Patent application title: TOUCHSCREEN WITH CARBON NANOTUBE CONDUCTIVE LAYERS
Glen C. Irvin, Jr. (Rochester, NY, US)
Todd M. Spath (Hilton, NY, US)
Charles C. Anderson (Penfield, NY, US)
Lawrence A. Rowley (Rochester, NY, US)
Lawrence A. Rowley (Rochester, NY, US)
Debasis Majumdar (Rochester, NY, US)
IPC8 Class: AG09G336FI
Class name: Display peripheral interface input device touch panel including impedance detection
Publication date: 2010-09-02
Patent application number: 20100220074
The present invention is directed to a touchscreen comprising touch side
electrode and device side electrode wherein each electrode comprises an
insulating substrate and an exposed electrically conductive layer,
wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers are adjacent and
separated by dielectric spacers, and wherein only one of the exposed
electrically conductive layers comprises carbon nanotubes.
1. A touchscreen comprising touch side and device side electrodes wherein
each electrode comprises in order an insulating substrate, an exposed
electrically conductive layer, wherein said exposed electrically
conductive layers are adjacent and separated by dielectric spacers, and
wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers comprise single wall
carbon nanotubes and wherein said carbon nanotubes comprise covalently
attached hydrophilic species.
2. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein the hydrophilic species is present in an amount of between 0.5 and 5 atomic %.
3. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said hydrophilic species comprises carboxylic acid or carboxylic acid salt or mixtures thereof.
4. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said hydrophilic species comprises a sulfur containing group selected from:SOxZy Wherein x ranges from 1-3 and Z may be a Hydrogen atom or a metal cation of such metals as Na, Mg, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, Fe, Co and y may range from 0 or 1.
5. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said carbon nanotubes have an outer diameter of between 0.5 and 5 nanometers.
6. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said carbon nanotubes comprise bundles of a diameter of between 1 and 50 nanometers.
7. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said carbon nanotubes comprise bundles of a diameter of between 1 and 20 nanometers.
8. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said carbon nanotubes have a length of between 20 nanometers and 50 microns.
9. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said carbon nanotubes comprise bundles of a length of between 20 nanometers and 50 microns.
10. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said carbon nanotubes are metallic carbon nanotubes.
11. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said hydrophilic species comprises sulfonic acids or sulfonic acid salts or mixtures thereof.
12. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said carbon nanotubes are open end carbon nanotubes.
13. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said covalently attached hydrophilic species is present on the outside wall of said carbon nanotube.
14. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein the electronically conductive layer comprising carbon nanotubes further comprises a binder.
15. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said electronically conductive layer adjacent said substrate has a sheet resistance of between 10 and 10.sup.6 Ohm per square.
16. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said electronically conductive layer comprising carbon nanotubes have a sheet resistance of between 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.4 Ohm per square.
17. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said electronically conductive layer comprises a binder.
18. The touchscreen of claim 17 wherein said binder comprises water soluble or water dispersible polymers.
19. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said touchscreen is capable of greater than 500,000 single point actuations.
20. A touchscreen comprising touch side and device side electrodes wherein each electrode comprises in order an insulating substrate, an exposed electrically conductive layer, wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers are adjacent and separated by dielectric spacers, and wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers comprise single wall carbon nanotubes and wherein said carbon nanotubes comprise covalently attached hydrophilic species; andwherein said touchscreen has a visible light transparency of greater than 70 percent.
21. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said substrates have a visible light transparency of greater than 70 percent and comprise polyethyleneterephthalate, polyethylenenaphthalate, polycarbonate or glass.
22. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said touch side substrate further comprises an anti-glare coat.
23. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said touch side substrate further comprises an anti-reflection coat.
24. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said touch side substrate further comprises a hardcoat having a pencil hardness greater than 2H.
25. The touchscreen of claim 1 wherein said touch side substrate further comprises a ultra violet light absorbing layer.
26. A touchscreen comprising touch side and device side electrodes wherein each electrode comprises in order an insulating substrate, an exposed electrically conductive layer, wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers are adjacent and separated by dielectric spacers, and wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers comprise single wall carbon nanotubes and wherein said carbon nanotubes comprise covalently attached hydrophilic species;wherein said touchscreen has a visible light transparency of greater than 70 percent: andwherein the average force required to actuate a point on the touchscreen does not change by more than 100 percent over 500,000 single point actuations.
27. A device comprising a display device having attached thereto a touchscreen comprising touch side and device side electrodes wherein each electrode comprises an exposed electrically conductive layer, wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers are adjacent and separated by dielectric spacers, and wherein at least the first electrically conductive layers or the exposed electrically conductive layers comprise carbon nanotubes and wherein said carbon nanotubes comprise covalently attached hydrophilic species; andwherein said touchscreen has a visible light transparency of greater than 70 percent.
28. The device of claim 27 wherein said display device comprises a LCD based display.
29. The device of claim 28 wherein said LCD comprises a polarizer plate and the touchscreen is adhesively attached to said polarizer plate.
30. A touchscreen comprising touch side and device side electrodes wherein each electrode comprises in order an insulating substrate, an exposed electrically conductive layer, wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers are adjacent and separated by dielectric spacers, and wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers comprise single wall carbon nanotubes and wherein said carbon nanotubes comprise covalently attached hydrophilic species: andwherein the average force required to actuate a point on the touchscreen does not change by more than 50 percent over 500,000 single point actuations.
31. The touchscreen of claim 27 wherein the average force required to actuate a point on the touchscreen does not change by more than 100 percent over 500,000 single point actuations.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates in general to touchscreens for electronic devices. In particular the invention provides a touchscreen comprising touch side and device side electrodes wherein each electrode comprises in order an insulating substrate, an exposed electrically conductive layer, wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers are adjacent and separated by dielectric spacers, and wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers comprise single wall carbon nanotubes and wherein said carbon nanotubes comprise covalently attached hydrophilic species.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Devices such as flat-panel displays typically contain a substrate provided with an indium tin oxide (ITO) layer as a transparent electrode. The coating of ITO is carried out by vacuum sputtering methods, which involve high substrate temperature conditions up to 250° C., and therefore, glass substrates are generally used. The high cost of the fabrication methods and the low flexibility of such electrodes, due to the brittleness of the inorganic ITO layer as well as the glass substrate, limit the range of potential applications. As a result, there is a growing interest in making all-organic devices, comprising plastic resins as a flexible substrate and carbon nanotube or organic electroconductive polymer layers as an electrode. Such plastic electronics allow low cost devices with new properties. Flexible plastic substrates can be provided with an electroconductive polymer layer by continuous hopper or roller coating methods (compared to batch process such as sputtering) and the resulting organic electrodes enable the "roll to roll" fabrication of electronic devices which are more flexible, lower cost, and lower weight. Touchscreens (also referred to as touch panels or touch switches) are widely used in conventional CRTs and in flat-panel display devices in computers and in particular with portable computers. FIG. 1 shows a typical prior art resistive-type touchscreen 10 comprising a first electrode 15 that is on the side of the touchscreen that is nearer to the device that is referred herein below as the device side electrode and a second electrode 16 that is on the side of the touchscreen that is nearer to the user that is referred herein below as the touch side electrode. Device side electrode 15 comprises a transparent substrate 12, having a first conductive layer 14. Touch side electrode 16 comprises a transparent support 17, that is typically a flexible transparent support, and a second conductive layer 18 that is physically separated from the first conductive layer 14 by dielectric (insulating) spacer elements 20. A voltage is developed across the conductive layers. The conductive layers 14 and 18 have a resistance selected to optimize power usage and position sensing accuracy. Deformation of the touch side electrode 16 by an external object such as a finger or stylus causes the second conductive layer 18 to make electrical contact with first conductive layer 14, thereby transferring a voltage between the conductive layers. The magnitude of this voltage is measured through connectors (not shown) connected to metal bus bar conductive patterns (not shown) formed on the edges of conductive layers 18 and 14 to locate the position of the deforming object.
ITO is commonly employed as the transparent conductive layer on the device side and touch side electrodes. However, ITO tends to crack under stress and with the result that the conductivity of the electrodes, especially for the touch side electrode, is diminished and the performance of the touchscreen degraded. More flexible conductive polymer-containing layers have also been considered for this application, but these conductive polymers are softer and less physically durable than ITO and therefore such conductive layers tend to degrade after repeated contacts.
Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are essentially graphene sheets rolled into hollow cylinders thereby resulting in tubules composed of sp2 hybridized carbon arranged in hexagons and pentagons, which have outer diameters between 0.4 nm and 10 nm. These SWCNTs are typically capped on each end with a hemispherical fullerene (buckyball) appropriately sized for the diameter of the SWCNT. However, these end caps may be removed via appropriate processing techniques leaving uncapped tubules. SWCNTs can exist as single tubules or in aggregated form typically referred to as ropes or bundles. These ropes or bundles may contain several or a few hundred SWCNTs aggregated through Van der Waals interactions forming triangular lattices where the tube-tube separation is approximately 3-4 Å. Ropes of SWCNTs may be composed of associated bundles of SWCNTs.
