Patent application title: Process and System for Mixing, Binding and Stabilizing Agents for Manufacturing Refuse Driven Solid Waste
William F. Rhatigan (Pocasset, MA, US)
Gerard J. O'Brien (Pocasset, MA, US)
IPC8 Class: AC10L548FI
Class name: Fuel and related compositions from vegetation or refuse
Publication date: 2011-12-22
Patent application number: 20110308147
The present invention generally relates to waste to energy systems and
methods. The instant invention is further directed to processes and
systems for mixing, binding, and stabilizing agents for manufactured
refuse driven solid fuel.
1. A method for manufacturing solid fuel with enhanced efficiency and
throughputs of energy from solid waste comprising the steps of:
determining a desired BTU value for the solid fuel; obtaining solid
waste; determining the BTU value of the solid waste; manipulating the BTU
value of the solid waste to the desired BTU value; and manufacturing
solid fuel from the solid waste.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of adding a binding agent to the solid waste.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein the binding agent is organic.
4. The method of claim 2, wherein the binding agent is inorganic.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the BTU value of the solid waste is manipulated by the addition of at least one composition of known BTU value.
6. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of adding additional compounds in order to affect the physical characteristics of solid fuel.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the method is a machine implemented method.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein the solid waste comprises inorganic waste.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein the solid waste comprises organic waste.
10. Solid fuel manufactured in accordance with the method of claim 1.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention generally relates to waste to energy systems and methods. The instant invention is further directed to processes and systems for mixing, binding, and stabilizing agents for manufactured refuse driven solid fuel.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 Large quantities of solid waste, construction debris, large items, and low value hazardous waste are generated daily in urban, suburban, and rural areas. Additionally, industrial, manufacturing, and agricultural businesses generate solid waste in vast quantities. This waste is a problem globally. Typically, land filling and incineration have been used as common means of waste disposal. This creates excessive environmental problems, e.g., various chemical leaching and air pollution, etc., and contributes significantly to greenhouse gas concerns.
 Even with recycling efforts and increased awareness, the majority of waste is being hauled and buried in landfills, which within itself creates environmental concerns and problems. It is accordingly desirable to process and manufacture this waste into a viable and renewable manufactured product, such as solid, usable fuel.
 Gasification is a proven manufacturing process that converts hydrocarbons in any organic fuel to a synthesis gas (syngas), which can be further processed to produce chemicals, fertilizers, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and electricity. Gasification is a flexible, commercially proven, and efficient technology. Waste to Energy (WTE) gasification can help improve air quality by reducing Green House Gas emissions as well as emissions of several major key air pollutants, as well as dioxins, depending on which feedstock's are employed. These emission reductions can provide economic and environmental benefits by virtually eliminating toxic emissions and lowering emission-related operating costs, such as allowance permit costs and emissions-control equipment expenses WTE gasification achieves the reduction of greenhouse gas emission through three separate mechanisms: 1) Generating electrical power or steam,--combustion avoids carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel based electrical generation, 2) gasification process effectively avoids all potential methane emissions from landfills; thereby avoiding any potential release of methane in the future and, 3) Recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals from MSW (Manufactured Solid Waste) is more energy efficient than production from raw materials.
 In addition to gasification, the use of coal in power generation currently is 1 billion tons per year, in the USA alone. Coal provides an economical method to heat and steam generation. The inherent problem with coal as a fuel is the emissions creating greenhouse gases and toxic dioxins. EcoTac® reduces the gases and toxic dioxins when co-fired with coal, while not impeding the efficiency or operation.
 The composition of the waste material in its natural state is also a limiting factor as a result of decomposition, odor, environmental leachate, and the inability to store or create inventory. The processes of alternative and traditional power generation, such as coal, gas, pyrolisis gasification, gasification and plasma arc gasification, are all benefited from the stabilization and the method of creating a variable or constant BTU value and thermal image.
 Currently, the majority of solid or industrial waste is transported in its "natural form". This provides for not only environmental issues, but an extremely poor weight to volume ratio. There are methods of compacting and bailing that will increase the weight to volume, but neither method environmentally stabilizes the product. Additionally, these methods provide little ability to prolong `shelf life". The process and system will not only resolve these issues, but add the benefit of altering the BTU value and thermal model positively or negatively.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 The instant invention provides systems and methods for making solid fuels from various waste compositions.
