Patent application title: Subsurface Vortex Assisted Distributed Propulsion Active Hull
Ron M. King (Port Angeles, WA, US)
IPC8 Class: AB63G808FI
Class name: Having attitude control depth control water ballast
Publication date: 2012-06-14
Patent application number: 20120145066
High velocity subsurface craft, apparatus or method positively affecting
propulsion and limiting drag by the use of a rotating body with selected
Surface Treatment. The Active Hull Platform provides Apparent Flows that
allow for shorter more dispersed blade arrays and boundary layer
management that impacts vorticity on skin surfaces by controlling the
angular momentum of the vortices formed. By converting drag forces into
thrust, vortices need not be avoided and an even non pulsating
distributed thrust is the result.
1. A submersible Craft, apparatus or method that utilizes boundary layer
conditions and distributed propulsion comprising: (1) the Active Hull
2. A submersible Craft, apparatus or method of claim 1 further comprising: (1) an Active Hull; and (2) managed Apparent Flow by rotational and fore-aft velocity sensors and velocity control systems; and (3) means of sealing, expanding, controlling or limiting the flow of fluids in Area (2) to control fluid properties and fluid dynamics including mass flows, boundary layer, and shear layer conditions in Area (2); and (4) Surface Treatment in Area (1) or Area (1) and Area (2).
3. An underwater Craft or apparatus that utilizes boundary layer conditions and distributed propulsion comprising: (1) an Active Hull; and (2) managed Apparent Flow in Area (1) and Area (2); and (3) Surface Treatment in Area (1) or Area (1) and Area (2).
4. A submersible Craft or apparatus that utilizes boundary layer conditions and distributed propulsion comprising: (1) an Active Hull; and (2) means of power and power conveyance to all systems including rotation of the Active Hull and traditional propulsion when applicable such as propellers or screws for the Fixed Hull within; and (3) means to provide anti-torque for the inner Fixed Hull to stabilize rotational moments; and (4) mechanical and/or electromagnetic means for support and bearing including radial and thrust bearing to limit noise and friction between the Active Hull and Fixed Hull; and (5) velocity sensors and control systems to measure and control rotational velocities for the Active Hull and fore-aft velocities for the Fixed Hull and Craft and maintain some ratio of the two; and (6) means of balancing the Active Hull either during fabrication or during operation or both to allow smooth running and less bearing pressures; and (7) means of controlling ballast to regulate buoyancy including maintaining neutral buoyancy either during fabrication or during operation or both for the Active Hull and Fixed Hull within; and (8) means of sealing, expanding, controlling or limiting the flow of fluids in Area (2); and (9) at least one of the following: a. traditional means of accelerating and directing mass flows into and out of Area (2) such as turbine fins, fixed and/or variable blades, and nozzles; b. traditional means of propelling, guidance, ballasting, and/or stabilizing the Fixed Hull within allowing the Active Hull to become inoperable, disengaged from power, or jettisoned and still maintain a functioning Craft; c. traditional means of propelling, guidance and/or stabilizing the Active Hull that are used in conjunction with Surface Treatment in Area (1); d. Surface Treatment in Area (1); e. a means of controlling fluid properties and additives in Area (2); f. Surface Treatments in Area (2).
5. A submersible Craft or apparatus of claim 4 wherein: (1) the Active Hull partially covers an internal Fixed Hull that is a Pressure Hull; and (2) means of power such as nuclear power to generate electrical energy and rotate the Active Hull and traditional means of thrust such as propellers in the Fixed Hull when applicable; and (3) power conveyance or torque on the Active Hull is done traditionally by mechanical means or accomplished by electromagnetic means making the Active Hull a large rotor and the Fixed Hull a stator or utilizing both mechanical and electromechanical means to rotate the Active Hull; and (4) computer aided balancing by controlling chambers in the Active Hull that can be filled or purged with surrounding fluid during operation to correct for imbalance; and (5) computer aided ballast system in the Active Hull coordinating the chambers of the ballast system with the balancing system to maintain a neutral buoyancy within the Active Hull or such buoyancy as needed; and (6) fluid is allowed to enter and equalize pressure with minimal through flow in Area (2) making the Active Hull a Light Hull and affecting fluid dynamics in the Area (2); and (7) traditional means of propelling, guidance, ballasting, and stabilizing the Fixed Hull within allowing the Active Hull to become inoperable or jettisoned and still maintain a functioning Craft; and (8) Surface Treatments Fixed or Variable on the external Skin surfaces of the Active Hull in Area (1) including at least one of the following: (a) Vortex Generators that allow for the creation of non random specific vortices within the boundary layer that delivers at least some energy in the forward direction to result in a distributed thrust; (b) vortex enhancers which absorb or extract energy delivered from vortices to the skin within the boundary layer such as cilia or hair like projections, structures such as shelves or geometric shapes or the like that vortices can react with and transfer momentum; (c) vortex protection to maintain the momentum of vortices moving in an advantageous direction and position such as corrugations, cells or the like within the boundary layer; (d) Fixed and/or Variable Blades or other elements that interact with bulk flow; and (9) Area (2) Surface Treatments Fixed or Variable and fluid additives including at least one of the following: (a) Vortex Generators that allow for the creation of vortices within the boundary layer that delivers at least some energy in the forward direction to result in a distributed thrust; (b) vortex enhancers which absorb or extract energy such as cilia hair like projections, rough surface or structures within or on the skin within the boundary layer such as shelves or geometric shapes or the like that vortices can react with or against and exert or transfer momentum; (c) vortex protection to keep the momentum moving in an advantageous direction such as corrugations, cells or the like; (d) surface roughness, cilia or methods to increase friction between the fluid in Area (2) and the inside surfaces of the Active Hull to facilitate and accelerate the rotation of fluid in Area (2); (e) Fixed and/or Variable Blades or other protuberances that can take advantage of the rotational flows in Area (2); (f) fluids, fluid additives and methods of controlling properties in Area (2) such as low shear fluids and/or rheological fluids to positively affect such things as drag, sound attenuation, magnetic flux, and viscosity.
6. A submersible Craft or apparatus of claim 4 wherein: (1) fluid is allowed to enter and exit in an appreciable manner in Area (2); and (2) Surface Treatment Fixed and/or Variable in Area (2) on the external surface of the Fixed Hull being turbine fins or short blades with pitch to increase mass flow and add thrust to the Craft; and (3) nozzles to direct and improve thrust from the increased mass flows for guidance or propulsion or both; and (4) Surface Treatment in Area (2) on the internal surface of the Active Hull allowing increased friction on the surface such as a roughed surface; and (5) Surface Treatments Fixed or Variable on the external Skin surfaces of the Active Hull in Area (1) including at least one of the following: (a) Vortex Generators that allow for the creation of non random specific vortices within the boundary layer that delivers at least some energy in the forward direction to result in a distributed thrust; (b) vortex enhancers which absorb or extract energy delivered from vortices to the skin within the boundary layer such as cilia or hair like projections, structures such as shelves or geometric shapes or the like that vortices can react with and transfer momentum; (c) vortex protection to maintain the momentum of vortices moving in an advantageous direction and position such as corrugations, cells or the like within the boundary layer; (d) Fixed and/or Variable Blades or other elements that interact with bulk flow.
