Patent application title: INORGANIC RESINS FOR CLINICAL USE OF 213BI GENERATORS
David W. Depaoli (Knoxville, TN, US)
Michael Z. Hu (Knoxville, TN, US)
Saed Mirzadeh (Knoxville, TN, US)
John W. Clavier (Elizabethton, TN, US)
IPC8 Class: AB01J3900FI
Class name: Synthetic resins or natural rubbers -- part of the class 520 series synthetic resins (class 520, subclass 1) ion-exchange polymer or process of preparing
Publication date: 2011-03-17
Patent application number: 20110065816
Patent application title: INORGANIC RESINS FOR CLINICAL USE OF 213BI GENERATORS
David W. DePaoli
Michael Z. Hu
John W. Clavier
IPC8 Class: AB01J3900FI
Publication date: 03/17/2011
Patent application number: 20110065816
Applicant's invention is a radionuclide generator resin material for
radiochemical separation of daughter radionuclides, particularly
213Bi, from a solution of parental radionuclides, the resin material
capable of providing clinical quantities of 213Bi of at least
20-mCi, wherein the resin material comprises a silica-based structure
having at least one bifunctional ligand covalently attached to the
surface of the silica-based structure. The bifunctional ligand comprises
a chemical group having desirable surface functionality to enable the
covalent attachment of the bifunctional ligand thereon the surface of the
structure and the bifunctional ligand further comprises a second chemical
group capable of binding and holding the parental radionuclides on the
resin material while allowing the daughter radionuclides to elute off the
resin material. The bifunctional ligand has a carbon chain with a limited
number of carbons to maintain radiation stability of the resin material.
1. A radionuclide generator system for radiochemical separation of
daughter radionuclides from a solution of parental radionuclides, the
generator system comprising: a resin material comprising a silica-based
cation-exchanger structure having at least one ligand covalently attached
to the surface of said silica-based structure wherein each ligand
covalently attached to the surface of said silica-based structure
comprises a silane group having desirable surface functionality to enable
the covalent attachment of said ligand thereon said surface of said
structure, each ligand covalently attached to the surface of said
silica-based structure further comprises a second chemical group capable
of binding and holding said parental radionuclides on said resin material
while allowing said daughter radionuclides to elute off said resin
material, wherein each ligand covalently attached to the surface of said
silica-based structure has a carbon chain with 4 or less carbons to
maintain radiation stability of said resin material, wherein said
silica-based structure of said resin material is selected from the group
consisting of monolith sol-gels, templated mesoporous sol-gels, and
nonporous silica gels, wherein the generator system is capable of
providing clinical quantities of the daughter radionuclides of at least
2. The radionuclide generator system of claim 1 wherein said silica-based structure of said resin material is a monolith sol-gel.
3. The radionuclide generator system of claim 1 wherein said silica-based structure of said resin material is a templated mesoporous sol-gel.
4. The radionuclide generator system of claim 1 wherein said silica-based structure of said resin material is nonporous silica gel.
7. The radionuclide generator system of claim 1 wherein said number of carbons in said carbon chain is less than 4.
8. The radionuclide generator system of claim 1 wherein said ligand is a bifunctional sulfonic acid ligand.
9. A 213Bi generator system for separation of 213Bi from a solution of parental radionuclides, the generator comprising: a resin material comprising a silica-based cation-exchanger structure having at least one ligand covalently attached to the surface of said silica-based structure wherein each ligand covalently attached to the surface of said silica-based structure comprises a silane group having desirable surface functionality to enable the covalent attachment of said ligand thereon said surface of said structure, each ligand covalently attached to the surface of said silica-based structure further comprises a second chemical group capable of binding and holding said parental radionuclides on said resin material while allowing the 213Bi daughter to elute off said resin material, wherein each ligand covalently attached to the surface of said silica-based structure has a carbon chain with 4 or less carbons to maintain radiation stability of said resin material, wherein said silica-based structure of said resin material is selected from the group consisting of monolith sol-gels, templated mesoporous sol-gels, and nonporous silica gels, wherein the generator system is capable of providing clinical quantities of 213Bi of at least 20-mCi.
10. The 213Bi generator system of claim 9 wherein said silica-based structure of said resin material is a monolith sol-gel.
11. The 213Bi generator system of claim 9 wherein said silica-based structure of said resin material is a templated mesoporous sol-gel.
12. The 213Bi generator system of claim 9 wherein said silica-based structure of said resin material is nonporous silica gel.
