Patent application title: Method for Providing Information Security for Wireless Transmissions
Walter Lee Davis (Rogersville, WA, US)
Douglas I. Ayerst (Delray Beach, FL, US)
Scott Alexander Vanstone (Campbellville, CA)
Scott Alexander Vanstone (Campbellville, CA)
IPC8 Class: AH04L2906FI
Class name: Multiple computer communication using cryptography central trusted authority provides computer authentication by certificate
Publication date: 2011-01-13
Patent application number: 20110010540
Patent application title: Method for Providing Information Security for Wireless Transmissions
Scott Alexander Vanstone
Walter Lee Davis
Douglas I. Ayerst
Origin: HOUSTON, TX US
IPC8 Class: AH04L2906FI
Publication date: 01/13/2011
Patent application number: 20110010540
A wireless communication system includes a pager or similar device that
communicates to a home terminal. The home terminal confirms the identity
of the pager and attaches a certificate to the message for ongoing
transmission. Where the recipient is also a pager, an associated home
terminal verifies the transmission and forwards it in a trusted manner
without the certificate to the recipient.
1. A method of communicating a message between correspondents in a
communication system through an intermediary terminal, said intermediary
terminal sharing an identifier with one of said correspondents, and said
intermediary terminal having access to said identifier and an associated
certificate of a public key of said one of said correspondents, the
method comprising:said one of said correspondents computing a secure
communication including said message,said one of said correspondents
computing a signature component including a derivation of said secure
communication and said identifier,said one of said correspondents
forwarding said signature component and said secure communication to said
intermediary terminal,said intermediary terminal verifying said signature
component,said intermediary terminal attaching to said secure
communication said certificate of the public key of said one of said
correspondents, andsaid intermediary terminal forwarding said secure
communication and said certificate to another of said correspondents.
2. The method according to claim 1 wherein said signature component includes a nonce unique to each communication.
3. The method according to claim 1 wherein said secure communication includes said message signed by said one of said correspondents.
4. The method according to claim 1 wherein said secure communication includes ciphertext encrypted with a public key of said another of said correspondents.
5. The method according to claim 1 wherein said intermediary terminal recovers said identifier from said signature component and retrieves said certificate based on said identifier.
6. The method according to claim 1 wherein said another of said correspondents is a recipient terminal, which utilizes said certificate to determine the public key of said one of said correspondents.
7. The method according to claim 6 wherein said recipient terminal signs another message including said public key of said one of said correspondents to generate a signature of said another message, and forwards said secure communication and said signature of said another message to a second of said correspondents.
8. The method according to claim 7 wherein said second of said correspondents retrieves said public key of said one of said correspondents using said signature of said another message, and extracts said message from said secure communication.
9. The method according to claim 1 wherein prior to said one of said correspondents computing a secure communication including said message, said one of said correspondents registers with said intermediary terminal by performing operations including: said intermediary terminal transferring a public key of said intermediary terminal to said one of said correspondents and said one of said correspondents transferring said public key of said one of said correspondents to said intermediary terminal.
10. The method according to claim 9 wherein said one of said correspondents has stored in memory a public key of a trusted party and said intermediary terminal has a certificate of said public key of said intermediary terminal signed by said trusted party, and wherein said one of said correspondents verifies said public key of said intermediary terminal with said public key of said trusted party.
11. The method according to claim 10 wherein said public key of said intermediary terminal is used by said one of said correspondents to sign said public key of said one of said correspondents for secure transfer to said intermediary terminal.
12. The method according to claim 10 wherein said one of said correspondents forwards authorization information to said intermediary terminal during registration and said intermediary terminal verifies that said one of said correspondents is not prior registered with a certifying authority.
13. The method according to claim 12 wherein said authorization information includes an address particular to said one of said correspondents for identification by said certifying authority.
14. The method according to claim 11 wherein said identifier is transferred from said intermediary terminal to said one correspondent upon verification by a certifying authority.
15. The method according to claim 14 wherein transfer of said identifier is secured by the public key of said one of said correspondents and said private key of said intermediary terminal.