7. A submersible Craft or apparatus of claim 4 wherein: (1) fluid is not allowed to enter Area (2) utilizing seals such as face seals, bearing seals and shaft seals making Area (2) dry and the Active Hull a Pressure Hull; and (2) sound attenuation added to Area (2); and (3) Surface Treatments Fixed or Variable on the external Skin surfaces of the Active Hull in Area (1) including at least one of the following: (a) Vortex Generators that allow for the creation of non random specific vortices within the boundary layer that delivers at least some energy in the forward direction to result in a distributed thrust; (b) vortex enhancers which absorb or extract energy delivered from vortices to the skin within the boundary layer such as cilia or hair like projections, structures such as shelves or geometric shapes or the like that vortices can react with and transfer momentum; (c) vortex protection to maintain the momentum of vortices moving in an advantageous direction and position such as corrugations, cells or the like within the boundary layer; (d) Fixed and/or Variable Blades or other elements that interact with bulk flow.
8. A submersible Craft or apparatus of claim 1 or claim 3 or claim 5 wherein: (1) stabilizing, propulsion, ballast and anti-torque on the inner Fixed Hull is by traditional means allowing the Active Hull to become inoperable or jettisoned and still maintain a functioning Craft; and (2) additional anti-torque supported by a side thruster in the sail; and (3) the Surface Treatments in Area (1) are low drag Vortex Generators and cilia; and (4) Surface Treatments in Area (2) are Fixed and/or Variable Blades on the Fixed Hull and a roughed surface on the inside surface of the Active Hull; and (5) Area (2) additives to increase magnetic flux.
9. A submersible Craft or apparatus of claim 1 or claim 3 or claim 5 wherein: (1) two or more pair of counter rotating Active Hulls are used; and (2) traditional propulsion is introduced from the Fixed Hull; and (3) side thruster in the sail with and stabilizers in the Fixed Hull to provide anti-torque; and (3) Surface Treatments in Area (1) are low drag Vortex Generators and Fixed and/or Variable Blades along with a cilia; and (4) the Surface Treatments in Area (2) are Fixed and/or Variable Blades on the Fixed Hull and a roughed surface on the inside surface of the Active Hull; and (5) Area (2) additives to decrease friction and increase magnetic flux.
10. A submersible apparatus of claim 1 or claim 3 or claim 5 wherein: (1) One or more apparatus are placed below the surface for the purpose of propelling a ship on or above the surface.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
A. Field of the Invention
 The field of this invention relates generally to drag, stealth, vortices, and propulsion in subsurface craft. More specifically it relates to managing specific Apparent Flows over selected Surface Treatment to exploit those forces available and generate distributed propulsion in underwater craft and devices.
B. Description of Related Art
 U.S. Pat. No. 4,516,747 Lurz, 1985, Method of and apparatus for controlling the boundary layer flow over the surface of a body  U.S. Pat. No. 5,791,275 Bandyopadhyay, 1998, Surface layer comprising micro-fabricated tiles for electromagnetic control of fluid turbulence in sea water.  U.S. Pat. No. 4,812,251 Stangroom, 1989, Electro-rheological fluids/electric field responsive fluids  U.S. Patent 20070175380 Au, 2007, Water craft with new configuration of active hulls and stationary hulls for better hydrodynamic performance . . . .  U.S. Pat. No. 4,671,474 Haslund, 1984, Fluid control apparatus and method utilizing cellular array containing mini-vortex flow patterns  U.S. Pat. No. 3,578,264 Kuethe, 1971 Boundary layer control of flow separation and heat exchange  U.S. Patent 005417391 Savitsky, 1995, Method for control of the boundary layer on the aerodynamic surface of an aircraft, and the aircraft provided with the boundary layer control system  U.S. Pat. No. 5,171,623 Yee, 1990, Drag reducing surface depressions  U.S. Pat. No. 5,058,837 Wheeler, 1992 Low drag vortex generators showing both left and right handed vortices  U.S. Patent 20080121301 Norris, 2008, Externally mounted flow duct generators for flow duct passage  U.S. Pat. No. 6,427,948 Campbell, 2002 Controllable vortex generator  U.S. Pat. No. 6,963,810 Mangalam 2005 Method and system for locating flow feature indicators in three dimensional flow regimes  U.S. Pat. No. 5,265,069 Wardle 1993 Blanket array adhesion system  U.S. Pat. No. 4,734,067 Elias-Reyes, 1988, Hydro-rotor  U.S. Patent 20090200416 Lee, 2009, Boundary layer propulsion airship  U.S. Patent 20020152947 Hilleman, 2002, Bow mounted system and method for jet propelling a submarine  U.S. Pat. No. 6,659,030 Ha, 2003, Apparatus and method for decreasing drag force by controlling turbulent flow on hull surface of ship  U.S. Pat. No. 6,508,188 Dong, 2003 Drag-free hull for marine vessels  U.S. Pat. No. 3,779,199 Mayer 1973 Boundary layer control means  U.S. Pat. No. 6,948,910 Polacsek 2005, Spirial Based Axial Flow Devices  U.S. Patent 20090250129 Bernitsas 2009 Enhancement of vortex induced forces through surface roughness control  U.S. Pat. No. 3,730,123 Lang, 1973 High speed ship with submerged hull  Lathrop, Fineberg, & Swinney Volume 46, Number 10 Physical Review Letters Mar. 9, 1992 Turbulent Flow between Concentric Rotating Cylinders at Large Reynolds Number http://www.pppl.gov/˜mnornber/Documents/Papers/Lathrop/Transition%2- 0to%20 shear-driven%20turbulence%20in%20Couette-Taylor%20flow.pdf or http://complex.umd.edu/papers/PRLCouette1992.pdf  Investigation of Vortex generators for Augmentation of wind turbine power performance. Dayton A Griffin December 1996 NREL/SR-440-21399 http://www.osti.gov/bridge/purl.cover.jsp;jsessionid=EB6528188B0B258C0707- 4EEA0C 42EF7B?purl=/414367-2i25d4/webviewable/
 The fore-aft motion of Fixed Hulls is generally affect most by skin drag which produces vortices in the boundary layer. The energy stored in the angular momentum of the fluid or vortices coalesces in the boundary layer and shear layer and forms large vortices or break away vortices known as von Karman vortices. As these eddies are shed or separate from the craft they do so at great expense or drag to the efficient fore-aft motion of the craft.
 With Fixed Hulls, all net drag forces traditionally are overcome by the propeller or centralized propulsion system which as the craft increases in size and speed increases the problem of hydrodynamic noise and cavitation around the propulsion system. The application of power to the rear of a craft creates an inverted pendulum, with stability and guidance problems. The application of power or guidance to the forward position of a craft cause turbulent flows that increase drag and noise aft down the length of the craft. The stern drive requires the vehicle to be pushed through the water, which generates geometrically disproportionate wave drag resistance with any increase in speed. This frontal wave generation limits stability, efficiency and speed. Most importantly the more concentrated approach to thrust gives an uneven pulsating noisy result.
 A moving submerged vessel or underwater craft that is subject to hydrodynamic noise is easily detected, located and identified as these noises have a unique quality for each craft. Stealth is generally a high priority in underwater craft such as submarines with velocity being the factor that has been reduced to maintain stealth. U.S. Pat. No. 6,659,030 and U.S. Pat. No. 3,779,199 are two examples that sucked and ejected large volumes of fluids to vary the turbulent field and improve propulsion. They require large pumps or propellers that would cause large Reynolds numbers and noisy cavitation in an underwater craft.