15. The 213Bi generator system of claim 9 wherein said ligand is a bifunctional sulfonic acid ligand.
16. The 213Bi generator system of claim 15 wherein said bifunctional sulfonic acid ligand is 3-sulfonic acid propyltrihydroxysilane.
17. The 213Bi generator system of claim 9 wherein said parental radionuclide is 225Ac.
21. The radionuclide generator system of claim 1 wherein:the solution of parental radionuclides is acidic.
22. The radionuclide generator system of claim 1 further comprising:an acidic solution for eluting the daughter radionuclides off said resin material.
23. The radionuclide generator system of claim 1 further comprising:an aqueous solution for eluting the daughter radionuclides off said resin material.
24. The 213Bi generator system of claim 9 wherein:the solution of parental radionuclides is acidic.
25. The 213Bi generator system of claim 9 further comprising:an acidic solution for eluting the 213Bi daughter off said resin material.
26. The 213Bi generator system of claim 9 further comprising:an aqueous solution for eluting the 213Bi daughter off said resin material.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to the field of radioimmunotherapy and the radiochemical separation of a daughter radionuclide from its parental radionuclides for use in medicinal treatments, and more particularly to an inorganic resin material used as a generator system for the radiochemical separation of 213Bi ions from solution containing radioactive parental ions such as 225Ac wherein the inorganic resin material is capable of providing clinical quantities of 213Bi of at least 20 mCi while simultaneously improving the generator yield and purity.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The α-emitting radionuclides chelated to antibodies can give a high degree of tumoricidal activity. In radioimmunotherapy, α-emitting nuclides have been used for the treatment of leukemia and highly vascular tumors. When administered to a patient, the antibody attaches to the cancer cell and delivers a lethal radiation dose while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. This is due to the short penetration range (40-100 μm) and high linear energy transfer in tissue of alpha particles from natural decay of μ-emitting radionuclides.
In recent years, 212Bi (half life=60.6 min) has been considered to be the α-emitter of choice. 212Bi has been successfully used for radioimmunotherapy studies of leukemic mice, and human trials are currently underway. One disadvantage of 212Bi is the shielding requirements that arise from the 2.26 MeV γ-ray of the212Bi daughter, 208Tl. However, 213Bi (T1/2=45.6 min) can be used as an alternative to 212Bi. 213Bi has less intense γ-ray emission, emitting a 440 keV γ-ray. Due to its lower energy, it may generate images comparable to 131I. The initial clinical trials in patients with acute myeloid leukemia have demonstrated the effectiveness of the alpha emitter 213Bi in killing cancer cells (Jurcic et al, 2002). Recent preclinical studies have also demonstrated the potential application of 213Bi in a variety of cancer systems and targeted radiotherapy.
213Bi is currently available through a 225Ac/213Bi generator. The generator uses a cation-exchange resin BioRad® MP-50 (U.S. Pat. No. 6,603,127, issued Aug. 5, 2003) which has been used in the past in 224Ra/212Bi generator systems. This generator failed to function after a few days when large amounts (20 mCi) of 225Ac were loaded onto the generator. The organic-based resins are not stable in high radiation field and due to radiolysis they breakdown resulting in an increase in 225Ac breakthrough and flow restriction. An alternative generator that has been used in the past is a two-stage silica-based extraction system (Wu et. al., 1997), but it is time consuming and gives a low bismuth yield. Therefore, ion exchange generator systems are needed that possess higher radiation stability, faster mass transfer, increased yield and purity, demonstrate selectivity with low Ac breakthrough and have a higher capacity.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide an improved generator system capable of providing clinical quantities of 213Bi of at least 20 mCi.
It is another object of the present invention to provide an improved generator system that has an improved generator yield and purity.
It is yet another object of the present invention to provide an improved generator system that has higher radiation stability.
These and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent after a review of the following detailed description of the disclosed embodiments and the appended claims.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the foregoing and other objects are achieved by a radionuclide generator resin material for radiochemical separation of daughter radionuclides from a solution of parental radionuclides wherein the resin material comprises a silica-based structure having at least one bifunctional ligand covalently attached to the surface of the silica-based structure wherein the bifunctional ligand comprises a chemical group having desirable surface functionality to enable the covalent attachment of the bifunctional ligand thereon the surface of the structure. The bifunctional ligand further comprises a second chemical group capable of binding and holding the parental radionuclides on the resin material while allowing the daughter radionuclides to elute off the resin material and wherein the bifunctional ligand has a carbon chain with a limited number of carbons to maintain radiation stability of the resin material.