 The present invention provides solid fuels that enhance the efficiency and throughputs of energy generation in the fields of coal, natural gas, syngas, gasification, plasma arc gasification pyrolysis, and pyrolysis gasification.
 One embodiment of the present intervention relates generally to the composition of the compounds used in the system and the method of mixing or injection of the compounds into the engineered fuel to bind into a solid form, regardless of shape. Also, embodied in the process is the ability to increase or decrease BTU value of the engineered fuel and its base chemical or thermal image. Additionally, the present invention provides means to act as a method of stabilization or containment of any type or form of waste.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
 FIG. 1 is a diagram of one embodiment of the present invention.
 FIG. 2 is a diagram of a system in accordance with the present invention.
 FIG. 3 is a diagram of a system in accordance with the present invention.
 FIG. 4 is a chart representing the analysis of a composition in accordance with the present invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 For simplicity and illustrative purposes, the principles of the present invention are described by referring to various exemplary embodiments thereof. Although the preferred embodiments of the invention are particularly disclosed herein, one of ordinary skill in the art will readily recognize that the same principles are equally applicable to, and can be implicated in other compositions and methods, and that any such variation would be within such modifications that do not part from the scope of the present invention. Before explaining the disclosed embodiments of the present invention in detail, it is also to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of any particular embodiment shown, since of course the invention is capable of other embodiments. The terminology used herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation. Further, although certain methods are described with reference to certain steps that are presented herein in certain order, in many instances, these steps may be performed in any order as may be appreciated by one skilled in the art, and the methods are not limited to the particular arrangement of steps disclosed herein.
 The system and process of the present invention may be used with any combination of any solid or liquid refuse driven fuel. The combination of organic or inorganic compounds may be used in the process or either may be used singularly to produce the stabilization and density of the engineered fuel.
 The invention may comprise one or several features as described herein, and or several combinations of the process of injection and mixing. The process is comprised of various materials both organic and inorganic, but considered carbon neutral. The base process will provide binding of either solid or liquid and can be used in any combination or ratio of solid to liquid as a percentage of weight or volume. The system will use the resultant of the process to create a base product and will inject or insert into the engineered fuel.
 The system will use a mixer to establish the baseline product. The system may comprise an additional mixer to enhance or reduce the viscosity and absorption ratio predicated of the initial state of the engineered fuel.
 Additional embodiments of the system may comprise automatic controllers to adjust and limit the exact amount of the additives to the baseline products. The additives may be either organic or inorganic and will have the ability to increase or decrease the BTU value of the base engineered fuel. Further embodiments may comprise the addition of heat to the system for its drying and ability to transform the products neutral state.
 The mixture can be based on a single compound, either organic or inorganic and will establish a baseline BTU value and thermal model. The single compound can be blended with two or more alternative compounds that will produce a difficult BTU value and a set of trace chemical elements. The addition of heat to the final blend will only be added to affect the viscosity and set time of the injection into the solid fuel mix.
 Depending on the form and shape of the final enclosed or encapsulation, the material will be injected under pressure. The volume and pressure will be a function of density of the solid fuel, amount of oxygen balance, as well as BTU and thermal model.
 With the establishment of the desired BTU value and chemical composition for the manufactured solid fuel, the fuel will be balanced by either stabilization, encasement or solidifying methods. In either case, the use of binding agents may be used.
 The BTU value of the manufactured solid fuel may be manipulated by the addition of either a single compound or two or more compounds.
 The compounds may be either organic or inorganic, or a combination of either group to increase or decrease the final BTU value and thermal image of the gaseous compounds of the solid fuel.
 Ideally, the compounds, either organics or inorganic, will be derived as a byproduct or substate of the original MSW, but have been altered in either state or molecular structure.
 Compounds may also be added to increase viscosity of the additive to the solid fuel. The compounds may be comprised of variable compositions and can be either Newtonian or non-Newtonian in composition.
 BTU value and thermal image of the additive may be used to increase or decrease the base mix of either the binding or solidifying agent of the solid fuel to effect stability of the final solid fuel.
 The viscosity of either the single or multiple variable compositions of the additive to the solid fuel may be used to effectively increase or decrease the additive of the solid fuel for shear stress, velocity or gradient of the additive and ultimately the final solid fuel.