The inherent properties of SWCNTs make them attractive for use in many applications. SWCNTs can possess high (e.g. metallic conductivities) electronic conductivities, high thermal conductivities, high modulus and tensile strength, high aspect ratio and other unique properties. Further, SWCNTs may be metallic, semi-metallic, or semiconducting dependant on the geometrical arrangement of the carbon atoms and the physical dimensions of the SWCNT. To specify the size and conformation of single-wall carbon nanotubes, a system has been developed, described below, and is currently utilized. SWCNTs are described by an index (n, m), where n and m are integers that describe how to cut a single strip of hexagonal graphite such that its edges join seamlessly when the strip is wrapped into the form of a cylinder. When n=m e.g. (n, n), the resultant tube is said to be of the "arm-chair" or (n, n) type, since when the tube is cut perpendicularly to the tube axis, only the sides of the hexagons are exposed and their pattern around the periphery of the tube edge resembles the arm and seat of an arm chair repeated n times. When m=0, the resultant tube is said to be of the "zig zag" or (n,0) type, since when the tube is cut perpendicular to the tube axis, the edge is a zig zag pattern. Where n≠m and m=0, the resulting tube has chirality. The electronic properties are dependent on the conformation; for example, armchair tubes are metallic and have extremely high electrical conductivity. Other tube types are semimetals or semi-conductors, depending on their conformation. SWCNTs have extremely high thermal conductivity and tensile strength irrespective of the chirality. The work functions of the metallic (approximately 4.7 eV) and semiconducting (approximately 5.1 eV) types of SWCNTs are different.
Similar to other forms of carbon allotropes (e.g. graphite, diamond) these SWCNTs are intractable and essentially insoluble in most solvents (organic and aqueous alike). Thus, SWCNTs have been extremely difficult to process for various uses. Several methods to make SWCNTs soluble in various solvents have been employed. One approach is to covalently functionalize the ends of the SWCNTs with either hydrophilic or hydrophobic moieties. A second approach is to add high levels of surfactant and/or dispersants (small molecule or polymeric) to help solubilize the SWCNTs.
Lavin et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 6,426,134 disclose a method to form polymer composites using SWCNTs. This method provides a means to melt extrude a SWCNT/polymer composite wherein at least one end of the SWCNT is chemically bonded to the polymer, where the polymer is selected from a linear or branched polyamide, polyester, polyimide, or polyurethane. This method is limited to melt extrusion which can limit opportunities for patterning or device making. The chemically bonded polymers identified typically have high molecular weights and could interfere with some material properties of the SWCNTs (e.g. electronic or thermal transport) via wrapping around the SWCNTs and preventing tube-tube contacts.
Connell et al in US Patent Application Publication 2003/0158323 A1 describes a method to produce polymer/SWCNT composites that are electronically conductive and transparent. The polymers (polyimides, copolyimides, polyamide acid, polyaryleneether, polymethylmethacrylate) and the SWCNTs or MWCNTs are mixed in organic solvents (DMF, N,N-dimethlacetamide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, toluene,) to cast films that have conductivities in the range of 10-5-10-12 S/cm with varying transmissions in the visible spectrum. Additionally, monomers of the resultant polymers may be mixed with SWCNTs in appropriate solvents and polymerized in the presence of these SWCNTs to result in composites with varying weight ratios. The conductivities achieved in these polymer composites are several orders of magnitude too low for use in most electronic devices as electronic conductors or EMI shields. Additionally, the organic solvents used are toxic, costly and pose problems in processing. Moreover, the polymers used or polymerized are not conductive and can impede tube-tube contact further increasing the resistivity of the composite.
Kuper et al in Publication WO 03/060941A2 disclose compositions to make suspended carbon nanotubes. The compositions are composed of liquids and SWCNTs or MWCNTs with suitable surfactants (cetyl trimethylammonium bromide/chloride/iodide). The ratio by weight of surfactant to SWCNTs given in the examples range from 1.4-5.2. This method is problematic, as it needs extremely large levels of surfactant to solubilize the SWCNTs. The surfactant is insulating and impedes conductivity of a film deposited from this composition. The surfactant may be washed from the film but this step adds complexity and may decrease efficiency in processing.
Papadaopoulos et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 5,576,162 describe an imaging element, which comprises carbon nanofibers to be used primarily as an anti-static material within the imaging element. These materials do not provide a highly transparent and highly conductive (low sheet resistance, RS) layer.
Smalley et al in U.S. Pat. No. 6,645,455 disclose methods to chemically derivatize SWCNTs to facilitate solvation in various solvents. Primarily the various derivative groups (alkyl chains, acyl, thiols, aminos, aryls etc.) are added to the ends of the SWCNTs. The side-walls of the SWCNTs are functionalized primarily with fluorine groups resulting in fluorinated SWCNTs. The solubility limit of such "fluorotubes" in 2-propanol is approximately 0.1 mg/mL and in water or water/acetone mixtures the solubility is essentially zero. The fluorinated SWCNTs were subjected to further chemical reactions to yield methylated SWCNTs and these tubes have a low solubility in Chloroform but not other solvents. In addition, the method discloses functionalization of the tubule ends with various functionalization groups (acyl, aryl, aralkyl, halogen, alkyl, amino, halogen, thiol. Further, the sidewall functionalization is done with fluorine only, which gives limited solubility in alcohols. Additionally, the fluorinated SWCNTs are insulators due to the fluorination. Moreover, the chemical transformations needed to add these functional groups to the end points of the SWCNTs require additional processing steps and chemicals which can be hazardous and costly.
Smalley et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 6,683,783 disclose methods to purify SWCNT materials resulting in SWCNTs with lengths from 5-500 nm. Within this patent, formulations are disclosed that use 0.5 wt % of a surfactant, Triton X-100 to disperse 0.1 mg/mL of SWCNT in water. The method discloses functionalization of the tubule ends with various functionalization groups (acyl, aryl, aralkyl, halogen, alkyl, amino, halogen, thiol) but the end functionalization alone may not be enough to produce viable dispersions via solubilization. The chemical transformations needed to add these functional groups to the end points of the SWCNTs require additional processing steps and chemicals which can be hazardous and costly.
Rinzler et al. in PCT Publication WO2004/009884 A1 disclose a method of forming SWCNT films on a porous membrane such that it achieves 200 ohms/square and at least 30% transmission at a wavelength of 3 um. This method needs a porous membrane (e.g. polycarbonate or mixed cellulose ester) with a high volume of porosity with a plurality of sub-micron pores as a substrate. Further, the membrane is set within a vacuum filtration system. Moreover, the weight percent of the dispersion used to make the SWCNT film was 0.005 mg/mL in an aqueous solution.
Blanchet-Fincher et al in Publication WO 02/080195A1 and in US 20040065970 A1 illustrate high conductivity compositions composed of polyaniline (PANI) and SWCNTs or MWCNTs and methods to deposit such compositions from a donor element onto a receiver substrate. The nitrogen base salt derivative of emeraldine polyaniline is mixed with SWCNTs in organic solvents (toluene, xylene, turpinol, aromatics) and cast into films with conductivity values of 62 S/cm (1 wt % SWCNT in PANI) and 44 S/cm (2wt % SWCNT in PANI). These films alternatively may be produced as part of a multi-layer donor structure suitable as use for a material transfer system. The PANI/SWCNT composite are transferred from the donor sheet to a suitable receiver substrate in imagewise form. PANI is a highly colored conductive polymer and may result in a conductive composite with unsatisfactory displays.
Hsu in WO 2004/029176 A1 disclose compositions for electronically conducting organic polymer/nanoparticle composites. Polyaniline (Ormecon) or PEDT (Baytron P) are mixed with Molybdenum nanowires or carbon nanotubes (8 nm diameter, 20 um length, 60 S/cm). The compositions disclosed in this invention have marginal conductivity.
Arthur et al in PCT Publication WO 03/099709 A2 disclose methods for patterning carbon nanotubes coatings. Dilute dispersions (10 to 100 ppm) of SWCNTs in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water (which may include viscosity modifying agents) are spray coated onto substrates. After application of the SWCNT coating, a binder is printed in imagewise fashion and cured. Alternatively, a photo-definable binder may be used to create the image using standard photolithographic processes. Materials not held to the substrate with binder are removed by washing. Dilute dispersions (10 to 100 ppm) of SWCNTs in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water with viscosity modifying agents are gravure coated onto substrates. Dilute dispersions (10 to 100 ppm) of SWCNTs in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water are spray coated onto substrates. The coated films are then exposed through a mask to a high intensity light source in order to significantly alter the electronic properties of the SWCNTs. A binder coating follows this step. The dispersion concentrations used in these methods make it very difficult to produce images via direct deposition (inkjet etc.) techniques. Further, such high solvent loads due to the low solids dispersions create long process times and difficulties handling the excess solvent. In addition, these patterning methods are subtractive processes, which unnecessarily waste the SWCNT material via additional removal steps thereby incurring cost and process time.
Luo et al in International Publication Number WO2005/086982A2 and US Patent Publication Number US2005/0209392A1 disclose use of carbon nanotubes in general for LC displays, touchscreens, and EMI shielding windows.
Transparent electronically-conductive layers (TCL) of metal oxides such as indium tin oxide (ITO), antimony doped tin oxide, and cadmium stannate (cadmium tin oxide) have been used in the manufacture of electrooptical display devices such as liquid crystal display devices (LCDs), electroluminescent display devices, photocells, touchscreens, solid-state image sensors and electrochromic windows or as components of these devices such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding.