In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, other objects are achieved by a 213Bi generator resin material for separation of 213Bi from a solution of parental radionuclides wherein the resin material is capable of providing clinical quantities of 213Bi of at least 20-mCi wherein the resin material comprises a silica-based structure having at least one bifunctional ligand covalently attached to the surface of the silica-based structure. The bifunctional ligand comprises a chemical group having desirable surface functionality to enable the covalent attachment of the bifunctional ligand thereon the surface of the structure. The bifunctional ligand further comprises a second chemical group capable of binding and holding the parental radionuclides on the resin material while allowing the 213Bi daughter to elute off the resin material and wherein the bifunctional ligand has a carbon chain with a limited number of carbons to maintain radiation stability of the resin material.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 shows the distribution of pore diameters for a mercapto-monolith sol-gel.
FIG. 2 shows the distribution of pore diameters for a calcined templated 15-S-15 sol-gel.
FIG. 3 is an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrum at 0 minutes for an oxidized mercapto sol-gel resin.
FIG. 4 is an XPS spectrum at 3 hours for the oxidized mercapto sol-gel resin.
FIG. 5 is an XPS spectrum at 6 hours for the oxidized mercapto sol-gel resin.
FIG. 6 shows the results of batch testing of H2O2 oxidized mercapto-resins.
FIG. 7 is a schematic of Applicant's 225Ac/213Bi generator column of the present invention.
FIG. 8 shows the two bifunctional ligands that can be used for acquiring the final functionalized sulfonic acid resins of Applicant's invention.
FIG. 9 shows a comparison of oxidized mercapto monolith sol-gel resin versus sulfonic acid monolith sol-gel resin.
FIG. 10 shows a comparison of 225Ac/213Bi yields for high activity versus low activity for monolith sulfonic sol-gel resin.
FIG. 11 is an SEM image of oxidized mercapto templated sol-gel.
FIG. 12 shows a comparison of nonporous BioRad® AG-50 versus porous BioRad® MP-50 and sol-gel resins of the present invention.
FIG. 13 shows a comparison of 225Ac/213Bi yields for nonporous resins versus porous resins.
For a better understanding of the present invention, together with other and further objects, advantages and capabilities thereof, reference is made to the following disclosure and appended claims in connection with the above-described drawings.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Applicant's invention disclosed and claimed herein is an improved generator of inorganic resin capable of providing clinical quantities of 213Bi (at least 20-mCi) while simultaneously improving the generator yield and purity. Currently, commercially available polymer-based cation exchange resins such as BioRad® AG-50 (polystyrene-divinylbenzene sulfonic acid resin) (BioRad) or BioRad® MP-50 (macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene-quaternary ammonium resin) (BioRad), are used in clinical 213Bi generators. Cation exchange resins made of an organic polymer resin tend to deteriorate over time in high radiation field from high levels of 225Ac (20 mCi). Commercially available BioRad® AG-50 or BioRad® MP-50 resins use a sulfonic acid functional group to bind both 225Ac and 213Bi in dilute nitric acids, while releasing the Bi ions when iodide ions are present in the eluent. Applicant's invention uses an inorganic silica-based material for the backbone of the resin and a bifunctional sulfonic acid ligand which is grafted via a short organic chain, preferably 4 carbons or less, to the surface of the inorganic material. The organic chain is limited in the number of carbons so to maintain radiation stability of the resin material. Obviously, the use of a long, organic chain for linking the functional groups to the resin backbone, defeats the purpose. It is well known that inorganic materials exhibit higher radiation stability than organic material. The inorganic silica-based resin of the present invention has demonstrated good radiation resistance while performing similar to the organic-based resin with respect to retention of 225AC, and elution of 213Bi. Applicant's resin material can also be used for radiochemical separations of 213Bi from a solution of other parental radionuclides as well as for radiochemical separations of other daughter radionuclides from solutions of parental radionuclides as well.
Applicant's invention replaces the commercially available organic-based resins that have limitations in lifetime due to radiolysis, with an inorganic-based resin having superior radiation resistance. This replacement of the resin backbone with inorganic material minimizes radiation damage to the resin's support. The silica-based cation-exchanger 225Ac/213Bi generator of Applicant's present invention was designed to demonstrate the required selectivity, comparable capacity, and, most importantly, higher radiation resistance.
In the past, ordered mesoporous metal oxide (SiO2) materials have been successfully synthesized using surfactant micellar structures as templates. These mesoporous sieves can possess a hexagonal array of uniform mesopores. They can be synthesized with uniform channels varying from approximately 15 Å to greater than 100 Å in size. The relatively large pore sizes in these materials make them very attractive for applications such as catalysts, catalytic supports, and sorbents, especially when the molecules involved are too large to fit in the microporous channels of conventional zeolites. The large pore materials typically have surface areas above 700 m2/g and hydrocarbon sorption capacities of 0.7 cc/g and greater. Applicant's silica-based cation-exchanger can be synthesized as having a mesoporous structure.
