Patent application title: GENES ASSOCIATED TO SUCROSE CONTENT
Gláucia Mendes Souza (Sao Paulo, BR)
Gláucia Mendes Souza (Sao Paulo, BR)
Flávia Stal Papini-Terzi (Sao Paulo, BR)
Flávia Stal Papini-Terzi (Sao Paulo, BR)
Flávia Riso Rocha (Sao Paulo, BR)
Flávia Riso Rocha (Sao Paulo, BR)
Alessandro Jaquiel Waclawovsky (Sao Paulo, BR)
Ricardo Zorzetto Nicollielo Vencio (Sao Paulo, BR)
Josélia Oliveira Marques (Sao Paulo, BR)
Josélia Oliveira Marques (Sao Paulo, BR)
Juliana De Maria Felix (Campinas, BR)
Marcelo Menossi Teixeira (Campinas, BR)
Marcos Buckeridge (Rua Do Matao, BR)
Amanda Pereira De Souza (Rua Do Matao, BR)
Eugênio César Ulian (Piracicaba, BR)
Eugênio César Ulian (Piracicaba, BR)
UNIVERSIDADE DE SÃO PAULO -- USP.
UNIVERSIDADE DE SÃO PAULO -- USP.
UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE COMPINAS -- UNICAMP.
FUNDAÇÃO DE AMPARO À PESQUISA DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO -- FAPESP
FUNDAÇÃO DE AMPARO À PESQUISA DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO -- FAPESP
CENTRO DE TECHNOLOGIA CANAVIEIRA
CENTRAL DE ÁLCOOL LUCÉLIA LTDA.
CENTRAL DE ÁLCOOL LUCÉLIA LTDA.
IPC8 Class: AA01H500FI
Class name: Multicellular living organisms and unmodified parts thereof and related processes plant, seedling, plant seed, or plant part, per se higher plant, seedling, plant seed, or plant part (i.e., angiosperms or gymnosperms)
Publication date: 2010-06-24
Patent application number: 20100162442
Patent application title: GENES ASSOCIATED TO SUCROSE CONTENT
Glaucia Mendes SOUZA
Flavia Stal Papini-Terzi
Flavia Riso Rocha
Alessandro Jaquiel Waclawovsky
Ricardo Zorzetto Nicollielo Vencio
Joselia Oliveira Marques
Juliana de Maria Felix
Marcelo Menossi Teixeira
Amanda Pereira de Souza
Eug nio Cesar Ulian
MORRISON & FOERSTER LLP
UNIVERSIDADE DE S O PAULO -- USP.
Origin: SAN FRANCISCO, CA US
IPC8 Class: AA01H500FI
Publication date: 06/24/2010
Patent application number: 20100162442
Modern sugarcane cultivars are complex hybrids resulting from crosses
among several species of the Saccharum genus. Traditional breeding
methods have been extensively employed in different countries along the
past decades to develop varieties with increased sucrose yield, and
resistant to plagues and diseases. Conventional varietal improvement is,
however, limited by the narrow pool of suitable markers. In this sense,
molecular genetics is seen as a promising tool to assist in the process
of molecular marker identification. The present invention concerns the
identification of 348 genes associated with sucrose content in sugarcane
plants. The genes were found to be differentially expressed when high
sucrose and low sucrose plants and populations of plants were compared
and/or when high and low sucrose internodes were compared. The expression
data was obtained using cDNA microarray and quantitative PCR
technologies. The genes identified can be used to identify, distinguish,
characterize and/or develop plants with increased sucrose content. More
preferably SEQ ID Nos:. 1 to 203 should be useful as molecular markers.
SEQ ID Nos: 204 to 228 are given as controls or examples of genes never
associated with sucrose content. SEQ ID Nos. 1-203 and SEQ ID Nos. 229 to
373 can be targeted in the development of transgenic or non-transgenic
varieties with increased sucrose content.
1. A transgenic plant, wherein said plant comprises a vector expressing a
recombinant polynucleotide, wherein the polynucleotide comprises the
nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 161 or the complement thereof.
2. Seed, seed-cane or setts of the transgenic plant of claim 1, wherein the seed, seed-cane, or setts comprise the vector.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
This application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/716,262, filed Mar. 8, 2007, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/780,693, filed Mar. 8, 2006, and U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/861,496, filed Nov. 27, 2006, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.
SUBMISSION OF SEQUENCE LISTING ON ASCII TEXT FILE
The content of the following submission on ASCII text file is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety: a computer readable form (CRF) of the Sequence Listing (file name: 606633000210SeqList.txt, date recorded: Feb. 19, 2010, size: 566 KB).
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention refers to a method for discriminating plants with different abilities to accumulate sugars as well as methods to produce plants with increased sucrose content.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The tropical crop sugarcane is of great economical interest, contributing to about two thirds of the world's raw sugar production (Pessoa Jr. et al., 2005). In some countries, part of the crop is destined to the production of ethanol, an important alternative energy source and a less polluting fuel. Due to its unique capacity of storing sucrose in the stems, sugarcane is an interesting model for studies on sugar synthesis, transport and accumulation. Sugarcane is a C4 grass capable of accumulating sucrose in its stems to levels exceeding 50% of its dry weight. Stem internodes mature progressively towards the base of the culm and there is a corresponding increase in sucrose concentration. Sucrose metabolism components and regulators are likely to be key players in determining sugarcane sucrose yield (Moore, 2005; Lunn and Furbank, 1999). Sugarcane is a complex polyploid grass with commercial varieties derived from conventional breeding. Recent yield data indicates that this technology may be reaching a limit in sugar productivity increases. It could be greatly advantageous to have genes associated with desirable traits targeted for directed improvement of varieties. Traditional breeding methods have been extensively employed in different countries along the past decades to develop varieties with increased sucrose yield, and resistant to plagues and diseases. Conventional varietal improvement is, however, limited by the narrow pool of suitable markers. In this sense, molecular genetics is seen as a promising tool to assist in the process of molecular marker identification. Knowledge on the genes that participate in sucrose content regulation may assist in the development of new varieties with increased productivity. This improvement is not only economically relevant, but has also a strong environmental appeal, considering it can lessen the need to expand cultivation areas and that ethanol is a source for renewable energy. Furthermore, a broader understanding of the highly specialized sugar production and accumulation mechanisms in sugarcane can bring new insights into sugar metabolism in other species.