As indicated herein above, the art discloses a wide variety of electronically conductive TCL compositions that can be incorporated in electronic devices. However, the stringent requirements of high transparency, low sheet resistance, flexibility, and robustness under repeated contacts demanded by modern display devices and, especially, touchscreens is extremely difficult to attain with the TCL compositions described in the prior art. Thus, there is still a critical need for transparent conductors that can be coated roll-to-roll on a wide variety of substrates under typical manufacturing conditions using environmentally desirable components. In addition to providing superior touchscreen electrode performance, the TCL layers also must be highly transparent, must resist the effects of humidity change, be physically robust, and be manufacturable at a reasonable cost.
Problem to be Solved by the Invention
There is a need to provide improved touchscreen electrodes, preferably obtained by wet coating, roll-to-roll manufacturing methods, that more effectively meet the demanding requirements of touchscreens than those of the prior art.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides a touchscreen comprising touch side and device side electrodes wherein each electrode comprises in order an insulating substrate, an exposed electrically conductive layer, wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers are adjacent and separated by dielectric spacers, and wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers comprise single wall carbon nanotubes and wherein said carbon nanotubes comprise covalently attached hydrophilic species.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1. A schematic diagram showing a section of a resistive touchscreen of the prior art.
FIG. 2. A schematic diagram showing a section of a resistive touchscreen employing symmetric electrodes of the present invention.
FIG. 3. An exploded view showing the construction of a touchscreen of the present invention.
FIGS. 4A and 4B. Schematic diagrams of pristine single wall carbon nanotubes having tubules with closed ends and with open ends.
FIGS. 5A and 5B. Schematic diagrams of functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes having tubules with closed ends and with open ends
FIG. 6. An exploded view showing the touchscreen fabricated in this invention for testing of single and multilayer electrodes of the instant invention.
FIG. 7. Shows, based on the results of Comparative Example 1 below, the on-state resistance profile as a function of single point actuations for a single layer Bekaert ITO touch switch.
FIG. 8. Shows, based on the results of Comparative Example 1 below, the force to actuate the touchswitch as a function of single point actuations for single layer of Bekaert ITO.
FIG. 9. Shows, based on the results of Comparative Example 2 below, the force to actuate the touchswitch as a function of single point actuations for single layer conductor Keytec ITO Touch Switch.
FIG. 10. Shows, based on the results of Comparative Example 2 below, the on-state resistance profile as a function of single point actuations for single layer conductor Keytec ITO Touch Switch.
FIG. 11. Shows, based on the results of Instant Invention Example 1 below, the force to actuate the touchswitch as a function of single point actuations for a symmetric electrode touch switch with hydrophilic functionalized Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes at 32.3 mg/m2 coating weight as per the instant invention.
FIG. 12. Shows, based on the results of Instant Invention Example 1 below, the on-state resistance profile as a function of single point actuations for an asymmetric electrode touch switch with hydrophilic functionalized Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes at 64.6 mg/m2 coating weight as per the instant invention.
FIG. 13. Shows, based on the results of Instant Invention Example 2 below, the force to actuate the touchswitch as a function of single point actuations for a symmetric electrode touch switch with hydrophilic functionalized Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes at 32.3 mg/m2 coating weight as per the instant invention.
FIG. 14. Shows, based on the results of Instant Invention Example 2 below, the on-state resistance profile as a function of single point actuations for an asymmetric electrode touch switch with hydrophilic functionalized Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes at 64.6 mg/m2 coating weight as per the instant invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides numerous advantages over the existing prior art. The present invention provides solution coatable resistive touchscreen electrodes, which are highly resistant to compressive stresses (touches by finger or stylus). The present invention allows for roll-to-roll coating of touchscreen electrodes thereby reducing complexity and cost of the manufacturing method.
The present invention provides a touchscreen comprising touch side and device side electrodes wherein each electrode comprises in order an insulating substrate, an exposed electrically conductive layer, wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers are adjacent and separated by dielectric spacers, and wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers comprise single wall carbon nanotubes and wherein said carbon nanotubes comprise covalently attached hydrophilic species.
Touchscreens of the present invention comprise electrodes that are symmetric in composition. That is, the same conductive material is employed in the exposed electrically conductive layer on the touch side electrode compared to the exposed electrically conductive layer on the device side electrode. In the present invention, the touch side electrode or the device side electrode has an exposed electrically conductive layer that comprises carbon nanotubes. Additionally, electrodes that are on opposite sides of the spacer elements may also be called opposing electrodes. Such opposing electrodes of the present invention comprise electrodes that are symmetric in composition. Such electrodes, although comprising the same materials may have different thicknesses and/or sheet resistance.
Touchscreens of the present invention, wherein the exposed conductive layers comprise carbon nanotubes, provide improved durability of the touchscreen compared with conventional touchscreens employing (symmetrical composition) touch side and device side electrodes comprising ITO. These and other advantages will be apparent from the detailed description below.
FIG. 2 shows one embodiment of a resistive-type touchscreen of the invention 39 including a device side electrode 25 and a touch side electrode 26. Device side electrode 25 comprises in order, an insulating substrate 29 and an exposed electrically conductive layer 24 in contact with said substrate. Touch side electrode 26 comprises in order, an insulating substrate 27 and an exposed electrically conductive layer 28 in contact with said substrate. Wherein said exposed electrically conductive layers 24 and 28 are adjacent and separated by dielectric spacers 32. Preferably, the exposed electrically conductive layers have a sheet resistance of between 100 and 106 Ohm per square. In the embodiment depicted in FIG. 2, the exposed electrically conductive layers 24 and 28 comprise carbon nanotubes. Preferably, the carbon nanotubes are single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT).
Resistive touchscreens of the invention preferably are mechanically robust to point actuations by objects (plastic or metal stylus, fingers etc.). A touchscreen is activated or actuated when the touch side and device side electrodes contact. Over time, repetitive contact and the force applied during such contact damage prior art touchscreens. Such damage requires that increasingly larger forces are necessary to actuate the touchscreen. In a preferred embodiment of the instant invention, the force required to actuate a point on the touchscreen does not change by more than 500 percent over 500,000 single point actuations. More preferably, the force required to actuate the touchscreen does not change by more than 100 percent and most preferably more than 50 percent. A single point actuation is the application of an object at a single point on the touchscreen to activate such touchscreen.
The carbon nanotubes suitable for use in the conductive layers of the invention may be formed by any known methods in the art (laser ablation, CVD, arc discharge). The carbon nanotubes are preferred to have minimal or no impurities of carbonaceous impurities that are not carbon nanotubes (graphite, amorphous, diamond, non-tubular fullerenes) or metal impurities. It is found that the transparency increases significantly with reduced levels of metallic and carbonaceous impurities. Conductive layer film quality, as evidenced by layer uniformity, surface roughness, and a reduction in particulates, also improves with a decrease in the amount of metal and carbonaceous impurities. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) may also be used in the present invention in place of or mixed with SWCNTs.
To achieve high electronic conductivity, metallic SWCNTs are the most preferred type of carbon nanotube but semimetallic and semiconducting SWCNTs may also be used. A pristine SWCNT means that the surface of the SWCNT is free of covalently functionalized materials either through synthetic prep, acid cleanup of impurities, annealing or directed functionalization. For the purpose of the present invention, however, the SWCNTS are preferably functionalized. The preferred functional group is a hydrophilic species selected from carboxylic acid, carboxylate anion (carboxylic acid salt), hydroxyl, sulfur containing groups, carbonyl, phosphates, nitrates or combinations of these hydrophilic species. In some applications other types of functionalization such as polymer, small molecule or combinations thereof may be required. For example, such functionalization may improve the compatibility of the SWCNT in a particular polymer matrix.
Turning now to FIG. 4, pristine SWCNTs with either open or closed ends are illustrated. SWCNTs that are pristine are essentially intractable in most solvents, especially aqueous media, without the use of high levels of dispersants. Therefore, it is not possible to use only pristine SWCNTs and water to produce an aqueous coating composition. FIG. 5 exemplifies the basic structure of covalently functionalized SWCNTs. The X in FIG. 5 may be selected from one of the hydrophilic species listed above. It is worth noting that the X may be positioned at any point on the SWCNT, external or internal surface, open or closed end, or sidewall. It is preferred that the X be uniformly distributed across the external surface, potentially for the most effectiveness.
The most preferred covalent surface functionalization is carboxylic acid or a carboxylic acid salt or mixtures thereof (hereafter referred to as only carboxylic acid). For carboxylic acid based functionalization, the preferred level of functionalized carbons on the SWCNT is 0.5-100 atomic percent, where 1 atomic percent functionalized carbons would be 1 out of every 100 carbons in the SWCNT have a functional group covalently attached. The functionalized carbons may exist anywhere on the nanotubes (open or closed ends, external and internal sidewalls). As already mentioned, preferably the functionalization is on the external surface of the SWCNTs. More preferably the functionalized percent range is 0.5-50 atomic percent, and most preferably 0.5-5 atomic percent. Functionalization of the SWCNTs with these groups within these atomic percent ranges allows the preparation of stable dispersions at the solids loadings necessary to form highly conductive, transparent films by conventional coating means. This method allows for very effective dispersion in substantially aqueous dispersions and does not require a dispersion aid. Additionally, the most efficient level of functionalization will provide the desired dispersion without significantly altering the electronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. The ease of dispersion is critical to the present invention due to providing a facile method for coating substrates and manufacturing by solution based means, preferably web coating. Without covalent hydrophilic functionalization, the present invention is not enabled, thereby select single wall carbon nanotubes must be used to produce resistive touchscreens of the invention. Preferably 0.5-5 atomic percent of covalent hydrophilic functionalization is present on the single wall carbon nanotubes. Transparency is defined as a conductive layer that has greater than 60% bulk transmission. This transparency may be achieved by producing thin coatings with thicknesses less than 1 micrometer.