 With traditional fore-aft motion on Fixed Hulls, random vortices using scales or texturing can be developed with slight benefit thus giving surface texturing or scales a small statistical advantage over a smooth skinned Fixed Hull as seen in U.S. Pat. No. 5,171,623. Vortex Generators (VG) on Fixed Hulls or wings have only been beneficial at certain times and not at others and thus within the art there are controllable or Variable VG that are utilized during take off and landings and not during cruise conditions. A Variable VG is illustrated in U.S. Pat. No. 6,427,948.
 U.S. Pat. No. 4,516,747 is a method for controlling the flow in the boundary layer at the surface of a body over which flow takes place, based on the active change of the original motion of flow particles in close proximity to the surface. It doesn't utilized VG or an Active Hull but rather numerous sensors and vibration transmitters to alter a low volume flow. Similarly U.S. Pat. No. 5,791,275 utilizes electromagnetic tiles to alter flow at the micro level near the skin surfaces which would require a very large complex fragile system on the exterior of the craft.
 Dynamic hulls or hulls with parts moving across their surface have also been explored previously. U.S. Pat. No. 6,508,188 considers a conveyer approach to "push" on fluid on a more standard above surface boat hull with obvious limitations to speed and stealth. U.S. Pat. No. 4,734,067 is closer in appearance externally to the concept described herein but it uses an auger approach or "a helical flight" to push on fluid to give an equal and opposite reaction in the forward direction. An auger or a flight is excluded from the definition of Surface Treatment used herein for two reasons. They do not satisfy the "distributed" portion of the definition because when motionless they cover little surface area as seen from above and they do not address drag. Elias-Reyes does however develop one of many possible systems to mechanically rotate a device from inside a craft that could be utilized by this invention.
 U.S. Pat. No. 6,948,910 develops a class of rotor blades that mesh with flows outside the boundary layer in the axial shear plane and take advantage of some of the energies normally lost through separation of vortices on propellers or blades. Polacsek's blades make no attempt to limit the drag vortices on the skin of the hubs that employ his blades. Clearly his blades have a different purpose and would be far more fragile than the more traditional shorter Blades described herein. His devices are mentioned as they are axial flow devices and take on some of the same problems dealt with herein but further down stream and within the art of blade design. He does develop the useful concept of a "meta element" with a minute positive thrust gleaned from drag forces along his blades. Most importantly he clearly describes the difficulties and "imponderabilities" involved with a mathematical approach or modeling to complex flow problems.
 Prior art also establishes a large rotating fan body with shrouds that is bow mounted that increases flows down the external surface areas of a submarine that has random surface treatment such as scales or dimples on the skin. (See U.S. Patent 20020152947) The purpose is to reduce the bow wave and he does address large portions of the external skin of the craft by energizing the boundary layer. Hilleman also gives an excellent history of prior art and the problems inherent therein. However his invention does not address the direction of bulk flow over the hull and therefore has no opportunity to create some advantage from specific VG. He would also have a very noisy system particularly if he employed the supercavity characteristics he describes.
 Prior art in naval craft does utilizes boundary layer forces from vortices generated on the skin of the craft. U.S. Patent 20090250129 gives a clear account of Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM) on a bluff body. He utilizes surface roughness to produce random vortices and then captures or harness those vortices as a source of power. He is not concerned with controlled vortex generation on those surfaces but his studies do show the harnessing of useful power within vortices.
 Propellers and Fixed Hulls have pressed limits so far in subsurface vessels in order to accommodate a larger faster quieter envelope that now nothing is too complicated or fragile to be overlooked. Biometrics has been explored to help with the solution through robotic fish which use a "flexible" body or hull utilizing vortices to affect greater relative mass flows than their tails alone could provide. However, the state of the art for craft utilizing vortices and flexible dynamic hulls is far from delivering large payloads under harmful conditions.
 The other area of active or dynamic hulls that has been studied has a rotation on an axis perpendicular to the longitudinal or fore-aft axis and is generally meant to be a floating craft. One of the more common examples is a very large wheeled vehicle that uses the rotary motion of the tires to keep the flotation and give propulsion at the same time with an aggressive tread. More sophisticated versions can be found in US Patent 20070175380. These designs have limitations as to its velocity and effectiveness as an underwater craft.
 U.S. Patent 20090200416 dealt with boundary layer propulsion and control issues on airships and did so with an eye to the needed distributed propulsion systems. It placed a "plurality of micro propellers and riblets" in the boundary layers or boundary layer separation areas but did not use a rotating hull or anything similar to accomplish the desired ends. It did mention the impracticality and implementation complexity of a great number of power sources for low powered micro propulsion units that the Active Hull contained herein is able to address.
 Previous patents and literature have covered vortex generation, arrays of VG, surface treatment both random and specific, boundary layer propulsion, extracting energy from vortices, and ships with large rotating structures. But none accomplish the mission of propelling a rugged high velocity underwater craft or device utilizing boundary layer forces and distributed propulsion while avoiding the noise of cavitation.
 A submersible vehicle, apparatus and method utilizing the Active Hull Platform to decrease drag and hydrodynamic noise while increasing thrust through boundary layer vortex control and distributed propulsion.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1 Exploded view showing embodiment of a Active Hull before docking on Fixed Hull
 FIG. 2 Detail shows a Blade on the Active Hull in Area (1) and ψ=45°
 FIG. 3 Detail shows a Blade in Area (2) on Fixed Hull and ψ=90°
 FIG. 4 shows an Active Hull docked with three detailed sections delineated
 FIG. 5A Detail cross section showing Area (1) and Area (2)
 FIG. 6A Detail cross section showing rotor and stator embodiment
 FIG. 7A Detail cross section showing ballast and balance system with Surface Treatments
 FIG. 8 embodiment utilizing counter rotating Active Hulls and a fixed bow sonar system
 FIG. 9 Left Handed VG array
 FIG. 10 embodiment with large ram bow intakes and counter rotating Active Hulls
 FIG. 11A Detail elevation section shows VG, Blades, cilia and Apparent Flow
 FIG. 12 chart comparing different rotational velocities, apparent flows and forces in the incremental X-Y plane
 FIG. 13 Above water craft utilizing Active Hull apparatus
 FIG. 14 3d rendering showing corrugation and tubes to generate and stitch down vortices
 FIG. 15A Detail cross section showing Area (1), Area (2), corrugation, vortices and tubes
 FIG. 16 Detail showing tubes that connect Area (1) and Area (2)
 FIG. 17 top view of Variable Surface Treatment showing Blade altering angle of attack
 FIG. 18 top view illustrates morphing camber in Blade
 FIG. 19A Detail side view of morphing camber in Blade in FIG. 18
 FIG. 20 shows flow strength and detection using strain gauges on temporary installations
IDENTIFICATION OF DETAILS WITHIN THE DRAWINGS