Sugarcane is the common name given to the several species of the genus Saccharum, native to Asia, but cultivated for centuries in all five continents. It is a very efficient photosynthesizer making it one of the world's most important crop grasses. Sugarcane is perennial and has sturdy, jointed fibrous stalks 2-6 m tall, capable of storing large quantities of sucrose. Its cultivation requires warm and humid tropical or subtropical climate. Brazil, India and China are the largest producers. The major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids selected from crosses between S. officinarum, S. barberi, S. robustum, S. spontaneum and S. edule, as well as related genera that cross with Saccharum, such as Erianthus, Miscanthus, Narenga and Sclerostachya.
S. spontaneum genotypes, found from Afghanistan to the South Pacific Islands, have the broadest geographical distribution in the genus Saccharum. Together with S. officinarum, it is the species most used in breeding programs aiming to improve vigor, fiber content, ratooning ability, environmental stress and disease resistance (Perez et al., 1997). The origin of S. spontaneum is not yet clear. It is believed that it might have originated from an introgression of Miscanthus, Erianthus and Sclerostachya (Roach and Daniels, 1987). S. officinarum genotypes have originated in New Guinea from S. robustum by natural and/or human selection. They produce thick stems and are capable of accumulating high levels of sucrose. They do not flower abundantly and are usually used as females in breeding programs (Perez et al., 1997).
The sequencing of 238 thousand sugarcane ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) by the Brazilian consortium SUCEST (Vettore et al., 2003) was a landmark for the sugarcane biotechnology field and also for the study of basic genetics and physiology of grasses. The ESTs were clustered and a total of 43 thousand SAS (Sugarcane Assembled Sequences) were identified and categorized (Vettore et al., 2003). Functional characterization of the transcripts can be viewed on the World Wide Web at sucest-fun.org.
This work describes the use of cDNA microarrays to identify genes differentially expressed in two sugarcane populations contrasting for sugar content. The methods used to identify differential expression, the construction of cDNA microarrays, hybridization conditions and data analysis have been previously described (Papini-Terzi et al., 2005). A total of 5154 genes had their expression profiled.
The plants analyzed in the present invention are derived from multiple crossings among S. officinarum and S. spontaneum genotypes and from commercial varieties that have been selected for sugar content for over 12-15 years. A useful strategy for target-gene identification has been denominated "genetical genomics". First introduced by Jansen and Nap (2001), the method aims to apply large-scale analysis of gene expression to a segregating population. The use of cDNA microarrays to evaluate a sugarcane population that segregates for a certain trait may provide more insight into plant signaling and gene function than classical mutagenesis studies (Meyers et al., 2004). Although S. officinarum and S. spontaneum present a large genetic variability in nature, very few representatives participated in the generation of the modern commercial hybrids. Certainly, there are genes conferring favourable traits to be identified among them that can be explored in breeding programs. Likewise, the comparison of progenies from different commercial varieties carefully selected for sucrose enrichment is a strategy that can point to genes that have been selected for over the years by traditional breeding methods.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
This invention provides methods for producing transgenic plants, and non-naturally occurring plants with increased sugar levels. The invention further provides methods for determining the ability of a plant to accumulate sugar as well as methods for altering the ability of plants to accumulate sugar. In preferred embodiments, the plants are from the genus Saccharum. In particularly preferred embodiments, the plants are sugarcane.
In some embodiments, the invention provides methods for determining the ability of a plant to accumulate sugar by providing a plant sample and measuring the expression level in the sample of at least one polynucleotide having sequence identity to or comprising SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373, their complements, and sequences which hybridize to SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373 under high stringency conditions. High stringency conditions refers to hybridization to filter-bound DNA in 5×SSC, 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 100 ug/ml single stranded DNA at 55-65° C., and washing in 0.1×SSC and 0.1% SDS at 60-65° C. For example, the polynucleotide can have 65% sequence identity, 75% sequence identity, 85% sequence identity, 95% sequence identity, 99% sequence identity, or be identical. In other embodiments, the polynucleotide is a fragment at least 14 nucleotides length of SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373, their complements, and sequences which hybridize to SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373 under high stringency conditions.
Polynucleotide expression levels are preferably detected by measurement of RNA levels, which can be detected by any method known to those of skill in the art, preferably PCR or hybridization to oligonucleotides. Samples are preferably taken from the leaf, internode, lateral bud, root, or inflorescence.
In other embodiments, the invention provides methods for determining the ability of a plant to accumulate sugar by providing a plant sample and measuring the expression level in the sample of at least one polypeptide encoded by polynucleotides having sequence identity to or comprising SEQ NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373, their complements, and sequences which hybridize to SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373 under high stringency conditions. For example, the polynucleotide can have 65% sequence identity, 75% sequence identity, 85% sequence identity, 95% sequence identity, 99% sequence identity, or be identical.
In still other embodiments, the invention provides methods for determining the ability of a plant to accumulate sugar by providing a plant sample and measuring the expression level in the sample of at least one polypeptide having similarity or comprising a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373. The similarity, for example, can be 65%, 75%, 85%, 95%, 99%, or 100%.
In other embodiments, the invention provides methods for altering the ability of a plant to accumulate sugar by providing a plant sample, modulating the expression level of at least one of SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373 and detecting the expression level of at least one of SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373. The modulation can be achieved by mutagenesis, preferably by chemical or physical mutagenesis.
In yet another embodiment, the invention provides methods for altering the ability of a plant to accumulate sugar by providing a plant sample, expressing or interfering with the expression of at least one polynucleotide having sequence identity to or comprising SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373, their fragments, their complements, and sequences which hybridize to SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373 under high stringency conditions and detecting the expression level of at least one of SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373. For example, the polynucleotide can have 65% sequence identity, 75% sequence identity, 85% sequence identity, 95% sequence identity, 99% sequence identity, or be identical to the sequence or a fragment of the sequence. The invention also provides methods for altering ability of a plant to accumulate sugar by expressing or interfering with the expression of polypeptides having similarity to or comprising polypeptides encoded by SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQS ID NO:s 229 to 373 and detecting the expression level of at least one of the polypeptides encoded by SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373. The similarity, for example, can be of 65%, 75%, 85%, 95%, 99%, or 100%. Typically, expression levels of polynucleotides and the encoded polypeptides are interfered with or decreased using anti-sense RNA or RNA interference methods.