 Dry or liquid organics or inorganics may be used as a binding agent. The medium may be either neutral in BTU value, or be combined singularly or with two or more mediums as to increase or decrease carbon value.
 Organic or Inorganic medium used as a binding agent may be used singularly or with two or more agents as to not affect BTU value, but used to change the molecular structure to increase or decrease gas composition of the thermal image.
 Mixing of the medium used to create the binding agent may be accomplished by either manual or automatic process. The use of a singular mixing means and methods will produce a 60% of the singular agent or the introduction of two or more mediums used as the base binding agent or the manufactured solid fuel.
 The mixing process will enable a desired level of air and moisture entrapment in the base binding agent. This process may be used singuularly or with two or more of the medium used to create the blended binding agent.
 Entrapment of moisture and air may be adjusted singularly or in combination and may be mixed as to generate disproportionate ratios of air and moisture.
 The process of mixing may be accomplished manually or automatically in any combination that creates the effective binding agent with the necessary cohesiveness to solidify the manufactured solid fuel from the transformation point in the manufacturing process of recombination, but before final packaging.
 The use of automated controllers may be added to the mixing process. The addition of the controllers may be either hydraulic or electrical, and/or any combination of the two.
 The controllers may be used to adjust the speed, volume, temperature and velocity of the medium used in the binding agent either singularly or in any combination of two or more agents that are creating the binding agent.
 Controllers used in the mixing may be incorporated to adjust the process on either the x or y axis to effect moisture, and/or entrapment of air.
 The controllers may be used in the mixing process to affect the additives from either a solid to a liquid, or liquid to a solid, while maintaining the optimum dynamic viscosity.
 Automated controllers used in the mixing process will effect mixing not only dimensionally on the x and y axis, but also as it correlates to volume, density, temperature, as well as fugitive elasticity, not only as a factor of the binding agent, but also the manufactured solid fuel.
 During mixing of the binding agent should a gas be created or incorporated as part of the entrapment mixing a defined minimum and maximum ratio will be used to increase or decrease viscosity with the increase if temperature of the binding agent.
 The use of a single or multiple controllers as to location, size, functionality, in the process of establishing the medium(s) used to develop the base binding agent may be established with the introduction of computer aided design simulation or CAE to the process.
 If CAE is used; the simulation will not only be for the incorporation of the controllers, but may be used to establish concurrent engineering versus sequentional engineering and material control.
 Additionally, CAE simulation for the binding agent may be used to establish process parameter control, encasement design considerations and cost estimation.
 The binding agent may be incorporated into the solid fuel process manually or automatically by various forms and techniques of injection.
 Manual incorporation of the binding agent may use singular or multiple components in the additive and may be placed in a free flow manner, with varying degrees or percentages of incorporation into the manufactured solid fuel.
 Automatic incorporation of the binding agent into the manufactured solid fuel process may be instituted in single or multiple steps and area's of the manufacturing process.
 Variables effecting the location and volume of the manual or automatic incorporation of the binding agent are dependent on the desired specification of the solid fuel for BTU value and thermal value.
 Automatic injection of the binding agent will be based on the thermal properties of the mediums used to create the binding agent.
 Automatic injection of the binding agent may be incorporated into the process at a single point or at multiple points of the x and y axis dependant on shape, volume, density of the encapsulation and method used to process for shipment.
 The form and type of material used to encapsulate the manufactured solid fuel may require single or multiple parts of injection of the binding agent to ensure total solidification of the binding agent to the manufactured solid fuel.
 Mold flow analysis may be added to the CAE simulation process to adjust injection pressure and to manipulate thermal property, variable solidifying rates, flow paths and set time.
 Single gates or two or more gates may be used to ensure complete integration of the binding into the manufactured solid fuels.
 A single gate or multiple gates can be incorporated into the injection controllers to set a uniform rate of psi (pounds per square inch) or exert a maximum pressure of 20,000 psi.
 Pressure and flow control for injection will also be based on the thickness of the wall encapsulation material, shape and compressive strength.
 Dynamic modeling of pressure, flow and gates may be incorporated to establish the tensile or compressive strength under full load of the encapsulated manufactured solid fuel.