Mesostructure synthesis relies on surfactant micelles or liquid-crystal arrays of micelles as structure directing agents (templates) for the assembly and polymerization of inorganic precursors at the surfactant-solution interface. Mesoporous silica molecular sieves have been prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate in the presence of low-cost, nontoxic and biodegradable polyethyleneoxide surfactants, which act as the template. This nonionic, surfactant-neutral, inorganic-precursor templating pathway to mesostructures uses hydrogen bonding interactions between the hydrophilic surfaces of flexible micelles and Si(OC2H5).sub.4x(OH)x hydrolysis products to assemble an inorganic oxide framework. Removal of the organic template via calcinations or extraction, results in mesoporous metal oxide.
Recently, a new class of mesoporous material was developed based on organized monolayers of functional molecules bound to a mesoporous support (FMMS). The functional molecules are attached to the mesoporous support similar to the preparation of self assembled monolayers (SAMs). The surface area and pore size of the FMMS can be engineered easier for FMMS. This is important because pore size is important for applications involving heavy metal uptake because these materials usually have a high surface area.
The silica-based generator of Applicant's invention however requires a functional group to bind and hold 225Ac so that the 213Bi can be eluted off the generator. The Applicant has chosen a sulfonic acid functional group similar to that existing in BioRad® AG-50 or MP-50 resins. In turn, a bi-functional ligand is used to attach the sulfonic acid group to the silica gel backbone. The ligand is bifunctional and is composed of two important parts. First, the ligand contains a group that can be covalently tethered to the surface of a porous silicate based sol-gel. Hydrolysis and covalent attachment of a triethoxysilane group accomplishes this requirement. In the presence of water, the triethoxysilane group hydrolyzes and condenses into Si--OH groups on the pore surface of the mesoporous sol-gel. Second, the ligand has to be very short composing of only a few carbon atoms. Third, the ligand must have a functional group, such as a sulfonic acid, that will bind 225AC and not 213Bi under certain conditions.
The silica-based cation-exchanger used for Applicant's present invention is an inorganic polymer. One way of synthesizing the silica-based cation-exchanger is through the sol-gel processes. The sol-gel process is a series of reactions involving an alkoxide precursor which form inorganic materials such as monolith glass and ceramic oxides. Sol-gel materials are inexpensive and simple to prepare. For Applicant's present invention, two different forms of SiO2 were used. The first sol-gel material is a monolith glass, and the second sol-gel material used was templated mesoporous sol-gel.
The preparation of a sol-gel monolith involves five steps: mixing, casting, gelation, aging and drying. During the mixing stage, a liquid alkoxide precursor is hydrolyzed by mixing with water. The silanol groups then interact with each other in a condensation reaction forming a Si--O--Si network containing pores. Catalysts such as acids and bases can influence both the hydrolysis and condensation rates of the step. During the hydrolysis and condensation steps, a low-viscosity liquid is formed which can be cast into different molds. For the purpose of Applicant's present invention, this was not important because the molds formed were ground into a fine powder. At the gelation point, the viscosity increases sharply and a solid monolith gel forms. Aging is an important step in the preparation of sol-gel monoliths. During this step, polycondensation continues, which increases the strength of the gel. During the drying step, the liquid is removed from the interconnected pore network within the gel at room temperature under normal atmospheric pressure.
Applicant's present invention was developed and demonstrated as an improved generator capable of providing clinical quantities of 213Bi (at least 20-mCi) while simultaneously improving the generator yield and purity. In order to minimize radiation damage to the support, Applicant's invention involved replacing the organic polymer-based resins that have limitations in lifetime due to radiolysis with an inorganic sorbent material having superior radiation resistance. A silica-based cation-exchanger 225Ac/213Bi generator was thus designed that would demonstrate selectivity, have a high capacity, withstand low pH, and be radiation resistant. Different forms of an inorganic backbone were tested in Applicant's present invention: monolith sol-gel, templated mesoporous sol-gel, crushed quartz, silica beads and silica gel resin. Nonporous silica gel gave the highest yield and purity. A bifunctional sulfonic ligand was grafted to the surface of the silica gel for the binding of 225AC. Over 99% of the 225Ac was absorbed onto the surface of the resin and a high yield of 213Bi was eluted off the generator.