The functionalization may be carried out by a number of routes. Typically, the raw material (unfunctionalized) SWCNTs are added to a bath of strongly oxidizing agents (hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydroiodic acid, sulfuric acid, oleum, nitric acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, chlorosulfonic acid, phosphoric acid, trifluoromethane sulfonic acid, glacial acetic acid, monobasic organic acids, dibasic organic acids, potassium permanganate, persulfate, cerate, bromate, hydrogen peroxide, dichromate) which may be mixtures. Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, permanganate, and chlorosulfonic acids are preferred due to the efficacy of the oxidation and functionalization. Temperatures from 20° C.-120° C. are typically used in reflux of this mixture of SWCNTs and strong oxidizing agents with appropriate agitation over 1 hr--several days process time. At the end of this process, the raw SWCNTs are now functionalized SWCNTs. The residual oxidizing agents are removed via separation technologies (filtration wash, centrifugation, cross-flow filtration) such that a powder of the functionalized SWCNTs (primarily carboxylic acid functionalities) remains after appropriate heating to dry.
The pH of the dispersion and the coating composition is important. As the pH becomes more basic (above the pKa of the carboxylic acid groups), the carboxylic acid will be ionized thereby making the carboxylate anion, a bulky, repulsive group, which can aid in the stability. Preferred pH ranges from 3-10 pH. More preferred pH ranges from 3-6.
The length of the SWCNTs may be from 20 nm-1 m, more typically from 20 nm to 50 μm. The SWCNTs may exist as individual SWCNTs or as bundles of SWCNTs. The diameter of a SWCNT in the conductive layer may be 0.05 nm-5 nm. The SWCNTs in bundled form may have diameters ranging from 1 nm-1 μm. Preferably such bundles will have diameters less than 50 nm and preferably less than 20 nm and lengths of between 20 nm and 50 μm. It is important that higher surface area is achieved to facilitate transfer of electrons and higher available surface area is achieved by having smaller bundle sizes thereby exposing surfaces of SWCNTs which may be at the internal position of the bundles and not accessible. The ends of the SWCNTs may be closed by a hemispherical buckyball of appropriate size. Alternatively, both of the ends of the SWCNTs may be open. Some cases may find one end open and the other end closed.
The functionalized SWCNTs (produced as described above or purchased from a vendor) are used to form aqueous dispersions with SWCNT solids loadings in the 0.05-10 wt % (500-100000) ppm range. More preferably the SWCNT solids loadings are 0.1-5wt %. Most preferably the solid loadings are 0.1-1 wt % SWCNT. This solids loading range allows for facile coating to occur and also minimizes the viscosity such that roll coating and/or inkjet printing can be performed in standard practice. The functionalized SWCNTs are often in powder/flake form and require energy to disperse. A typical dispersion process may use a high shear mixing apparatus (homogenizer, microfluidizer, cowles blade high shear mixer, automated media mill, ball mill) for several minutes to an hour. We have also found that standard ultrasonication and bath sonication may be sufficient to disperse the functionalized SWCNTs. Typically, a 1000 ppm SWCNT dispersion in deionized water is formed by bath sonication for 2-24 hrs (dependant on the level of hydrophilic functionalization). After the dispersion process, pH can be adjusted to desired range. A centrifugation or filtration process is used to remove large particulates. The resultant dispersion will be stable for several months on standing (dependant on the level of hydrophilic functionalization). This dispersion has solids loadings high enough to produce conductive coatings in single pass modes for many coating techniques.
The conductive layer of the invention should contain about 0.1 to about 1000 mg/m2 dry coating weight of the functionalized SWCNT. Preferably, the conductive layer should contain about 0.5 to about 500 mg/m2 dry coating weight of the functionalized SWCNT. This range of SWCNT in the dry coating is easily accessible by standard coating methods, will give the best transmission properties, and minimizes cost to achieve the desired sheet resistance. The actual dry coating weight of the SWCNTs applied is determined by the properties for the particular conductive functionalized SWCNT employed and by the requirements for the particular application, the requirements may include, for example, the conductivity, transparency, optical density, cost, etc for the layer.
In a preferred embodiment, the layer containing the conductive SWCNTs is prepared by applying a mixture containing:
a) a SWCNT according to Formula I;
wherein each of R1 and R2 independently represents carboxylic acid, carboxylate anion (carboxylic acid salt), hydroxyl, sulfur containing groups, carbonyl, phosphates, nitrates, and the tube is a single wall carbon nanotube composed of carbon atoms substantially in hexagonal configuration, and, optionally
b) a dispersant and, optionally
c) a polymeric binder.
The R1 and R2 substituents may be uniformly or non-uniformly distributed across the SWCNT. The dispersant loading in the dispersion is preferred to be minimal to none. The maximum dispersant loading is preferred to be 50 wt % of the weight of the SWCNT. The more preferred dispersant loading is less than 5 wt % of the weight of the SWCNT. The most preferred dispersant loading is 0 wt %. With decreasing levels of dispersant, the electronic conductivity increases. There are many dispersants which may be chosen. Preferred dispersants are octylphenol ethoxylate (TX-100), sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, poly(styrene sulfonate), sodium salt, poly(vinylpyrrolidone), block copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide (Pluronics or Poloxamers), Polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers (Brij 78, Brij 700), and cetyl or dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide. These dispersants are able to effectively disperse carbon nanotubes at low dispersant loadings which is preferred so that the impact on electronic conductivity is minimal. Appropriate mixtures of these dispersants may be utilized.
Additionally, a preferred embodiment for functionalization of this invention can preferably be where the functional group is a sulfur containing group selected from:
Where R is a carbon within the lattice of a SWCNT, x may range from 1-3 and Z may be a Hydrogen atom or a metal cation such metals as Na, Mg, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, Fe, Co and y may range from 0-1 or combinations these hydrophilic species. The sulfur containing groups listed above may be sulfonic acid, sulfonic acid and/or sulfonic acid and/or the corresponding anions or mixtures thereof. The most preferred sulfur containing group covalent surface functionalization is sulfonic acid or a sulfonic acid salt or mixtures thereof (hereafter referred to as only sulfonic acid). Covalently attached sulfonic acid gives best dispersions of carbon nanotubes amongst the sulfur containing groups.
For environmental reasons, substantially aqueous dispersions of carbon nanotubes (meaning at least 60 wt % water in the dispersion) are preferred for application of the carbon nanotube layer.
The transparency of the conductive layer of the invention can vary according to need. For use as an electrode in a touchscreen, the conductive layer is desired to be highly transparent. Accordingly, the visual light transmission value T for the conductive layer of the invention is >65%, preferably ≧70%, more preferably ≧80%, and most preferably ≧90%. The conductive layer need not form an integral whole, need not have a uniform thickness and need not be contiguous with the base substrate. Preferably, the touchscreen of the invention has a transparency of at least 70% in the visible light range so that it may improve the viewing through the resistive touchscreen to a display located adjacent to the device side electrode. The electrode formed by the conductive layer is preferred to be continuous to aid in the selection process by stylus (finger, metal or plastic) input of the resistive touchscreen.
While the nanotubes can be applied without the addition of a film-forming polymeric binder, a film-forming binder can be employed to improve the physical properties of the layers. In such an embodiment, the layers may comprise from about 1 to 95% of the film-forming polymeric binder. However, the presence of the film forming binder may increase the overall sheet resistance of the layers. The optimum weight percent of the film-forming polymer binder varies depending on the electrical properties of the carbon nanotubes and the electronically conductive polymer, the chemical composition of the polymeric binder, and the requirements for the particular touchscreen application.
Polymeric film-forming binders useful in the conductive layers of this invention can include, but are not limited to, water-soluble or water-dispersible hydrophilic polymers such as gelatin, gelatin derivatives, maleic acid or maleic anhydride copolymers, polystyrene sulfonates, cellulose derivatives (such as carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate butyrate, diacetyl cellulose, and triacetyl cellulose), polyethylene oxide, polyvinyl alcohol, and poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone. Other suitable binders include aqueous emulsions of addition-type homopolymers and copolymers prepared from ethylenically unsaturated monomers such as acrylates including acrylic acid, methacrylates including methacrylic acid, acrylamides and methacrylamides, itaconic acid and its half-esters and diesters, styrenes including substituted styrenes, acrylonitrile and methacrylonitrile, vinyl acetates, vinyl ethers, vinyl and vinylidene halides, and olefins and aqueous dispersions of polyurethanes and polyesterionomers.
