Patent application title: TARGETED GENE DELETIONS FOR POLYSACCHARIDE SLIME FORMERS
Nancy E. Harding (San Diego, CA, US)
Nancy E. Harding (San Diego, CA, US)
Yamini N. Patel (San Diego, CA, US)
Yamini N. Patel (San Diego, CA, US)
Russell J. Coleman (San Diego, CA, US)
Russell J. Coleman (San Diego, CA, US)
IPC8 Class: AC12N121FI
Class name: Micro-organism, per se (e.g., protozoa, etc.); compositions thereof; proces of propagating, maintaining or preserving micro-organisms or compositions thereof; process of preparing or isolating a composition containing a micro-organism; culture media therefor bacteria or actinomycetales; media therefor transformants (e.g., recombinant dna or vector or foreign or exogenous gene containing, fused bacteria, etc.)
Publication date: 2011-11-17
Patent application number: 20110281334
The present invention provides improved polysaccharides (e.g., gellan and
diutan) produced by mutant gene M or gene N Sphingomonas strains
containing at least one genetic modification that favors slime-forming
polysaccaride production. Methods of making the mutant Sphingomonas
strains and the culture broth containing such mutant Sphingomonas strains
are also provided.
1. A slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain comprising at least one
genetic modification that favors the production of a slime form
polysaccharide, wherein said mutant Sphingomonas strain comprises a
mutation, insertion or deletion in gene M, gene N, or both.
2. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 1, where said gene M or N is gelM or gelN gene.
3. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 2, wherein said polysaccharide is gellan.
4. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 1 where said gene M or N is dpsM or dpsN gene.
5. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 4, wherein said polysaccharide is diutan.
6. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 3, wherein said gellan is a slime form polysaccharide.
7. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 6, wherein said gellan comprises longer or thicker fibers than gellan as naturally produced by a wild-type strain ATCC 31461.
8. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 5, wherein said diutan is a slime form polysaccharide.
9. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 8, wherein said diutan comprises longer fibers than diutan as naturally produced by a wild-type strain ATCC 53159.
10. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 8, wherein said diutan imparts to a fluid an increased viscosity relative to an equivalent amount of diutan as naturally produced by a wild-type Spingomonas strain ATCC 53159.
11. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 10, wherein the increased viscosity is at least 30% more than an equivalent amount of diutan produced by the wild-type strain ATCC 53159.
12. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 10, wherein the increased viscosity is at least 50% more than an equivalent amount of diutan produced by the wild-type strain ATCC 53159.
13. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 10, wherein the increased viscosity is at least 80% more than an equivalent amount of diutan produced by the wild-type strain ATCC 53159.
14. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 10, wherein the increased viscosity is at least 90% more than an equivalent amount of diutan produced by the wild-type strain ATCC 53159.
15. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 1, further comprising a second gene mutation, insertion or deletion which converts the strain from capsule former to a slime-forming mutant.
16. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 15, wherein said second gene mutation, insertion or deletion is in gene R.
17. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 15, wherein said second gene mutation, insertion or deletion is in gene I.
18. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 1, wherein said mutant Sphingomonas strain is a variant of a wild-type Sphingomonas strain ATCC 31461, wherein said variant has been genetically engineered to eliminate an expression of gelM, gelN, or both genes.
19. The slime forming mutant Sphingomonas strain of claim 1, wherein said mutant Sphingomonas strain is a variant of a wild-type Sphingomonas strain ATCC 53159, wherein said variant has been genetically engineered to eliminate an expression of dpsM, dpsN, or both genes.
CROSS REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
 This is a divisional application of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/347,341 filed Feb. 3, 2006, allowed, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/649,559, filed Feb. 4, 2005. The prior applications are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 This invention is related to the area of sphingan polysaccharide production. In particular, it relates to site-directed genetic methods for improving sphingan-producing strains.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 Sphingomonas strains, such as ATCC 53159 and ATCC 31461, produce copious amounts of capsular polysaccharide. While under some conditions polysaccharide may be released from the cell [5, 6], during growth with abundant carbon source as in fermentation, the polysaccharide is firmly attached to the cell surface. Attempts to increase productivity of fermentations for diutan and gellan may be limited by the capsular nature of the polysaccharide, which may impair uptake of nutrients. Also, if there are a limited number of sites for biosynthesis of the polysaccharide, there may be a maximum amount of polysaccharide that can be produced by each cell. The polysaccharide gellan has been observed to be involved in cell clumping since mutants that do not make any polysaccharide grow uniformly in suspension . These cell clumps may interfere with techniques such as determination of cell number by optical density, centrifugation of cells, e.g., for isolation of DNA or protein, and separation or lysis of cells for polysaccharide purification.
 The mechanism of attachment and the genes involved in attachment of polysaccharide to the cell surface in Sphingomonas have not been previously determined. Induced mutants of Sphingomonas strains ATCC 31461, ATCC 31555, ATCC 31554, and ATCC 21423 that produce polysaccharide in a slime form have been isolated, but the genes mutated were not determined, and the methods of inducing and selecting the mutants were not disclosed . Genes for biosynthesis of gellan [3, 8], diutan  and sphingan S-88  have been isolated. The functions of many of these genes were assigned by biochemical tests or by homology to genes of known functions in databases such as GenBank. For example, genes have been identified that are involved in assembly of the tetrasaccharide repeat unit [7, 8], and in synthesis of the precursor dTDP-L-rhamnose [3, 9]. It would be expected that genes affecting only attachment of polysaccharide to the cell surface would still have the polysaccharide producing phenotype (i.e., mucoid colonies on solid media and viscous broth).
 A cluster of 18 genes for gellan biosynthesis spanning 21 kb was described, in addition to four genes for gellan synthesis not in the cluster . The DNA sequences were deposited in GenBank in June 2003 (Accession number AY217008). Among the genes in the cluster were gelM, gelN, and gelI. A deletion of most of adjacent genes gelM and gelN was constructed. The gelI gene was inactivated by an insertion. The gelM-gelN deletion strain and the gelI mutant were shown to produce somewhat reduced amounts of gellan and more fluid broths, and the gellan produced was shown to have the same composition as gellan from the wild-type strain. The attachment of the polysaccharide to the cell was not reported
 The Sphingomonas elodea gelR, gelS, and gelG genes appear to be in an operon in the same order as in the S-88 sps gene cluster, but not adjacent to the genes in the cluster of 18 genes . The GelR protein was somewhat smaller than its S-88 homolog (659 vs. 670 amino acids) with 49% identity, and had homology to surface layer proteins and other membrane proteins. The DNA sequences of gelR, gelS and gelG genes were deposited in GenBank in June 2003 (Accession number AY220099). No mutation in gelR was constructed in this report . Yamazaki et al. report that strains with mutations in gene spsR were still mucoid, indicating that they produce polysaccharide, but the polysaccharide was not characterized as to rheology or attachment to the cell [9, 12].
 Yamazaki described classical mutants of four Sphingomonas strains that produce polysaccharide as slime rather than attached to the cell . Yamazaki did not describe how to screen mutagenized cultures for the slime phenotype. Yamazaki did not identify which gene or genes were mutated.
 Sa-Correia reviewed work done on isolation of genes for gellan synthesis . Sa-Correia described partial sequencing of some genes including urf32 and urf26 (equivalent to gelM and gelN described in Harding et al. ). The complete sequences of these genes were deposited in GenBank in April 2003 (GenBank Accession number AY242074). No function of these genes is reported. In the GenBank submission, genes urf32 and urf26 were merely designated as putative membrane protein and putative exported protein, respectively. No sequence for gelI or gelR was deposited.
 Coleman describes the isolation of genes for diutan biosynthesis and investigation of some gene functions . The dpsM and dpsN genes, which were designated by Coleman as orf3 and orf4, were described, but functions were not indicated.
 A cluster of genes for biosynthesis of the S-88 polysaccharide from Sphingomonas strain ATCC 31554 was described [9, 12]. The functions of genes urf32 and urf26 (homologs of dpsM, gelM and dpsN, gelN), and spsl (homolog of gelI, dpsI) were not described. Gene spsR (homolog of gelR, dpsR) was described as encoding a protein remotely similar to bacterial and fungal polysaccharide lyases. The DNA sequences were deposited in GenBank (Accession number U51197).
 There is a continuing need in the art to improve methods of making industrially useful sphingans and the properties of the sphingans.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 According to one embodiment of the invention, a method is provided of making a bacterium. The bacterium is of the genus Sphingomonas and comprises a mutation in one or more genes selected from the group consisting of genes M, N, I, or R of the sphingan polysaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster. The M and N genes are also referred to in some publications as genes urf32, urf26, respectively, for unknown reading frame [8, 9]. A segment of genomic DNA of a first bacterium of the genus Sphingomonas is isolated. The segment comprises all or part of genes M and/or N, or I, or R of the sphingan polysaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster. A mutation in the segment is induced to form a mutated segment. The mutated segment is introduced into a second bacterium of the genus Sphingomonas. The second bacterium comprises wild-type genes M and/or N, or I, or R of the sphingan polysaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster. A progeny of the second bacterium in which the mutated segment has integrated in the genome and replaced wild-type genes M and/or N, or I, or R of the sphingan polysaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster of the second bacterium is isolated. The Sphingomonas bacterium may or may not be S. elodea.
 According to another embodiment of the invention, another method is provided of making a bacterium of the genus Sphingomonas which comprises a mutation in one or more genes selected from the group consisting of genes M, N, I, and R of the sphingan polysaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster. Two non-contiguous segments of genomic DNA of a first bacterium of the genus Sphingomonas are isolated. The segments flank or include genes M and N of the sphingan polysaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster. Similarly, segments flanking gene I or gene R can be isolated. The two non-contiguous segments are ligated together. The ligated non-contiguous segments are introduced into a second bacterium of the genus Sphingomonas. The second bacterium comprises wild-type genes M and/or N, or I, or R of a sphingan polysaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster. A progeny of the second bacterium in which the ligated segment has integrated in the genome and replaced wild-type genes M and/or N, or 1, or R of a sphingan polysaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster of the second bacterium is isolated. The Sphingomonas bacterium may or may not be S. elodea.
 According to yet another embodiment of the invention, a composition is provided. The composition comprises a native gellan polysaccharide with gel strength greater than that of an equivalent weight of native gellan from a capsular strain.
 According to yet another embodiment of the invention, a composition is provided. The composition comprises a diutan polysaccharide which imparts to a fluid an increased viscosity relative to an equivalent weight of diutan produced by strain ATCC 53159.
 According to another embodiment of the invention, an isolated and purified bacterium of the genus Sphingomonas is provided. The bacterium comprises a deletion in one or more genes selected from the group consisting of genes M, N, I, and R of the sphingan polysaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster. The bacterium can be cultured in a culture medium under conditions suitable for producing sphingan polysaccharide to produce sphingan polysaccharide in the culture medium. The culture broth of the bacterium can be used directly as a viscosifier or gelling agent, or after precipitation with alcohol. Alternatively, the culture broth can be subjected to a procedure to remove bacteria from the culture broth prior to use as a viscosifier or gelling agent or recovery from the broth. The Sphingomonas bacterium may or may not be S. elodea.
 These and other embodiments which will be apparent to those of skill in the art upon reading the specification provide the art with new methods, strains, and compositions for making viscosifiers and gelling agents.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1. Comparison of gene clusters for polysaccharide biosynthesis in Sphingomonas strains ATCC 31554, ATCC 31461 and ATCC 53159.
 FIG. 2. Slime forming characteristics of S60WTC gelM-gelN mutants
 FIG. 3. Slime forming characteristics of S60WTC gelN and gelI Mutants
 FIG. 4. Sequence of DNA at the site of deletion of dpsN (SEQ ID NO: 19), and amino acid sequence of the fusion peptide (SEQ ID NO: 20).
 FIG. 5A-5C. Slime forming characteristics of dpsN mutants
 FIG. 6A-6B. Slime forming characteristics of dpsM mutants
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 Genes have been identified that control the attachment of polysaccharide to bacterial cells in two Sphingomonas strains. Deletion of either one or both genes gelM (dpsM) and gelN (dpsN) or inactivation of gelI results in polysaccharide being released into the medium as slime rather than attached to the cell surface as capsular polysaccharide. Formation of slime form of polysaccharide eases handling of bacterial cultures, improves mixing during fermentation, may increase production, and in some cases improves rheology of the polysaccharide. Site directed mutagenesis is advantageous over random mutagenesis and screening for slime-forming mutants for many reasons, including speed and avoidance of unrelated mutations. Inactivation of the gene gelR was found to improve the rheology (gel strength) of the slime form of gellan polysaccharide.