The following examples detail the procedure on the design and synthesis for the silica-based cation-exchanger 225Ac/213Bi generator of the present invention. All chemicals were used as received from the manufacturer. The inorganic resin was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) particle analyzer, and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS).
Synthesis of Monolith Sol-gels. Base catalyzed: The monolith sol-gel was prepared using methanol, tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane, and 0.5 M NaOH. In a vial, 250 μl of methanol and 250 μl of TMOS were combined followed by 150 μl of sulfonic acid or mercapto bifunctional ligand. Finally, 135 μl of 0.5 M NaOH was added to promote gelation, which occurred gels in three days. The gels were covered for 36 hours and allowed to cure. The cap was removed and the gel was allowed to air dry for 24 hours and then heated to 100° C. for 4 hours. The gel was allowed to cool to room temperature and was then ground to a fine powder.
BET, SEM and XPS data were collected to characterize the base catalyzed monolith sol-gel. BET N2 adsorption measurements were used to determine the distribution of pore sizes and the surface area of the gel. The specific surface area for the gel was 202 m2/g with a total pore volume of 0.101 cc/g. The pore size distribution indicates if the material contains macropores (>500 Å), mesopores (20 Å to 500 Å), or micropores (<20 Å). FIG. 1 shows the distribution of pore diameters for the monolith sol-gel. The distribution of pores starts below 20 Å and decreases to around 27 Å. Since the instrument did not detect pores larger than 20 Å, the pore size is microporous. Microporous materials usually exhibit slow kinetics due to the small pore size, which restrict flow through the pores.
Synthesis of Templated Mesoporous Sol-gel. The templated mesoporous sol-gel was prepared using a 10:1:560 molar ratio of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS): nonionic surfactant (15-S-15):H2O. Tergitol 15-S-15 (secondary alcohol ethoxylate, Dow Chemical Company) was mixed rapidly in water for 30 minutes. The TEOS was then dissolved in the template solution. White solids formed within 5 minutes. The precipitated products were allowed to age under moderate stirring for 12 hours. The precipitated product was filtered, air dried at room temperature, and then calcined in air at 2 k min-1 to 873 K for 12 hours to remove the template.
BET and SEM data was collected to characterize the mesoporous sol-gel. BET N2 adsorption measurements were used to determine the distribution of pore sizes and the surface area of the sol-gel. After calcination, the specific surface area of the gel was 488 m2/g with a total pore volume of 0.597 cc/g. Most solids with high surface area are, to some extent, porous. FIG. 2 shows the distribution of pore diameters for the templated 15-S-15 sol-gel. There is a narrow distribution of pore sizes between 20 Å to 70 Å with a maximum pore diameter of 47 Å. This narrow pore size distribution is in the desired mesopore range. FIG. 2 also indicates presence of a trace of micropores, but no macropores is evident. Based on the pore size distribution, both micro and mesopores contribute very little to the overall pore volume and surface area of this material. It is important to have large pore sizes at this stage because later, when the ligands are grafted to the sol-gel, the pore size will decrease. Obviously, the pore size has to be large enough for the ligand to fit inside and still have the space for fast metal cation absorption.
Grafting of Bifunctional Ligands onto the Surface of Mesoporous Sol-Gel. Synthesis of 10% FMMS Samples: 1.288 g of mesoporous silica was mixed with 2.0 ml of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (TMMPS) in 100 ml of chloroform. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 days and then filtered. The collected solid was washed with chloroform to rinse away any surplus TMMPS, and then dried under vacuum.
Synthesis of 25% FMMS Samples: 4.32 g of mesoporous silica was stirred in 125 ml of distilled water and heated to reflux for 4 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the sample was centrifuged down, the water decanted off, and the silica was air-dried. This hydrated mesoporous silica was then stirred in 250 ml of toluene. 30 ml of TMMPS was then added and the solution was heated to reflux for 4 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered. The solid was washed with acetone followed by water, then dried at 80° C. overnight.
Synthesis of 75% FMMS Samples: 3.5 g of mesoporous silica was stirred in 100 ml of distilled water and heated to reflux for 3 hours. The mixture was cooled and filtered. The wet product was placed in a round bottom flask along with 250 ml of toluene. The flask was fitted with a Dean-Stark trap and the mixture was heated to reflux. The Dean-Stark distillation was continued until 4.5 ml of water dispersed through the mesoporous silica, which is approximately equal to four monolayers of water. The mixture was then treated with 20 ml of TMMPS, stirred overnight at room temperature, and heated to reflux for 4 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was filtered and washed thoroughly with 2-propanol and dried under vacuum.
Oxidation of the Mercapto Ligand on the Mesoporous Sol-gel. Once 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane was tethered to the surface of the mesoporous sol-gel, the mercapto group had to be oxidized into a sulfonic acid. The mercapto group was oxidized using 30% H2O2 in glacial acidic acid (1:5 volume ratio) at 45° C. or concentrated HNO3. For both methods, the functionalized sol-gel material was placed into a vial containing a stir bar and then covered with excess reducing agent and stirred for 24 hours. When using 30% H2O2, the vial was covered because the peroxide is light sensitive.
Mercapto-quartz Resin. Crushed quartz was obtained by crushing quartz rods and sieving to obtain 150 μm particle size. The quartz substrate was rinsed and further hydroxylated using either 5 M KOH or 1% HF. The quartz was then dried in an oven at 100° C. for 30 minutes. 1.5 ml of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane was added to 150 ml of anhydrous toluene. The dry quartz was added to the mercapto solution for 24 hours. The mercapto-quartz was then washed with toluene followed by methanol and then dried. The mercapto groups were then oxidized using concentrated HNO3, as described in EXAMPLE 4.
Silica Beads: The silica beads were prepared by mixing 2-ethylhexanol with 7.0 M HNO3 in a separatory funnel. Once the 2-ethylhexanol layer was saturated with acid, the acid layer was removed. The 2-ethylhexanol layer was placed into a beaker and placed into a sonicator. Next, a saturated solution of Na2SiO3.9H2O was prepared by dissolving sodium meta-silicate in slightly basic solution of water. The sodium silicate solution was slowly added to the 2-ethylhexanol solution drop wise in the sonicator. The beads were allowed to set up in solution for 24 hours. The beads were then washed with water and air dried to allow the beads to shrink. The air dried silica beads were then sieved to 75-150 μm.
Silica Gel Resins: The silica gel was first sieved to 125-250 μm. The silica gel (1.0 g) was then mixed with 10 ml of methanol, 200 μl of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane, and 100 μl of 0.5 M NaOH. The mixture was stirred for 15 hours. The silica resin was washed with methanol and dried at 100° C. for 1 hour. The mercapto group was then oxidized with concentrated HNO3 for 24 hours at room temperature to form the sulfonic acid group. The resin was then washed with large amounts of water to reduce the acidity.
Assessment of the degree of oxidation of the mercapto ligand using H2O2: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the surface characteristic of the sample. Electron spectroscopy further provided information about the oxidation state of sulfur atoms on the surface of the mesoporous sol-gel. In mercapto group, the oxidation number of sulfur is -1, whereas the oxidation number of sulfur in the sulfonic group is +6. The distinct change in the electron binding energy corresponding to the two oxidation numbers of sulfur atoms are clearly seen in XPS. Table 1 lists the binding energies (eV) for the 2p electron orbital for sulfur atom.
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Binding Energies of 2p electrons for sulfur in R--SCOCH3, R--SH and R--SO3H molecules measured by XPS: Sulfur Group Binding Energy (eV) of sulfur 2p electrons R--SCOCH3 164.0 R--SH 163.6 R--SO3H 168.1
A series of studies was conducted to examine the oxidation time of the functional group attached to the sol-gels. FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 are typical XPS spectra of the oxidized mercapto resins. Signals are as follows: 106 and 140 eV (SiO2), 164 eV (R--SH), 168 eV and 250 eV (R--SO3H), 295 eV (C), and 530 eV (O). For this study, the functionalized gels were placed into peroxide (30% H2O2) for a period of time (see Example 4). The time period started at 0 hours and continued to 24 hours. A sample was introduced to the oxidation solution every 30 minutes for the first 2 hours and then every hour after that. Table 2 shows the binding energies for the oxidized mercapto sol-gel sulfur vs. oxidation times.