Other ingredients that may be included in the conductive layers include but are not limited to surfactants, defoamers or coating aids, charge control agents, thickeners or viscosity modifiers, antiblocking agents, coalescing aids, crosslinking agents or hardeners, soluble and/or solid particle dyes, matte beads, inorganic or polymeric particles, adhesion promoting agents, bite solvents or chemical etchants, lubricants, plasticizers, antioxidants, colorants or tints, and other addenda that are well-known in the art. Preferred bite solvents can include any of the volatile aromatic compounds disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,709,984, as aromatic compounds, comprising an aromatic ring substituted with at least one hydroxy group or a hydroxy substituted substituents group. These compounds include phenol, 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2-cyanophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2-ethylphenol, resorcinol, benzyl alcohol, 3-phenyl-1-propanol, 4-methoxyphenol, 1,2-catechol, 2,4-dihydroxytoluene, 4-chloro-2-methyl phenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 4-chlororesorcinol, 1-naphthol, 1,3-naphthalenediol and the like. These bite solvents are particularly suitable for polyester based polymer sheets of the invention. Of this group, the most preferred compounds are resorcinol and 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol. Preferred surfactants suitable for these coatings include nonionic and anionic surfactants. Preferred cross-linking agents suitable for these coatings include silane compounds such as those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,370,981.
The conductive layers of the invention can be formed on any rigid or flexible substrate. The substrates can be transparent, translucent or opaque, and may be colored or colorless. Preferably, the substrate is colorless and transparent. Rigid substrates can include glass, metal, ceramic and/or semiconductors. Suitable rigid substrate thickness ranges from 50 um-7000 um, depending on the actual material employed for the rigid substrate. Flexible substrates, especially those comprising a plastic substrate, are preferred for their versatility and ease of manufacturing, coating and finishing.
The flexible plastic substrate can be any flexible polymeric film. "Plastic" means a high polymer, usually made from polymeric synthetic resins, which may be combined with other ingredients, such as curatives, fillers, reinforcing agents, colorants, and plasticizers. Plastic includes thermoplastic materials and thermosetting materials.
The flexible plastic film must have sufficient thickness and mechanical integrity so as to be self-supporting, yet should not be so thick as to be totally rigid. Suitable flexible plastic substrate thickness ranges from 5 um-500 um. To reduce the weight of the touchscreen while providing mechanical rigidity and thermal resistance, the thickness is preferably 50-250 um. Another significant characteristic of the flexible plastic substrate material is its glass transition temperature (Tg). Tg is defined as the glass transition temperature at which plastic material will change from the glassy state to the rubbery state. It may comprise a range before the material may actually flow. Suitable materials for the flexible plastic substrate include thermoplastics of a relatively low glass transition temperature, for example up to 150° C., as well as materials of a higher glass transition temperature, for example, above 150° C. The choice of material for the flexible plastic substrate would depend on factors such as manufacturing process conditions, such as deposition temperature, and annealing temperature, as well as post-manufacturing conditions such as in a process line of a displays manufacturer. Certain of the plastic substrates discussed below can withstand higher processing temperatures of up to at least about 200° C., some up to 300°-350° C., without damage.
Typically, the flexible plastic substrate is a polyester including polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), polyester ionomer, polyethersulfone (PES), polycarbonate (PC), polysulfone, a phenolic resin, an epoxy resin, polyester, polyimide, polyetherester, polyetheramide, cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, poly(vinyl acetate), polystyrene, polyolefins including polyolefin ionomers, polyamide, aliphatic polyurethanes, polyacrylonitrile, polytetrafluoroethylenes, polyvinylidene fluorides, poly(methyl (x-methacrylates), an aliphatic or cyclic polyolefin, polyarylate (PAR), polyetherimide (PEI), polyethersulphone (PES), polyimide (PI), Teflon poly(perfluoro-alboxy) fluoropolymer (PFA), poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), poly(ether ketone) (PEK), poly(ethylene tetrafluoroethylene)fluoropolymer (PETFE), and poly(methyl methacrylate) and various acrylate/methacrylate copolymers (PMMA) natural and synthetic paper, resin-coated or laminated paper, voided polymers including polymeric foam, microvoided polymers and microporous materials, or fabric, or any combinations thereof.
Aliphatic polyolefins may include high density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene, including oriented polypropylene (OPP). Cyclic polyolefins may include poly(bis(cyclopentadiene)). A preferred flexible plastic substrate is a cyclic polyolefin or a polyester. Various cyclic polyolefins are suitable for the flexible plastic substrate. Examples include Arton® made by Japan Synthetic Rubber Co., Tokyo, Japan; Zeanor T made by Zeon Chemicals L. P., Tokyo Japan; and Topas® made by Celanese A. G., Kronberg Germany. Arton is a poly(bis(cyclopentadiene)) condensate that is a film of a polymer. Alternatively, the flexible plastic substrate can be a polyester. A preferred polyester is an aromatic polyester such as Arylite. Although the substrate can be transparent, translucent or opaque, for most display applications transparent members comprising transparent substrate(s) are preferred. Although various examples of plastic substrates are set forth above, it should be appreciated that the flexible substrate can also be formed from other materials such as flexible glass and ceramic.
The most preferred flexible plastic substrate is polyester because of its superior mechanical and thermal properties as well as its availability in large quantity at a moderate price. The particular polyester chosen for use can be a homo-polyester or a copolyester, or mixtures thereof as desired. The polyester can be crystalline or amorphous or mixtures thereof as desired. Polyesters are normally prepared by the condensation of an organic dicarboxylic acid and an organic diol and, therefore, illustrative examples of useful polyesters will be described herein below in terms of these diol and dicarboxylic acid precursors.
Polyesters which are suitable for use in this invention are those which are derived from the condensation of aromatic, cycloaliphatic, and aliphatic diols with aliphatic, aromatic and cycloaliphatic dicarboxylic acids and may be cycloaliphatic, aliphatic or aromatic polyesters. Exemplary of useful cycloaliphatic, aliphatic and aromatic polyesters which can be utilized in the practice of their invention are poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(cyclohexlenedimethylene), terephthalate) poly(ethylene dodecate), poly(butylene terephthalate), poly(ethylene naphthalate), poly(ethylene(2,7-naphthalate)), poly(methaphenylene isophthalate), poly(glycolic acid), poly(ethylene succinate), poly(ethylene adipate), poly(ethylene sebacate), poly(decamethylene azelate), poly(ethylene sebacate), poly(decamethylene adipate), poly(decamethylene sebacate), poly(dimethylpropiolactone), poly(para-hydroxybenzoate)(Ekonol), poly(ethylene oxybenzoate) (A-tell), poly(ethylene isophthalate), poly(tetramethylene terephthalate, poly(hexamethylene terephthalate), poly(decamethylene terephthalate), poly(1,4-cyclohexane dimethylene terephthalate) (trans), poly(ethylene 1,5-naphthalate), poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate), poly(1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate), (Kodel) (cis), and poly(1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate (Kodel) (trans). Polyester compounds prepared from the condensation of a diol and an aromatic dicarboxylic acid is preferred for use in this invention. Illustrative of such useful aromatic carboxylic acids are terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid and an α-phthalic acid, 1,3-napthalenedicarboxylic acid, 1,4 napthalenedicarboxylic acid, 2,6-napthalenedicarboxylic acid, 2,7-napthalenedicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-diphenyldicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-diphenysulfphone-dicarboxylic acid, 1,1,3-trimethyl-5-carboxy-3-(p-carboxyphenyl)-idane, diphenyl ether 4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, bis-p(carboxy-phenyl) methane, and the like. Of the aforementioned aromatic dicarboxylic acids, those based on a benzene ring (such as terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid, orthophthalic acid) are preferred for use in the practice of this invention. Amongst these preferred acid precursors, terephthalic acid is particularly preferred acid precursor.
Preferred polyesters for use in the practice of this invention include poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(butylene terephthalate), poly(1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) and copolymers and/or mixtures thereof. Among these polyesters of choice, poly(ethylene terephthalate) is most preferred because of its low cost, high transparency, and low coefficient of thermal expansion.
The aforesaid substrate can comprise a single layer or multiple layers according to need. The multiplicity of layers may include any number of auxiliary layers such as hard coat layers, antistatic layers, tie layers or adhesion promoting layers, abrasion resistant layers, curl control layers, conveyance layers, barrier layers, splice providing layers, UV absorption layers, optical effect providing layers, such as antireflective and antiglare layers, waterproofing layers, adhesive layers, and the like.
In a preferred embodiment the touch side electrode further comprises an anti-glare layer, polarizing layer, anti-reflection layer, ultra violet light absorbing layer, or abrasion resistant hard coat layer on the side of the substrate opposite to the electrically conductive layers. Preferably, the anti-glare or hard coat layer has a pencil hardness (using the Standard Test Method for Hardness by Pencil Test ASTM D3363) of at least 1H, more preferably a pencil hardness of 2H to 8H.
Particularly effective hard coat layers for use in the present invention comprise radiation or thermally cured compositions, and preferably the composition is radiation cured. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electron beam radiation are the most commonly employed radiation curing methods. UV curable compositions are particularly useful for creating the abrasion resistant layer of this invention and may be cured using two major types of curing chemistries, free radical chemistry and cationic chemistry. Acrylate monomers (reactive diluents) and oligomers (reactive resins and lacquers) are the primary components of the free radical based formulations, giving the cured coating most of its physical characteristics. Photo-initiators are required to absorb the UV light energy, decompose to form free radicals, and attack the acrylate group C═C double bond to initiate polymerization. Cationic chemistry utilizes cycloaliphatic epoxy resins and vinyl ether monomers as the primary components. Photo-initiators absorb the UV light to form a Lewis acid, which attacks the epoxy ring initiating polymerization. By UV curing is meant ultraviolet curing and involves the use of UV radiation of wavelengths between 280 and 420nm preferably between 320 and 410 nm.