 Orthologs of dpsM, dpsN, gelM, gelN, and gelI can be inactivated in any Sphingomonas strain to obtain the slime-forming phenotype. Orthologs of gelR can be inactivated to prevent degradation of the polysaccharide resulting in improved rheology. Suitable Sphingomonads include without limitation those which make rhamsan (ATCC 31961), welan (ATCC 31555), gellan (ATCC 31461), and diutan (ATCC 53159) and strains making polysaccharides S7 (ATCC 21423), S88 (ATCC 31554), S198 (ATCC 31853) and NW11 (ATCC 53272). The ATCC numbers refer to the deposit numbers of the strains at the American Type Culture Collection. These are exemplified by S. elodea ATCC 31461 and Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 53159, but other strains can be used. Suitable Sphingomonads which can be used include Sphingomonas adhaesiva, Sphingomonas aerolata, Sphingomonas alaskensis, Sphingomonas aquatilis, Sphingomonas aromaticivorans, Sphingomonas asaccharolytica, Sphingomonas aurantiaca, Sphingomonas capsulata, Sphingomonas chlorophenolica, Sphingomonas chungbukensis, Sphingomonas cloacae, Sphingomonas echinoides, Sphingomonas elodea, Sphingomonas faeni, Sphingomonas herbicidovorans, Sphingomonas koreensis, Sphingomonas macrogoltabidus, Sphingomonas mali, Sphingomonas melonis, Sphingomonas natatoria, Sphingomonas parapaucimobilis, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Sphingomonas pituitosa, Sphingomonas pruni, Sphingomonas rosa, Sphingomonas sanguinis, Sphingomonas sp., Sphingomonas stygia, Sphingomonas subarctica, Sphingomonas suberipciens, Sphingomonas subterranea, Sphingomonas taejonensis, Sphingomonas terrae, Sphingomonas trueperi, Sphingomonas ursincola, Sphingomonas wittichii, Sphingomonas xenophaga, Sphingomonas yabuuchiae, and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae. Orthologs can be identified on the basis of gene location and organization in a sphingan biosynthetic gene cluster, on the basis of overall homology, and/or on the basis of domain homology. Typically, the level of overall homology will be greater than 44%, often greater than 55%, 66%, 77%, 88%, or 98% with one of the dpsM, dpsN, gelM, gelN, gelI, or gelR genes. An ortholog desirably has homology greater than 80% with at least one of these four genes.
 Site directed mutagenesis can be used to make mutations in a desired known target gene or genomic region. This eliminates the trial-and-error nature of random induced mutagenesis or spontaneous mutagenesis. Formation of deletions insures that the mutations will not revert, as is possible with point (substitution) mutations and insertion mutations, for example. Deletions also have the benefit of not employing exogenous DNA, such as drug resistance markers or other environmentally undesirable markers.
 An isolated segment of genomic DNA comprising the M and/or N, I, or R of the sphingan biosynthetic gene cluster or flanking DNA is DNA that is not connected to genomic DNA to which it is normally attached. Isolated DNA can be obtained by purification from natural sources, by synthesis, or by amplification, as non-limiting examples. The isolated DNA will typically be on a fragment of DNA in vitro, but isolated DNA could also be on a vector, such as a plasmid or transducing phage, which contains the desired portion of the Sphingomonas genome. Flanking DNA is typically from the genomic regions immediately adjacent to the M and/or N, I, or R within about 500 bp of the genes, or within about 1-2 kb of the genes.
 Any method known in the art can be used to introduce a mutation into an isolated segment comprising all or part of genes M and/or N, I, or R of the sphingan biosynthetic gene cluster. A deletion can be introduced using restriction endonucleases, for example, and rejoining formerly non-contiguous nucleotides. A deletion can be formed by amplifying and joining two non-contiguous segments of the genes or two non-contiguous segments of DNA flanking the target gene. An insertion can be made in an isolated segment using endonuclease digestion and ligation. Chemical mutagenesis can be used on an isolated segment of genomic DNA. Any mutagenesis method can be selected and used according to the particular circumstances.
 After mutations have been induced, the segment of genomic DNA can be reintroduced into a recipient bacterium. Typically, but not necessarily, the recipient will be of the same species as the donor of the segment. Any method known in the art for introducing exogenous DNA into a bacterium can be used. Suitable methods include without limitation electroporation, conjugation, spheroplast formation, calcium chloride precipitation and transformation, liposomes, and viral transduction. Any nucleic acid introduction method can be selected and used according to the particular circumstances.
 If the segment of mutated genomic DNA introduced into the recipient bacterium does not have a means of replicating itself, then it must integrate into a replicon in the recipient bacterium in order to be maintained. Typically such an integration event will integrate the entire incoming plasmid. One can detect a marker on the introduced DNA to identify that the DNA has integrated. In order to detect resolution of the integrate, one can screen or select for loss of a marker on the introduced DNA. Suitable markers for accomplishing this are known in the art, and any can be used as the circumstances dictate. To determine the isolates in which the introduced version of the sphingan genes replaces the wild-type version in the recipient, the size or sequence of the DNA can be determined, for example, by PCR.
 As demonstrated below, the slime form of sphingan produced for example by a sphingan biosynthetic gene cluster gene M and/or N, mutant may have improved rheological properties over the form which is attached to bacterial cells. Such improved rheological properties are reflected in the ability of the same weight of material to provide more viscosifying power. Such improvement may be modest, such as at least 5% 10%, 15%, 20% or 25%, or it can be more substantial, with an improvement of at least 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% relative to the sphingan produced by the capsule-forming parent. Rheologically properties can be measured using any technique which is known in the art. Suitable techniques include without limitation the measurement of Low Shear Rate Viscosity ("LSRV") in tap water solutions and the measurement of Sea Water Viscosity ("SWV") in high salt solutions.
 The slime form of gellan, produced, for example, by a gelN mutant in combination with a mutation in the putative lyase gene, gelR, results in formation of gellan of high gel strength. The gel strength will typically be greater than 1000, whereas the capsular strain typically produces a gellan with gel strength of 700-900, but less than 1000.
 Purified bacteria according to the present invention are those which have been microbiologically purified, for example using liquid dilution techniques or streaking on solid media to form single colonies. Standard techniques known in the art of microbiology can be used for this purpose.
 Mutants according to the present invention can be cultured and grown using the same or similar techniques as used for the parental strains. Liquid culture properties of the mutants may be improved, permitting increased aeration and mixing. The culture broth of the mutant may also provide more efficient recovery than with the attached form of polysaccharide. In addition, the mutants may also provide a product with improved clarity relative to the attached form of polysaccharide. Bacteria may optionally be removed from the polysaccharide produced by the mutant by filtration, centrifugation, or by sedimentation. The culture broth can be chemically, enzymatically, or thermally (hot or cold) treated before or after bacteria removal, as desired.
 The genes from S. elodea ATCC 31461 involved in gellan attachment to the cell surface are gelM and gelN (FIG. 1; SEQ ID NO: 13) and gelI (FIG. 1, SEQ ID NO: 25). A strain has been constructed that has a deletion of most of genes gelM and gelN, resulting in the slime-forming phenotype. A specific deletion of gelN has also been constructed, and an insertion in gene gelI. Both of these mutations result in the slime-forming phenotype. The coding sequences of gelM and gelN are at nucleotides 501-1382 and 1366-2064, respectively, in SEQ ID NO: 13. The encoded amino acid sequences are shown in SEQ ID NOs: 16 and 15, respectively. The coding sequences of gelI is at nucleotides 501 to 1403, respectively, in SEQ ID NO: 25. The encoded amino acid sequences are shown in SEQ ID NO: 26. A deletion of gene gelR was found to result in improved gel strength for gellan in the slime form. The coding sequences of gelR is at nucleotides 478 to 2457, respectively, in SEQ ID NO: 27. The encoded amino acid sequences are shown in SEQ ID NO: 28.
 The genes from Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 53159 involved in diutan attachment to the cell surface are dpsM and dpsN (FIG. 1; SEQ ID NO: 14), and presumably dpsI based on homology to gelI. Deletions of each of genes dpsM and dpsN have been constructed and both result in the slime-forming phenotype. The coding sequences of dpsM and dpsN are at nucleotides 456-1337 and 1321-2019, respectively, in SEQ ID NO: 14. The encoded amino acid sequences are shown in SEQ ID NOs: 18 and 17, respectively.
 It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the same or similar methods used for gellan synthesis may also be used for diutan synthesis. Thus, mutations in genes dpsl and dpsR could readily be constructed. The coding sequences of dpsl is at nucleotides 501-1472, respectively, in SEQ ID NO: 29. The encoded amino acid sequences are shown in SEQ ID NO: 30. The coding sequences of dpsR is at nucleotides 501-2498, respectively, in SEQ ID NO: 31. The encoded amino acid sequences are shown in SEQ ID NO: 32.
 The above disclosure generally describes the present invention. All references disclosed herein are expressly incorporated by reference. A more complete understanding can be obtained by reference to the following specific examples which are provided herein for purposes of illustration only, and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.
Production of Gellan Slime-Forming Mutants
 For construction of mutants of Sphingomonas elodea, a derivative of ATCC 31461 designated S60 wtc1 was used, which has improved uptake of DNA. This strain can be readily made by one skilled in the art. PCR amplification was used to amplify regions flanking the gelM-gelN genes . The amplified fragments were cloned into the pLO2 vector and introduced into S60 wtc by conjugation to replace the gelM and gelN genes on the genome with the deletion, by double crossover homologous recombination. Vector pLO2 does not replicate in S60 wtc, so initial selection for kanamycin resistance selects for those colonies in which the plasmid has integrated into the chromosome by homologous recombination. The vector also contains the gene sacB. This gene confers sensitivity to sucrose. Thus, selection on sucrose can be used to detect isolates that have lost the plasmid and retain one copy of the deletion or wild-type genes.
 S. elodea ATCC 31461 has a low efficiency of uptake of DNA, particularly large plasmids (about 10-7). Spontaneous mutants of ATCC 31461 with increased efficiency of DNA uptake were isolated. It was suspected that those few cells that were successful recipients of a plasmid, such as the broad-host-range plasmid pLAFR3, represented mutants in the recipient population with an increased ability to take up this plasmid DNA. To allow loss of the plasmid, three transconjugants containing pLAFR3 were grown under nonselective conditions (i.e., without tetracycline antibiotic) with serial passage for about 30 generations. Three independent plasmid-cured strains (i.e., tetracycline-sensitive derivatives from each of the initial transconjugants) were tested and all three exhibited increased conjugation frequency (4.2×10-3, 0.6×10-2, and 1.5×10-2), representing a 105-fold increase compared to the wild-type strain. This increased conjugation frequency was stable and reproducible. One of these strains was designated S60 wtc .
 A plasmid containing the gelM-gelN deleted region was introduced into S60 wtc by tri-parental conjugal mating, using pRK2013 to provide transfer functions, and transconjugants selected on YM-Sm (25 ug/ml)-Km (7.5 ug/ml) medium. Streptomycin prevents growth of the E. coil strains. Kanamycin resistant plasmid integrants were isolated. Sucrose sensitivity was used to select for a second recombination event which eliminated the vector. Five isolates were passed two times under non-selective conditions, i.e., without antibiotic. Aliquots were then plated on medium with 8% sucrose. Sucrose resistant colonies were isolated and tested for kanamycin sensitivity. Genomic DNA was isolated and PCR was used to determine which Kms isolates had retained the deletion. An amplified fragment of the expected size for a deletion resulted from the genomic DNA from four strains. These four deletion strains were purified on YM medium. All four strains appeared less mucoid, softer, flatter and darker yellow than the wild type.
Characterization of gelM-gelN Deletion Strains
 The gelM-gelN deletion isolates were evaluated in shake flask fermentations. The ΔgelM-gelN culture broth was fluid and smooth compared to the more solid, viscous S60 wtc broth. Precipitation with isopropyl alcohol produced longer, thicker, fibers from the mutant strains compared to S60 wtc fibers. However, the deletion mutants had 22% reduction in yield of total precipitable material and produced only 30% of the broth viscosity of wild-type. The gellan produced had a normal composition of sugars, and glyceryl and acetyl substituents.
 The mutants were evaluated for slime forming characteristics, using several techniques, including microscopic evaluation, cell clumping, cell pellet formation, and hot settling test, as shown in FIG. 2.
 The hot settling test consisted of heating the gellan broth in the autoclave for ten minutes to melt the gellan, then transferring the hot broth to a large test tube and incubating overnight at 95° C. (to maintain broth as liquid). With a capsular strain, the cells are attached to the polysaccharide and remain suspended. For slime-formers, the cells are not attached and settle during overnight incubation. The gelM-gelN deletion strains were shown to be slime formers by this test.
 For the centrifugation test, the strains were grown overnight in DM2 media containing 1% glucose and centrifuged at maximum speed in the Eppendorf centrifuge. Inactivation of gelM-N genes results in complete loss of attachment of the polysaccharide from the cell surface such that the cells can be pelleted by centrifugation.
 By microscopic evaluation, most of the S60 wtcΔgelM-N cells are free and motile, whereas the S60 wtc are in the gum matrix. In cell culture, the S60 wtcΔgelM-N cells grow in suspension, whereas S60 wtc cells form clumps.
Construction of Gellan Slime-Forming Mutants
 A deletion was constructed of gelN for gellan biosynthesis. PCR primers were designed to amplify DNA fragments upstream (500 bp) and downstream (401 bp) of the gelN gene . Primers used are shown in Table 1.
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Primers for construction of gelN deletion mutant. Primer Sequence Purpose SacI-GelN primer 1 5' TGGAGCTC-GGTGCTGTGGTTGTTCTT 3' Amplifies 500 bp upstream (SEQ ID NO: 1) of gelN XbaI-GelN primer 2 5' GGTCTAGA-GTCAGGCCGGTTGAACAT 3' (SEQ ID NO: 2) XbaI-GelN primer 3 5' AGTCTAGA-GCCTGAACGCCGAAAGGG 3' Amplifies 401 bp (SEQ ID NO: 3) downstream of gelN SphI-GelN primer 4 5' GTTGCATGC-CGTGATGGTGGACAATGG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 4)
 Primers SacI-GelN primer 1 and XbaI-GelN primer2 were used to amplify a 500 bp fragment from the gelM gene as a SacI-XbaI fragment (total 516 bp). Primers XbaI-GelN primer3 and SphI-GelN primer4 were used to amplify a 401 bp fragment from the atrD gene as an XbaI-SphI fragment (total 418 bp). Since the end of the gelM gene overlaps the start of the gelN gene by 17 bp, the stop codon of gelM and the start codon of gelN were retained, as well as the natural stop codon of gelN. The PCR fragments were ligated sequentially into the polylinker of plasmid vector pLO2 , resulting in clone pLO2-gelNdeln#1 carrying the deletion of gelN.