 101 Active Hull  102 Sail or tail of a craft  103 the internal surface area or Skin of the embodiment  104 the external Skin of the Pressure Hull  105 Fixed Hull often a Pressure Hull 102 herein  106 mechanical means of gears and bearings  107 rotor--the rotating component built into and made a part of the Active Hull making a large electrical motor  108 stator--the stationary part of the large electrical motor built into the Fixed Hull  109 Surface Treatment  110 fixed sonar (non rotating)  111 Vortex Generator (VG)  112 traditional means of guidance and stabilizing including horizontal and vertical stabilizers  113 external Skin of an embodiment  114 permanent magnets that are part of a large rotor 107 built into an embodiment  115 electro magnets, part of the Fixed Hull stator assembly 108  116 corrugated Surface Treatment  117 flow detection and strain gauge showing positive result from VG  118 flow detection and strain gauge showing negative momentum  119 Boundary layer and boundary layer flow  120 Apparent Flow vector or Bulk Flow  121 Left Handed vortices  122A ballast and balance tube purged  122B ballast and balance tube filled  123 feeding tubes which can create vortices, or another form of VG  124 return tubes or stitch down tube  125 bow tube or bow intake  126 side thrusting anti torque system to oppose the torque reaction a rotating hull  127 partition for balance or ballast tubes  128 Variable Surface Treatment before change in dimension or placement  129 Variable Surface Treatment after change in dimension or placement  130 Blade  131 holes allowing a differential pressure on Blade forcing it to collapse and change shape  132 forward sector that is paired with a counter rotating aft sector 133 of an embodiment  133 aft sector that is paired with a counter rotating forward sector 132 of an embodiment  134 conventional propulsion system  135 stern tube or exhaust  136 cilia like slender protuberances to increase affect of vortices by absorbing energy  137 rotor housing  138 above water Craft powered by 2 embodiments  139 variably pitched Blade  140 positioned holes in Variable Blades that can morph camber  A1 Area (1)  A2 Area (2)  L distance from center of rotation of embodiment to side thruster 126  Vθ rotational velocity of the embodiment  Vf forward velocity of the Craft or embodiment  Vx 2 d incremental velocity vector in forward x plane direction  Vy 2 d incremental velocity vector in the y plane from direction of rotation (Vθ)  Vx+Vy or Vxy is the 2 d incremental Apparent Velocity vector adding Vx and Vy  Fx 2 dimensional (2 d) incremental vector force in the forward direction of the Craft  Fy 2 d incremental vector force in the y plane or against incremental direction of rotation  Fxy Total 2 d incremental force combining Fx and Fy  Ux 2 d incremental flow velocity resulting from Vx or forward motion  Uy 2 d incremental fluid velocity resulting from incremental rotational velocity Vy  Uxy vector sum of incremental 2 d fluid velocities combining Ux and Uy  ψ is the angle formed by the Apparent Flow to axis of rotation or forward direction
 In the following detailed description of the invention, numerous specific details are provided for a thorough understanding of the invention. However, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the invention may be practiced without utilizing every one of these details in any one embodiment. In addition, well-known methods, procedures, materials, components and circuitry have not been described in elaborate detail to avoid an unnecessary obscuring of the invention. Many of these "means" are described by those in "related art" and as such are included as if written herein. However enough information is given so a Craft could be built and methods could be followed using the information contained herein along with state of the art methods and materials. The reference materials included herein and simplified drawings attached hereto and made a part hereof in absence of the ability to present a working model are deemed the best way to concisely convey the substance of the invention.
 For the sake of brevity much of the fluid dynamic terminology and underlying concepts are not restated herein and are well known in the art. There are words listed in the terminology section that the applicant would like to clarify or may have used differently from the art due to the uniqueness of the system and Craft. Words listed in the terminology section are capitalized when used herein including the claims section. Whenever there is a conflict between word usage in the art and the capitalized words listed in this terminology section, the definitions of words listed in TERMINOLOGY will take precedence and supersede those used in the art.
 Active Hull refers to one or more powered rotating bodies, elements, shells, hulls or the like, whether that body is a Pressure Hull or a Light Hull or both of any shape, length and diameter, which rotates about a fore-and-aft axis that can be hydrodynamically or rotationally balanced. An Active Hull may cover wholly a Fixed Hull or partially, thereby exposing some elements of that non rotating entity. An Active Hull will always have Surface Treatments in Area (1) but may have either a Right Handed or Left Handed rotation (counter-clockwise or clockwise) or both as in the case of two counter-rotating Active Hulls.
 Active Hull Platform is the formation and exploitation of Apparent Flows and Surface Treatment in Area (1) or Area (1) and Area (2) by utilizing an Active Hull.
 Apparent Flow refers to the actual flow of fluid as seen by an incremental area on or within the embodiment or Active Hull. It is the resultant or vector sum of the rotational flows and axial fore-aft flows. For example it is the fluid as it appears to a Vortex Generator (VG) on an embodiment while the Craft is in motion.
 Area (1) refers to the area that contains the external Skin of an embodiment or Active Hull, Surface Treatment if any, and the external boundary layer and the area beyond as illustrated in FIG. 5A Detail.
 Area (2) as depicted in FIG. 7A Detail is the area between the Fixed Hull and the Active Hull and includes the internal surface area or Skin of the Active Hull 103 and the external Skin of the Fixed Hull 104 that lies beneath the Active Hull, and all the area between the two including any Surface Treatment attached to either.
 Blade refers to a short wing whose purpose is to interact with Apparent Flow but need not necessarily have some pitch or angle of attack to Apparent Flow. A Blade's purpose is to create thrust and is similar to traditional blades of a propeller in their design in those stations more distal from the axis of rotation. These Blades can exist in great numbers or arrays, be shorter in length, be made from more flexible materials, have little or no need for a "twist", and when distributed in great numbers have smaller individual thrusts giving a smoother overall increased impulse.
 Boundary Layer Thrust refers to forces on or near the Skin that are a result of vortices with some component of their momentum nearest the Skin in the forward direction.
 Bulk Flow is fully developed stream flow and for the purposes of this application is the Apparent Flow beyond the boundary layer and shear layer flow.
 Craft is the sum of all systems that make a finished independent water vessel that would include such systems required to guide, propel, and limit drag whether traditional or some embodiment of an Active Hull.
 Fixed Hull is a hull, body or craft that has a general velocity only in the fore-aft plane normally against the direction of bulk fluid flow external to the craft. It refers to a hull that has no flexibility in surfaces and does not rotate. In this application a non rotating inner hull or body is an example of a Fixed Hull as is the traditional hull of a craft.
 Fixed when referring to a Surface Treatment is the apposite of Variable Surface Treatment and allows for no alteration to size or position of the Surface Treatment.
 Left Handed vortex refers to a vortex downstream of a Vortex Generator (VG) that has the rotation in the direction that fingers of the left hand wrap when the thumb is pointed in the direction of flow approaching the VG.
 Light Hull is a hull that allows pressure to equalize between inside and external surfaces so as to avoid the structural requirements of a Pressure hull.
 Pressure Hull refers to a hull that can structurally withstand subsurface pressures and is generally dry on the inside surfaces.
 Right Handed vortex refers to a vortex downstream of a Vortex Generator (VG) that has the rotation in the direction that fingers of the right hand wrap when the thumb is pointed in the direction of flow approaching the VG.
 Skin refers to any surface of a craft, Fixed Hull or Active Hull in Area (1) or Area (2) in contact with a fluid.
 Surface Treatment refers to any surface condition or conditions whether Fixed or Variable including a plurality of various attachments, protrusions or valleys, of any size, shape, or in any combination, joined to or made a part of the Skin in Area (1) or Area (1) and Area (2). Area (1) Surface Treatment when considered collectively with all other Surface Treatment on a Craft within the Active Hull Platform must pass a functionality test of both limiting traditional skin drag in a non random fashion and increasing thrust in a distributed area over the majority of Skin area in Area (1). This restriction is not placed on Surface Treatment in Area (2) due to the unusual and controlled nature of the flows in that area.