Examples of UV radiation curable resins and lacquers usable for the abrasion layer useful in this invention are those derived from photo polymerizable monomers and oligomers such as acrylate and methacrylate oligomers (the term "(meth)acrylate" used herein refers to acrylate and methacrylate), of polyfunctional compounds, such as polyhydric alcohols and their derivatives having (meth)acrylate functional groups such as ethoxylated trimethylolpropane tri(meth)acrylate, tripropylene glycol di(meth)acrylate, trimethylolpropane tri(meth)acrylate, diethylene glycol di(meth)acrylate, pentaerythritol tetra(meth)acrylate, pentaerythritol tri(meth)acrylate, dipentaerythritol hexa(meth)acrylate, 1,6-hexanediol di(meth)acrylate, or neopentyl glycol di(meth)acrylate and mixtures thereof, and acrylate and methacrylate oligomers derived from low-molecular weight polyester resin, polyether resin, epoxy resin, polyurethane resin, alkyd resin, spiroacetal resin, epoxy acrylates, polybutadiene resin, and polythiol-polyene resin, and the like and mixtures thereof, and ionizing radiation-curable resins containing a relatively large amount of a reactive diluent. Reactive diluents usable herein include monofunctional monomers, such as ethyl (meth)acrylate, ethylhexyl (meth)acrylate, styrene, vinyltoluene, and N-vinylpyrrolidone, and polyfunctional monomers, for example, trimethylolpropane tri(meth)acrylate, hexanediol (meth)acrylate, tripropylene glycol di(meth)acrylate, diethylene glycol di(meth)acrylate, pentaerythritol tri(meth)acrylate, dipentaerythritol hexa(meth)acrylate, 1,6-hexanediol di(meth)acrylate, or neopentyl glycol di(meth)acrylate.
Among others, in the present invention, conveniently used radiation curable lacquers include urethane (meth)acrylate oligomers. These are derived from reacting diisocyanates with a oligo(poly)ester or oligo(poly)ether polyol to yield an isocyanate terminated urethane. Subsequently, hydroxy terminated acrylates are reacted with the terminal isocyanate groups. This acrylation provides the unsaturation to the ends of the oligomer. The aliphatic or aromatic nature of the urethane acrylate is determined by the choice of diisocyanates. An aromatic diisocyanate, such as toluene diisocyanate, will yield an aromatic urethane acrylate oligomer. An aliphatic urethane acrylate will result from the selection of an aliphatic diisocyanate, such as isophorone diisocyanate or hexyl methyl diisocyanate. Beyond the choice of isocyanate, polyol backbone plays a pivotal role in determining the performance of the final the oligomer. Polyols are generally classified as esters, ethers, or a combination of these two. The oligomer backbone is terminated by two or more acrylate or methacrylate units, which serve as reactive sites for free radical initiated polymerization. Choices among isocyanates, polyols, and acrylate or methacrylate termination units allow considerable latitude in the development of urethane acrylate oligomers. Urethane acrylates like most oligomers, are typically high in molecular weight and viscosity. These oligomers are multifunctional and contain multiple reactive sites. Because of the increased number of reactive sites, the cure rate is improved and the final product is cross-linked. The oligomer functionality can vary from 2 to 6.
Among others, conveniently used radiation curable resins include polyfunctional acrylic compounds derived from polyhydric alcohols and their derivatives such as mixtures of acrylate derivatives of pentaerythritol such as pentaerythritol tetraacrylate and pentaerythritol triacrylate functionalized aliphatic urethanes derived from isophorone diisocyanate. Some examples of urethane acrylate oligomers used in the practice of this invention that are commercially available include oligomers from Sartomer Company (Exton, Pa.). An example of a resin that is conveniently used in the practice of this invention is CN 968® from Sartomer Company.
A photo polymerization initiator, such as an acetophenone compound, a benzophenone compound, Michler's benzoyl benzoate, α-amyloxime ester, or a thioxanthone compound and a photosensitizer such as n-butyl amine, triethylamine, or tri-n-butyl phosphine, or a mixture thereof is incorporated in the ultraviolet radiation curing composition. In the present invention, conveniently used initiators are 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone and 2-methyl-1-[4-(methyl thio) phenyl]-2-morpholinopropanone-1.
The UV polymerizable monomers and oligomers are coated and dried, and subsequently exposed to UV radiation to form an optically clear cross-linked abrasion resistant layer. The preferred UV cure dosage is between 50 and 1000 mJ/cm2. This dosage range gives the most efficient curing kinetics.
The thickness of the hard coat layer is generally about 0.5 to 50 micrometers preferably 1 to 20 micrometers, more preferably 2 to 10 micrometers. This thickness range is preferred due to cost and performance.
An antiglare layer provides a roughened or textured surface that is used to reduce specular reflection. All of the unwanted reflected light is still present, but it is scattered rather than specularly reflected. For the purpose of the present invention, the antiglare layer preferably comprises a radiation cured composition that has a textured or roughened surface obtained by the addition of organic or inorganic (matting) particles or by embossing the surface. The radiation cured compositions described hereinabove for the hard coat layer are also effectively employed in the antiglare layer. Surface roughness is preferably obtained by the addition of matting particles to the radiation cured composition. Suitable particles include inorganic compounds having an oxide, nitride, sulfide or halide of a metal, metal oxides being particularly preferred. As the metal atom, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Ba, Al, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ti, Sn, In, W, Y, Sb, Mn, Ga, V, Nb, Ta, Ag, Si, B, Bi, Mo, Ce, Cd, Be, Pb and Ni are suitable, and Mg, Ca, B and Si are more preferable. An inorganic compound containing two types of metal may also be used. A particularly preferable inorganic compound is silicon dioxide, namely silica.
The polymer substrate can be formed by any method known in the art such as those involving extrusion, coextrusion, quenching, orientation, heat setting, lamination, coating and solvent casting. It is preferred that the polymer substrate is an oriented sheet formed by any suitable method known in the art, such as by a flat sheet process or a bubble or tubular process. The flat sheet process involves extruding or coextruding the materials of the sheet through a slit die and rapidly quenching the extruded or coextruded web upon a chilled casting drum so that the polymeric component(s) of the sheet are quenched below their solidification temperature.
The quenched sheet is then biaxially oriented by stretching in mutually perpendicular directions at a temperature above the glass transition temperature of the polymer(s). The sheet may be stretched in one direction and then in a second direction or may be simultaneously stretched in both directions. The preferred stretch ratio in any direction is at least 3:1. After the sheet has been stretched, it is heat set by heating to a temperature sufficient to crystallize the polymers while restraining to some degree the sheet against retraction in both directions of stretching.
The polymer sheet may be subjected to any number of coatings and treatments, after extrusion, coextrusion, orientation, etc. or between casting and full orientation, to improve its properties, such as printability, barrier properties, heat-sealability, spliceability, adhesion to other substrates and/or imaging layers. Examples of such coatings can be acrylic coatings for printability, polyvinylidene halide for heat seal properties, etc. Examples of such treatments can be flame, plasma and corona discharge treatment, ultraviolet radiation treatment, ozone treatment and electron beam treatment to improve coatability and adhesion. Further examples of treatments can be calendaring, embossing and patterning to obtain specific effects on the surface of the web. The polymer sheet can be further incorporated in any other suitable substrate by lamination, adhesion, cold or heat sealing, extrusion coating, or any other method known in the art.
Dielectric spacers, that may be dot-shaped for example, are provided on the surface of the conductive layer at regular distances, such as every few millimeters. The spacers are made of polymeric resin, and each spacer is about 10 um in height and 10 um to 50 um in diameter. Suitable polymeric resin that may be employed to prepare the spacers include light or thermal hardened epoxy, acrylated-urethanes, acrylic, and other compositions well known by the skilled artisan. The spacers alternatively may be filled with nanoparticles such as silica, alumina, zinc oxide and others in order to modify the physical properties of the spacers.
Alternatively, it is known to form the spacers for example by spraying through a mask or pneumatically sputtering small diameter transparent glass or polymer particles, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,062,198 issued to Sun, Nov. 5, 1991. The transparent glass or polymer particles are typically 45 microns in diameter or less and mixed with a transparent polymer adhesive in a volatile solvent before application. The spacers may also be prepared by lithographic techniques that are well known in the art.
Preferably, the electronically conductive layer comprising carbon nanotubes has a sheet resistance of between 101 to 106 Ohm per square. More preferably, the exposed electrically conductive layer has a sheet resistance of between 100 and 106 Ohm per square. Most preferably, the electrically conductive layer has a sheet resistance of between 100 and 10,000 Ohm per square.