 Plasmid pLO2-gelNdeln#1 was then used to transfer the deletion to strain S60 wtc3 by conjugation and homologous recombination. Strain S60 wtc is a strain derived from ATCC 31461 as a spontaneous mutant with increased ability to take up plasmid DNA . A chromosomal integrant was selected by kanamycin resistance. Subsequent growth for approximately 30 generations in the absence of antibiotic allowed for excision of the plasmid. Recombinants that had lost the plasmid were then selected by sucrose (8%) tolerance, due to loss of the plasmid-encoded sacB gene, and then colonies were screened for kanamycin sensitivity. The sacB gene encodes an enzyme levansucrase for synthesis of levan from sucrose. Levan is toxic to the cells. Cells that have lost the sacB gene can grow on sucrose. The sucrose tolerant isolates can be wild-type or deletion. Genomic DNA was prepared from several isolates to identify those isolates that had retained the gelN deletion versus the wild-type gene, as determined by PCR. Isolates with the gelN deletion had softer, more watery colonies compared to the hard colonies of the wild-type gelN+isolates (See above discussion regarding use of mutant with increased ability to take up DNA).
Characterization of gelN Deletion Mutants
 The gelN deletion mutants had similar properties to the gelM-gelN deletion mutants. Cells were readily pelleted by centrifugation. In cell culture, the gelN deletion mutants grew in suspension, whereas the wild-type cells formed clumps. Thus, inactivation of the gelN gene can result in the slime phenotype as shown in FIG. 3.
 Five individual isolates of gelN deletion mutants were evaluated in shake flask fermentations. The average yield (total precipitable material, TPM) for the gelN mutants (1.10 g/100 ml) was comparable to that of the S60 wtc control (1.08 g/100 ml). Selected gelN mutants were evaluated in 20 L Applikon fermentors using media containing organic and inorganic nitrogen, salts and corn syrup. Gellan polysaccharide was precipitated with isopropyl alcohol, dried and weighed. Average yield of total precipitable material for the mutants was 94% of that of the wild-type control, however, the broth viscosity was decreased by about 40%. This decrease in broth viscosity facilitates mixing in the fermentors.
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Fermentation characteristics of gelN mutants TPM Broth Viscosity Strain g/L Cp Wild-type 12.80 5500 gelN #1 12.04 3850 gelN #2 12.15 2700 gelN #4 11.80 3400 average 12.00 3317
Viscosity was measured in the Brookfield LVF viscometer using the No. 4 spindle at 60 rpm.
Construction of Mutants Producing Gellan Slime with Improved Quality
 The slime mutants of gellan had lower broth viscosity, as described in Example 4, which facilitates mixing in the fermentors. Gellan polysaccharide forms a gel after heating and cooling, and gellan is used in various food applications due to its unique textural and rheological properties. Therefore, the gel strength of the gellan produced by the slime mutants was evaluated. The gel strength is determined by the break or fracture of a prepared gel surface with a plunger.
 The gellan fermentation broth was adjusted to pH 4.6 (to prevent deacylation) and pasteurized by heating to about 100° C. for several minutes. Gellan product was precipitated by addition of three times volume of isopropyl alcohol, and the fibers dried at 60° C. for two hours and milled.
 A calcium solution was prepared by adding 2 ml of a 0.3 M CaCl2.2H2O stock solution to 295 ml of deionized water in a tared 600 ml stainless steel beaker. While stirring the solution at 700 rpm, 3.0 g of gellan product was added and allowed to disperse for 1 to 2 minutes. The beaker was placed into a preheated water bath at 94-95° C. for four minutes, covered and heated for 15 minutes, then stirred for 3 minutes. Solution weight was adjusted to 300 g with heated deionized water, mixed and then left standing at 94-95° C. Solution was transferred into six ring molds (0.5 inch height, 1.375 inch outer diameter, 0.125 inch wall thickness) and covered with a plastic cover plate and allowed to cool at room temperature (20-21° C.) for 20 to 24 hours. The disc was removed from the mold onto a plexiglass plate. Gel strength, or force to break (recorded in g/cm2) was determined in a TA-TX2 Texture Analyzer with a Kobe plunger (TA-19) at 1.0 mm/s.
 Gellan from the slime mutants had lower gel strength than that from the wild-type capsular stain, as shown in Table 4. This result was in contrast to mutants of ATCC 53159 that produce the slime form of diutan, which had improved rheology as described in Example 11, It was considered possible that the slime form of gellan may be degraded by a gellan lyase enzyme, produced by S. elodea. Therefore, a strain was constructed that has a deletion of a gene, gelR, which produces a protein with homology to polysaccharide degrading proteins, e.g. lyases.
 The gelR deletion was constructed in S. elodea strain S60 wtc and strain GBAD-1 . PCR primers were designed to amplify DNA fragments upstream (502 bp) and downstream (435 bp) of the gelR gene. PCR primers used are shown in Table 3.
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 3 Primers used for construction of gelR deletion Primer Sequence Purpose SacI-GelR primer 1 5' ACGAGCTCAGATCAGCCGCAACCTCCT 3' Amplifies 486 bp (Seq ID No: 21) upstream of gelR XbaI-GelR primer 2 5' GCTCTAGA-CGCCGCCATGTTAATCACC 3' (Seq ID No: 22) XbaI-GelR primer 3 5' GCTCTAGA-GATGCGTTCCACGCCTGAC 3' Amplifies 419 bp (Seq ID No: 23) downstream of gelR SphI-GelR primer 4 5' ATGCATGC-CGATCGCGCTCATCAGGGT 3' (Seq ID No: 24)
 Primers SacI-GelR primer 1 and XbaI-GelR primer 2 were used to amplify a 498 bp fragment upstream of gelR as a SacI-XbaI fragment (total 502 bp). Primers XbaI-GelR primer 3 and SphI-GelR primer 4 were used to amplify a 419 bp fragment downstream of gelR as an XbaI-SphI fragment (total 435 bp). The PCR fragments were digested with restriction enzymes and ligated sequentially into the polylinker of plasmid vector pLO2  resulting in clone pLO2-gelRdeletn#4, carrying the deletion of gelR.
 Plasmid pLO2-gelRdeletn#4, which cannot replicate in Sphingomonas, was transferred into S. elodea strains S60 wtc and GBAD-1 by conjugation from E. coli DH5α, using helper plasmid pRK2013 that supplies transfer functions . Chromosomal integrants were selected by kanamycin resistance on yeast extract-malt extract (YM) medium with kanamycin and streptomycin (to counterselect E. coli). Subsequent growth of the Sphingomonas integrants for approximately 30 generations in the absence of antibiotic allowed for the excision of the plasmid. Recombinants that had lost the plasmid were selected by sucrose tolerance due to loss of the plasmid encoded sacB gene, and colonies screened for kanamycin sensitivity. PCR was used to test which isolates had retained the gelR deletion.
 The gelN deletion was than transferred into the gelR deletion mutant of the GBAD-1 strain as described above in Example 3. Plasmid pLO2-gelNdeln#1 was used to transfer the gelN deletion into GBAD gelR by conjugation and homologous recombination. A chromosomal integrant was selected by kanamycin resistance on YM agar with Km (20 ug/ml) and Sm (25 ug/ml). Subsequent growth in the absence of antibiotic allowed for excision of the plasmid. Recombinants that had lost the plasmid were selected by sucrose tolerance due to loss of the plasmid-encoded sacB gene, and then colonies were screened for kanamycin sensitivity.
 The gelR deletion mutants exhibited different colony morphology than the wild-type strains. The gelR deletion strains had smaller rough gummy colonies compared to larger smooth gummy colonies with transparent edges for the gelR+ of S60 wtc or GBAD-1. The gelN-gelR deletion mutants had colony morphology similar to the gelN slime mutants.
Characterization of GelN-GelR Mutants
 These strains were evaluated in 20 L Applikon fermenters using media containing organic and inorganic nitrogen, salts and corn syrup. Gellan polysaccharide was precipitated with isopropyl alcohol, dried and weighed. Gel strength was determined by the method described in Example 5. The GBAD-1 gelN-gelR strain produced gellan of higher gel strength than the gellan produced from the gelN slime mutants or the wild-type capsular strains.
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 Rheological characterization of gellan from mutants Aver TPM Aver. % of Broth Visc Aver Strain Phenotype n = wild-type cP Gel strength S60wtc capsule 3 -- 7292 411 GBAD1 capsule 1 91 4600 629 GelN mutants slime 7 93 2900 132 GBADlgelRgelN slime 3 96 5083 1447
Construction of GelI Mutant
 An insertion mutation in gene gen was constructed. PCR primers were designed to amplify an internal fragment of the gelI gene . The amplified fragment was cloned into the pLO2 plasmid vector and introduced into S60 wtc by conjugation, selecting on YM-Sm (25 μg/ml)-Km (7.5 μg/ml) medium. Selection for kanamycin resistance selects for those transconjugants that have the plasmid inserted by homologous recombination into the gelI gene, thus inactivating this gene. The gelI mutant had altered colony morphology, similar to that of the gelM-gelN and the geiN deletion strains, i.e. mucoid but softer colonies.
Characterization of GelI Mutant Strain
 The gelI mutant was evaluated in shake flask fermentation. The mutant had less viscous broth compared to the wild-type strain and about a 20% reduction in yield of total precipitable material. The gellan produced had a normal composition of sugars and glyceryl and acetyl substituents .
 The gelI mutant was evaluated for slime forming characteristic using several techniques including microscopic evaluation, cell clumping, cell pellet formation and hot settling test as described above. The gelI insertion mutant had similar characteristics to the gelM-gelN and the gelN deletion mutants. Microscopic evaluation showed that the cells were free and motile. In cell culture, the gelI mutants grew in suspension rather than clumps. Cells were readily pelleted from DM2 medium by centrifugation. Cells also settled well in the hot settling test. Thus, the mutation in the gelI gene also results in the slime phenotype, as shown in FIG. 3.
Production of Diutan Slime-Forming Mutants
 Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 53159 (S-657) produces a polysaccharide (diutan) with a structure similar to that of gellan (i.e., it has a glucose-glucuronic acid-glucose-rhamnose repeat unit), but with a side chain of two rhamnose residues attached to one glucose residue. Diutan has two acetyl substituents, and lacks glyceryl groups. Diutan is useful as a viscosifier in oil field and cement applications. Sphingomonas strains produce polysaccharides as capsules firmly bound to the cell surface. The exact mechanism of attachment is not known. The capsule may limit productivity by impairing oxygen uptake. The functionality of the polysaccharide may be hindered by its being attached to the cell rather than free in solution.
 Deletions of the corresponding genes dpsM and dpsN of Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 53159, which produces diutan (S-657), were constructed. Each gene was deleted independently and the effect on capsule to slime determined. Briefly, PCR was used to amplify two fragments homologous to DNA flanking the target gene. These fragments were cloned into a narrow-host-range plasmid pLO2 that cannot replicate in Sphingomonas and contains two selective markers, kanR and sacB. Selection for kanamycin resistance selects for cells in which the plasmid has integrated into the chromosome in one of the homologous regions. The kanamycin resistant strain was then grown under nonselective conditions to allow loss of the plasmid by a second recombination. Loss of plasmid was selected by tolerance to sucrose. The sacB gene encodes an enzyme levansucrase for synthesis of levan from sucrose. Levan is toxic to the cells. Cells that have lost the sacB gene can grow on sucrose. The sucrose tolerant isolates can be wild-type or deletion. Presence of the deletion was confirmed by PCR. Mutants were tested for slime or capsule production. No foreign DNA, plasmid, or antibiotic resistance genes remained in the final strain.
Detailed Construction of dpsN and dpsM Deletions Strains
 Deletions of dpsM and dpsN were constructed on a plasmid and transferred to the genome of ATCC 53159, using a gene replacement strategy similar to that described for S. elodea deletion mutants . PCR was used to amplify DNA regions flanking the target gene and then the fragments cloned into plasmid pLO2 , which was then used to exchange the deletion for the target gene in the chromosome. Primers used for the PCR are shown in Table 5. Restriction sites for cloning (shown in italics) were added to the ends of the primers.