 Trapped Vortices refer to vortices kept on or near the Skin at least in part within the boundary layer by such means as corrugations, cells, chambers and differential pressures.
 Variable (as apposed to Fixed) when used in connection with Surface Treatment refers to some alteration to size, shape, concavities, convexities, placement, pitch or angle of attack.
 Vortex Generator(s) (VG) refers to upstream structures in Apparent Flow that create controlled vortices with specific orientation of their axis of angular momentum in the boundary layer downstream. These vortices are in contrast to random vortices originating from random skin conditions such as dimples or scales.
 Referring now to the drawings to best explain the Active Hull Platform contained herein, FIG. 1 is an exploded view that depicts an embodiment that is an Active Hull 101 which is a Light Hull that rotates about the fore-aft axis of a Fixed Hull 105 which is a Pressure Hull for the embodiment. An Active Hull would have the greatest advantage if the managed Apparent Flows created by combining axial flows and specific rotational flows were exposed to Surface Treatment 109 that could positively affect thrust and limit drag in the area surrounding the Active Hull. The direction of rotation is optional as long as the flow with correct angle of attack to Surface Treatment 109 is maintained.
 For simplicity in FIG. 1 the Light Hull embodiment is in the shape of a cylinder with convex dished nose that is larger in diameter and therefore able to fit over or be docked on an underwater craft and Pressure Hull that is smaller in diameter also the shape of a cylinder. The Fixed Pressure Hull within has traditional means of guidance 112 and propulsion in the stern 134 and a sail 102 with side thruster 126.
 The definition of Active Hull does not mandate physical symmetry about the fore-aft axis but this application depicts only bodies symmetrical about the fore-aft axis of rotation. However variations including such things as shapes, cut outs, Surface Treatment both Fixed and Variable, and pattern as viewed from different perspectives could be asymmetrical in appearance and still balance when rotating using hydrodynamic pressures from such things as Variable Stabilizers or rudders in combination with the balancing tubes described later. It is easy to see intuitively that any form of an Active Hull as long as it is hydrodynamically balanced at design angular velocities would satisfy the spirit of this application and thereby be included herein.
 The controlled rotational or angular velocity is introduced into the embodiment as shown in FIG. 1 by supplying torque to the embodiment. The torque could be supplied by normal mechanical means 106 of gears and bearings from a power source inside the Fixed Hull 105 as illustrated in prior art. The means chosen in a preferred embodiment uses electromagnetic means within a rotor housing 137 made a part of the Active Hull as shown in FIG. 4. FIG. 6A Detail illustrates such a means of applying power by utilizing permanent magnets 114 hermetically sealed and built into a large rotor 107 attached to the Active Hull 101. The Fixed Hull has attached a large armature stator ring 115 using brushless means to form the electromagnets 108 to make the entire assembly a large electromechanical motor.
 The greater the torque applied to the embodiment the greater the need for anti-torque forces to keep the Fixed Hull 105 within from rotating. The Fixed Hull could have the torque of propellers to help counter balance the torque of the embodiment in some measure. Also in Area (2) A2 described later and illustrated in FIG. 7A Detail, the circumferential flows over Surface Treatment could provide a counter moment to the torque applied to rotate the embodiment. For fine tuning purposes, it could also be aided by a sail propeller or side thruster 126 shown in FIG. 1. The greater the distance L as shown in FIG. 1 the anti torque side thruster is from the fore/aft axis of rotation the less force required to supply the anti-torque moment to the Craft thereby quieting the Craft further. However in a preferred embodiment, the anti-torque is mainly provide by using coupled Active Hulls rotating in opposite directions as shown in FIG. 8, FIG. 10 and FIG. 13. An Active Hull by definition is one or more bodies so even numbered bodies could be set to rotate in opposite directions to fulfill this need.
 There is generally a need for ballast in underwater Craft and with higher rotational velocities of an Active Hull there comes the need for rotational balancing as well. Bearing loads would be substantially reduced if the Active Hull embodiment is balanced by a ballast and balance tube system coupled with hydrodynamic balancing using blades or rudders. FIG. 5A Detail and FIG. 7A Detail shows tubes purged 122A and filled 122B with tube partition 127 to contain and distribute the ballast as needed. Dynamic rotational balancing could be accomplished by a computer aided system of sensing and then filling or purging the tubes as needed. These same or similar tubes can be used to affect buoyancy or maintain neutral buoyancy.
 Bearing loads are both radial and axial and could be managed by purely mechanical means of roller and thrust bearings or electromagnetic bearings or some combination of the two. Both electromagnetic and mechanical bearings are well known in the art. Axial loads on thrust bearings would be reduced if there were similar thrusts provided by both the Fixed Hull and Active Hull.
 This invention alters large fluid flows relative to the customary axial velocities encountered by a Fixed Hull on its external surfaces. It does so without the disadvantages of systems employing a plurality of fragile micro systems or noisy, inefficient, piping and pumping systems with large Reynolds numbers. The managed flows are a resultant of the forward velocity and specific angular velocity of an Active Hull and can be seen by Surface Treatment in Area (1) to give a distributed thrust. Area (2) may also have managed flows that will be discussed later.
 Area (1) A1 as depicted in FIG. 5A Detail and FIG. 7A Detail contains all the area from external Skin 113 of the Active Hull 101 outward, including the external boundary layer, shear layer and the area beyond in contact with the bulk or free stream flow of the external environment. For the purposes of this application Bulk Flow is generally the Apparent Flow. Area (2) A2 is the area between the Fixed Hull and the Active Hull 101 embodiment and includes the internal surface area or Skin 103 of the Active Hull 101, and the external Skin 104 of the inner Fixed Hull 105 covered by the Active Hull, and all the area between the two as depicted in FIG. 5A Detail and FIG. 7A Detail.
 Surface Treatment has been defined in the terminology section but it might help to clarify the definition by illustrating what is not a Surface Treatment in Area (1). Augers, flights, blades or foils are not Surface Treatment by themselves which is easily seen when motionless and viewed from above. They don't cover large portions of total skin areas of a craft and are not meant to address boundary layer conditions that are the source of skin drag. Smooth skin is an example that is not Surface Treatment if used by itself or not used collectively with other Surface Treatment because it does not address traditional skin drag and increase thrust when used with an Active Hull. Rough skin, scales or dimples may prove slightly advantageous to the formation of vortices in the boundary layer but they don't satisfy the "non random" part of the definition as they randomly energize the boundary layer and do not form vortices with a specific axis of rotational momentum to aid in thrust and limit drag. Therefore even if numerous augers or blades were placed on rough or smooth skin they do not satisfy the definition in Area (1) even though they might cover the majority of a craft.
 There are three basic types of Surface Treatment as defined herein. The first general category discussed refers to devices mechanically attached to or made a part of the Skin that create vortices or are Vortex Generators (VG) and generally have a depth within the boundary layer or shear layer. The second general type of Surface Treatment is structures of or on the Skin or within the Skin itself that can absorb, maintain, amplify, limit, dampen, protect, trap or affect vortices or the forces and energies imparted by vortices. Some examples are small cells, corrugations, roughed surfaced or cilia. A third category of Surface Treatment would be those that reach into the free stream or bulk flows beyond the boundary and shear layer that have some benefit in those flows such as Blades or Blade arrays.