 Additional pumps may be introduced to create vacuum pressure for the removal of air within the encasement as the manufactured solid fuel is added. The addition of one or more binding agents may be incorporated for desired vacuum pressure prior to full encapsulation.
 The volume of air removed is a direct ratio of the optimum fuel design as required by the customer. The quality of entrapped air may be modified positively or negatively to maintain BTU and thermal value.
 Controllers used in conjunction with pumps will adjust excessive transient pressure to prevent molecular degradation of the material and shape used for encapsulation.
 The introduction of moisture may be found/used in either as a by product of organic and/or inorganic material used in either the binding agent or within the manufactured solid fuel.
 Moisture will be adjusted by addition or subtraction by either pumps or gate valves to prevent dangerous transient pressures being entrapped as a final component of the manufactured solid fuel.
 A solid fuel was produced using methods in accordance with the instant invention. The desired analysis of the solid fuel is outlined in Table 2.
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 2 FUEL COMPOSITION BTU/RANGE 10,500-14,500 DESIRED ULTIMATE ANALYSIS ON DRY BASIS: ASH <54% C >68% H 8.1% O <16% N 1%% S <1.0% CL <.1% FL <.004% H2O 5.0% HG <.3 PPM
 Based on an average 5% moisture content
 Examples of the actual analysis of the solid fuel can be seen in Table 1.
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 1 SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION MUNICIPAL WASTE DATE REPORTED: 03/26/10 % MOIS % % VOL % FIXED BTU/ % SUL TURE ASH ATILE CARBON LBS FUR AS REC'D 0.88 2.14 91.08 5.90 12683 0.07 DRY BASIS -- 2.16 91.89 5.95 12796 0.07 M-A-FREE 13078 Note: Sample Tested using ASTM Volume 05.06 for Gaseous Fuels; Coal and Coke ULTIMATE ANALYSIS (% DRY BASIS) ASH 2.16 HYDROGEN 7.54 CARBON 66.41 NITROGEN 0.61 SULFUR 0.07 OXYGEN 23.21 CHLORINE 0.41
 As shown in Table 1, solid fuel produced in accordance with the instant invention surpasses desired dry analysis targets.
 Additional samples of solid fuel were produced in accordance with the methods described herein. The analysis of these samples is shown in Tables 3 and 4.
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 3 Weight % As Dry As Dry PROXIMATE ANALYSIS Received Basis ULTIMATE ANALYSIS Received Basis % Moisture D3302 2.17 ***** % Moisture D3302 2.17 ***** % Ash D3174 4.41 4.51 % Carbon D5373 65.89 67.35 % Volatile D3175 92.28 94.33 % Hydrogen D5373 8.12 8.30 % Fixed Carbon D3172 1.13 1.16 % Nitrogen D5373 1.91 1.95 BTU D5865 13483 13782 % Chlorine D6721 0.15 0.15 MAF-BTU D3180 14433 % Sulfur D4239B 0.05 0.05 % Total Sulfur D4239B 0.05 0.05 % Ash D3174 4.41 4.51 SULFUR FORMS % Oxygen (Diff.) D3176 17.30 17.69 % Pyritic D2492 ***** ***** (Chlorine D6721 Dry Basis ug/g 1471) % Sulfate D2492 ***** ***** MINERAL ANALYSIS D6349 % Ignited Basis % Organic D2492 ***** ***** Phos. Pentoxide, P2O5 ***** % Total Sulfur D4239B 0.05 0.05 Silica, SiO2 ***** WATER SOLUBLE Ferric Oxide, Fe2O3 ***** % Na2O ASME1974 ***** ***** Alumina, Al2O3 ***** % K2O ASME1974 ***** ***** Titania, TiO2 ***** % Chlorine ASME1974 ***** ***** Lime, CaO ***** Alkalies as Na2O ASME1974 ***** ***** Magnesia, MgO ***** FUSION TEMP. OF ASH D1857 Reducing Oxidizing Sulfur Trioxide, SO3 ***** I.D. ***** ***** Potassium Oxide, K2O ***** H = W ***** ***** Sodium Oxide, Na2O ***** H = 1/2 W ***** ***** Barium Oxide, BaO ***** Fluid ***** ***** Strontium Oxide, SrO ***** GRINDABILITY INDEX D409 ***** @ ***** % Moist. Manganese Dioxide, MnO2 ***** GRIND INDEX UNCONDITIONED ***** @ ***** % Moist. Undetermined ***** FREE SWELLING INDEX D720 ***** Type of Ash ASME1974 ***** Apparent Specific Gravity of Coal ModIC7113 ***** Silica Value ASME1974 ***** % Equilibrium Moisture D1412 ***** T250 Deg B&W ***** Base/Acid Ratio ASME1974 ***** lb Ash/mm BTU 3.27 lb SO2/mm BTU 0.07 Fouling Index ASME1974 ***** Slagging Index ASME1974 ***** (Mercury D6722 Dry Basis ug/g 0.019)