TABLE-US-00005 TABLE 5 Primers for construction of deletion mutations. Primer Sequence Purpose SacI-DpsN primer 1 5' TTGAGCTC-GCTGTGGCTGTTCTTCCT 3' Amplifies 497 bp (SEQ ID NO: 5) upstream of dpsN XbaI-DpsN primer 2 5' CGTCTAGA-GTCACGCCGGTTGAACAT 3' (SEQ ID NO: 6) XbaI-DpsN primer 3 5' TCTCTAGA-CTCGGTCACCAGGTCTGAA 3' Amplifies 396 bp (SEQ ID NO: 7) downstream of dpsN SphI-DpsN primer 4 5' CTCGCATGC-CGGTAAAGGTGAAG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 8) SacI-DpsM primer 1 5' TTGAGCTC-GATCGGCGTTAAGACTGC 3' Amplifies 474 bp (SEQ ID NO: 9) upstream of dpsM XbaI-DpsM primer 2 5' CGTCTAGA-TCATCGCGGTCGCTGCCAT 3' (SEQ ID NO: 10) XbaI-DpsM primer 3 5' CCTCTAGA-CGTCGGAGGCATCATGTTC 3' Amplifies 509 bp (SEQ ID NO: 11) downstream of dpsM SphI-DpsM primer 4 5' TCGCATGC-TCTGCTGATTGCCGTTCT 3' (SEQ ID NO: 12)
 Deletion constructions were designed to leave the remaining genes for diutan synthesis intact. For the dpsN deletion, primers SacI-DpsN primer1 and XbaI-DpsN primer2 were used to amplify a 497 bp fragment from the dpsM gene as a SacI-XbaI fragment (total 513 bp). Primers XbaI-DpsN primer3 and SphI-DpsN primer4 were used to amplify a 396 bp fragment from the atrD gene as an XbaI-SphI fragment (total 413 bp). Since the end of the dpsM gene overlaps the start of the dpsN gene by 17 bp, the stop codon of dpsM and the start codon of dpsN were retained, as well as the natural stop codon of dpsN. Thus this construction may result in formation of a small peptide of 13 amino acids, as shown in FIG. 4. The PCR fragments were ligated sequentially into the polylinker of plasmid vector pLO2 , resulting in clone pLβ2-dpsNdeln#3 carrying the deletion of dpsN.
 This plasmid, pLO2-dpsNdeln#3 which cannot replicate in Sphingomonas, was transferred into the Sphingomonas strain ATCC 53159 by conjugation from E. coli DH5α using a helper plasmid pRK2013 that supplies transfer functions . Chromosomal integrants were selected by kanamycin resistance on YM medium with 7.5 μg/ml kanamycin, and 25 μg/ml streptomycin (to counterselect E. coli). Subsequent growth of the Sphingonionas strains for approximately 30 generations in the absence of antibiotic allowed for excision of the plasmid. Recombinants that had lost the plasmid were then selected by sucrose (8%) tolerance, due to loss of the plasmid-encoded sacB gene, and then colonies screened for kanamycin sensitivity. Genomic DNA was prepared from several isolates to identify those isolates that had retained the dpsN deletion versus the wild-type gene, as determined by PCR.
 Similarly, a deletion of dpsM was constructed. Primers SacI-DpsM primer1 and XbaI-DpsM primer2 were used to amplify a 474 bp fragment from the dpsE gene as a SacI-XbaI fragment (total 490 bp). Primers XbaI-DpsM primer3 and SphI-DpsM primer 4 were used to amplify a 509 bp fragment from the dpsN gene as a XbaI-SphI fragment (total 525 bp). Since the end of the dpsM gene overlaps the start of the dpsN gene by 17 bp, the stop codon of dpsM and the start codon of dpsN were retained. A stop codon was incorporated within the XbaI cloning site. A 7-amino acid peptide may be formed from the dpsM start site. The PCR fragments were ligated sequentially into the polylinker of plasmid vector pLO2 , resulting in clone pLO2-dpsMdeln#1 carrying the deletion of dpsM. This plasmid was transferred by conjugation into ATCC 53159 selecting for kanamycin resistant integrants, followed by growth in the absence of antibiotic and detection of sucrose tolerant, kanamycin sensitive recombinants. Genomic DNA was isolated from selected recombinants and screened by PCR for presence of the deletion.
Characterization of Diutan Slime-Forming Mutants
 Results of several tests showed that both the dpsM and dpsN deletions result in a change from capsule former to slime former, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4.
 1. Microscopic evaluation of two dpsN deletion mutants (#3 and #5) and two dpsM deletion mutants (#1 and #5) grown about 16 hours in high carbon fermentation medium indicated that cells from these mutants did not form the large cell aggregates characteristic of the Sphingomonas capsular strain, S-657 (FIG. 5A, and FIG. 6A).
 2. Wild-type ATCC 53159 cells grown in defined medium (DM2) with 1% glucose for 24 hours and diluted ten-fold formed visible clumps, where as the dpsM and dpsN slime mutants form uniform suspensions similar to that of a non-mucoid strain, DPS1 (FIG. 5C for dpsN).
 3. Centrifugation of 24-hour cultures grown in DM2 medium with 1% glucose showed that the cells from the dpsM and dpsN slime mutants could be pelleted, whereas those from wild-type ATCC 53159 (S-657) remained attached to the polysaccharide, and thus did not pellet (FIG. 5B and FIG. 6B).
 Six independent isolates of dpsN deletion mutants exhibited an average 5.4% increase in total precipitable material compared to the wild-type control, in shake flask fermentations. Selected dpsN and dpsM mutant isolates were evaluated in 20 L Applikon fermentors using media containing organic and inorganic nitrogen, salts and different carbon concentrations (3-5%). Polysaccharide was precipitated with isopropyl alcohol, dried and weighed. The dpsN mutants consistently exhibited a slight increase in total precipitable material compared to the wild-type capsular control strain. The dpsM mutants gave more variable and generally lower productivity as shown in Table 6.
TABLE-US-00006 TABLE 6 Increase in yield of polysaccharide with dps mutants 5% carbon source dpsN #3 n = 3 5.9% dpsN #5 n = 2 3.9% dpsM #1 n = 1 -30.2% dpsM #5 n = 1 9.3% 3% carbon source dpsN #3 n = 2 4.2% dpsM #1 n = 2 -10.1% dpsM #5 n = 4 -2.7%
Characterization of Diutan Slime-Form Polysaccharide
 Rheological properties of diutan recovered from these fermentations by precipitation with isopropyl alcohol was determined, as shown in Table 7. Both dpsM and dpsN slime mutations resulted in improved viscosity of diutan.
TABLE-US-00007 TABLE 7 Rheological properties of diutan from slime mutants % 0.06 s-1, % % Strain SWV3 increase viscosity increase LSRV Increase wild- n = 5 26.7 27,760 2010 type dpsN n = 5 35.3 32% 37,920 37% 3873 93% #3 dpsN n = 2 37.3 40% 41,400 49% 4075 103% #5 dpsM n = 3 40.5 52% 37,733 36% 3905 94% #1 dpsM n = 5 39.1 46% 39440 42% 3720 85% #5 aver. 42% aver. 41% aver. 94%
 It was also observed that fiber quality, e.g., length, was improved with the slime mutants. Since the polysaccharide molecules are free in solution rather than attached to the surface of the cell, the precipitation of these molecules may be facilitated.
Low Shear Rate Viscosity Measurement.
 Low shear rate viscosity is the viscosity of a 0.25% solution of diutan at 3 rpm. Standard or synthetic tap water was prepared by dissolving 10 g of NaCl and 1.47 g of CaCl2.2H2O in 10 liters of deionized water. 4.5 g of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 200 was weighed directly in a 400-ml tall form beaker. A 0.75 g aliquot of diutan product was weighed, and dispersed in the PEG 200 to form a consistent slurry. 299 ml of synthetic tap water was added to the beaker and the mixture stirred at 800±20 rpm for approximately 4 hours. The beaker was removed from the stirring bench and placed in a 25° C. water bath and allowed to stand for 30 min. The viscosity was measured using a Brookfield LV Viscometer with the No. 2 spindle at 3 rpm.
Seawater Viscosity Measurement.
 Seawater viscosity was determined using the following procedure. Seawater solution was prepared by dissolving 41.95 g of sea salt (ASTM D-1141-52, from Lake Products Co., Inc. Maryland Heights, Mo.) per 980 g deionized water, with pH adjusted to 8.2 with HCl or NaOH as needed. 307 g of seawater solution was transferred to a mixing cup; 0.86 g of diutan product was slowly added over 15-30 seconds to the mixing cup and allowed to mix at 11,500 rpm for 45 minutes in the Fann Multi-Mixer, Model 9B5 (Fann Instruments, Inc, Houston, Tex.). Three drops of Bara Defoam (NL Baroid/NL Industries, Inc., Houston, Tex.) was added and stirring was continued for an additional 30 seconds. The mixing cup was removed from the mixer and immersed in chilled water to lower the fluid's temperature, then placed in a constant temperature bath at 25° C. The solution was transferred to a 400-ml tall form beaker.
 Fann viscosity (Fann Viscometer, Model 35A) was measured while mixing at low speed (3 rpm). The shear stress value was read from the dial and recorded as the SWv value at 3 rPm.
 The viscosity was also determined on the Brookfield LV DV-11 or DV-II viscometer with the LV-2C spindle. The 0.06 sec-1 reading was measured at 0.3 rpm.
Materials and Methods
 Medium. YM contains per liter, 3 g yeast extract, 5 g peptone, 3 g malt extract, and 10 g glucose. DM2 medium contains per liter, 2.68 g K2HPO4, 1.31 g KH2PO4, 2.0 g NH4SO4, 0.1 g MgSO4.7H2O, 15 mg CaCl2.2H2O, 8.34 mg FeSO4.7H2O, 0.05 mg MnCl2.4H2O, 0.03 mg CoCl2.6H2O, 0.8 mg CuSO4.5H2O, 0.02 mg Na2MoO4.2H2O, 1.0 mg ZnSO4.7H2O, 0.2 mg H3BO3 and 10 g glucose. Gellan shake flask fermentation medium contains per liter, 0.23 g NaCl, 0.165 g CaCl2.2H2O, 2.8 g K2HPO4, 1.2 g KH2PO4, 1.9 g NaNO3, 1.0 g N--Z-Amine type EKC (Sheffield Products), 36.46 g Star-Dri corn syrup, 2.5 mg FeSO4.7H2O, 24 μg CoCl2.6H2O and 0.1 g MgSO4.7H2O.
 Centrifugation test for slime. Strains were grown approximately 24 hours at 30° C. in DM2 medium containing 1% glucose, with shaking at 350 rpm and then centrifuged at maximum speed (10,000 rpm) for 5 minutes in the Eppendorf centrifuge.
 Hot settling test. Strains were grown in gellan shake flask fermentation medium. Fermentation broth was heated in the autoclave for 10 minutes to liquefy gellan. The hot broth was then transferred to a large test tube and allowed to settle overnight at 95° C. (to maintain broth as liquid). With a capsular strain the cells are attached to the polysaccharide and remain suspended. For slime-formers, the cells are not attached and precipitate during overnight incubation.
 PCR amplification. The high fidelity PCR enzyme "PfuUltra hot start DNA polymerase" from Stratagene (LaJolla, Calif.) was used.
 The disclosure of each reference cited is expressly incorporated herein.  1. Coleman R C. 2001. Cloning and analysis of Sphingonionas sp. ATCC 53159 polysaccharide genes. San Diego State University MS thesis  2. Ditta G, S Stanfield, D Corbin and D R Helinski. 1980. Broad host range DNA cloning system for Gram-negative bacteria: construction of a gene bank of Rhizobium meliloti. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 7347-7351.  3. Harding N E, Y N Patel and R J. Coleman. 2004. Organization of genes required for gellan polysaccharide biosynthesis in Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 31:70-82.  4. Lenz, O., E. Schwartz, J. Demedde, M. Eltinger and B. Friedrich. 1994. The Alcaligenes eutrophus H116 hoxX gene participates in hydrogenase regulation. J. Bacteriol. 176:4385-4393.  5. Matthews T D. 2004. Identification of genes involved in phenotypic phase shifting of Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 53159 San Diego State University MS thesis  6. Pollock T J and R W Armentrout. 1999. Planktonic/sessile dimorphism of polysaccharide-encapsulated Sphingomonads. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 23: 436-441.  7. Pollock, T J, W A T van Workum, L Thome, M Mikolajczak, M Yamazaki, J W Kijne and R W Armentrout. 1998. Assignment of biochemical functions to glycosyl transferase genes which are essential for biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides in Sphingomonas strain S88 and Rhizobium leguminosarum. J Bacteriol 180: 586-593.  8. Sa-Correia I, A M Fialho, P Videira, L M Moreira, A R Marques and H Albano. 2002. Gellan gum biosynthesis in Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461: Genes, enzymes and exopolysaccharide production engineering. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 29: 170-176.  9. Yamazaki M, L Thome, M Mikolajczak, R W Armentrout and T J. Pollock. 1996. Linkage of genes essential for synthesis of a polysaccharide capsule in Sphingomonas strain S88. J Bacteriol 178: 2676-2687.  10. U.S. Pat. No. 6,605,461.  11. U.S. Pat. No. 7,361,754.  12. U.S. Pat. No. 5,854,034.