16. A system for communicating a message between correspondents, the system including an intermediary terminal, said intermediary terminal sharing an identifier with one of said correspondents, and said intermediary terminal having access to said identifier and an associated certificate of a public key of said one of said correspondents, said intermediary terminal and said correspondents being configured to perform operations comprising:said one of said correspondents computing a secure communication including said message;said one of said correspondents computing a signature component including a derivation of said secure communication and said identifier;said one of said correspondents forwarding said signature component and said secure communication to said intermediary terminal;said intermediary terminal verifying said signature component;said intermediary terminal attaching to said secure communication said certificate of the public key of said one of said correspondents; andsaid intermediary terminal forwarding said secure communication and said certificate to another of said correspondents.
17. The system according to claim 16 wherein said signature component includes a nonce unique to each communication.
18. The system according to claim 16 wherein said secure communication includes said message signed by said one of said correspondents.
19. The system according to claim 16 wherein said secure communication includes ciphertext encrypted with a public key of said another of said correspondents.
20. The system according to claim 16 wherein said intermediary terminal is configured to recover said identifier from said signature component and retrieve said certificate based on said identifier.
21. The system according to claim 16 wherein said another of said correspondents is a recipient terminal, which utilizes said certificate to determine the public key of said one of said correspondents.
22. The system according to claim 21 wherein said recipient terminal is configured to sign another message including said public key of said one of said correspondents to generate a signature of said another message, and forward said secure communication and said signature of said another message to a second of said correspondents.
23. The system according to claim 22 wherein a second of said correspondents is configured to retrieve said public key of said one of said correspondents using said signature of said another message, and extract said message from said secure communication.
24. The system according to claim 16 wherein prior to said one of said correspondents computing a secure communication including said message, said one of said correspondents is configured to register with said intermediary terminal by performing operations including: said intermediary terminal transferring a public key of said intermediary terminal to said one of said correspondents and said one of said correspondents transferring said public key of said one of said correspondents to said intermediary terminal.
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/483,176 filed on Jul. 10, 2006 which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/680,501 filed on Oct. 5, 2000, now abandoned, all incorporated herein by reference.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates generally to cryptographic schemes, and specifically to cryptographic schemes relating to wireless applications.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Information security is required to secure many types of transactions performed electronically using a wide range of computing and communication technologies. As consumers demand more flexible, convenient services, technologies such as wireless networks, paging infrastructures and smart cards are being deployed to support critical, information sensitive applications including account inquiries, electronic cash, secure communications and access control. One of the key features of each of these technologies is that they offer consumers the convenience of service anywhere, any time. The convenience offered to consumers results in a challenge for the vendors to create smaller and faster devices while providing a high level of security for information computed and transmitted.
Information security is provided through the application of cryptographic systems (commonly referred to as cryptosystems). The two main classes of cryptosystems are symmetric and public key. In a symmetric cryptosystem, two users wishing to participate in a secure transaction must share a common key. Therefore, each user must trust the other not to divulge the key to a third party. Users participating in a secure transaction using public key cryptosystems will each have two keys, known as a key pair. One of the keys is kept secret and is referred to as the private key, while the other can be published and is referred to as the public key. Typically, applications use a combination of both these classes of cryptosystems to provide information security. Symmetric technologies are typically used to perform bulk data encryption, while public key technologies are commonly used to perform key agreement, key transport, digital signatures and encryption of small messages.
Since the introduction of public key cryptosystems, there have been many implementations proposed. All of these public key systems are based on mathematical problems which are known to be hard, that is, it is thought that breaking a system is equivalent to solving a hard mathematical problem. These problems are generally easy to solve for numbers that are small in size, but become increasingly difficult as larger numbers are used. One of the differences among the systems is how large the numbers have to be so that the system is too hard to solve given present and anticipated computing power. This is typically linked to the length of the key and referred to as the key size. A system using a small key size while maintaining a high level of security is considered better, as it requires less information to be transmitted and stored.