In other embodiments, the invention provides transgenic plants produced by any method having altered expression of least one polynucleotide having sequence identity to or comprising SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373, their fragments, their complements, and sequences which hybridize to SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373 under high stringency conditions or having altered expression of polypeptides having sequence identity to or comprising a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 and SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373. In still other embodiments, the invention provides transgenic plants produced by methods described above, using genes that express or interfere with the expression of least one polynucleotide having sequence identity to or comprising SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373, their fragments, their complements, and sequences which hybridize to SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373 under high stringency conditions or expressing polypeptides having similarity to or comprising polypeptides encoded by SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373. Seeds, seed-canes (or setts) of such plants are also provided.
In yet another embodiment, the invention provides non-naturally occurring plants with altered expression levels generated by methods described above, such as mutagenesis. Seeds, seed-canes (or setts) of such plants are also provided.
The present invention identifies genes differentially expressed in sugarcane progenies and varieties with different sugar content. Comparative measures of mRNA for the genes in isolation or combined are indicative of sucrose content. Methods that measure transcript levels for the genes can be used to determine gene expression levels and can include cDNA microarrays, oligonucleotide arrays, quantitative PCR, northern blot or other hybridization techniques. Likewise, methods that measure the proteins encoded by the genes can also be used to characterize plants and progenies originating from traditional breeding programs or transgenic plants with the goal of identifying or selecting candidates that contain high sucrose content. Additionally, the genes can be directly used to increase plant sucrose content if they are introduced in the plant through the generation of a transgenic plant.
The cDNA microarray technology, quantitative PCR and northern blots were used to identify molecular markers associated to sucrose content. The procedures used were as described in Papini-Terzi et al, 2005 and Nogueira et al., 2003. The cDNA microarrays contain 5154 ESTs related to sugarcane signal transduction, stress responses, transcription, hormone signalling, metabolism and other functional categories. The plants analyzed derive (1) from an F3 progeny from multiple crossings among S. officinarum and S. spontaneum genotypes, (2) an F1 progeny from a crossing between the commercial varieties SP80-180 and SP80-4966, (3) an F1 progeny from a crossing between the commercial varieties SP80-144 and SP85-7215, (4) two varieties precocious and rich in sucrose production, SP91-1049 and SP94-3166 and (5) two varieties late and poor in sucrose production, SP83-2847 and SP89-1115. Sucrose producing tissues, also known as source tissues (herein leaf) and sucrose accumulating tissues, also known as sink tissues (herein internodes) were collected from field grown plants. Soluble sugar content (Brix) measures were made. Samples were collected from individual and pools of 7 or 8 plants. In some cases, samples were collected throughout the year. Three designs were used to perform transcriptome comparisons for the identification of genes differentially expressed when (I) High Sugar and Low Sugar plants were directly compared, (II) High Sugar and Low Sugar plants were compared to a common reference, or (III) High Sugar and Low Sugar internodes were compared. Experimental Design I and II yielded 208 differentially expressed genes, while Design III revealed 140 differentially expressed genes, totalling 348 genes differentially expressed in at least one of the samples analysed. Several differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR and northern blots using individual plants as the source for tissues or groups of plants which proves that the differential expression is robust enough to distinguish between high and low sucrose plants in a pool of plants.
The gene profiles of one or a plurality of the 203 genes obtained from the comparisons of Design I may be useful as molecular markers for traditional breeding, aid in the selection of ideal progenies and parents generated in traditional breeding or aid in the selection of transgenic events generated in the process of transgenic plants production. The 348 genes themselves, identified in comparisons I, II and III, may be used in the generation of transgenic plants as they may directly function in sucrose synthesis and/or accumulation, be mutated by classical (non-transgenic) methods leading to varieties with improved sucrose content, or be used as probes in search of polymorphisms.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
FIG. 1: Polycrosses performed among S. officinarum and S. spontaneum cultivars to obtain the sugarcane hybrid populations with high- and low sugar content. The graphs show the frequency of individuals from the F3 progeny corresponding to each of the Brix classes (Brix %). Brix was measured from juice of 500 individuals. Tissues of the 16 extreme individuals were collected and pooled for the microarray analysis. For real-time PCR quantification the RNA was extracted independently for each individual tissue.
FIG. 2--Sugar content along the growing season in the extreme individuals of a sugarcane segregant population. The Brix (soluble solids) values of the most mature internode of each sugarcane segregant plant were measured along the growing season. Average Brix values and standard deviations of the seven individuals with the highest or lowest sugar contents are shown for the indicated times.
FIG. 3: Validation of gene expression data by real-time PCR. mRNA levels were determined for the indicated SAS. Reactions were done in triplicates. A polyubiquitin (PUB) gene was used as reference. The bars show target mRNA levels relative to the polyubiquitin mRNA. Error bars were calculated as described by Livak and Schmittgen (2001). RNA samples from a pool of individuals were used to generate the templates for real-time PCR reactions. Additionally, three high brix (HB) individuals, Ind243, Ind246 and Ind253, and three low brix (LB) individuals, Ind261, Ind265 and Ind272, were analysed in the case of the cross between the commercial varieties (SP80-180 and SP80-4966). A: samples derived from a cross between two commercial varieties (SP80-180 and SP80-4966), B: samples derived from multiple crossings among S. officinarum and S. spontaneum genotypes. Lv=leaf; In1=internode 1; In9=internode 9.
FIG. 4: Expression levels of differentially expressed genes in sugarcane individuals. RNA blots were prepared using 10 μg of total RNA isolated from mature leaves of three individual clones of each segregant population (HS--high and LS--low sugar content). The time point evaluated in the blots corresponds to the same one used in the cDNA microarray experiments (9 months after planting). Blots were hybridized with the gene-specific radioactive probes indicated. An rDNA fragment was used as a control.
FIG. 5: Expression profiles of differentially expressed genes along the growing season. RNA-blots were prepared from total leaf-RNA from a pool of 7 individuals with high (HS) and low (LS) sugar content collected along the growing season (6, 7, 9, 11 and 13 months after planting). The inset graphs show the expression levels observed for the high (black circles) and low (white circles) sugar content plants. An rDNA fragment was used as a control.
FIG. 6--Sugar content along the growing season in two sugarcane cultivars poor and late in sucrose accumulation (SP83-2847 and SP94-3116) and two sugarcane cultivars rich and precocious in sucrose accumulation (SP91-1049 and SP89-1115). The Brix (soluble solids) values of the most mature internode of each sugarcane segregant plant were measured during the growing season. Average Brix values and standard deviations are shown for the indicated times.