32126DNASphingomonas elodea 1tggagctcgg tgctgtggtt gttctt 26226DNASphingomonas elodea 2ggtctagagt cacgccggtt gaacat 26326DNASphingomonas elodea 3agtctagagc ctgaacgccg aaaggg 26427DNASphingomonas elodea 4gttgcatgcg gtgatggtgg agaatgg 27526DNASphingomonas sp. 5ttgagctcgc tgtggctgtt cttcct 26626DNASphingomonas sp. 6cgtctagagt cacgccggtt gaacat 26727DNASphingomonas sp. 7tctctagact cggtcaccag gtctgaa 27823DNASphingomonas sp. 8ctcgcatgcc ggtaaaggtg aag 23926DNASphingomonas sp. 9ttgagctcga tcggcgttaa gactgc 261027DNASphingomonas sp. 10cgtctagatc atcgcggtcg ctgccat 271127DNASphingomonas sp. 11cctctagacg tcggaggcat catgttc 271226DNASphingomonas sp. 12tcgcatgctc tgctgattgc cgttct 26132459DNASphingomonas elodea 13gggctgcagc ttcacggcgg tgaacctcgc cacggcgctg gcccagatcg gcatcaagac 60cgcgctggtc gatgcgaacc tgcgcgattc aagcatcggc gcagctttcg gcatcgcgtc 120ggacaagctg ggtcttgccg actatctcgg caagggcgat gtcgacctcg cctcaatcct 180ccacccgacc agcctcgacc agctctttat tatccccgcc ggtcatgtcg agcacagccc 240gcaggaactg ctttcgtccg aacagttcca cgacctggcg acccagctgc agcgcgagtt 300cgacatcacg atcttcgaca ccaccgccgc caacacctgt gccgatgcac agcgcgtggc 360ccaggtggcc ggctacgccc tgatcgtcgg tcgcaaggac gccagctaca tgcgcgacgt 420caccacgctc agccgcacgc tgcgcgcgga ccggaccaac gtcatcggct gcgtgctgaa 480cggctactga cttggatcag atgaccgcaa ccgcgcaggc gcggcggcag ggcaggcaag 540gcggcggctt ctggcttgcc gtcgccgggc tcgcctccct tgccattccc accttcgtga 600cgctcggccg ccaggtctgg agcgcggagg gcggcgtgca gggaccgatc gtcctcgcca 660ccggcgcctg gatgcttgcc cgccagcgcg gcaccatcga ggcgctgcgc cagccgggca 720acctgttctt gggcggtctc gcgctcttgc tggccctgtg catctacacc ggcggccgcg 780tgttcgactt ctcgagcatc gaaacactgg gcctggtcgc caccctggtc gccgccggct 840ttctctattt cggagggcgc gcgatccggg ccacctggtt cccggtgctg tggttgttct 900tcctcgtgcc gccaccgggc tgggcggtcg atcgcgtgac cgcgccgctc aaggaattcg 960tgtcctacgc ggcaaccggc ctgctttcgc gcttcgacta tccgatcctg cgcgagggcg 1020tgacgctcta tgtcggcccc tatcagctgc tcgttgagga cgcctgctcg ggccttcgat 1080cgctgtcgag ccttgtcgtc gtcacgctgc tgtacatcta catcaagaac aagccgtcct 1140ggcgctatgc gctgttcatc gccgcgctgg tgatcccggt ggcggtgttc accaatgtat 1200tgcgcatcat catcctcgtg ctgatcacct accatatggg tgacgaggcg gcgcagagct 1260tcctccacgt ttccaccggc atggtgatgt tcgtggtggc cctgctgtgc atcttcgcga 1320tcgactgggt ggtcgagcag cttctcctcg tacgtcggag gcatcatgtt caaccggcgt 1380gacctgctga tcggcgcggg ctgcttcgcc gctgccggcg cctcgctcgg cctgaagccg 1440catcgccgca tggacctgct cggcgatacc aagctcgacg cgctgatgcc caaggccttt 1500ggcgcgtgga aggcggagga taccggctcg ctgatcgcgc cggcccgcga gggcagcctg 1560gaggacaagc tgtacaacca ggtcgtcagc cgcgcctttt cgcgtccgga cggcacccag 1620gtgatggtgc tgattgccta tggcaacgcc cagaccgatc tgctgcagct gcaccgcccg 1680gaagtctgct acccgttctt cggcttcacc gtcgaggaaa gccatgcgca gtcgattccg 1740gtgacccccc aggtgaccat tcccggccgg gcgatgaccg cgagcaactt caaccgtacc 1800gagcagatcc tctactgggc gcgcgtcggc gagtttctgc cccagagcgg caacgagcag 1860ctgctcgccc gcctgaagag ccaggtgcag ggctggatcg tcgacggtgt gctggtgcgt 1920atctccaccg tgacgaccga tgcggccgag gggctcgagg ccaatctcga tttcgcccgc 1980gagctggtca agacgctcga tccgcgggtg cagcgtccgt tgctcggcac gaacctgacg 2040cggcggctcg ccgagcgcgc ctgaacgccg aaaggggcgg cagccggtac cgccccttcc 2100ctctccaccg caccggagcg gtatttcagc gttcgtggag cgcgtcgctt ccggtctcga 2160gcatcgggcc gaccagatag ctgagcaggg tgcgcttgcc ggtcacgata tcggcgctgg 2220cgaccatgcc gggccgcagc ggcacgcgcg ccccgttggc gaggatatag ccgcggtcga 2280gcgcgattcg cgccttgtag accggcggct gaccgtcccg cacctgcacc gcctccgggc 2340tgatcccgac caccgtcccg ggaatcatgc catagcgggt ataggggaag gcctgcagct 2400tcacctttac cggcatcccg gtccggacga agccgatatc gccattctcc accatcacc 2459142403DNASphingomonas sp. 14gatcggcgtt aagactgcgc tggtcgatgc caatctgcgc gatcccagca tcggcgcagc 60cttcggcctc gccgccgaca agcccggcct ggccgattat ctcgcctcgg gcgatgtcga 120cctcgcctcg atcatccatg cgacccgcct cgaccagctc tcgatcatcc cggccgggca 180tgtcgagcac agcccgcagg aactgctcgc gtccgaacag ttccatgatc tggcgacgca 240gctgctgcgc gagttcgaca tcacgatctt cgacaccacg gcgtccaaca cctgcgccga 300cgcgcagcgt gtcgcgcata tcgccggcta tgcgatcatc gtggcgcgca aggatgcgag 360ctacatccgc gacgtgaaca cgctcagccg cacgctgcgt gcagaccgca ccaacgtcat 420cggctgcgta ctgaacggct attgatttgg accatatggc agcgaccgcg atgacgcggc 480agcaggagag gaagggcggt ggctattggc tggccgttgc cggtcttgcc gcgctaacca 540tcccgacctt catcaccctg ggtcgcgagg tttggagtgc ggaaggcggc gtgcagggtc 600cgatcgtgct cgccacgggc gcctggatgc tggcccgcca gtgctcgacg atcgaggcgc 660tacgccgccc cggcagcgtg ctgctcggcg cgctgttcct gctggcgacg cttgccttct 720acaccgttgg acgggtgttc gacttcatca gtgtcgaaac cttcggactg gtcgcgacct 780atctggtcgt cgcctatctc tatttcggtg ccagggtgct ccgtgccgcc tggttcccgg 840tgctgtggct gttcttcctg gtgccgccgc ccggctgggc cgtcgaccgc atcaccgcac 900cgctcaagga gttcgtctcc tatgcggcaa cgggcctgct ttcctgggtg gattatccga 960tcctgcgcca gggcgtgaca ctgttcgtcg gcccctatca gctgctcgtc gaagatgcct 1020gttcgggtct gcgctcgctg tccagcctgg tcgtcgtgac gctgctctac atctacatca 1080agaacaagcc gtcctggcgc tacgcggcgt tcatcgcagc gctggtgatc ccggtggcag 1140tggtgaccaa cgtcctgcgg atcatcatcc tggtactgat cacctatcat ctgggcgacg 1200aggcggcgca gagcttcctc cacgtctcca ccggcatggt gatgttcgtg gtcgccctgc 1260tttgcatctt cgcgatcgac tgggtggtcg agcaacttct tctcctgcgt cggaggcatc 1320atgttcaacc ggcgtgacct gctgatcggc gcaggctgct tcgccgccgc tggcgcctcg 1380ctcggcctga agccgcaccg gcggatggac ctgctgggcg gcaccaagct cgacacgctg 1440atgcccaagg cattcggcgc atggaaggca gaggataccg gttcgctgat cgcgccggcg 1500cgcgaaggca gcctggagga caagctctac aaccaggtgg tcacccgcgc cttctcccgc 1560gcggacggtg cccaagtgat gctgctgatc gcctatggca acgcccagac cgatctactg 1620cagctgcacc ggccggaaat atgctacccg ttcttcggct tcaccgtggt ggaaagccat 1680gagcagacca tcccggtgac gccgcaggtg acgatccccg gtcgcgcgct gaccgccacc 1740aacttcaacc gcaccgagca gatcctctac tggacccgcg tcggcgaata tctgccgcag 1800aacggcaatc agcagatgct cgcgcggctg aagagccagg tccagggctg gatcgtcgac 1860ggtgtgctgg tgcgcatctc gacggtgacg cccgaggcgg aagatggcct gagcgccaat 1920ctcgatttcg cgcgcgagct ggtgaagacg ctcgacccgc gcgtgctgcg cccgctgctc 1980gggaacgggc tcacacggca gctcggtcac caggtctgaa ccggtgcgcc gcacgcggcg 2040cccccggcaa caaaaaagga gcggcgcggg ccgccgccgc tccctctcct tctcatgcgg 2100cgccctgccc tcaccgctcg tgcagcgcgt cactccccgt ctcgagcacg ggccccacca 2160gatagctgaa cagggttcgc ttgccggtga cgatgtccgc gctcgcgagc atccccggcc 2220gcagcggcac ctgtgcgcca tgggccagca catacccgcg cgccagcgcg atccgcgcct 2280tgtagaccgg cggctggttc tccttcatct gcaccgcctc ggggctgatg cccgccaccg 2340tgccgggaat catgccgtag cgggtatagg gaaaggcctg cagcttcacc tttaccggca 2400tgc 240315232PRTSphingomonas elodea 15Met Phe Asn Arg Arg Asp Leu Leu Ile Gly Ala Gly Cys Phe Ala Ala1 5 10 15Ala Gly Ala Ser Leu Gly Leu Lys Pro His Arg Arg Met Asp Leu Leu 20 25 30Gly Asp Thr Lys Leu Asp Ala Leu Met Pro Lys Ala Phe Gly Ala Trp 35 40 45Lys Ala Glu Asp Thr Gly Ser Leu Ile Ala Pro Ala Arg Glu Gly Ser 50 55 60Leu Glu Asp Lys Leu Tyr Asn Gln Val Val Ser Arg Ala Phe Ser Arg65 70 75 80Pro Asp Gly Thr Gln Val Met Val Leu Ile Ala Tyr Gly Asn Ala Gln 85 90 95Thr Asp Leu Leu Gln Leu His Arg Pro Glu Val Cys Tyr Pro Phe Phe 100 105 110Gly Phe Thr Val Glu Glu Ser His Ala Gln Ser Ile Pro Val Thr Pro 115 120 125Gln Val Thr Ile Pro Gly Arg Ala Met Thr Ala Ser Asn Phe Asn Arg 130 135 140Thr Glu Gln Ile Leu Tyr Trp Ala Arg Val Gly Glu Phe Leu Pro Gln145 150 155 160Ser Gly Asn Glu Gln Leu Leu Ala Arg Leu Lys Ser Gln Val Gln Gly 165 170 175Trp Ile Val Asp Gly Val Leu Val Arg Ile Ser Thr Val Thr Thr Asp 180 185 190Ala Ala Glu Gly Leu Glu Ala Asn Leu Asp Phe Ala Arg Glu Leu Val 195 200 205Lys Thr Leu Asp Pro Arg Val Gln Arg Pro Leu Leu Gly Thr Asn Leu 210 215 220Thr Arg Arg Leu Ala Glu Arg Ala225 23016293PRTSphingomonas elodea 16Met Thr Ala Thr Ala Gln Ala Arg Arg Gln Gly Arg Gln Gly Gly Gly1 5 10 15Phe Trp Leu Ala Val Ala Gly Leu Ala Ser Leu Ala Ile Pro Thr Phe 20 25 30Val Thr Leu Gly Arg Gln Val Trp Ser Ala Glu Gly Gly Val Gln Gly 35 40 45Pro Ile Val Leu Ala Thr Gly Ala Trp Met Leu Ala Arg Gln Arg Gly 50 55 60Thr Ile Glu Ala Leu Arg Gln Pro Gly Asn Leu Phe Leu Gly Gly Leu65 70 75 80Ala Leu Leu Leu Ala Leu Cys Ile Tyr Thr Gly Gly Arg Val Phe Asp 85 90 95Phe Ser Ser Ile Glu Thr Leu Gly Leu Val Ala Thr Leu Val Ala Ala 100 105 110Gly Phe Leu Tyr Phe Gly Gly Arg Ala Ile Arg Ala Thr Trp Phe Pro 115 120 125Val Leu Trp Leu Phe Phe Leu Val Pro Pro Pro Gly Trp Ala Val Asp 130 135 140Arg Val Thr Ala Pro Leu Lys Glu Phe Val Ser Tyr Ala Ala Thr Gly145 150 155 160Leu