Resistive touchscreens of the invention preferably are mechanically robust to point actuations by objects (plastic or metal stylus, fingers etc.). A touchscreen is activated or actuated when the touch side and device side electrodes contact. Over time, repetitive contact and the force applied during such contact damage prior art touchscreens. Such damage requires that increasingly larger forces are necessary to actuate the touchscreen. In a preferred embodiment of the instant invention, the force required to actuate a point on the touchscreen does not change by more than 500 percent over 500,000 single point actuations. More preferably, the force required to actuate the touchscreen does not change by more than 100 percent and most preferably more than 50 percent. As the force needed to actuate increases, it reduces the accuracy of the input selection and also the increased force may further degrades the properties of the conductive layers. A single point actuation is the application of an object at a single point on the touchscreen to activate such touchscreen.
The conventional construction of a resistive touch screen involves the sequential placement of materials upon the substrates. The substrates are formed as described herein above, then uniform conductive layers are applied to the substrates. The bus bars are applied to the touch side electrode and the spacers and bus bars are applied to the device side electrode and, finally, the touch side electrode is attached to the device side electrode.
FIG. 3 is an exploded view showing the construction of a touchscreen 100 of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 3, the touchscreen 100 is mainly composed of a touch side electrode 110 and a device side electrode 120. The touch side electrode 110 and the device side electrode 120 are set facing each other, with dielectric spacers 30 being placed in between them so that an air gap is formed between the substrates.
As shown in FIG. 3, the touch side electrode 110 is provided with a pair of bus bars 141 and 142 which are adhered to the exposed electrically conductive layer along its ends to be opposed to each other in the A direction. The touch side electrode 110 is also provided with a pair of connector electrodes 143 and 144 at its edge, to which connectors (not shown) are connected. The bus bars 141 and 142 are connected to the pair of connector electrodes 143 and 144 via wiring patterns 145 and 146. The bus bars, connector electrodes, and wiring patterns comprise high conductivity materials. Suitable high conductivity materials include carbon black, silver, gold, platinum, palladium, copper or combinations of these materials. These materials may be applied by vacuum deposition, inkjet printing, thermal transfer, silk screen printing or other methods. These materials may be thermally or light hardened.
As shown in FIG. 3, the device side electrode 120 is provided with a pair of bus bars 251 and 252 which are adhered to the exposed electrically conductive layer along its ends to be opposed to each other in the B direction that is perpendicular to the A direction. The device side electrode 120 is also provided with a pair of connector electrodes 253 and 254 at its edge, to which connectors (not shown) are connected. The pair of bus bars 251 and 252 are connected to the pair of connector electrodes 253 and 254 via wiring patterns 255 and 256. Dot-shaped spacers 30, for example, are provided on the surface of the exposed conductive layer deposed on device side electrode 120, such as every few millimeters. The spacers 30 are made of light-hardening acrylic resin for example, and each spacer is about 10 μm in height and 10 μm to 50 μm in diameter. Respective outer regions of the touch side electrode 110 and the device side electrode 120 are bonded together by an adhesive 40.
Touchscreens prepared as described above may be employed in a variety of display devices. In a preferred embodiment, the display device comprises a liquid crystal display (LCD). Conveniently, the touchscreen of the invention may be adhesively attached to a polarizer plate within the liquid crystal display device.
The conductive layers of the invention can be applied by any method known in the art. Particularly preferred methods include coating from a suitable liquid medium coating composition by any well known coating method such as air knife coating, gravure coating, hopper coating, roller coating, spray coating, electrochemical coating, inkjet printing, flexographic printing, and the like. The first electrically conductive layer and the exposed electrically conductive layer may be applied sequentially or simultaneously.
Alternatively, the conductive layers can be transferred to a receiver member comprising the substrate from a donor member by the application of heat and/or pressure. An adhesive layer may be preferably present between the donor member and the receiver member substrate to facilitate transfer. The two conductive layers may be applied onto each substrate simultaneously from a single donor element or sequentially from two separate donor members as described in copending commonly assigned U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/969,889 filed Oct. 21, 2004, Ser. No. 11/062,416 filed Feb. 22, 2005, and Ser. No. 11/022,155 filed Dec. 22, 2004.
Besides the conductive layers of the invention, the aforementioned thermal transfer element may comprise a number of auxiliary layers. These auxiliary layers may include radiation absorption layers, which can be a light to heat conversion layer, interlayer, release layer, adhesion promoting layer, operational layer (which is used in the operation of a device), non-operational layer (which is not used in the operation of a device but can facilitate, for example, transfer of a transfer layer, protection from damage and/or contact with outside elements).
Thermal transfer of the conductive layers of the invention can be accomplished by the application of directed heat on a selected portion of the thermal transfer element. Heat can be generated using a heating element (e.g., a resistive heating element), converting radiation (e.g., a beam of light) to heat, and/or applying an electrical current to a layer of thermal transfer element to generate heat.
Typically, a very smooth surface, with low roughness (Ra) is desired for maximizing optical and barrier properties of the coated substrate. Preferred Ra values for the conductive layer of the invention is less than 1000 nm, more preferably less than 100 nm, and most preferably less than 20 nm. The reduced surface roughness is desired to optimize optical properties. However, it is to be understood that if for some application a rougher surface is required higher Ra values can be attained within the scope of this invention, by any means known in the art.
The following non-limiting examples further describe the practice of the instant invention.
The atomic % of carboxylic acids on the SWCNT has been determined by titration methods as described below. The level of carboxylic acids we determined for the SWCNTs used in the instant invention was 2.74 atomic %.
The methods used to determine the amount of hydrophilic carboxylic acid covalently attached are described below.
The Titrimetric Determination of Strong Acid Levels in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
A nonaqueous titration procedure is given for the determination of strong acid in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT). Samples are dispersed in a solvent system of 50/2 (v/v) distilled tetrahydrofuran (THF)/methanol. The dispersion is titrated with 0.1 N hexadecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (HDTMAH). Typically two end points are recorded. The first is due to stronger acids associated with the SWCNT. These may be residual mineral acid from the surface derivatization reactions or acid functions attached to the SWCNT surface. A second end point is also observed but is typically too noisy to be utilized quantitatively. The strong acid in the SWCNT sample is subtracted from the total acids found by sodium hydroxide back titration to give the net level of carboxylic acid in the SWCNT.
Equipment 1) Metrohm Model 716 Titrino with Brinkmann Titrino Workcell software, or equivalent, and equipped with a 1-ml amberized glass buret. 2) Indicator electrode--combination glass pH/Ag/AgCl reference. Metrohm Model 6.0202.100, or equivalent. The filling solution for the electrode is 0.1N tetramethyl-ammonium chloride in methanol.
Reagents 1) 0.1 N Hexadecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (HDTMAH) in ˜9:1(v) toluene: methanol (Note 1). 2) Distilled tetrahydrofuran (THF) (Note 2) 3) Methanol, reagent grade such as J. T. Baker 9093-33.
Procedure 1) Weigh to the nearest 0.1 mg approximately 30 to 150 mg of the SWCNT sample into a 100 ml beaker (Note 3). 2) Add 50 ml distilled THF and 2 ml methanol. 3) Cover with Parafilm and stir for 15 minutes. 4) Titrate the sample with 0.1N HDTMAH utilizing the Titrino equipped with a 1 ml buret. 5) Titrate a blank of 50/2 THF/MeOH under the same conditions.
The Titroprocessor will mark the potentiometric end point(s) automatically. Only the first end point (positive HNP) is used in the following calculation. Subsequent end points are ignored.
EP = End Point ##EQU00001## Strong Acid ( meq / g ) = [ ( ml EP #1 ) - ( ml Blank ) ] × N HDTMAH ( grams of sample ) ##EQU00001.2## Net Carboxylic Acid ( meq / g ) = [ Total Acids ( from NaOH Back - Titration ) ( meq / g ) ] - [ Strong Acid ( meq / g ) ] ##EQU00001.3##
Examples of Single layer Conductors Used to Construct Touch Switches
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE I Sheet Coating Coating Conductor Substrate # of Resistance Composition ID Type Type Layers (ohms/square) Used A Bekaert ITO 102 um PET 1 300 NA B Keytec ITO 203 um PET 1 400 NA C Layer with 32.3 mg/m2 102 um PET 1 1700 H SWCNT D Layer with 64.6 mg/m2 102 um PET 1 670 V SWCNT
Coatings A & B were supplied by the vendors Bekaert and Keytec, respectively. The Bekaert ITO is coated onto a 102 um PET substrate. The Keytec sample had a coating on the opposite surface of the ITO on PET. The PET used in the Keytec sample is a 203 um substrate.
Coatings C, and D were produced as follows. The following ingredients were used to form the coating composition for forming the multilayer examples and single layer comparative examples:
Ingredients for Coating Composition
(a) Ethanol; (b) SWCNTs: P3 swcnt product supplied by Carbon Solutions (2.74 atomic % covalent hydrophilic functionalization)
The following coating compositions were prepared for coating suitable substrates to form the electrically conductive layer examples:
Coating Composition H
P3 SWCNT--0.10 wt % in water Ethanol--25 wt % in water Balance high purity water
Coating Composition V
 P3 SWCNT--0.20 wt % in water Ethanol--25 wt % in water Balance high purity water
The substrate used was polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The PET substrate was photographic grade with a thickness of 102 μm and surface roughness Ra of 0.5 nm. On the coating side (frontside) of the PET a thin vinylidene chloride copolymer primer layer was applied at a thickness of 80 nm. The coating composition H or V was applied to the frontside surface of the substrate by a hopper at different wet coverages to give dry coverages of SWCNT of between 10 mg/m2 and 100 mg/m2, and each coating was dried at 82° C. for five minutes. In this manner, examples of electrically conductive layers were created as per the instant invention, wherein conductive layers having different dry coverage of SWCNTs were coated on the surface of the substrate in one layer. The sheet resistance, RS, (ohms/square) of the coatings was measured by a 4-point electrical probe.