FIG. 7--Alignment of nucleotide sequences for SEQ ID No. 411: CIPK-8 (SCEQLB2019B08.g); SEQ ID No. 412: CIPK-29 (SCSGHR1070F12.g); and SEQ ID No. 413: CIPK-1 (SCCCCL5001D11.g) using CLUSTALW (Thompson et al., 1994). The line above the sequences indicates the sequence fragment of 331 by amplified and cloned in the plasmid in order to silence the CIPK-8 gene by RNA interference in the transgenic plants.
FIG. 8-Expression analysis of CIPK-8, CIPK-29 and CIPK-1 mRNA levels in control (blank) and transgenic plants (grey) of two-month old plants using quantitative PCR analysis. The bars show mRNA levels of CIPK8 (SCEQLB2019B08.g), CIPK29 (SCSGHR1070F12.g) and CIPK-1 (SCCCCL5001D11.g) relative to mRNA levels of the reference gene (SCQGAM2027G09.g). All reactions were carried out in parallel and each reaction was performed in triplicate. Error bars were calculated as described by Livak and Schmittgen (2001). The graph also shows sucrose levels and the ratio of sucrose to monosaccharides in these plants.
FIG. 9--Expression analysis of COMT mRNA levels in control (blank) and transgenic plants (grey) of two-month old plants using quantitative PCR analysis. The bars show mRNA levels of COMT (SCRFLR1012F12.g) relative to mRNA levels of the reference gene (SCQGAM2027G09.g). All reactions were carried out in parallel and each reaction was performed in triplicate. Error bars were calculated as described by Livak and Schmittgen (2001). The graph also shows sucrose levels and the ratio of sucrose to monosaccharides in these plants.
The term "plants" include any plant amenable to transformation techniques, including angiosperms (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants), gymnosperms, ferns, and multicellular algae. It includes plants of a variety of ploidy levels, including aneuploid, polyploid, diploid, haploid and hemizygous. The term "plant" includes whole plants, shoot vegetative organs/structures (e.g. leaves, stems and tubers), roots, flowers and floral organs/structures, seed (including embryo, endosperm, and seed coat) and fruit (the mature ovary), plant tissue (e.g. vascular tissue, ground tissue, and the like) and cells (e.g. guard cells, egg cells, trichomes and the like), and progeny of same. Examples of suitable plant targets would include but are not limited to Acadia, alfalfa, apple, apricot, Arabidopsis, artichoke, arugula, asparagus, avocado, banana, barley, beans, beet, blackberry, blueberry, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, canola, cantaloupe, carrot, cassaya, castorbean, cauliflower, celery, cherry, chicory, cilantro, citrus, clementines, clover, coconut, coffee, corn, cotton, cucumber, Douglas fir, eggplant, endive, escarole, eucalyptus, fennel, figs, garlic, gourd, grape, grapefruit, honey dew, jicama, kiwifruit, lettuce, leeks, lemon, lime, Loblolly pine, linseed, mango, melon, mushroom, nectarine, nut, oat, oil palm, oil seed rape, okra, olive, onion, orange, an ornamental plant, palm, papaya, parsley, parsnip, pea, peach, peanut, pear, pepper, persimmon, pine, pineapple, plantain, plum, pomegranate, poplar, potato, pumpkin, quince, radiata pine, radiscchio, radish, rapeseed, raspberry, rice, rye, sorghum, Southern pine, soybean, spinach, squash, strawberry, sugarbeet, sugarcane, sunflower, sweet potato, sweetgum, tangerine, tea, tobacco, tomato, triticale, turf, turnip, a vine, watermelon, wheat, yams, and zucchini Particularly preferred plant targets would include sugarcane and sugarbeet. More preferably the plant is a crop plant used to produce sucrose or that can be transformed into a sucrose producing plant. Further preferably, the plant is sugarcane.
The term "sugarcane plants" can be/or be derived from:
any Saccharum wild-type genotype (for example, Saccharum officinarum, Saccharum spontaneum, Saccharum robustum)
any genus that crosses with Saccharum (for example, Miscanthus, Erianthus, Narenga, Sclerestachya)
any sugarcane hybrid generated spontaneously
any sugarcane hybrid generated by traditional breeding techniques
any sugarcane progenies generated from crosses of wild-type or commercial varieties
any sugarcane plant generated by the introduction of a transgene (transgenic plants)
The term "promoter" refers to regions or sequence located upstream and/or downstream from the start of transcription and which are involved in recognition and binding of RNA polymerase and other proteins to initiate transcription. A "plant promoter" is a promoter capable of initiating transcription in plant cells.
The term "seed-cane" (or setts) refers to stem cuttings or pieces of sugarcane stalk used to vegetatively propagate sugarcane cultures.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION
Very little is known on the molecular mechanisms governing sucrose synthesis and accumulation in sugarcane. Although varieties exist capable of accumulating different amounts of sucrose, studies designed to compare these cultivars at the molecular level are scarce. The identification of genes conferring favourable traits to commercial hybrids is highly desirable for the sugarcane industry, since they could be used as markers for assisted selection.
The present invention broadly relates to defining a gene expression profile for SEQ ID NO. 1-203 that facilitates identification, isolation and characterization of high and low sucrose content sugarcane plants. The present invention also relates to defining a gene expression profile for SEQ ID NO:s 1-203 and SEQ ID NO:s 229-373 that is associated with sucrose content indicating genes that may be useful in the generation of sucrose enriched plants. Gene expression data can be determined for plants that can be a progeny derived from crossings (A), commercial varieties or cultivars (B), or transgenic plants (C).
With the purpose of selecting plants with high brix (soluble sugar content), a series of crossings involving Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum genotypes were performed. First, intra-specific polycrosses were performed among 21 Saccharum officinarum genotypes and 13 Saccharum spontaneum genotypes (Table I). Subsequently, the progenies of these independent crossings were evaluated for their sugar content and the most extreme individuals intercrossed. A series of recombination and selection events was promoted thereafter to select two populations with contrasting sugar accumulation capacities (FIG. 1). Eight genotypes with high brix (HB) content and eight with low brix (LB) were selected from the F3 progeny. In the context of the present invention, but not limited to, the brix difference ranges from 3 to 16. Table II shows the brix values for the sixteen individuals selected. Leaf+1 and internodes 1, 5 and 9 were collected. As used herein, leaf+1 is the first leaf with a visible dewlap and internodes are the plant parts above ground, with the exception of leaves. Tissues were pooled for HB and LB independently and total RNA was extracted.