Leu Ser Arg Phe Asp Tyr Pro Ile Leu Arg Glu Gly Val Thr Leu 165 170 175Tyr Val Gly Pro Tyr Gln Leu Leu Val Glu Asp Ala Cys Ser Gly Leu 180 185 190Arg Ser Leu Ser Ser Leu Val Val Val Thr Leu Leu Tyr Ile Tyr Ile 195 200 205Lys Asn Lys Pro Ser Trp Arg Tyr Ala Leu Phe Ile Ala Ala Leu Val 210 215 220Ile Pro Val Ala Val Phe Thr Asn Val Leu Arg Ile Ile Ile Leu Val225 230 235 240Leu Ile Thr Tyr His Met Gly Asp Glu Ala Ala Gln Ser Phe Leu His 245 250 255Val Ser Thr Gly Met Val Met Phe Val Val Ala Leu Leu Cys Ile Phe 260 265 270Ala Ile Asp Trp Val Val Glu Gln Leu Leu Leu Val Arg Arg Arg His 275 280 285His Val Gln Pro Ala 29017232PRTSphingomonas sp. 17Met Phe Asn Arg Arg Asp Leu Leu Ile Gly Ala Gly Cys Phe Ala Ala1 5 10 15Ala Gly Ala Ser Leu Gly Leu Lys Pro His Arg Arg Met Asp Leu Leu 20 25 30Gly Gly Thr Lys Leu Asp Thr Leu Met Pro Lys Ala Phe Gly Ala Trp 35 40 45Lys Ala Glu Asp Thr Gly Ser Leu Ile Ala Pro Ala Arg Glu Gly Ser 50 55 60Leu Glu Asp Lys Leu Tyr Asn Gln Val Val Thr Arg Ala Phe Ser Arg65 70 75 80Ala Asp Gly Ala Gln Val Met Leu Leu Ile Ala Tyr Gly Asn Ala Gln 85 90 95Thr Asp Leu Leu Gln Leu His Arg Pro Glu Ile Cys Tyr Pro Phe Phe 100 105 110Gly Phe Thr Val Val Glu Ser His Glu Gln Thr Ile Pro Val Thr Pro 115 120 125Gln Val Thr Ile Pro Gly Arg Ala Leu Thr Ala Thr Asn Phe Asn Arg 130 135 140Thr Glu Gln Ile Leu Tyr Trp Thr Arg Val Gly Glu Tyr Leu Pro Gln145 150 155 160Asn Gly Asn Gln Gln Met Leu Ala Arg Leu Lys Ser Gln Val Gln Gly 165 170 175Trp Ile Val Asp Gly Val Leu Val Arg Ile Ser Thr Val Thr Pro Glu 180 185 190Ala Glu Asp Gly Leu Ser Ala Asn Leu Asp Phe Ala Arg Glu Leu Val 195 200 205Lys Thr Leu Asp Pro Arg Val Leu Arg Pro Leu Leu Gly Asn Gly Leu 210 215 220Thr Arg Gln Leu Gly His Gln Val225 23018293PRTSphingomonas sp. 18Met Ala Ala Thr Ala Met Thr Arg Gln Gln Glu Arg Lys Gly Gly Gly1 5 10 15Tyr Trp Leu Ala Val Ala Gly Leu Ala Ala Leu Thr Ile Pro Thr Phe 20 25 30Ile Thr Leu Gly Arg Glu Val Trp Ser Ala Glu Gly Gly Val Gln Gly 35 40 45Pro Ile Val Leu Ala Thr Gly Ala Trp Met Leu Ala Arg Gln Cys Ser 50 55 60Thr Ile Glu Ala Leu Arg Arg Pro Gly Ser Val Leu Leu Gly Ala Leu65 70 75 80Phe Leu Leu Ala Thr Leu Ala Phe Tyr Thr Val Gly Arg Val Phe Asp 85 90 95Phe Ile Ser Val Glu Thr Phe Gly Leu Val Ala Thr Tyr Leu Val Val 100 105 110Ala Tyr Leu Tyr Phe Gly Ala Arg Val Leu Arg Ala Ala Trp Phe Pro 115 120 125Val Leu Trp Leu Phe Phe Leu Val Pro Pro Pro Gly Trp Ala Val Asp 130 135 140Arg Ile Thr Ala Pro Leu Lys Glu Phe Val Ser Tyr Ala Ala Thr Gly145 150 155 160Leu Leu Ser Trp Val Asp Tyr Pro Ile Leu Arg Gln Gly Val Thr Leu 165 170 175Phe Val Gly Pro Tyr Gln Leu Leu Val Glu Asp Ala Cys Ser Gly Leu 180 185 190Arg Ser Leu Ser Ser Leu Val Val Val Thr Leu Leu Tyr Ile Tyr Ile 195 200 205Lys Asn Lys Pro Ser Trp Arg Tyr Ala Ala Phe Ile Ala Ala Leu Val 210 215 220Ile Pro Val Ala Val Val Thr Asn Val Leu Arg Ile Ile Ile Leu Val225 230 235 240Leu Ile Thr Tyr His Leu Gly Asp Glu Ala Ala Gln Ser Phe Leu His 245 250 255Val Ser Thr Gly Met Val Met Phe Val Val Ala Leu Leu Cys Ile Phe 260 265 270Ala Ile Asp Trp Val Val Glu Gln Leu Leu Leu Leu Arg Arg Arg His 275 280 285His Val Gln Pro Ala 2901942DNASphingomonas sp.CDS(1)...(42) 19atg ttc aac cgg cgt gac tct aga ctc ggt cac cag gtc tga 42Met Phe Asn Arg Arg Asp Ser Arg Leu Gly His Gln Val *1 5 102013PRTSphingomonas sp. 20Met Phe Asn Arg Arg Asp Ser Arg Leu Gly His Gln Val1 5 102127DNASphingomonas elodea 21acgagctcag atcagccgca acctcct 272227DNASphingomonas elodea 22gctctagacg ccggcatgtt aatcacc 272327DNASphingomonas elodea 23gctctagaga tgcgttccac gcctgac 272427DNASphingomonas elodea 24atgcatgccg atcgcgctca tcagggt 27251903DNASphingomonas elodeagene(501)..(1403) 25agcttggcga acagcgcggt gaaatagacc gcgccggcac ctgtcgagat tacgacgtcc 60ggcttgtgcc tgcggacgat ggcgaggctc tgccgcaggt tgcgcagggc gccgccgagc 120atcttgaagg ggtggcccag ccgggcctgg ccaagcgcat aatggccgac cagctccacc 180ggatgtttct ccgcgagact gcggccaagg gccgtatctt cggtgacgaa gaagtaatcg 240tgttcgcgcc agaccgactc cagatccagg atctgccgca gatggccccc gccggacgct 300gcgaggcaca ttttcagtcg cttgcccgtc gtgtgcgccg cctcggtcgc ttctgccatg 360ctgtccccct gccttcgcgg ctggcccccg gggcgggagc catgctgcac tgccaacgct 420attgcggatg cccgcccgtc cgaataggtt caagtagaag tttgtgccgt gcgcaattcc 480gtgccggcag ggaggtcttc atgaagaaat tgtacctggt aacggcagtg gccgcggccg 540cgctcgccgt ctccggatgt ggcagcaagg aaggcaagct cgacaagggg caggttgtcg 600ccaccgtcga tggcgatgag atcaccgttt tcgagctcaa tgccgaggtg caggccgcgc 660cggtaccgca ggggaccgac cgcaagctgg ccgagcagct cgcgctgcag cgcatcatcg 720aacgcaagat cctgtcgaag atcgcgcgtg agcagaagct cgacaagacg ccgtccttcc 780tgatccagca gcgccgtgcg gacgagctga tcctcacgag catgctgcgc gacaagatcg 840ccggcggcat cagccagccg accgatgccg atgtggcaca atatcaggcc gcgcatccgg 900atcggttcgc ccagcgcaag gtctacagca tcgagcagat cgtgttcccg ccgcccagtt 960cgtcggacaa gttcaaagag ttcgcgccac tcaagacgct ggaccagctc gccgccaagc 1020tgactgccga cggcgtgcag ttccgccgcg cgcccaccca gctcgacacc gcagcacttc 1080cgccggaaat cgccggcaag atcgcggcgt tgccggcggc ggaaatgttc atcctgccga 1140cccagcaggg catcaccgcc aatgtgatca ccgcgaccac gatccagccg ctgaccggcg 1200accaggcgcg cgaagtggcg ctgaacgcgc tgcgcaccga acgcttcagc aaggcagccg 1260acgcccagct gaacgagcgg ctgaagaagg cgcgggaaac cgtgaagtac cagccgggct 1320atggcgcgcc gccgcagctc aagggcggcg ctgcgcccaa ggccacgcct gcgcccgagg 1380cgccgatgca gaacagccag taaatccagc ggggaggaag ttcgcttcct cccccacgga 1440ttgcggggcg cgaagcccgc gatcacttct tggcgggata tcccgcccac cagcgccgcc 1500gttcgcgcac gaccggcgcc caggcgcggc tgaccgcggt caggcgttcg cgcttcttcg 1560gcaacagcgg cgccagcagg ctgccgagca gctgatattt cagcgcggcg agccagatcg 1620cccagccggt gacgagcgcg ccgcccttgg tgaaatgctt gcgggcatag tgcatccgtc 1680cggtcgtcat gaacatgata cggctggagg aaagggaatg gccgctgccg gcatcgtgga 1740ccaccgcgac gccgggatcg accagtaccg cataaccgcg ttcgcggatg cgtttgaaca 1800tgtcgacttc ctccgaatag aggaagaagc tctcgtcgaa gccgccgatc tcgcgccaga 1860catcggcacg gaccatcatg aagccgccgt tgagcacgtc gac 190326300PRTSphingomonas elodea 26Met Lys Lys Leu
Tyr Leu Val Thr Ala Val Ala Ala Ala Ala Leu Ala1 5 10 15Val Ser Gly Cys Gly Ser Lys Glu Gly Lys Leu Asp Lys Gly Gln Val 20 25 30Val Ala Thr Val Asp Gly Asp Glu Ile Thr Val Phe Glu Leu Asn Ala 35 40 45Glu Val Gln Ala Ala Pro Val Pro Gln Gly Thr Asp Arg Lys Leu Ala 50 55 60Glu Gln Leu Ala Leu Gln Arg Ile Ile Glu Arg Lys Ile Leu Ser Lys65 70 75 80Ile Ala Arg Glu Gln Lys Leu Asp Lys Thr Pro Ser Phe Leu Ile Gln 85 90 95Gln Arg Arg Ala Asp Glu Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Met Leu Arg Asp Lys 100 105 110Ile Ala Gly Gly Ile Ser Gln Pro Thr Asp Ala Asp Val Ala Gln Tyr 115 120 125Gln Ala Ala His Pro Asp Arg Phe Ala Gln Arg Lys Val Tyr Ser Ile 130 135 140Glu Gln Ile Val Phe Pro Pro Pro Ser Ser Ser Asp Lys Phe Lys Glu145 150 155 160Phe Ala Pro Leu Lys Thr Leu Asp Gln Leu Ala Ala Lys Leu Thr Ala 165 170 175Asp Gly Val Gln Phe Arg Arg Ala Pro Thr Gln Leu Asp Thr Ala Ala 180 185 190Leu Pro Pro Glu Ile Ala Gly Lys Ile Ala Ala Leu Pro Ala Ala Glu 195 200 205Met Phe Ile Leu Pro Thr Gln Gln Gly Ile Thr Ala Asn Val Ile Thr 210 215 220Ala Thr Thr Ile Gln Pro Leu Thr Gly Asp Gln Ala Arg Glu Val Ala225 230 235 240Leu Asn Ala Leu Arg Thr Glu Arg Phe Ser Lys Ala Ala Asp Ala Gln 245 250 255Leu Asn Glu Arg Leu Lys Lys Ala Arg Glu Thr Val Lys Tyr Gln Pro 260 265 270Gly Tyr Gly Ala Pro Pro Gln Leu Lys Gly Gly Ala Ala Pro Lys Ala 275 280 285Thr Pro Ala Pro Glu Ala Pro Met Gln Asn Ser Gln 290 295 300272858DNASphingomonas elodea 27agatcagccg caacctcctc gccgccggcc tgtccggcgc gacgccggtg ctggtggcga 60gcgacatcag cctcgggacc gagcgcctgc tccgcacccg gctggacctg ctgccgctcg 120ccgcgcgcgc cattaccgag gaccagccga cgctgatcct ggtcggcgat gcggtggccg 180gcggcgcgga cagaccggcc gcggtccgag aatcggtcct cccctgaatc ctatgtcccg 240cggaaggcgg ggctggtcgt gcgagacctg tacgcccggc ggtgggcgca gccgccttgt 300cgagcgcgcc cgcggttggc cccattgcct ctcaagttgc tgaaaacctg cgcccgataa 360taagcattaa acgatccgaa accatggagt ttcaacgata tttcatggcc ttgtgtgaag 420tttccgcatg agggaatcac gcgtcgattg gggtcgacca gtaacaaggt gattaacatg 480ccggcgatta ccgttaaaaa tcaggctgag ttagacgcgg ctatcaagac ggccaagggc 540ggcgacacga tcctgcttgc tcctggtacc tattcgtcgg tgacgatgac gaatatcaag 600ccggcaaccg tgctgacgat ccagtcgctc gatacgaaga acccggcggt cgtgcagtcg 660ctgtggatct cgtcttcgaa caacatcact ttcaaggacc tggacgtgaa gcgggattac 720aggcccgcga acgactggga aactgctagt cggatcctga attcgaacaa tatcacagtg 780gacaacgtcc ggttcagcgg