 Benefits of the Active Hull Platform from the first category in Area (1) A1 will be focused on first with Area (2) A2 discussed later. Vortex Generators (VG) 111 are shown in FIG. 1, FIG. 5A Detail, FIG. 7A Detail, FIG. 9, FIG. 11A and FIG. 20 whose primary function is to generate vortices with specific orientation within the boundary layer make up the first category. They have depth h as shown in FIG. 9 where h is equal to or less than the boundary layer thickness 119 that varies with parameters that are unique to each embodiment and are illustrated in FIG. 11A Detail elevation. A plurality of VG each generating vortices make up arrays. These arrays with specific placements and densities of VG are discussed later and shown in FIG. 9 and FIG. 20.
 FIG. 9 illustrates the affect of a low drag VG 111 from an array of VG in Area (1) A1 similar to one depicted in U.S. Pat. No. 5,058,837 or US Patent 20080121301. The vortices 121 in FIG. 9 generated by the VG 111 on the embodiment have an axis parallel to the Skin at any given point and transverse to the Apparent Flow 120. By producing Left Handed vortices 121 by the managed Apparent Flow 120 the lower portion of the vortices next to the Skin has an angular momentum orthogonal or 90° to the Apparent Flow 120.
 It is known in the art that generally the optimum angle of attack of VG to flow is approximately 15° as shown in FIG. 9 upper left hand corner. A constant flow direction or a constant angle of attack to Fixed VG in Area (1) A1 is critical and can be maintained with this invention by a constant ratio of Vθ/Vf or altering the angular velocity with any increase or decrease in forward velocity. If the angle of attack is varied too much, the VG is nothing but a drag producing impediment or has little or no affect at all.
 It is important then to control the angle of attack to Surface Treatment and this is best accomplished by managing Apparent Flow. Managed Apparent Flow is done by velocity censors and power control systems that maintain any desired ratio of Vθ/Vf. As shown in FIG. 12 column A, a traditional fore-aft flow Uf is the result of the fore-aft velocity Vf as with any Fixed Hull underwater craft. A rotational flow Uθ is added from the rotary motion Vθ inherent with the Active Hull. These two flows combine to form an Apparent Flow. These flows can allow for a constant flow direction over Fixed Surface Treatment by varying the rotational velocity Vθ to some constant ratio to the forward velocity Vf or Vθ/Vf. It is well known in the art methodologies of measuring and controlling such velocities by use of sensors for both radial and forward velocities and applying torque as needed to the Active Hull to maintain the desired ratio of Vθ/Vf.
 FIG. 12 gives a vector analysis of the incremental two dimensional (2 d) velocities in the X-Y planes of Vf and Vθ which are Vx and Vy respectively. Column A shows Fx as an incremental drag force found on a traditional hull apposing the forward velocity Vf. Column A Row 1 shows Vθ=Vf and Row 2 shows Vθ=2Vf or the rotational velocity doubles in Row 2 with the same fore-aft velocity. Column B illustrates the 2 d incremental velocities of Vx+Vy or Vxy when Vx is the incremental 2 d forward velocity in the X plane and Vy is the incremental 2 d velocity in the direction of rotation in the Y plane.
 FIG. 12 Column C illustrates the flows generated from the velocities in Column B which when combined is the incremental Apparent Flow 120. These flows are Ux and Uy or Uxy when combined at some angle `Ψ` to the axis of rotation. The angle ψ as shown in Column C increases as the ratio Vθ/Vf increases as shown by the three solid arrows in Row 1 for the direction of the Apparent Flow 120 when Vθ=Vf and three dashed arrows in Row 2 to show the direction when Vθ=2Vf. Column C therefore illustrates graphically what can be seen intuitively, as the ratio of Vθ/Vf increases, the resulting flow vectors become more perpendicular to the forward direction of the embodiment.
 FIG. 9 shows that the momentum of vortices 121 closest to the Skin is orthogonal to the Apparent Flow 120. FIG. 12 Column D compares the forces on the Skin from the momentum of the vortices 121 as the flow vectors in Column C become more perpendicular to the fore-aft direction of the embodiment. Incremental negative drag vortices -(-Fx) can be written as a positive force in the forward direction and shown as Fx in Column D. Therefore the 2 d momentum of the vortices formed when nearest the Skin can be broken down into incremental forces applied to the Skin of Fx and Fy in the simplified condition of no slippage. Slippage and increasing frictional affects from vortices is dealt with later. Fx is the resulting incremental force from vortices in the forward direction of the embodiment as the vortices 121 loses momentum to the nearest incremental area of Skin. The change in momentum from the vortices produced from Row 1 to Row 2 in FIG. 12 shows an increase in the incremental force Fx with a decrease in incremental force Fy as Vθ increases relative to Vf.
 Column D shows the related positive Skin forces Fx when the rotational velocity Vθ increases relative to forward velocity Vf on an embodiment as shown in Column A, Row 1 and Row 2 respectively. The constant flow direction maintains beneficial forces from vortices in the forward direction (negative drag) facilitating dispersed areas of Boundary Layer Thrust even if the forward velocity is increased, decreased or kept constant during cruise conditions.
 There are numerous benefits of putting the center of effort further forward on a Craft but with the traditional fixed hull craft they must be ignored as too costly because of the increased skin drag after the forward propulsion system due to the disruption of laminar flow. Here the more forward center of effort from accumulated Boundary Layer Thrust which is the result of the sum of all the beneficial incremental forces Fx comes with an added benefit of decreasing skin drag.
 Summarizing, skin drag is a result of friction and vortices formed by that friction. It is normally considered a negative force or a positive force in a negative direction which could be stated as -Fx as shown in Column A. However, the direction of -Fx can be altered with the addition of rotational flow and Surface Treatment that is introduced by the Active Hull. These tangential or repositioned flows respond to selected VG with an appropriate angle of attack to produce vortices with some incremental momentum nearest the Skin in the forward direction of the Craft to give a -(-Fx) or +Fx and Fy. Fy can be overcome by additional torque supplied by the power source to the Active Hull and not be a burden to other more traditional propulsion systems normally found in the stern.
 Therefore the Active Hull Platform is utilizing the momentum forces in vortices for an incremental forward Boundary Layer Thrust which is doing far more than just energizing the boundary layer to randomly break up or slow the formation of von Karman vortices. However these specific non random vortices would additionally interfere with the formation of von Karman vortices as they are interjecting energy into the boundary layer that oppose the formation of drag causing vortices.
 As the axis of angular momentum of the vortices approaches perpendicularity to the direction of forward motion, an even larger force in the forward direction of the embodiment is possible. However, as the velocity of the Craft in the forward direction is increased, the greater the need for an increased angular velocity for the Active Hull in order to preserve a constant angle of attack to the Surface Treatment without resorting to a myriad of Variable Surface Treatments.
 The second category of Surface Treatment considered herein to illustrate the advantages of the Active Hull Platform are structures of the Skin or within the Skin itself that can among other things absorb, maintain, amplify, limit, dampen or affect vortices or the forces and energies imparted by vortices. Some Surface Treatment that fall into this category are surface roughness, channels, shelves, cells, tubes, concavities, convexities, and slender protuberances or cilia on the Skin that can absorb Fx and limit the effect of Fy as developed in FIG. 12. Examples in previous patents are U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,671,474, 005417391 and 3,578,264.
 The example used for the purposes of this application are cilia 136 which are illustrated in FIG. 11A Detail elevation. They aid in capturing the momentum of the vortices generated in the area. With their increased surface area and flexibility they can follow the motion of the vortices nearest the Skin and absorb and amplify the energies imparted by the controlled vortices discussed above.