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE I S. officinarum and S. spontaneum genotypes used for the polycrosses. S. officinarum S. spontaneum Caiana Fita IN8458 IK76108 IN8488 Lahaina Krakatau MZ151 SES 147b MZ151 roxa US56158 Sabura US7440 Salangor US851008 Sinimbu UM721 NG213 UM691 Fiji 47 SES 194 Hinahina 18 IK7686 Manjri Red US56193 Muntok Java US571723 NG77142 Soff 8268 SS601 Sylva NG2880 Vae Vae Ula IJ76315 IN8425
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE II Brix measurements of the 16 individuals (genotypes) selected for gene expression profiling. Classification Genotype Brix High Brix CTC98-241 23.00 CTC98-242 23.90 CTC98-243 22.90 CTC98-244 23.40 CTC98-246 22.60 CTC98-252 22.20 CTC98-253 22.50 CTC98-258 22.10 Low Brix CTC98-261 8.60 CTC98-262 9.10 CTC98-265 9.10 CTC98-268 9.35 CTC98-271 10.60 CTC98-272 10.80 CTC98-277 10.60 CTC98-279 10.60
In a similar experiment, a field-grown F1 progeny selected from a cross between the sugarcane varieties SP 80-180 and SP 80-4966 was characterized. From a total of 500 individuals, we picked out seven plants with the highest (7HB) and seven with the lowest (7LB) sugar content. FIG. 2 shows the average values and standard deviations for soluble solids level (Brix) of the most mature internode of these two groups of plants along the growing season (6, 7, 9, 11 and 13 months after planting).
Additionally, the F1 progeny from a cross between the sugarcane varieties SP80-144 and SP85-7215 (selected as described for the cross between varieties SP 80-180 and SP 80-4966), two varieties precocious and rich in sucrose production (SP91-1049 and SP94-3166) and two varieties late and poor in sucrose production (SP83-2847 and SP89-1115) were also analysed. FIG. 6 shows the sugar content during the growing season in the two sugarcane cultivars poor and late in sucrose accumulation (SP83-2847 and SP94-3116) and the two sugarcane cultivars rich and precocious in sucrose accumulation (SP91-1049 and SP89-1115). For all of these, brix measures from field-grown plants were taken, leaf tissues were collected and total RNA was extracted. Table III lists all the progenies and varieties used in the present invention.
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE III Sugarcane Progenies and varieties used for molecular marker identification Tissue Plant Age Origin of High Brix and Low Brix Plants Internode 1 7 months SP80-180 vs SP80-4966 progenies Internode 5 7 months SP80-180 vs SP80-4966 progenies Internode 9 7 months SP80-180 vs SP80-4966 progenies Internode 1 11 months SP80-180 vs SP80-4966 progenies Internode 5 11 months SP80-180 vs SP80-4966 progenies Internode 9 11 months SP80-180 vs SP80-4966 progenies Internode 1 10 months S. spontaneum vs S. officinarum progenies Internode 5 10 months S. spontaneum vs S. officinarum progenies Internode 9 10 months S. spontaneum vs S. officinarum progenies Leaf 10 months SP80-144 vs SP85-7215 progenies Leaf 9 months SP80-180 vs SP80-4966 progenies Leaf 10 months S. spontaneum vs S. officinarum progenies Leaf 7 months SP83-2847 varieties Leaf 7 months SP91-1049 varieties Leaf 7 months SP94-3116 varieties Leaf 7 months SP89-1115 varieties Leaf 12 months SP83-2847 variety Leaf 14 months SP83-2847 variety Leaf 16 months SP83-2847 variety Leaf 18 months SP83-2847 variety Internode 1 12 months SP83-2847 variety Internode 1 14 months SP83-2847 variety Internode 1 16 months SP83-2847 variety Internode 1 18 months SP83-2847 variety Leaf 12 months SP94-3116 variety Leaf 14 months SP94-3116 variety Leaf 16 months SP94-3116 variety Leaf 18 months SP94-3116 variety Internode 1 12 months SP94-3116 variety Internode 1 14 months SP94-3116 variety Internode 1 16 months SP94-3116 variety Internode 1 18 months SP94-3116 variety Leaf 12 months SP91-1049 variety Leaf 14 months SP91-1049 variety Leaf 16 months SP91-1049 variety Leaf 18 months SP91-1049 variety Internode 1 12 months SP91-1049 variety Internode 1 14 months SP91-1049 variety Internode 1 16 months SP91-1049 variety Internode 1 18 months SP91-1049 variety Leaf 12 months SP89-1115 variety Leaf 14 months SP89-1115 variety Leaf 16 months SP89-1115 variety Leaf 18 months SP89-1115 variety Internode 1 12 months SP89-1115 variety Internode 1 14 months SP89-1115 variety Internode 1 16 months SP89-1115 variety Internode 1 18 months SP89-1115 variety
In parallel, cDNA microarrays were constructed with PCR products derived from 1857 polynucleotides representing sugarcane genes from the cDNA libraries produced by the Sugarcane EST Consortium (SUCEST), providing a platform for comparisons of gene expression profile. Approximately half of all the signal transduction genes identified by the Sugarcane Signal Transduction (SUCAST) project are represented in these arrays (Papini-Terzi et al., 2005), as well as genes related to general metabolism, stress, pathogen responses and transcription. The HB (High Brix) and LB (Low Brix) samples from each progeny or variety tissue were compared by hybridizing to the arrayed genes. Two replicate hybridizations were made for each comparison with the dye-swapped in the second hybridization. To reveal molecular markers of brix content, hybridizations were done to compare a tissue from the high brix plant to the same tissue in a low brix plant (Design I). Also, two high brix varieties and two low brix varieties were compared (Design II) by performing hybridizations against a common reference composed of an equimolar mixture of RNA samples from all four cultivars. Two replicate hybridizations were made for each comparison with the dye-swapped in the second hybridization. Additionally, mature and intermediately mature internodes were compared to immature internodes from both the high brix and the low brix plants (Design III). Again, two replicate hybridizations were made for each comparison with the dye-swapped in the second hybridization. Data analysis was done essentially as described by Papini-Terzi et al. (2005). Briefly, cut-off limits that define "differential expression" were calculated based on "self-self" hybridizations (Vencio and Koide, 2005). To improve data reliability, only genes with at least 70% consistency in replicate experiments were considered differentially expressed. A total of 208 SAS (SEQ ID Nos 1-203) were found differentially expressed in at least one sample when tissues from HB and LB plants were contrasted. When mature and immature internodes were compared a total of 140 differentially expressed genes were identified (SEQ ID Nos 229 to 373). Tables IV and XIII list all of the ESTs corresponding to each SAS (sugarcane assembled sequence) predicted to correspond to the same transcript as assembled by the CAP3 program (Vettore et al., 2003) and the predicted assembled sequence. The ratio values for the microarray signals for each SAS in each sample is presented in Tables V to IX and Table XIV to XX. The tables also show the categories and gene functions for each sequence.