cggcagcggc gatcctgcat tatcaaccgg cgtcgggctc 840agcatacgct cgggcacgaa catcaagttt ctcaactcct ccgtcgacca ttttgggcta 900ggactgagcg tacaagacat caacaaaatg acggtgcagg gaagcacctt tcgtgacaac 960cggcgagacc ataccaattt ttcggaaatg actcaggtcc tgatcgaccg gaacaatttc 1020gtcgggctgt acccgcagga tggagagcat cccgacgcga ttcagttcat gaccgctggc 1080cgcgccaagg caaataccgg gatcaccatc tcgaataacg tcatcatgca aggggatggg 1140ctgggcaccc aaggggtctt cctgggcgag gagaccggca accttcccta caaggacgtg 1200actatcaaca acaatctgat ctatctcagc ggcctgtatc atggcatcaa cgtcgtgaac 1260ggcagcaatg taaatatcac caacaacagc acgctgtctg tggccgatga acgatcgacc 1320tggattcgtg tcgaaaacgt gacgagcggg tcaatcgtca ataacgtcgc ggatgagatc 1380attgcagcga acagtgcagg tgtcacgctt tccaagaatg tcagcctagt caaggactcg 1440gtcgcgcttc gcaagatccc ggacctacac ctcggagcgg cggcgcgcgt ggccgggctc 1500gtcctgcctg gcgtgggcta taatcctggc accagcagtt ccgggaccgc gtcgaccctt 1560cagccgccca agctgctgct tgacctcaac ttcgcgtcga caggtgcaat tgattcgtcg 1620atctggagct cggacgaaac agtctccccc cttgccgccg gggccgtaag cgatggcatg 1680gtgcgcgtcc agaccggctc tggtgtcgaa ctggggcgtg acacgtcgcg gcagctattt 1740agcctatcgg ctttcactct gaacttcaat ctgaagcgcg acgcacccaa tgcggcggtc 1800ggccagatca tgggcgtctt caagagctgg gcgatcaatc tgggggcgaa cggtgaactg 1860accttcacga tgaccaatgc cgcgggcaag acctcgaccc ttacaaccaa gggggccaag 1920atcaccgacg cgaacctgca taggatcgcc cttacctatg acagtgcacg tggaacggcc 1980gcgatctatg tcgacggcgt ggtgcggggc acggcggcga tgtccggcag tacgcgcgct 2040caagagttct ggggcgtgta tctcggcggc cagttcacga acgctttcag cggctcgctt 2100ggtgacatcg aggttcgaga cgccgcattg agtgcggcgc aaatcgtcgc tctaaatgcc 2160aacagcagcg tgaccgccac aggggtgcag gcggcggacg ctgtgagggc gacggtggta 2220aatggggcgg cgagcaccgc ggcggcgtta atgagcggga cgactgtcga cggggccacc 2280acctcgctgc cgacgttgac gctgctcggc gggtcggtcg gtgccggtag cgtgcaatcc 2340ccgctcgcaa gcgctatcgc aaaagccgtc aacgcgcaga cgactggctc gctttccaag 2400ccgacaagct ttctttcagg ttcttggatg cagatgctcg atgcgttcca cgcctgacgg 2460gcgcgccggt tgccgcgctt gctcaggcta gtgccatggc ctaagcgagc ggtgctatcg 2520ttgggggggc tgggtgaaga gagaagtatt gcatctgcgc ggcgtgcgcg gccagatggt 2580ggttggcttc ggggttaagg gtctcggcgc cgttaccagc tttctcttca cctggcttct 2640ggcccgtgcc gccggtcctg tgggcgttgg cacgttcggt acgtcgttga cgacggtcca 2700gatgtgcgtg atcttgtcgt tgctaggcct cgatgcgatc ctcgtgcgct cggtgtcggt 2760gaatctgtcg ctgaaacgca ctgggcaggc aaggtcggct gccgtgcacg caattcggat 2820gggagcggcg gcgggtctca ccctgatgag cgcgatcg 285828659PRTSphingomonas elodea 28Met Pro Ala Ile Thr Val Lys Asn Gln Ala Glu Leu Asp Ala Ala Ile1 5 10 15Lys Thr Ala Lys Gly Gly Asp Thr Ile Leu Leu Ala Pro Gly Thr Tyr 20 25 30Ser Ser Val Thr Met Thr Asn Ile Lys Pro Ala Thr Val Leu Thr Ile 35 40 45Gln Ser Leu Asp Thr Lys Asn Pro Ala Val Val Gln Ser Leu Trp Ile 50 55 60Ser Ser Ser Asn Asn Ile Thr Phe Lys Asp Leu Asp Val Lys Arg Asp65 70 75 80Tyr Arg Pro Ala Asn Asp Trp Glu Thr Ala Ser Arg Ile Leu Asn Ser 85 90 95Asn Asn Ile Thr Val Asp Asn Val Arg Phe Ser Gly Gly Ser Gly Asp 100 105 110Pro Ala Leu Ser Thr Gly Val Gly Leu Ser Ile Arg Ser Gly Thr Asn 115 120 125Ile Lys Phe Leu Asn Ser Ser Val Asp His Phe Gly Leu Gly Leu Ser 130 135 140Val Gln Asp Ile Asn Lys Met Thr Val Gln Gly Ser Thr Phe Arg Asp145 150 155 160Asn Arg Arg Asp His Thr Asn Phe Ser Glu Met Thr Gln Val Leu Ile 165 170 175Asp Arg Asn Asn Phe Val Gly Leu Tyr Pro Gln Asp Gly Glu His Pro 180 185 190Asp Ala Ile Gln Phe Met Thr Ala Gly Arg Ala Lys Ala Asn Thr Gly 195 200 205Ile Thr Ile Ser Asn Asn Val Ile Met Gln Gly Asp Gly Leu Gly Thr 210 215 220Gln Gly Val Phe Leu Gly Glu Glu Thr Gly Asn Leu Pro Tyr Lys Asp225 230 235 240Val Thr Ile Asn Asn Asn Leu Ile Tyr Leu Ser Gly Leu Tyr His Gly 245 250 255Ile Asn Val Val Asn Gly Ser Asn Val Asn Ile Thr Asn Asn Ser Thr 260 265 270Leu Ser Val Ala Asp Glu Arg Ser Thr Trp Ile Arg Val Glu Asn Val 275 280 285Thr Ser Gly Ser Ile Val Asn Asn Val Ala Asp Glu Ile Ile Ala Ala 290 295 300Asn Ser Ala Gly Val Thr Leu Ser Lys Asn Val Ser Leu Val Lys Asp305 310 315 320Ser Val Ala Leu Arg Lys Ile Pro Asp Leu His Leu Gly Ala Ala Ala 325 330 335Arg Val Ala Gly Leu Val Leu Pro Gly Val Gly Tyr Asn Pro Gly Thr 340 345 350Ser Ser Ser Gly Thr Ala Ser Thr Leu Gln Pro Pro Lys Leu Leu Leu 355 360 365Asp Leu Asn Phe Ala Ser Thr Gly Ala Ile Asp Ser Ser Ile Trp Ser 370 375 380Ser Asp Glu Thr Val Ser Pro Leu Ala Ala Gly Ala Val Ser Asp Gly385 390 395 400Met Val Arg Val Gln Thr Gly Ser Gly Val Glu Leu Gly Arg Asp Thr 405 410 415Ser Arg Gln Leu Phe Ser Leu Ser Ala Phe Thr Leu Asn Phe Asn Leu 420 425 430Lys Arg Asp Ala Pro Asn Ala Ala Val Gly Gln Ile Met Gly Val Phe 435 440 445Lys Ser Trp Ala Ile Asn Leu Gly Ala Asn Gly Glu Leu Thr Phe Thr 450 455 460Met Thr Asn Ala Ala Gly Lys Thr Ser Thr Leu Thr Thr Lys Gly Ala465 470 475 480Lys Ile Thr Asp Ala Asn Leu His Arg Ile Ala Leu Thr Tyr Asp Ser 485 490 495Ala Arg Gly Thr Ala Ala Ile Tyr Val Asp Gly Val Val Arg Gly Thr 500 505 510Ala Ala Met Ser Gly Ser Thr Arg Ala Gln Glu Phe Trp Gly Val Tyr 515 520 525Leu Gly Gly Gln Phe Thr Asn Ala Phe Ser Gly Ser Leu Gly Asp Ile 530 535 540Glu Val Arg Asp Ala Ala Leu Ser Ala Ala Gln Ile Val Ala Leu Asn545 550 555 560Ala Asn Ser Ser Val Thr Ala Thr Gly Val Gln Ala Ala Asp Ala Val 565 570 575Arg Ala Thr Val Val Asn Gly Ala Ala Ser Thr Ala Ala Ala Leu Met 580 585 590Ser Gly Thr Thr Val Asp Gly Ala Thr Thr Ser Leu Pro Thr Leu Thr 595 600 605Leu Leu Gly Gly Ser Val Gly Ala Gly Ser Val Gln Ser Pro Leu Ala 610 615 620Ser Ala Ile Ala Lys Ala Val Asn Ala Gln Thr Thr Gly Ser Leu Ser625 630 635 640Lys Pro Thr Ser Phe Leu Ser Gly Ser Trp Met Gln Met Leu Asp Ala 645 650 655Phe His Ala291972DNASphingomonas sp.gene(501)..(1472) 29ctggacgatc gtcaccgtcg cgatgccctt caccatcttg ccgaaggcag acgggtggtc 60gaagcgcgcg aagctttcga tatggacgaa cttggcgccc gacagtttgg cgagcagcgc 120ggtgaaatag actgcgcccg cgccggtgga aatcaccaca tccggcttgt gccggcgcag 180gatcgaaagg ctctggcgca ggttgcgcca tgcgccgccc agcatgcgca agggatggcc 240cagcttggcc tggccgagcg catagtgctc caccagttcg acgggatgtt tttcggcaag 300gctccggccg agcgcggtat cttcagtaac gaagaaataa tcgtgttcgc gccacaccga 360ttccagatcg aggatttgcc ggagatggcc gccgcccgac gctgcaaggc acattttcag 420cggcttggag gcctttccat ctaccgcgtt cgcttctgcc atctcgtccc ccttgttgcc 480gcctggctcc gcttagaacc atgctgcact gccaacgcta ttgcggatgc ccgcccgtcc 540gaataggttc aagtagaagt ttgtgccgtg cgcaattccg tgccggcggg gaggtcttca 600tgaagaaatt gtacctggtt acggcggtgg ctgcggccgc gctggccgtc tccggatgtg 660gcggcaaggg cggcaagctc gacaaggggc aggtggtcgc cagcgtcgat ggcgaagaaa 720tcaccgtctt cgagctgaat gccgaactgc aggcctccca ggtacccccg gggaccgatc 780gcaagctggc cgagcagctg gcgctgcagc gcatcatcga gcgcaagatc ctcgccaagg 840tcgcccgcga gcagaagctg gacaagacgc ctgccttcct gatccaggag cgccgggccg 900acgagctgat cctcaccgcc atgctgcgcg acaagatcgc cggcggcatc gcccagccga 960ccgatgccga gatcgagaaa tatcaggccg cgcatccgga gcggttcgcg cagcgcaaga 1020tctacgcgat cgatcaggtc gtcttcgctc cgccgagctc ggccgcaaag ctcaagcaat 1080tcgcgccgct gaagacgctg gaccagctaa ccgccaagct ctcggcggac aatgtccagt 1140tccgtcgcgc gccgtcgcag atcgacaccg ctgcgctgcc gccggaaatc gctgccaaga 1200tcgcgtcgct gccggcacag gagatgttca tcctgccgac ccagcaggga ctgaccgcga 1260atatcatcac gtcgaccacg gtgctgccgg tgccggccga ccaggcgcgc gagatcgcgc 1320tcagcgggct gcgtaccgag cgcttcggca aggcggctga cgcacagctc aacgaccgcc 1380tgaagaaggc gcgggaaacc gtgaaatatc aggccggcta cagcgcaccg ccgcagcttc 1440gcggcagcgg cgcaacgccg gcggggaact gaaggtctga aaggcgggcg cgttgttgca 1500acgatgcgtc cgcctcccaa cggcgccttt aggggggggg gagctggact tttagcgacg 1560cggatagccg ctccaccatc ggccaggatt gctaaatacg gcacgccacc cgttgctcag 1620ctctttgtat cgcgtgcccg tccgcggcga caggcgccag agtgccgccc cgaccaacgt 1680gtatttggcg gcgatcagcc aaagcgcgca cccggtggca agggtgccga gtgcgccaaa 1740atgctttcgc gcatagtgca tgcgcccggt cgtgagatac atcaggcggt tctgggacat 1800cgactgacca ctccccgtat tgtgtaccac tttgaccgag gggtcgacga gcaccttgtg 1860ccccaacgtg cggattcgct ggaagagatc gatctcttcc gaataaagaa aaaagctctc 1920gtcaaaaccg ccgatcgcct gccagacatc ggtgcgtacc atcatgaagc cg 197230323PRTSphingomonas sp. 30Met Leu His Cys Gln Arg Tyr Cys Gly Cys Pro Pro Val Arg Ile Gly1 5 10 15Ser Ser Arg Ser Leu Cys Arg Ala Gln Phe Arg Ala Gly Gly Glu Val 20 25 30Phe Met Lys Lys Leu Tyr Leu Val Thr Ala Val Ala Ala Ala Ala Leu 35 40 45Ala Val Ser Gly Cys Gly Gly Lys Gly Gly Lys Leu Asp Lys Gly Gln 50 55 60Val Val Ala Ser Val Asp Gly Glu Glu Ile Thr Val Phe Glu Leu Asn65 70 75 80Ala Glu Leu Gln Ala Ser Gln Val Pro Pro Gly Thr Asp Arg Lys Leu 85 90 95Ala Glu Gln Leu Ala Leu Gln Arg Ile Ile Glu Arg Lys Ile Leu Ala 100 105 110Lys Val Ala Arg Glu Gln Lys Leu Asp Lys Thr Pro Ala Phe Leu Ile 115 120 125Gln Glu Arg Arg Ala Asp Glu Leu Ile Leu Thr Ala Met Leu Arg Asp 130 135 140Lys Ile Ala Gly Gly Ile Ala Gln Pro Thr Asp Ala Glu Ile Glu Lys145 150 155 160Tyr Gln Ala Ala His Pro Glu Arg Phe Ala Gln Arg Lys Ile Tyr Ala 165 170 175Ile Asp Gln Val Val Phe Ala Pro Pro Ser Ser Ala Ala Lys Leu Lys 180 185 190Gln Phe Ala Pro Leu Lys Thr Leu Asp Gln Leu Thr Ala Lys Leu Ser 195 200 205Ala Asp Asn Val Gln Phe Arg Arg Ala Pro Ser Gln Ile Asp Thr Ala 210 215 220Ala Leu Pro Pro Glu Ile Ala Ala Lys Ile Ala Ser Leu Pro Ala Gln225 230 235 240Glu Met Phe Ile Leu Pro Thr Gln Gln Gly Leu Thr Ala Asn Ile Ile 245 250 255Thr Ser Thr Thr Val Leu Pro Val Pro Ala Asp Gln Ala Arg Glu Ile 260 265 270Ala Leu Ser Gly Leu Arg Thr Glu Arg Phe Gly Lys Ala Ala Asp Ala 275 280 285Gln Leu Asn Asp Arg Leu Lys Lys Ala Arg Glu Thr Val Lys Tyr Gln 290 295 300Ala Gly Tyr Ser Ala Pro Pro Gln Leu Arg Gly Ser Gly Ala Thr Pro305 310 315 320Ala Gly Asn312998DNASphingomonas sp.gene(501)..