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 XPS Results of the Oxidation of Mercapto Resin using H2O2: R--SH, R--SCOCH3 R--SO3H Mercapto Resin Binding Relative Binding Relative Oxidation Time Energy Intensity Energy Intensity (min) (eV) (%) (eV) (%) 0 163.50 100 Undetectable 0 30 164.25 100 Undetectable 0 45 164.25 100 Undetectable 0 60 164.25 100 Undetectable 0 90 164.12 100 Undetectable 0 120 163.75 100 168.25 0 180 163.50 60 168.75 40 240 165.50 20 168.50 80 300 Undetectable 0 169.50 100 360 Undetectable 0 169.25 100 BioRad AG-50 resin Undetectable 0 169.50 100
FIG. 3 shows a spectrum of a mercapto resin at the start of oxidation process (at time 0 min.). As seen, the spectrum shows only one signal at 165.50 eV corresponding to the 2p binding energy of the sulfur atom in mercapto functional group (see Table 1). There was no detectable oxidation before 1 hour. At 3 hours, a second signal at 168.25 eV, corresponding to the 2p binding energy of the sulfur atom in sulfonic acid functional group, started to appear, which is shown in FIG. 4. The sample that was oxidized for 180 min. appears to have 40% R--SO3H and approximately 60% R--SH. As time progresses, the R--SH signal decreases while the R--SO3H signal increases. FIG. 5 shows a spectrum after 6 hours of oxidation, indicating the disappearance of the signal at 164 eV from the mercapto group.
Batch Testing for 225Ac uptake and 213Bi elution using the H2O2 oxidized mercapto resins: A successful sorbent material for a 213Bi ion-exchange generator must have two characteristics: it must take up 225AC, and there must be a capability to selectively remove 213Bi from the material. Batch tests were first conducted in which the uptake of carrier-free 225AC (180 μCi) in 100 μl of 0.12 M HNO3 and the elution of bismuth and actinium into 250 μl of 0.15 M hydroiodic acid were measured. BioRad® AG-50 was used as a standard to determine the inorganic resin capability. The results of the batch test are shown in FIG. 6.
One notable trend is the increase in 213Bi elution as the oxidation time increases. This correlates with the XPS data mentioned previously. The mercapto binds 213Bi and the sulfonic group binds 225AC. If both functional groups are on the resin, both actinium and bismuth will stay on the column. As the concentration of the mercapto groups decreases, the concentration of bismuth eluted off the resin will increase. The same trend also is observed with the sulfonic acid group; as the concentration of the sulfonic acid groups increases, the breakthrough of actinium decreases. After 6 hours, there was no significant increase in the amount of bismuth eluted off the resin. The maximum amount of bismuth eluted off the resin was 65%. Under similar conditions, there was a 96% elution of bismuth from BioRad® AG-50 resin. The purpose of the present invention was to reach or surpass this elution level.
The next study was the design of a 225Ac/213Bi generator in the form of a column. Columns usually give better results because the actinium stays at the top of the column so there is little to no breakthrough of actinium.
Design of 225Ac/213Bi Generator Columns: The sulfonic acid sol-gel was washed three times with 0.12 M HNO3 to remove fine particles. Generators were made in disposable glass pipettes as shown in FIG. 7. A small piece of glass wool 2 was inserted into the neck of the pipette as a plug. Next, 100 mg (0.5 cm) of wet resin 1 was added above the glass wool followed by another piece of glass wool. The column was then washed with 8.0 M HNO3 followed by three washes with 0.12 M HNO3.
Evaluation of Sulfonic Acid Resin vs. Oxidized Mercapto Resin: Preliminary results demonstrated that the functionalized sulfonic acid resins absorbed 225Ac and that 213Bi could be eluted off the resin with a few column bed volumes of 0.15 M HI (hydroiodic acid). There are two methods for acquiring the final functionalized sulfonic acid resins. The first method uses a mercapto ligand that can be oxidized using concentrated HNO3 or 30% H2O2 into a sulfonic group. The second method uses a commercially available sulfonic acid ligand. Either ligand can be used with the formation of the monolith sol-gel. However, the sulfonic acid ligand cannot be used when grafting the ligand to the surface of the templated mesoporous sol-gel materials because the ligand lacks an alkoxide group (FIG. 8).
FIG. 9 shows a comparison of oxidized mercapto monolith sol-gel versus sulfonic acid monolith sol-gel. Both resins were tested using column method and were compared with BioRad® AG-50 resin. As seen below, neither sulfonic acid resin out-performed the other. However, both sulfonic acid resins had lower 213Bi elution compared to BioRad® AG-50.
Evaluation of the 225Ac/213Bi Generator using 1.0 mCi of 225Ac: Both the oxidized mercapto resin and sulfonic acid resin performed lower than BioRad® AG-50 for low 225AC activity (1.0 μCi). The next step was to evaluate the resin using high 225AC activity (1.0 mCi). The resin was evaluated with 960 μCi of 225AC. 225AC was loaded onto the column with 500 μl of 0.12 M HNO3. The column was then washed with 600 μl of 0.12 M HNO3, followed by 400 μl of 1.2 M HNO3. 1.2 M HNO3 was used to elute the 225AC further into the resin. Finally, the column was washed with 400 μl of water. All of the washes were measured for 225AC breakthrough. There was a low breakthrough (0.0004 μCi) of 225AC with the first two washes. After the 1.2 M HNO3 wash, there was a breakthrough of 2.4 μCi of 225Ac or 0.25% of original total. This was expected because at higher concentrations of the HNO3 can elute 225AC off of resins. However, washing with water showed a decrease in the 225AC breakthrough. This resin retained 225Ac almost quantitatively.
