in between two of the razor blades 78. The razor blades 78 are in a bent or angled orientation so that the shaving edge of each blade may be at a different angle for customizing cutting arrangements. The razor blade below the sensor 26 has a guide 80 attached thereto. The guide 80 grips or forces biological material, such as hair that may also have skin and blood droplets on it, into the razor head 76 toward the sensor 26.
 A first pad 82 and a second pad 84 also comprise the three-blade razor head 76. The first pad 82 may be made of a material that stretches the skin to better grip and shave the hairs. The first pad 82 also removes a portion of shaving cream or lotion on the skin to reduce the amount of non-biological material that may make contact with the sensor 26. The second pad 84 may be made of a lubricant or moisturizing material that coats a shaved surface as the three-blade razor head 76 moves down the shaved surface.
 FIG. 15 shows a cross-sectional view of the three-blade razor head 76 taken along line 15 of FIG. 14. The sensor 26 shown in FIG. 15 is positioned in between two of the razor blades 78 close the shaving edge of the razor blades 78. According to the embodiment shown in FIG. 12, the sensor 26 is attached to razor blade supports 81, which secure the razor blades within the razor head 76. The sensor 26 is positioned so that the sensing surface with the electrodes 62 is facing toward the outside of the three-blade razor head 76. The sensor 26 may be affixed to the razor blade supports 81 using known techniques. The sensor 26 is electrically coupled to the electrical components within the razor handle 28 via a connection port 77 and insulated wires 70, 72.
 The middle razor blade shown in FIG. 15 is at a larger angle than the other two razor blades and also projects further out of the housing. This helps to cut missed hairs, remove additional biological material, and force the biological material into the razor head 76 onto the sensor 26 during shaving. According to the embodiment show in FIGS. 14 and 15, the sensor 26 may have a pressure sensor electrode formed on the sensing surface. Before the razor head 76 is used, there is no power supplied to the sensor 26. However, when shaving begins, the pressure electrode may sense the presence of any type of material and activate the sensor 26 to detect the various chemicals and biological material present.
 A four-blade razor head 86 embodiment is shown in FIG. 16.
 Instead of a sensor positioned in between the razor blade supports 81 as shown in FIGS. 14 and 15, the sensor 26 is positioned on a top, rear portion of the four-blade razor head 86, such as is commonly used to trim side burns or a mustache. The four-blade razor head 86 has a rear facing razor blade 90 for removing additional biological material. The razor blade 90 is not as large as the other razor blades 78. The four-blade razor head 86 also has a pad 92 for removing excess amounts of shaving cream or other material that may inhibit the additional biological material from making contact with the surface of the sensor 88. The sensor 26 may be longer to accommodate more sensing surface due to a smaller vertical area through which the sensor 26 is attached. The sensor 26 is coupled to the electrical components within the razor handle 28 via insulated wires 94, 96. The insulated wires 94, 96 may be used to carry data, power, and ground signals to and from the sensor 88, as has previously been described with regard to the insulated wires 70, 72.
 To use the four-blade razor head 86, after the conventional razor blades 78 have shaved an area of skin, the four-blade razor 86 may be pivoted or rotated so that the razor blade 90 faces the shaved portion. As the razor blade 90 is moved across the surface of the skin, additional biological material, such as any remaining hair, skin, and small particles of blood may be cut and carried to the sensor 88 by the razor blade 90 and the pad 92. Because the surface of the skin has already been shaved, less non-biological material is present, such as shaving cream, which permits remaining or newly cut biological material to be exposed to the surface of the sensor 88. The sensor 88 generates signals from the electrodes and sends the signals to the electrical components within the razor handle 28.
 A razor can be made using any of the various combinations as described herein. For example, embodiments of FIG. 2 may be combined with embodiments of FIGS. 3, 4, and 5, and contain any of the various razor blade and sensor combinations as illustrated in FIGS. 6-16.
 Each razor blade head 42 may have custom sensors placed thereon depending on the test to be carried out. For example, the physician carrying out the testing may have a variety of razor blade heads provided depending on the test to be conducted. For example, one set of razor heads can be specifically designed for detecting various cancer markers. Another razor blade head can be designed for testing blood glucose levels, while other razor heads may be custom designed for testing blood alcohol levels, cardiac markers, or other appropriate biological tests, respectively. A common handle having a microprocessor 50 with all of the possible tests to be carried out stored therein may be provided in the handle 28. The processor will be capable of managing hundreds of different types of biological tests, sorting the data, and storing it appropriately. Accordingly, a single processor may be used with multiple different types of razor shaving heads, each having custom sensors located therein.
 The various embodiments described above can be combined to provide further embodiments. All of the U.S. patents, U.S. patent application publications, U.S. patent application, foreign patents, foreign patent application and non-patent publications referred to in this specification and/or listed in the Application Data Sheet are incorporated herein by reference, in their entirety. Aspects of the embodiments can be modified, if necessary to employ concepts of the various patents, application and publications to provide yet further embodiments.
 These and other changes can be made to the embodiments in light of the above-detailed description. In general, in the following claims, the terms used should not be construed to limit the claims to the specific embodiments disclosed in the specification and the claims, but should be construed to include all possible embodiments along with the full scope of equivalents to which such claims are entitled. Accordingly, the claims are not limited by the disclosure.
Patent applications by Olivier Le Neel, Singapore SG
Patent applications by Suman Cherian, Singapore SG
Patent applications by STMicroelectronics Pte Ltd
Patent applications in class Combined
Patent applications in all subclasses Combined