(2498) 31tgcgccgggc tggggaatgg catcggggtt gacgagcagc aggagcgggc cggcagcctg 60cgctgccagg cgattattgc cggccccgaa accaatattg ccctcactgg gaacgatgcg 120gacgtggtgg aaccgctgcc ggaccagcgc ttcggttcgc ccgtcgccat tgtcgatcag 180cagaacttcg tggggggtct tgcccgctcc ttcggcgatg ccgcgcaggc agtcttcgat 240atactcggtc gagttgaaag cgaccacgag tatgctgaca tcgggcgttg ggagcatctg 300catcgcaccc tagtagctgc actgtgttgc gccgtcgaga cggtgccggc gaaagtcggg 360cgtgcatggg cccggcatgc ggccccgtag aagggagttc ttaactgtat cccttcgagc 420aaatttcatg gctgttctgg tatttatgac aatggaaggg tcaatatcgg cccgggttcg 480tgcgtacggg gtaagtcaac atgccggata tcattgtcaa gaatcagacg gagttgaatg 540ctgcaatcgc ggcggcgaag ggtggcgaaa ccatcaagct tgccgccggg gtctacacag 600atctcactgt aatgaccaag acgtttacca gcatggtgac aattgagtcg ctcgactcgt 660cgaacccggt caatatccaa aagctggtga tcgggaacag tagcaacgtt accgtcaaaa 720acatggtcgc tgcgaccgat tacaagcccg ccgatgactg gaatcgactg aatacgatcc 780agggttcggc caacatcgtt ttggacggcg tgcggttcag cggcggcact ggtgaccctt 840cgctctcgaa gggggcgggc ttgttcgtgc gcaacagcac gtcggtgacg atgcagaatt 900cgtctatcga ccacttcggt ctgggccttg aggcctacaa cgtcgatggc atggtggtcc 960agaacagcag cttccacgac aaccggcgcg atcatacgaa cttcactgag atgaacaatc 1020ttgtcatcga cggaaattcg ttcacgaacc tgtttcccgt gggcaccgaa catcccgacg 1080ccattcagtt cttcacggcg ggcaaggtca agggcaatac caacatcacc atctccaata 1140acgtcatcat gcagggcgcg ggctctggcg cgcaagggat tttcatgaat gacgaggccg 1200gtaatcttcc ctatgtcaat gtaaacatca aaaacaatct tatctatctg aatggttatt 1260accacggtat caacgttgtt aacggcgtta atgtcaatat cgaatccaat agcgtgatat 1320cgcaagtgga tggcacatca ttttggattc gcctcgacaa aaccaatggc gcgacgatca 1380agaacaatgt tgcggacctg atcaccgtca caagctcctc gagcaatatc gtgcagacag 1440gcaatcgtac gctgacgagt gactcggcaa cgatccgcaa gatctatggc ctcaacgatg 1500gggctacggc gcggctcagc gatttgatcg ttcccggcgt cgggtaccag ccgcccgtgt 1560cgagcgctgc tgccgctcag gtgactaccg aactgtcgac tgcgaaggcg gcaaatccgt 1620cgctgctgct cgatctgtcg ttcagcaaca gcggcgtcgt ggacctttcg cactggaata 1680ccggccagac gacaaaggcg gtggacgtgt cggcggtcgt gggcagcgcc ttccacgtct 1740cgacgggcac gggggtggaa ctaaaccgga gctattcgcg gcagatttac gcattgtcgg 1800cgttcacgct cagcttcgac ctcaagcggg actcggctac ggccacggcc gggcaaattc 1860ttggcatctt ccagagctgg tcggtttcgc tgcaggccaa tggggaactg agcttcacca 1920tgcgcaacgc cgcgggcgtc agccagacaa tggtgacgag cggcgccaag ctgcttgatg 1980ctgccacaca caagatcgcc ctgacctacg acagcacgcg gaaaaccgcg attctgtacg 2040tagacggcat gcaacgcggc acagcgacga tgaccggcac gacccggccc gccgaatcct 2100gggggctgta tgtcggcagc ccgttctcga ccgcattcag cggaacggtc ggcgacatcg 2160agatccgcga tggcgcgatc agcgccgccc aggtgcaggc gctggtgacc gcgtcgagcg 2220ccagcgcggc ggcgacggtc aaggacagcc tcgtcaccgg
cgcggccgcg caggccgctg 2280cgctgctggc gggtgccggc gccgctagca cggcaacgcc gcttgcgacg gtggccacgg 2340tgggcagtac gctgtctata ggtactgccg cgtcctcgca gatcgcgctc gtcagcaaga 2400tcggtgtcga catgatgacc gcgggggcga tgggcgcaat ccgcagcgcg gcgacactga 2460gcgctacggc ggatcagtac aacctgtacc gcgcctgagc gggggcgggc ggtgagcggc 2520cttgcgccgg cgccgcccgt gccctcctgc gatccggcgg cacatcgcag ggagtgcggc 2580gtatcgacct tgcttttcgc gaacccttcg atcatgcgag cggcagcgcc tcttggggac 2640ttgttgggga cttgcagatg acgactacct cggcgtttcg tcgcccggcc ttccacggag 2700cgatgcagcg gcttcgcagg ttgcgactgg ttcggtttct gacaaagcca gcgatcccgg 2760tactgcccgt ctacaaagcc gagcgatcag gcgtgacgat cgcggcgcgg cgtaccgttc 2820tgctggtcag cgtgatgttt cttgccgcag tctacggcct gctcgccgca gttctgccgc 2880tccagatgct ggcgatcccg gccgtgcccc tcgttctgat ggcgctcgta gtgatctggg 2940cgctacccga ggcgcggcag gcgcctactc gcctgctggc aaaactatac ctcgccta 299832665PRTSphingomonas sp. 32Met Pro Asp Ile Ile Val Lys Asn Gln Thr Glu Leu Asn Ala Ala Ile1 5 10 15Ala Ala Ala Lys Gly Gly Glu Thr Ile Lys Leu Ala Ala Gly Val Tyr 20 25 30Thr Asp Leu Thr Val Met Thr Lys Thr Phe Thr Ser Met Val Thr Ile 35 40 45Glu Ser Leu Asp Ser Ser Asn Pro Val Asn Ile Gln Lys Leu Val Ile 50 55 60Gly Asn Ser Ser Asn Val Thr Val Lys Asn Met Val Ala Ala Thr Asp65 70 75 80Tyr Lys Pro Ala Asp Asp Trp Asn Arg Leu Asn Thr Ile Gln Gly Ser 85 90 95Ala Asn Ile Val Leu Asp Gly Val Arg Phe Ser Gly Gly Thr Gly Asp 100 105 110Pro Ser Leu Ser Lys Gly Ala Gly Leu Phe Val Arg Asn Ser Thr Ser 115 120 125Val Thr Met Gln Asn Ser Ser Ile Asp His Phe Gly Leu Gly Leu Glu 130 135 140Ala Tyr Asn Val Asp Gly Met Val Val Gln Asn Ser Ser Phe His Asp145 150 155 160Asn Arg Arg Asp His Thr Asn Phe Thr Glu Met Asn Asn Leu Val Ile 165 170 175Asp Gly Asn Ser Phe Thr Asn Leu Phe Pro Val Gly Thr Glu His Pro 180 185 190Asp Ala Ile Gln Phe Phe Thr Ala Gly Lys Val Lys Gly Asn Thr Asn 195 200 205Ile Thr Ile Ser Asn Asn Val Ile Met Gln Gly Ala Gly Ser Gly Ala 210 215 220Gln Gly Ile Phe Met Asn Asp Glu Ala Gly Asn Leu Pro Tyr Val Asn225 230 235 240Val Asn Ile Lys Asn Asn Leu Ile Tyr Leu Asn Gly Tyr Tyr His Gly 245 250 255Ile Asn Val Val Asn Gly Val Asn Val Asn Ile Glu Ser Asn Ser Val 260 265 270Ile Ser Gln Val Asp Gly Thr Ser Phe Trp Ile Arg Leu Asp Lys Thr 275 280 285Asn Gly Ala Thr Ile Lys Asn Asn Val Ala Asp Leu Ile Thr Val Thr 290 295 300Ser Ser Ser Ser Asn Ile Val Gln Thr Gly Asn Arg Thr Leu Thr Ser305 310 315 320Asp Ser Ala Thr Ile Arg Lys Ile Tyr Gly Leu Asn Asp Gly Ala Thr 325 330 335Ala Arg Leu Ser Asp Leu Ile Val Pro Gly Val Gly Tyr Gln Pro Pro 340 345 350Val Ser Ser Ala Ala Ala Ala Gln Val Thr Thr Glu Leu Ser Thr Ala 355 360 365Lys Ala Ala Asn Pro Ser Leu Leu Leu Asp Leu Ser Phe Ser Asn Ser 370 375 380Gly Val Val Asp Leu Ser His Trp Asn Thr Gly Gln Thr Thr Lys Ala385 390 395 400Val Asp Val Ser Ala Val Val Gly Ser Ala Phe His Val Ser Thr Gly 405 410 415Thr Gly Val Glu Leu Asn Arg Ser Tyr Ser Arg Gln Ile Tyr Ala Leu 420 425 430Ser Ala Phe Thr Leu Ser Phe Asp Leu Lys Arg Asp Ser Ala Thr Ala 435 440 445Thr Ala Gly Gln Ile Leu Gly Ile Phe Gln Ser Trp Ser Val Ser Leu 450 455 460Gln Ala Asn Gly Glu Leu Ser Phe Thr Met Arg Asn Ala Ala Gly Val465 470 475 480Ser Gln Thr Met Val Thr Ser Gly Ala Lys Leu Leu Asp Ala Ala Thr 485 490 495His Lys Ile Ala Leu Thr Tyr Asp Ser Thr Arg Lys Thr Ala Ile Leu 500 505 510Tyr Val Asp Gly Met Gln Arg Gly Thr Ala Thr Met Thr Gly Thr Thr 515 520 525Arg Pro Ala Glu Ser Trp Gly Leu Tyr Val Gly Ser Pro Phe Ser Thr 530 535 540Ala Phe Ser Gly Thr Val Gly Asp Ile Glu Ile Arg Asp Gly Ala Ile545 550 555 560Ser Ala Ala Gln Val Gln Ala Leu Val Thr Ala Ser Ser Ala Ser Ala 565 570 575Ala Ala Thr Val Lys Asp Ser Leu Val Thr Gly Ala Ala Ala Gln Ala 580 585 590Ala Ala Leu Leu Ala Gly Ala Gly Ala Ala Ser Thr Ala Thr Pro Leu 595 600 605Ala Thr Val Ala Thr Val Gly Ser Thr Leu Ser Ile Gly Thr Ala Ala 610 615 620Ser Ser Gln Ile Ala Leu Val Ser Lys Ile Gly Val Asp Met Met Thr625 630 635 640Ala Gly Ala Met Gly Ala Ile Arg Ser Ala Ala Thr Leu Ser Ala Thr 645 650 655Ala Asp Gln Tyr Asn Leu Tyr Arg Ala 660 665
Patent applications by Nancy E. Harding, San Diego, CA US
Patent applications by Russell J. Coleman, San Diego, CA US
Patent applications by Yamini N. Patel, San Diego, CA US
Patent applications in class Transformants (e.g., recombinant DNA or vector or foreign or exogenous gene containing, fused bacteria, etc.)
Patent applications in all subclasses Transformants (e.g., recombinant DNA or vector or foreign or exogenous gene containing, fused bacteria, etc.)