Diffie-Hellman key agreement provided the first practical solution to the key distribution problem by allowing two parties to securely establish a shared secret over an open channel. The original key agreement protocol provides unauthenticated key agreement. The security is based on the discrete logarithm problem of finding integer x given a group generator a, and an element β, such that ax=β.
Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA) was the first widely deployed realization of a public key system. The RSA system is a full public key cryptosystem and can be used to implement both encryption and digital signature functions. The security of the RSA cryptosystem depends on the difficulty of factoring the product of two large distinct prime numbers. To create a private key/public key pair, a user chooses two large distinct primes P and Q, and forms the product n=PQ. With knowledge of P and Q, the user finds two values e and d such that ((MYe)d mod n=M.
The public key of the user is the pair (e, n) while the private key is d. It is known that the recovery of d from and e and n requires the recovery of P and Q, and thus is equivalent to factoring n.
Elliptic curve cryptosystems are based on an exceptionally difficult mathematical problem. Thus, elliptic curve systems can maintain security equivalent to many other systems while using much smaller public keys. The smaller key size has significant benefits in terms of the amount of information that must be exchanged between users, the time required for that exchange, the amount of information that must be stored for digital signature transactions, and the size and energy consumption of the hardware or software used to implement the system. The basis for the security of the elliptic curve cryptosystem is the assumed intractability of the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem. The problem requires an efficient method to find an integer k given an elliptic curve over a finite field, a point P on the curve, another point Q such that Q=kP.
In this system, the public key is a point (Q) on an elliptic curve (represented as a pair of field elements) and the private key is an integer (k). Elliptic curves are defined over an underlying field and may be implemented over the multiplicative group Fp, (the integers modulo a prime p) or characteristic 2 finite fields (F2∞, where m is a positive integer).
There are typically three levels in a cryptosystem, which are encryption, signatures, and certificates. These three levels can be implemented using the above mentioned systems or a combination thereof.
The first level of a cryptosystem involves encrypting a message between correspondent A and correspondent B. This level is vulnerable to attack since there is no way for correspondent A to verify whether or not correspondent B sent the message, or if a third party in the guise of correspondent B sent the message.
Therefore, the second level of signing a message was introduced. Correspondent B can sign the encrypted message using, for example, a hashing function to hash the original message. If correspondent A uses the same hashing function on the decrypted message and it matches the signature sent by correspondent B, then the signature is verified. However, a third party may act as an interloper. The third party could present itself to correspondent A as if it were correspondent B and vice versa. As a result, both correspondents would unwittingly divulge their information to the third party. Therefore, the signature verifies that the message sent by a correspondent is sent from that correspondent, but it does not verify the identity of the correspondent.
To prevent this type of attack, the correspondents may use a trusted third party (TTP) to certify the public key of each correspondent. The TTP has a private signing algorithm and a verification algorithm assumed to be known by all entities. The TTP carefully verifies the identity of each correspondent, and signs a message consisting of an identifier and the correspondent's public key. This is a simple example as to how a TTP can be used to verify the identification of the correspondent.
Some of the most significant emerging areas for public key cryptosystems include wireless devices. Wireless devices, including cellular telephones, two-way pagers, wireless modems, and contactless smart cards, are increasing in popularity because of the convenience they provide while maintaining a low cost and small form factor.
However, implementing the above mentioned cryptosystems requires computational power, which is limited on such wireless devices. Therefore, there is a need for a cryptosystem that provides all of the advantages as described above, but requires less power from the wireless device.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In accordance with the present invention there is provided a method of communicating between a pair of correspondents through an intermediary comprising the steps, registering one of said correspondents with said intermediary to share an identifier, preparing at said one correspondent a secure communication including a message between said correspondents, preparing a signature component including a derivation of said secure communication and said identifier forwarding said signature component to said intermediary and verifying said signature component at said intermediary, attaching to said communication a certificate of the public key and identity of the said one correspondent, and forwarding said communication and certificate to said other correspondent.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
An embodiment of the invention will now be described by way of example only with reference to the following drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic drawing of a pager system;
FIG. 2 is a representation of a registration process for the system of FIG. 1
FIG. 3 is a representation of a message transfer system for the system of FIG. 1
FIG. 4 is a schematic representation of an alternative embodiment of a communication system.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
For convenience, like numerals in the description refer to like structures in the drawings. Further, although the description refers only to pagers, it is intended that the description includes wireless devices in general.