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE IV List of Sugarcane Assembled Sequences (SAS) and their SEQ ID Nos. SEQ ID No. 1: SCAGFL1089G08.g (CA199089, CA224271, CA224272) SEQ ID No. 2: SCCCLR2C01G07.g (CA185584, CA166776, CA134755, CA081538, CA166739, CA155955, CA084974, CA157742, CA270171, CA159531, CA187781, CA159517, CA089886, CA084049, CA159619, CA140397, CA087051, CA262468, CA159606, CA089976, CA183396, CA129456, CA066628, CA166690, CA140819, CA190385, CA187438, CA208612, CA190989, CA127354, CA140895, CA106597, CA158530, CA165616, CA157955, CA158357, CA163017, CA180366, CA156493, CA156721, CA110716, CA162841, CA088522) SEQ ID No. 3: SCCCRZ1001C01.g (CA186259, CA147312, CA107529, CA283111, CA275744, CA245497, CA240766, CA217267, CA129544, CA232142, CA186319, CA132949, CA266299, CA279493, CA239038, CA069036, CA279491, CA081552, CA172945, CA270762, CA214162, CA155441, CA208908, CA077560, CA094623, CA080165, CA281654, CA068431, CA080252, CA253608, CA280034, CA146798, CA149332, CA286419, CA149406, CA208282, CA168868, CA167581, CA247594, CA245731, CA264236, CA256980, CA196120, CA166139, CA256260, CA133068, CA216602, CA096037, CA133422, CA209478, CA172392, CA196703, CA148592, CA107794, CA078322, CA069441, CA262406, CA164639, CA117241, CA291436, CA272137, CA156857, CA275745, CA233167, CA073173, CA294936, CA096560, CA204575, CA190808, CA294814, CA134607, CA095396, CA294999, CA233246, CA279310, CA272172, CA121188, CA165918, CA087433, CA152584, CA163918, CA134688, CA260773, CA232223, CA134035, CA087517, CA078469, CA280895, CA147004, CA270846, CA285363, CA224721, CA300843, CA085545, CA193771, CA085617, CA152497, CA147851, CA234786, CA264280, CA190048, CA264249, CA259379, CA134846, CA284676, CA066363, CA148782, CA134929, CA094480, CA100929, CA128739, CA230006, CA257872, CA272842, CA153380, CA088481, CA199337, CA067318, CA120108, CA257959, CA068501, CA227954, CA156682, CA173310, CA064714) SEQ ID No. 4: SCEQRT1033F01.g (CA184995, CA156175, CA130817, CA186778, CA296253, CA162940, CA133313, CA185329, CA117474, CA186710, CA204874) SEQ ID No. 5: SCEZLR1031G10.g (CA175202, CA165752, CA167131, CA234178, CA121597, CA067987, CA118138, CA257467, CA098577) SEQ ID No. 6: SCEZRZ1015G02.g (CA237872, CA095197, CA148000, CA208159) SEQ ID No. 7: SCJFRZ2014A03.g (CA068448, CA182636, CA124874, CA151939) SEQ ID No. 8: SCUTST3090E03.g (CA187278, CA185355, CA180421, CA184313, CA210629) SEQ ID No. 9: SCVPCL6042B11.g (CA179030, CA079210, CA171761, CA167601, CAC99889) SEQ ID No. 10: SCVPFL3046C06.b (CA244704, CA169357, CA226883, CA279223, CA226955, CA169444) SEQ ID No. 11: SCACCL6008H06.g (CA297327, CA096029, CA272424) SEQ ID No. 12: SCACLR1036B06.g (CA116282, CA208326, CA185586, CA161943, CA208173, CA164611, CA250322, CA141763, CA248417, CA173006, CA271344, CA248060, CA295677, CA141850, CA115167, CA150326, CA263624, CA155589, CA172473, CA210572, CA212977, CA071050, CA223263, CA183780, CA182338, CA123614, CA263704, CA258818, CA227706, CA185483, CA180358, CA227787, CA183645, CA183050, CA185991, CA164775, CA187002, CA167583, CA187440, CA294229, CA247569, CA268117, CA081801, CA175295, CA294155, CA231298, CA198645, CA181860, CA091352, CA203545, CA234600, CA163160, CA258992, CA211128, CA186109, CA173482, CA185124, CA194883, CA262166, CA280273, CA169398, CA224642, CA170802, CA208174, CA195079, CA169482, CA170947, CA170731, CA279502, CA170881, CA181104, CA206750, CA294040, CA171028, CA152678, CA257305, CA293976, CA213043, CA181646, CA187605, CA182139, CA143731, CA257402, CA193572, CA180425, CA297996, CA180830, CA283968, CA183965, CA213586, CA194480, CA086671, CA208319, CA075723, CA194663, CA293330, CA184108, CA075807, CA295739, CA168382, CA167495, CA212733, CA248494, CA187062, CA182290, CA181789, CA176860, CA201177, CA081385, CA122294, CA111436, CA181610, CA081463, CA081454, CA122407, CA172507, CA217801, CA112764, CA119200, CA205047, CA177228, CA168599, CA217883) SEQ ID No. 13: SCACLR1126E09.g (CA116458, CA129697, CA118229) SEQ ID No. 14: SCACLR2007G02.g (CA127563, CA091213, CA254488, CA091132, CA157102) SEQ ID No. 15: SCACLR2014E12.g (CA192165, CA154258, CA186575, CA158514, CA127675, CA104491, CA154264, CA097458, CA258945, CA164635, CA143359, CA186649, CA245697, CA113109, CA231117, CA271862) SEQ ID No. 16: SCACSB1037A07.g (CA167445, CA204908) SEQ ID No. 17: SCAGAM2125C01.g (CA082271) SEQ ID No. 18: SCAGFL1089C03.g (CA232431, CA214773, CA199044, CA226812, CA251426) SEQ ID No. 19: SCAGLB1070E01.g (CA111450, CA086189, CA214795, CA174551, BQ804015, CA174968, CA259932, CA072721, CA214876) SEQ ID No. 20: SCAGLR1043E04.g (CA139075, CA095747, CA163740, CA287933, CA254860, CA287205, CA276681, CA163825, CA158080, CA159744, CA166834, CA089831, CA146535, CA107721, CA159823, CA163282, CA101632, CA271953, CA112877, CA165306, CA116967, CA120230, CA165312, CA186064) SEQ ID No. 21: SCAGLR1043F02.g (CA290432, CA292969, CA279534, CA183060, CA183152, CA121646, CA096370, CA099981, CA192245, CA167424, CA214962, CA125300, CA267241, CA122577, CA246321, CA214857, CA261846, CA214921, CA120097, CA122234, CA158059, CA202210, CA273838, CA263626, CA205312, CA183023, CA263706, CA185079, CA116969, CA275126, CA184998) SEQ ID No. 22: SCAGLR2026G12.g (CA282277, CA117544, CA173493, CA097993, CA123854, CA277803, CA276657, CA163057, CA089417, CA123966, CA150636, CA152810, CA105994, CA124675, CA095504, CA260199, CA124712, CA288917, CA145237, CA165000, CA167668, CA066913, CA161175, CA128073, CA128273, CA157707, CA084376, CA143727, CA143896, CA146035, CA159999, CA128260, CA123367, CA125688, CA111277, CA081486, CA239639, CA159912, CA224751, CA135227, CA277229, CA154488, CA114788, CA187359, CA183121, CA137987, CA125112) SEQ ID No. 23: SCAGSD2042G08.g (CA301419, CA301408, CA282279, CA282268) SEQ ID No. 24: SCBFFL4114B06.g (CA254510) SEQ ID No. 25: SCBFFL5074C09.g (CA204004, CA293285, CA203956, CA244892, CA290019, CA132334, CA244976, CA235410, CA292110, CA239336) SEQ ID No. 26: SCBFLR1039B05.g (CA072436, CA164922, CA219265, CA294041, CA087182, CA086094, CA133140, CA082356, CA178376, CA150762, CA091920, CA261338, CA155935, CA092012, CA084247, CA074480, CA163545, CA163534, CA264111, CA188825, CA079335, CA188476, CA087023, CA271843, CA164692, CA161125, CA161569, CA186875, CA218879, CA147374, CA086305, CA218962, CA247037, CA158661, CA089106, CA089861, CA154471, CA172672, CA155677, CA157667, CA240350, CA160822, CA085679, CA142367, CA067697, CA078551, CA165453, CA193896, CA240083, CA159199, CA117385, CA083799, CA184601, CA073646, CA087006, CA067781, CA228606, CA157128, CA165295, CA164303, CA090710, CA157426, CA218214, CA144877, CA082959, CA082212, CA092766, CA218299, CA082071, CA082361, CA166357, CA092479, CA155760, CA154412, CA157932, CA080915, CA089329, CA155569, CA084631, CA084421, CA163520, CA070855, CA267791, CA070926, CA083685, CA193867, CA164257, CA262071, CA280355, CA253389, CA151412, CA099704, CA099702, CA091852, CA103683, CA218228, CA216440, CA076652, CA218313, CA081569, CA147549, CA092093, CA092327, CA082854, CA160806, CA234098, CA081072, CA155277, CA081503, CA156306, CA228091, CA165593, CA084277, CA164984, CA085999) SEQ ID No. 27: SCBFLR1060F03.g (CA117505, CA090821, CA184876, CA102138) SEQ ID No. 28: SCBFRZ2046D07.g (CA150681, CA109085, CA179474, CA203314, CA174283) SEQ ID No. 29: SCBFSB1046D04.g (CA167835) SEQ ID No. 30: SCBFSB1047C02.g (CA170539, CA208192, CA167900, CA178739) SEQ ID No. 31: SCBFST3136A06.g (CA181757, CA181841, CA204913) SEQ ID No. 32: SCBGLR1003D06.g (CA222877, CA125433, CA148517, CA123170, CA124367, CA229025, CA191858, CA150470, CA137422, CA242621, CA067144, CA107570, CA077924, CA219677, CA117862, CA137913, CA260601, CA189186, CA191192, CA103772, CA149267, CA111228, CA149344, CA283660, CA154152, CA153751, CA165134, CA177823, CA228650, CA287491, CA136728, CA162238, CA164661, CA139437, CA189271, CA282312, CA121420, CA289514, CA134330, CA259414, CA288712, CA148333, CA134387, CA221721, CA264749, CA201139, CA113386, CA078385, CA115600, CA241752, CA106360, CA118148, CA138627, CA190187, CA115438, CA154012, CA150848, CA071918, CA226319, CA281964, CA270512, CA146712, CA165133, CA078380, CA241934, CA138140, CA115533, CA117783) SEQ ID No. 33: SCBGLR1023D05.g (CA193105, CA188272, CA224873, CA241264, CA300539, CA188009, CA241339, CA241331, CA133005, CA150388, CA079307, CA185891, CA079026, CA088897, CA116440, CA073525, CA117725, CA286594) SEQ ID No. 34: SCBGLR1096E06.g CA131852, CA136715, CA264334, CA198772, CA181655, CA118258) SEQ ID No. 35: SCBGLR1099G02.g (CA118527, CA088599) SEQ ID No. 36: SCBGLR1115D10.g (CA236898, CA118948, CA290199, CA222803, CA247964, CA241212, CA294776, CA213997, CA223503, CA223512, CA241290, CA077364, CA223593, CA223583, CA228839, CA237054, CA200849, CA200388, CA238984, CA077442, CA079128, CA271913) SEQ ID No. 37: SCCCAD1001C08.g (CA213052, CA064626, CA208782) SEQ ID No. 38: SCCCAD1004H02.g (CA064903, CA065602, CA196686, CA068322) SEQ ID No. 39: SCCCAM1001A03.g (CA224922, CA097767, CA289761, CA293310, CA072765, CA177152, CA082771, CA228990, CA200984, CA071379, CA186832, CA174514, CA299571, CA285188, CA200732, CA074444, CA070971, CA266681, CA292024) SEQ ID No. 40: SCCCAM2004G02.g (CA175137) SEQ ID No. 41: SCCCAM2C04G08.g (CA188572, CA081398, CA083085, CA177802, CA081466) SEQ ID No. 42: SCCCCL3001F04.g (CA090274, CA218633, CA271564, CA072795, CA176380, CA212400, CA076605, CA292379, CA176809, CA261558, CA092442, CA082952, CA171891, CA132285, CA298117, CA136926, CA205249, CA244356, CA084659, CA174001, CA220841, CA188161, CA262641, CA084625, CA147909, CA258069, CA130594, CA268345, CA098011, CA297370, CA147196, CA232960, CA072355, CA139295, CA103872, CA161619, CA076646, CA192047, CA069119, CA269782, CA176915, CA202483, CA147582, CA142782, CA077648, CA092390, CA082458, CA266894, CA230599, CA129577, CA192875, CA205406, CA195633, CA258918, CA239390, CA195611, CA091961, CA211152, CA238101, CA082565, CA261071, CA139562,