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 Weight % As Dry As Dry PROXIMATE ANALYSIS Received Basis ULTIMATE ANALYSIS Received Basis % Moisture D3302 2.12 ***** % Moisture D3302 2.12 ***** % Ash D3174 2.30 2.35 % Carbon D5373 66.91 68.36 % Volatile D3175 94.15 96.19 % Hydrogen D5373 8.31 8.49 % Fixed Carbon D3172 1.43 1.46 % Nitrogen D5373 2.30 2.35 BTU D5865 13652 13948 % Chlorine D6721 0.15 0.15 MAF-BTU D3180 14284 % Sulfur D4239B 0.03 0.03 % Total Sulfur D4239B 0.03 0.03 % Ash D3174 2.30 2.35 SULFUR FORMS % Oxygen (Diff.) D3176 17.88 18.27 % Pyritic D2492 ***** ***** (Chlorine D6721 Dry Basis ug/g 1486) % Sulfate D2492 ***** ***** MINERAL ANALYSIS D6349 % Ignited Basis % Organic D2492 ***** ***** Phos. Pentoxide, P2O5 ***** % Total Sulfur D4239B 0.03 0.03 Silica, SiO2 ***** WATER SOLUBLE Ferric Oxide, Fe2O3 ***** % Na2O ASME1974 ***** ***** Alumina, Al2O3 ***** % K2O ASME1974 ***** ***** Titania, TiO2 ***** % Chlorine ASME1974 ***** ***** Lime, CaO ***** Alkalies as Na2O ASME1974 ***** ***** Magnesia, MgO ***** FUSION TEMP. OF ASH D1857 Reducing Oxidizing Sulfur Trioxide, SO3 ***** I.D. ***** ***** Potassium Oxide, K2O ***** H = W ***** ***** Sodium Oxide, Na2O ***** H = 1/2 W ***** ***** Barium Oxide, BaO ***** Fluid ***** ***** Strontium Oxide, SrO ***** GRINDABILITY INDEX D409 ***** @ ***** % Moist. Manganese Dioxide, MnO2 ***** GRIND INDEX UNCONDITIONED ***** @ ***** % Moist. Undetermined ***** FREE SWELLING INDEX D720 ***** Type of Ash ASME1974 ***** Apparent Specific Gravity of Coal ModIC7113 ***** Silica Value ASME1974 ***** % Equilibrium Moisture D1412 ***** T250 Deg B&W ***** Base/Acid Ratio ASME1974 ***** lb Ash/mm BTU 1.68 lb SO2/mm BTU 0.04 Fouling Index ASME1974 ***** Slagging Index ASME1974 ***** (Mercury D6722 Dry Basis ug/g 0.015)
 While the invention has been described with reference to certain exemplary embodiments thereof, those skilled in the art may make various modifications to the described embodiments of the invention without departing from the scope of the invention. The terms and descriptions used herein are set forth by way of illustration only and are not meant as limitations. In particular, although the present invention has been described by way of examples, a variety of compositions and methods would practice the inventive concepts described herein. Although the invention has been described and disclosed in various terms and certain embodiments, the scope of the invention is not intended to be, nor should it be deemed to be, limited thereby and such other modifications or embodiments as may be suggested by the teachings herein are particularly reserved, especially as they fall within the breadth and scope of the claims here appended. Those skilled in the art will recognize that these and other variations are possible within the scope of the invention as defined in the following claims and their equivalents.
Patent applications by Gerard J. O'Brien, Pocasset, MA US
Patent applications by William F. Rhatigan, Pocasset, MA US
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