Referring to FIG. 1, a paging system is represented generally by the numeral 100. A first pager 102 is operatively coupled with a first home terminal 104 through a wireless communication. The first home terminal 104 is operatively coupled to a second home terminal 106 via a network 108 and the second home terminal 106 in turn is operatively coupled to a second pager 110. The pagers 102, 110 are typically coupled to their respective home terminals 104, 106 by radio frequency. The network 108 is typically a public switched telephone network (PSTN), but can include a data network, and the Internet.
Before a pager 102 can communicate with the home terminal 104 it must be registered, Every pager 102 contains a subscriber unit address and a public key Qc of the pager manufacturer or service provider (herein referred to as the company public key). This information is loaded at the manufacture stage. The company public key Qc is derived from a company private key dc.
Each home terminal 104 has a private key dH and a public key QH. The public key QH is signed by the company private key dc to create a certificate denoted CM. The company public key Qc could be system wide or defined for a given region. A subscriber purchases a pager 102 from a retail outlet and the pager is then loaded with a home index and identifier ID using the protocol outlined below. The home index is typically a 32-bit index which uniquely identifies the pager 102 and correlates it with a specific home terminal 104.
The subscriber calls a number, typically a toll-free number, to contact a service provider and a home terminal 104 is assigned. The home terminal 104 sends the pager 102 its public key QH and its certificate CM The pager verifies QH with the company public key Qc. The pager generates a private key dp and a corresponding public key Qp which is communicated to the home terminal 104. The pager 102 sends to the home terminal 104 the necessary authorization information (including identification, credit card number, subscriber unit address, and the like) encrypted under the home terminal public key QH). The home terminal gets authorization from a central repository that this subscriber unit has not already been activated and thereby prevents counterfeiting of subscriber units. The home terminal 104 sets up a subscriber account and sends the pager 102 its home index and identifier ID encrypted under Qp and signed by the home terminal.
Each pager 102 in a paging infrastructure 100 is registered with a home terminal using the registration protocol described above. The pagers have a private and public key pair, dp, Qp, each of which are approximately 20 bytes in length. The home terminals 104 have a private and public key pair dh, QH each of which are approximately 25 bytes in length. It is desirable to have a longer key length at the home terminal for providing additional security. Further, since the home terminal 104 does not have the same power constraints as the pager 102, the extra computational power required for the longer key is not a significant issue. The additional security at the home terminal 102 is important since a compromise of the home terminal would permit counterfeiting of subscriber units.
To reduce the computational requirements on the pager thereby reducing the power required to encrypt a message M, each of the pagers 102 has a certificate registered for it at the home terminal 104. The certificate, certCa>, validates the public key Qp, and identity ID. Each of the home terminals maintains a table for the pagers and their associated certificate. Rather than having the pager sign the certificate and send the message to the home terminal, the certificate certca> is signed by the pager's home terminal. The transmission process used to implement such a protocol is described in detail below.
Referring once again to FIG. 1 and FIG. 3, the first pager P1 wishes to send a message M to a recipient, e.g. a second pager P2 having a public key Qp2, . The sender P1 initially obtains an authentic copy of a recipient's public key Q p2. The first pager P1 calculates ciphertext with of a signed message M such that W=EQp2, (Sp1, (M)) , where EQp2 is encryption under the public key Qp2 and Sp1 is the signature of the first pager on message M using the private key dp.
The first pager also calculates a signature ma=Sp1(h(w) % CN % IDp1,) where h(w) is a hash of W, such as SHA-1. CN is a timestamp or some other nonce, IDp1, is the unique identifier of the first pager, and % represents concatenation. The first pager then transmits the signature, ma, and the signed, encrypted message, W, to the first home terminal.