 Another example is shown in FIG. 14 where the surface has corrugations and tubes that link both areas A1 and A2 and establishes an interaction between the two areas when the embodiment is a Light Hull. This is also an alternate method of producing and maintaining the angular momentum of vortices 121 generated upstream by feed tubes 123 shown in FIG. 16 Detail and stitched down return tubes 124 by the porting of fluid through and between the two areas A1 and A2. Stitching down vortices is discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,671,474 and is a form of Trapped Vortices.
 The outflow feed and return tubes port fluid by utilizing the higher ram pressures against scuppers and lower pressures affected by Bernoulli principle as shown in FIG. 15A Detail to create the needed flows. This system could create vortices without the strict adherence to some ratio of Vf/Vθ but would also necessitate maintenance problems keeping the tubes clear of debris. Its main purpose for being mentioned here is that there are additional degrees of freedom available with the Active Hull Platform which is interaction and relative motions of the two bodies.
 The third group of Surface Treatment utilized herein to show the positive affects of the Active Hull Platform have a primary purpose enhancing thrust in the bulk flows outside the boundary layer. Although they might inadvertently affect boundary layer flow, their main purpose is to interact with bulk flows beyond the shear layer. Long flagella like whips or slender flexible even chain like protuberances that are outside the boundary layer would fall into this category but the example used herein to illustrate the advantages of this Active Hull Platform is Blades 130. They are shown in several drawings such as FIG. 1, FIG. 2 Detail, FIG. 3 Detail, and FIG. 11A Detail in both areas A1 and A2 as the art is fully developed and well studied for Blades.
 Control of flow velocity in Area (1) A1 is the same for all categories of Surface Treatments. Therefore the methodology of controlling fluid vector direction and speed won't be repeated again here and can be found above as it applies to Vortex Generators.
 Where VG can be placed with an angle of attack of 15° to Apparent Flow, Blades may also be placed with some angle of attack or pitch to Apparent Flow to increase mass flow and thereby increase thrust. Depending upon design criteria and acceptable hydrodynamic noise levels, Blades could alternately be placed parallel to Apparent Flow and have no angle of attack and rely solely on lift for thrust thereby limiting noise.
 As can be seen in FIG. 1, Blades in Area (1) A1 can be placed in a direction parallel to Apparent Flow 120 that allow forward convex surfaces or driving faces to facilitate forward thrust. It can be seen in FIG. 2 the Blades 130 attached to the Active Hull 101 are at angle ψ=45° to the axis of rotation which is the expected Apparent Flow 120 if Ux/Uy=1. (See FIG. 12 Row 1)
 FIG. 2 Detail shows the vector diagram that illustrates incremental Blade forces for Area (1) A1 ignoring frictional forces on the Blade. Fx being the force in the direction of forward motion of the Craft and Fy the force apposing the direction of angular velocity Vθ. It is easily seen that the greater the Fy force the less efficient the Blades will be. Therefore, the greater Vθ is relative to Vf (or the larger the ratio Vθ/Vf) the more efficient the use of Blades in Area (1) is going to be as Fy approaches zero. Blades in Area (2) are discussed later.
 The Active Hull Platform employs relatively short Blades or Blade arrays over large surface areas and can exploit large bulk flows over the embodiment thereby lessoning the opportunity for cavitation. A large benefit of the Active Hull Platform is that speeds in the forward direction will not have to originate solely from a centralized propulsion system. Therefore velocity will not be sacrificed in order to avoid hydrodynamic noise provided that the Blades are designed with the appropriate camber to accommodate the design flows intended or they are Variable in nature as discussed later. They may also be designed with a slight rake as shown in FIG. 11A Detail so as to slip debris that comes their way.
 If increased mass flow providing additional thrust is acceptable and desired a Blade could be designed as is known in the art that would provide same. By altering the ratio of Vθ/Vf and taking advantage of the altered Apparent Flows to the pitch angles of the Blades an increased mass flow may be produced. Once acceleration in the forward direction is completed to some new faster speed, the Craft may once again return to a ratio of Vθ/Vf that is parallel to the pitch angle of the Blades.
 Shorter Blades a long distance away from the theoretical axis of rotation would allow for a very uniform structure with negligible twist required. These numerous shorter Blades would also not be subject to the large loading that centralized propeller propulsion sees and is therefore in a position to be constructed of a variety of materials that may enhance their usage further as discussed later in Variable Surface Treatments. There is also the benefit of putting the center of effort further forward on a Craft without the disadvantages of increased turbulence aft because the Blades can be mounted parallel to fluid flow and have little effect on laminar conditions especially when used in conjunction with VG that can also provide thrust and energize the boundary layer to counter coalescing drag vortices.
 The larger diameter of a traditional subsurface craft the larger the form drag and skin drag. However with the larger embodiments of an Active Hull there come advantages that help nullify these such as a larger overall net thrust from the increased surface areas that provide thrust. Another advantage with increased diameters is the decreased probability of vortex momentum breakaway as the incremental surface area exposed to fluid approaches a flat plane.
 Focusing now on Area (2) A2 as seen in FIG. 5A Detail and FIG. 7A Detail. Area (2) may be sealed by use of mechanical seals or face seals commercially available and left dry. This condition would have the Active Hull be a Pressure Hull. With rotational velocities found appropriate for water Craft, Surface Treatment in Area (2) would be superfluous according to the art but there would also not be drag surfaces within Area (2). There is also the opportunity for sound attenuation to be placed between the Active Hull and the inner Fixed Hull.
 When fluid is allowed to flow inside so as to equalize pressure on both sides of the Active Hull, an Active Hull could be a Light Hull. The area could be closed or nearly so with negligible through flow and effectively filled with special fluids or additives to affect such properties as friction, sound attenuation and/or magnetic flux densities. Such Treatment might include surfactants, polymers, and plasma or ion production to reduce drag between the two bodies. See U.S. Pat. No. 4,812,251. With negligible through flow the constant addition of specialized additives could also be minimized or nearly eliminated.
 If Area (2) had negligible axial flows or only those flows needed to equalize pressure, it would replicate closely the Couette-Taylor system (Ref: Lathrop, Fineberg, & Swinney Volume 46). With the Active Hull the outer cylinder is in rotation and is the driving cylinder rather than the inside Fixed Hull. Therefore, the centrifugal force against the driving Active Hull would increase the frictional affects and accelerate the fluid in Area (2) at an even faster rate than if the inside cylinder were the rotating force as in the Couette-Taylor system thus giving an advantage to the Active Hull.
 If appropriate Surface Treatment such as cilia or surface roughness were added to surface 103 as shown in FIG. 7A Detail, it would increase the traction and therefore increase acceleration of flow even more to compensate for energy lost to friction over Skin 104 and Surface Treatment on Skin 104 such as Blades 130. At cruise the fluid and surface 103 are traveling at similar velocities. However, the energy stored in this rotating fluid could be converted to forward thrust or forward lift if allowed to flow over such Surface Treatment as Blades 130 on surface 104 with their convex surfaces facing forward.