In order to evaluate the robustness of the conductive layers used as symmetric electrodes of the instant invention, small touchscreens (termed touch switch hereafter) were created and tested as described below.
Turning to FIG. 6 single layer conductor material combinations were evaluated for mechanical robustness by constructing a single pole-single throw touchscreen as follows:
A 1.27 cm×3.8 cm "bottom" (device side) conductive coating 302 on flexible substrate was cut from a larger coated sheet. The bottom conductive coating 302 was attached, conductive side up, along one long edge of a 25 mm×75 mm glass microscope slide 301. The bottom conductive coating 302 was retained by (2) 3.8 cm lengths of copper foil 304 tape (3M 1181 EMI Shielding Tape) applied across the 1.27 cm ends of the film strip and extending beyond the 2.5 cm dimension of the slide. The excess tape was folded back on itself to form an attachment tab for electrical connection.
Sixteen spacer dots 303 of non-critical dimension were applied in a 4×4 matrix over the central 1.27 cm×1.27 cm square area of the bottom conductor. Spacer dot 303 dimensions can be called out as 0.1-1.0 mm diameter, preferably 0.1-0.3 mm diameter for uniformity of actuation force. Dots were comprised of epoxy (Devcon No. 14250) applied by hand using a pointed applicator. A 1.27 cm square of non-conducting double sided tape 305 (Polyken) was applied to the glass slide adjacent to the spacer dot matrix.
A 1.27 cm×3.8 cm strip of "top" (touch side) conductive coating 306 on flexible substrate was attached, conductive side down, over the double sided tape to form a "T" arrangement with one end of the strip covering the spacer dot array and the other end extending beyond the 2.54 cm dimension of the glass slide. A 2.54 cm length of conductive copper foil 304 tape was wrapped around the overhanging top conductor to form an electrical attachment.
A line of silver conducting paint (Ernest Fullam No. 14810) was applied across the copper tape/conductor layer interfaces to augment the conductive adhesive of the foil tape.
Single Point Actuation Testing Method
Completed touchscreens were placed in the stationary nest of a test apparatus consisting of a brushless linear motor and force mode motion control. A polyurethane 0.79 cm spherical radius hemisphere switch actuating "finger" (McMaster-Carr #95495K1) is mounted to a load cell, which is in turn mounted to the moving linear motor stage. The finger was pressed against the switch with a force profile consisting of zero force for 125 mS, a linear ramp to peak force over 125 mS, a hold at peak force for 125 mS, and a linear load reduction over 125 mS. The loading pattern was repeated continuously at 2 actuations/second for the duration of the test. Peak force was set for 200-300 grams force. The touchscreen was electrically loaded by supplying a regulated 5V differential between the top and bottom conductors. At the mid point of the peak force period, the connections to the test device were electronically switched to force current in the reverse direction during the second half of the actuation cycle. Current flow through the touchscreen was monitored as a function of time and actuation force.
The touchscreen was considered to make and break at a resistance of or below 12 kOhms. The data recorded were on-state resistance and the force required to achieve an on state e.g. to make a switch in state. A touchscreen was considered to fail when routinely exceeding 12 kOhms on-state resistance.
Comparative Example 1
Single Layer ITO Conductor Touchscreen
A touchscreen was constructed using Coating A from Table I (Bekaert ITO--Lot #5189376). The single point actuation testing was performed and gave the results indicated in FIGS. 7 and 8 below. The single layer of Bekaert ITO began to show significant changes in force to actuate as early as completing 10,000 single point actuations (SPA). The on-state resistance showed significant deviation as early as 85,000 SPA. At 88,000 SPA, the single layer of Bekaert ITO routinely exceeded an on-state resistance of 12,000 ohms and failed. Addtionally, by 88,000 SPA the actuation force was highly scattered and not stable. It is clear from the figures that as the number of actuations increase, the reliability of the touchscreen decreases as evidenced by the significant scatter in the data which corresponds to higher forces required to actuate and increasing on-state resistance which are not desirable. Additionally, the highly scattered data illustrates potential problems with resolution of point selection.
Comparative Example 2
Single Layer Keytec ITO Conductor Touchscreen
A touchscreen was constructed using Coating B from Table I (400 ohm/square Keytec ITO). The SPA testing was performed and gave the results indicated in FIGS. 9 and 10 below. The single layer of Keytec ITO had a linear increase in the force to actuate and began to show significant changes in force to actuate as early as completing 25,000 SPA. The on-state resistance showed significant deviation as early as 35,000 SPA. At 38,000 SPA, the single layer of Keytec ITO permanently exceeded an on-state resistance of 12,000 ohms, reaching a value of 13,000+ ohms and continued to increase to values as high as 10,000,000 ohms. Addtionally, by 30,000 SPA the actuation force experienced an exponential increase and failed shortly thereafter with significant scatter in the force to actuate. It is clear from the figures that as the number of actuations increase, the reliability of the single layer Keytec ITO based touchscreen decreases as evidenced by the significant scatter in the data which corresponds to higher forces required to actuate and increasing on-state resistance which are not desirable. Additionally, the highly scattered data illustrates potential problems with resolution of point selection.
Instant Invention Example 1
Symmetric Electrode Touch Switch with Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes
A touchscreen was constructed using Coating C from Table I as electrodes (SWCNT at 32.3 mg/m2). The single point actuation testing was performed and gave the results indicated in FIGS. 11 and 12 below. This symmetric electrode touchscreen demonstrated little change in the force to actuate after completing 1.1 Million SPA without failure, as compared to the comparative examples that all exhibit significant increases in the force to actuate as the number of SPA cycles increased prior to failure. The on-state resistance of instant invention example 1 shows essentially no deviation after 1.1 Million SPA. This symmetric electrode touchscreen demonstrates the significant robustness and operability conferred by using the instant invention.
Instant Invention 2
Symmetric Electrode Touch Switch with Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes
A touchscreen was constructed using Coating D from Table I (SWCNT at 64.6 mg/m2) as the electrodes. The single point actuation testing was performed and gave the results indicated in FIGS. 13 and 14 below. This symmetric electrode touchscreen demonstrated essentially no change in the force to actuate after completing 1.1 Million SPA without failure, as compared to the comparative examples that all exhibit significant increases in the force to actuate as the number of SPA cycles increased prior to failure. The on-state resistance of the instant invention example shows essentially no deviation after 1.1 Million SPA. This symmetric electrode comprising covalently attached hydrophilic functionalization SWCNTs touchscreen demonstrates the significant robustness and operability conferred by using the instant invention.
As shown in the instant invention examples, it is surprising and clearly obvious that the instant invention gives significant improvements in robustness and device performance as demonstrated above. The fact that the instant invention can sustain significantly more actuations than the comparative example touchscreens without failing (or failing later) and/or noticeable change in operation is important due to the improved reliability of the instant invention touchscreen including resolution, and linearity. For instance, as the force to actuate increases for a touchscreen (use a cellphone with a touchscreen component as example) over time it will be increasingly difficult to select certain points on the touchscreen whereas the instant invention clearly would not suffer such problems. It is apparent that the exemplary embodiment can provide drastically enhanced conductor and/or electrode robustness.
The invention has been described in detail with particular reference to certain preferred embodiments thereof, but it will be understood that variations and modifications can be effected within the spirit and scope of the invention.
10 prior art resistive-type touchscreen 12 device side transparent substrate 14 first conductive layer, device side 15 device side first electrode 16 touch side electrode 17 touch side transparent support 18 second conductive layer, touch side 20 dielectric spacer element 39 resistive-type touchscreen of the invention 24 device side exposed electrically conductive layer of the invention 25 device side electrode of the invention 26 touch side electrode of the invention 27 touch side electrode insulating substrate of the invention 28 touch side exposed electrically conductive layer 29 device side electrode insulating substrate of the invention 32 dielectric spacer element 100 resistive touchscreen of the invention 110 touch side electrode 120 device side electrode 30 dielectric spacers 141 touch side bus bar 142 touch side bus bar 143 touch side connector electrode 144 touch side connector electrode 145 touch side wiring pattern 146 touch side wiring pattern 251 device side bus bars 252 device side bus bar 253 device side connector electrode 254 device side connector electrode 255 device side wiring pattern 256 device side wiring pattern 40 bonding adhesive 301 microscope slide 302 bottom device side electrode 303 dielectric spacer dots 304 copper foil tape 305 double sided adhesive tape 306 top touch side electrode
Patent applications by Charles C. Anderson, Penfield, NY US
Patent applications by Debasis Majumdar, Rochester, NY US
Patent applications by Glen C. Irvin, Jr., Rochester, NY US
Patent applications by Lawrence A. Rowley, Rochester, NY US
Patent applications by Todd M. Spath, Hilton, NY US
Patent applications in class Including impedance detection
Patent applications in all subclasses Including impedance detection