Next, the resin was tested for 213Bi elution. In a useful generator, the 225AC must remain on the resin, but 213Bi must be eluted on the column. For a typical 213Bi elution, the resin was washed with 200 μl of 0.15 M HI followed by 200 μl of H2O. This was performed three times on the column. An average of the three washes gave a 58% elution of the 213Bi with little to no breakthrough of 225AC. The results of the 225Ac uptake and 213Bi elution are shown in FIG. 10.
Scanning Electron Microscope Data of BioRad® AG-50, MP-50 and Functionalized Monolith Resin: Since neither the oxidized mercapto or sulfonic acid resins could be optimized to improve the 60% 213Bi elution, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the particle size and shape of BioRad® AG-50, MP-50 and functionalized inorganic sol-gel resins. BioRad® AG-50 and MP-50 both have a styrene divinylbenzene matrix with a functionalized R--SO3Na group. However, they behave differently due to their cross-linkage. The SEM for BioRad® AG-50 at a magnification of 4.5 mm×700, showed the individual particles are round spheres without any noticeable pores. The SEM for BioRad® MP-50 showed a porous material that is both mesoporous and macroporous. Finally, FIG. 11 shows an image of oxidized mercapto templated sol-gel. Its visual characteristics are similar to BioRad® MP-50. BioRad® AG-50 is nonporous and both BioRad® MP-50 and the monolith sol-gel are porous, which could be a key factor in the elution of bismuth.
Comparison of Porous vs. Nonporous Functionalized Inorganic Resins: Typically, high surface area resins are needed for metal ion uptake. However, high surface area with mesopores could inhibit the elution of the 213Bi. This study compared porous BioRad® MP-50 and monolith sol-gel to nonporous BioRad® AG-50. Five different resins were evaluated: BioRad® AG-50, BioRad® MP-50, conc. HNO3 oxidized mercapto monolith sol-gel, H2O2 oxidized mercapto monolith sol-gel and sulfonic acid monolith sol-gel. All resins were evaluated using the column method. FIG. 12 shows the results of this study. All five samples absorbed 225AC with little to no breakthrough. Nonporous BioRad® AG-50 showed a high percentage (82%) of 213Bi elution, while the porous resins had approximately one-third (57%) less 213Bi elution. It is important to note that Applicant's synthesized mesoporous resins compared well with the porous BioRad® MP-50 and exhibited the same range of 213Bi elution.
The results of this study show that there is a difference in the elution of bismuth between porous and nonporous materials. The mesoporous materials could have lower bismuth elution due to the mesopore channels that the metal ions have to flow through. If the 0.15 M HI solution flowed more slowly through the column, 213Bi elution yield could be improved. The problem with slowing down the flow rate is the 213Bi half-life of 45 minutes. Within 45 minutes, the 213Bi atoms must be eluted from the column, neutralized, attached to an antibody and finally introduced to the cancer cell. A slower rate is not possible for this reason.
Evaluation of Nonporous Mercapto-quartz Resin: For all of the mercapto-quartz resin studies, they were performed in column mode using approximately 10 μCi of 225AC. The column, 225AC uptake and 213Bi elution was prepared and performed as mentioned above. FIG. 13 shows the results of this study. First the mercapto-quartz had >99% uptake of 225Ac. As for the 213Bi elution, 81% of the bismuth was eluted off the column. This is a significant increase over previous porous mercapto-sol gel resins (56%). When comparing the mercapto-quartz resin to BioRad® AG-50, the results were very similar. BioRad® AG-50 gave 82% 213Bi elution while the mercapto-quartz resin had 81% 213Bi elution. As for 225AC breakthrough, the mercapto-resin had less than 0.19%. The silica beads should give similar results. The silica beads were mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane ligand.
While there has been shown and described what are at present considered the preferred embodiments of the invention, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications can be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention defined by the appended claims.
Patent applications by Michael Z. Hu, Knoxville, TN US
Patent applications by Saed Mirzadeh, Knoxville, TN US
Patent applications in class ION-EXCHANGE POLYMER OR PROCESS OF PREPARING
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