 In open through flow situations in Area (2), unstable flows continue as Reynolds numbers increase. In a negligible flow scenario in Area (2) a Light Hull at high Reynolds numbers >10 4th has great instabilities in vortices formed so as to limit their coalescing affect as those vortices become too fragmented. (Ref: Lathrop, Fineberg, & Swinney Volume 46) These Reynolds numbers are quickly and easily reached within Area (2) with negligible through flow even with low rotational velocities of an Active Hull. It is easily seen then that the flows would quickly result in no turbulent Taylor vortices between the two cylinders making it an efficient system should the rotating fluid be utilized with the Active Hull Platform and translated into linear motion with Surface Treatment such as Blades on surface 104.
 The definition of Surface Treatment allows for Blades alone provided they are placed in Area (2) and not Area (1). The exploded view of FIG. 1 shows Surface Treatment 109 of type Blades 130 attached to the Fixed Hull 105 on Skin 104. After the embodiment is docked the Blades are covered and within Area (2) A2. The Blades on the Fixed Hull 105 are perpendicular to fore-aft axis of rotation and are parallel to the rotational flow or Apparent Flow 120 with Ux=0. As discussed above there would be a vigorous flow in a direction perpendicular to forward motion if negligible through flow existed.
 The placement of Blades in Area (2) A2 in FIG. 1 is in a direction parallel to Apparent Flow 120 that is purely circumferential in the case of negligible through flow. This flow allows forward driving convex faces to be placed directly forward to parallel the axial movement of the Craft. FIG. 3 Detail shows the vector diagram that illustrates the forces on Blades for Area (2) A2 with negligible through flow. Fx being the force in the direction of forward motion of the Craft and Fy is the force in the direction of fluid motion. Fy has a frictional force omitted in this simplified example and is countered by the application of continued torque on the embodiment and not overcome by additional thrust from a centralized propulsion system in the stern.
 In Area (1) the direction of flow as seen by Surface Treatment can be controlled by managing the rotation of the embodiment and more particularly the ratio Vf/Vθ. Area (2) has the added benefit of controlling the through flow or mass flow which gives Area (2) an added degree of freedom for managing Surface Treatments and drag forces.
 Area (2) has the potential of one body moving relative to another so it also has the opportunity of creating mass flows either as a positive displacement pump with one body moving axially relative to the other, or in a rotational plane as is illustrated herein with the preferred embodiment utilizing turbine fins or Blades, or both. Area (2) has the potential for combined rotational flows and fore-aft axial flows (through flow) if fluid were allowed to enter and exit the area in an appreciable manner. These increased mass flows or thrusts could easily be ported to give some measure of guidance.
 Hatches could easily control the through flow In Area (2) and could be negligible, ram pressure flow, or increased flows to aid in mass flow propulsion. FIG. 8 and FIG. 10 show an embodiment with portals or intakes 125 and stern tubes or exhausts 135.
 Bow intakes as shown in FIG. 10 can interfere with sonar installations. FIG. 8 shows an embodiment with Fixed Hull sonar installation exposed and bow intakes 125 aft of the sonar installation. The Active Hull rotates aft of the fixed sonar installation.
 Surface Treatment may be either Fixed or Variable as defined herein so as to alter some aspect of their dimensionality or positioning. U.S. Pat. No. 6,427,948 illustrates a Variable Vortex Generator. FIG. 17 shows a Variable Blade, with an individual mechanical change to position or pitch relative to flow in a before 128 and after 129 positioning. FIG. 18 and FIG. 19A Detail illustrate a change in camber utilizing deformation of materials sensitive to flow velocities made of a semi rigid material such as HDPE or the like and does not require an individual mechanical control over each Blade. With the resiliency of these materials as flow velocities decrease they would regain their original shape or camber.
 Morphing wings are well documented in the art and can include more flexible or pliable material that can morph camber by increasing or decreasing rib length of the Blade. In the case shown in FIGS. 18 and 19 Detail Bernoulli's principle is utilized over strategically placed holes 140 or slots to lower the pressure inside the Blade to more than compensate the lower pressures on the driving face of the Blade on the external surface. This would not be possible with the stresses put on large propeller blades in a centrally located propulsion system. A preferred embodiment evading hydrodynamic noise would use the deformable or morphing Blade that would decrease camber as the flow velocities increase so as to eliminate cavitation and noise at the high flows of maximum design velocities.
 It can be seen that some modification of Surface Treatment could be advantageous particularly with guidance or acceleration in limited areas as shown by Variable Blade 139 near the bow in FIG. 1 and is considered to be part of the Active Hull Platform contained herein.
 Little space will be devoted to a large plurality of individually electro-mechanically controlled Variable Surface Treatment that cover great areas of a Craft because of the impractical nature of supplying power and control over that many mechanical devices in a larger Craft. However within the scope of the Active Hull Platform individually controlled Variable Surface Treatment could be accomplished with mechanical and electro-mechanical means to benefit thrust and control over the Craft such as larger variably pitched bow blades and are therefore included herein.
 It's important to note that by using Apparent Flows to keep a constant flow direction, much of the need for individually controlled Variable Surface Treatment is avoided but as seen above with the example of the morphing Blade, there are Variable Surface Treatment when used with the Active Hull Platform that are practical to implement. Other morphing or changing Surface Treatment that takes advantage of fluid speeds or centrifugal forces could be a subject of future applications.
 The art of vortex generation in each design is unique to that embodiment. VG placement and density is affected by such things as Reynolds number, configuration of VG including VG height and type, diameters and velocities of hulls and surrounding locations of other structures and other Surface Treatments. The Active Hull Platform is a method or system that is the amalgamation of a managed Active Hull, Surface Treatments and design criteria.
 From Investigation of Vortex Generation Dayton A Griffin December 96 RNEL for non random surface VG the data shows an optimum placement for Reynolds numbers in the magnitude of E6 to be 10h where h=depth of VG and s=distance apart or spacing of VG as shown in FIG. 4. At lower Reynolds numbers a more sparse density was appropriate and in most cases a staggered array (See FIG. 9) showed better results. Reynolds numbers can be greater than E6 with an embodiment making the placement denser or closer together than 10h. To give some sense in a dimensional world, h would likely be in the approximate range of 1 centimeter depending upon the Reynolds numbers and the desired embodiment so they could be constructed to withstand abuse and still maintain their functionality.
 Although general knowledge of placement is known in the art, optimum placement of Surface Treatment is best found through experimentation on an actual Craft of similar size, speed, Skin conditions and placement of other structures that may cast a flow shadow. This can most easily be accomplished by temporary applications of arrays utilizing suction or magnetic pads containing Surface Treatments. Placement of such devises as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,963,810 B2 on an embodiment by utilizing a quick installation and removal as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,265,069 or the like would give an optimum placement for any given embodiment, location and Reynolds number.
 Flow strength and detection using strain gauge capability will show direction and momentum intensity of vortices produced within the boundary layer as shown in FIG. 20. These results could be transmitted and recorded to a computer to show optimum placement of Surface Treatment which are VG 111 in this embodiment. Positive detection gauge 117 shows momentum in a positive direction with respect to Vf and a gauge showing a negative result 118 is shown in a near by area in FIG. 20.
 This application thus far has only illustrated the Active Hull as a Craft but it can also be used as an apparatus or device. One such apparatus or power pod can power and maintain a surface or above surface craft. FIG. 13 illustrates an Active Hull apparatus as a means to reduce drag and provide propulsion on an above water vessel. U.S. Pat. No. 3,730,123 High Speed Ship with Submerged Hull is a similar system that doesn't utilize an Active Hull as described herein.
Patent applications in class Water ballast
Patent applications in all subclasses Water ballast