The signature, ma, is used by the home terminal 104 associated with pager P1 to verify that P1 is a legitimate user. In order to avoid a challenge-response authentication to save time and bandwidth, the message W and a nonce CN, which is unique for each transmission, are coupled with the ID of P1 and signed. The nonce is used to prevent replay of the transmission. W is a signed, encrypted form of the message M. Signing then encrypting is preferred over encrypting then signing.
The first home terminal receives ma and W from P1 and uses Ma to verify that P1 is a legitimate user. IDp1, is recovered from ma, and the first home terminal retrieves the certificate, Certca for P1 from the corresponding table and attaches it to W. Certca is a full certificate such as X.509 and consists of 1 bytes. There is no loss of security in storing the Certca certificates at the first home terminal.
In addition to saving computational power on the pager, the bandwidth requirements of the transmission from the pager to the base are reduced since the pager does not have to transmit a certificate.
The first home terminal 104 stores a pre-computed table of values which allows it to increase the speed of verifying P1's signature. Alternately, if verification is fast enough, as would be the case with a hardware implementation, the table of values is not required.
The first home terminal then removes the signature component Ma and transmits the signed, encrypted message Wand the certificate Certca to the recipient. Since the recipient in this example is the second pager 110, W and Certca are sent to the second home terminal 106 that has public and private keys Qp3 dp3 respectively.
The second home terminal, 106 receives the transmission and verifies Qp1 using Certca (Qp1, IDp1). To save bandwidth, the second home terminal 106 signs Qp1, according to the signature function Sdp3 (W % Qp1 % IDp3) and sends it along with W to P2. A time stamp CN1 may be included to prevent replay attacks. P2 trusts the second home terminal to do this honestly. The pager P2 can then verify W and recover the message M using its private key dp2 and the senders public key Qp1. Qp1 has been validated by the signature of the home terminal 104 and therefore communicating between the second home terminal 106 and the second pager 110 in this manner keeps the certificates off the transmission channel and reduces bandwidth requirements.
An example of the bandwidth requirements for such a method is described as follows. Suppose M consists of t bytes. If the Nyberg-Rueppel protocol is used for signing the message, t+20 bytes are required for Sp1(M). A further 20 bytes are used to encrypt Sp1(M), therefore W is t+40 bytes in length. Hashing h(W) uses 20 bytes if SHA-1 is used. The nonce CN uses 4 bytes and the identification IDp1 uses 4 bytes. Once again, if Nyberg-Rueppel is used for signing, 20 additional bytes are used. Hence ma will be 48 bytes. Therefore, the transmission between the first pager and the first home terminal uses t+92 bytes.
For the transmission from the first home terminal to the second home terminal, W uses t+40 bytes, Certca uses l bytes, and therefore the bandwidth required is t+l+40 bytes.
For the transmission from the second home terminal, W uses t+40 bytes, Qp1 uses 20 bytes, 1Dp1 uses 4 bytes, and CN1 uses 4 bytes. Therefore, using Nyberg-Rueppel for signing, the bandwidth used in sending W and Sdp3(W % Qp1 % (IDp1,) and the nonce CNl is a total of 25+(t+40)+20+4+4=t+93 bytes.
In the above example, the transmission is from pager to pager. However, the protocol may be used from the input devices, for example, a DTMF telephone as illustrated in FIG. 4. In this case, the transmission T, would be With and Certca (Qd.IDD) where QD and IDD are the public key and identity of the telephone.
The transmission T2 would be W and certca (Qd.IDD) and the transmission T3 to the pager, after verification of Certca would be QD, With 1DD and CN all signed by the home terminal.
Patent applications by Douglas I. Ayerst, Delray Beach, FL US
Patent applications by Scott Alexander Vanstone, Campbellville CA
Patent applications by Walter Lee Davis, Rogersville, WA US
Patent applications by CERTICOM CORP.
Patent applications by MOTOROLA, INC.
Patent applications in class By certificate
Patent applications in all subclasses By certificate