CA238798, CA267286, CA126957, CA112818, CA258847, CA097943, CA262159, CA170717, CA070245, CA192180, CA167707, CA147514, CA176991, CA076215, CA266294, CA071776, CA190170, CA261881, CA082649, CA167116, CA200225, CA166545, CA174720, CA180863, CA098735, CA078299, CA080135, CA137514, CA084364, CA146987, CA130332, CA078373, CA215588, CA179346, CA079412, CA147435, CA187943, CA179432, CA179450, CA167646, CA117675, CA147627, CA279536, CA123234, CA251889, CA209472, CA094022, CA093214, CA235526, CA066029, CA291616, CA270178, CA088732, CA079067, CA210802, CA173849, CA208418, CA147384, CA249228, CA205005) SEQ ID No. 43: SCCCCL3002C09.b (CA164754, CA192507, CA149213, CA260796, CA187083, CA101050, CA232366, CA230776, CA285317, CA299708, CA232454, CA168679, CA122474, CA179836, CA117294, CA122512, CA123772, CA254900, CA183002, CA127885, CA168911, CA071983, CA236670, CA266142, CA109668, CA168996, CA094485, CA273741, CA182273, CA300109, CA259484, CA109752, CA266217, CA095537, CA105282, CA190305, CA273812, CA095612, CA174112, CA102333, CA222873, CA241526, CA234235, CA169388, CA138129, CA247699, CA259138, CA169473, CA189915, CA232514, CA174741, CA221599, CA174821, CA195129, CA205165, CA136996, CA078205, CA189405, CA235587, CA098138, CA116327, CA114878, CA191259, CA300967, CA191089, CA235666, CA183278, CA145262, CA137898, CA156970, CA121379, CA095453, CA134465, CA138724, CA129675, CA134544, CA174648, CA123308, CA137470, CA228406, CA125187, CA179729, CA145327, CA179613, CA116680, CA134096, CA185020, CA097986, CA241590, CA120065, CA098133, CA300763, CA248222, CA114920, CA140135, CA260971, CA206920, CA069768, CA135583, CA241001, CA126239, CA254670, CA104750, CA225281, CA205773, CA158716, CA177253, CA135668, CA069844, CA176685, CA104833, CA179725, CA175015, CA093273, CA156663, CA144277, CA077356, CA139207, CA077433, CA156162, CA233672, CA289617, CA136244, CA092631, CA121367, CA166600, CA285273, CA096245, CA174136, CA131526, CA127387, CA243490, CA107152, CA130718, CA234183, CA139986, CA242827, CA295952, CA127931, CA130008, CA134095, CA138704, CA083624, CA291487, CA217158, CA140705, CA176381, CA300124, CA225694, CA269792, CA142766, CA244765, CA072024, CA208843, CA140774, CA142408, CA244840, CA240123, CA294166, CA131496, CA242966, CA183794, CA078230, CA294108, CA171510, CA070363, CA084393, CA243058, CA238566, CA130322, CA275283, CA149534, CA070447, CA086950, CA275350, CA145273, CA103468, CA186854, CA101246, CA127499, CA113173, CA255273, CA228952, CA180533, CA188382, CA280222, CA179960, CA145293, CA205177, CA301035, CA127828) SEQ ID No. 44: SCCCCL3080A11.b (CA195011, CA186362, CA296480, CA296654, CA275397, CA290669, CA282198, CA221529, CA275467, CA135001, CA167417, CA290056, CA148875, CA076391, CA242540, CA141300, CA287167, CA076476, CA176410, CA080697, CA252988, CA184697, CA242340, CA200871, CA179397, CA253071, CA185063, CA159627, CA284239, CA185199, CA159286, CA291109, CA179461, CA248226, CA086290, CA176240, CA191934, CA245914, CA278165, CA103412, CA152746, CA230916, CA245835, CA242649, CA230990, CA132349, CA287873, CA166292, CA273797, CA160174, CA274023, CA122335, CA273788, CA092884, CA091203, CA154817, CA276231, CA136820, CA287241, CA207749, CA276377, CA066806, CA122402, CA159765, CA276035, CA296496, CA279832, CA271356, CA091503, CA215068, CA129109, CA116743, CA121331, CA290328, CA285668, CA287690, CA232825, CA069961, CA076390, CA101186, CA240902, CA180980, CA076475, CA226125, CA283780, CA283709, CA159661, CA182917, CA202160, CA065119, CA155633, CA218498, CA217558, CA288910, CA130058, CA169110, CA249436, CA190722, CA282286, CA169189, CA149394, CA176923, CA148689, CA123410, CA197169, CA174886, CA202258, CA181623, CA153982, CA263764, CA274086, CA111644, CA093560, CA273768, CA112839, CA093040, CA065124, CA137999, CA264537) SEQ ID No. 45: SCCCCL3120C09.g (CA164701, CA224926, CA093647, CA083169, CA111541, CA083168, CA093732, CA122320, CA265053, CA157947, CA122415, CA122420, CA273041, CA164238, CA130292, CA121753, CA161184, CA087082, CA090483, CA072914) SEQ ID No. 46: SCCCCL3120G07.g (CA126728, CA185585, CA206387, CA125243, CA265002, CA185315, CA245734, CA180717, CA067294, CA091012, CA181272, CA244870, CA264526, CA106164, CA199596, CA180607, CA236822, CA104054, CA244956, CA125117, CA180803, CA067314, CA104139, CA224603, CA279337, CA099590, CA142258, CA168155, CA094223, CA266351, CA180794, CA231617, CA209380, CA093688, CA125829, CA187261, CA187424, CA261208, CA067342, CA226296, CA189470, CA067295, CA168751, CA090956, CA184722, CA178676, CA211245, CA239943, CA107492) SEQ ID No. 47: SCCCCL4002E02.g (CA116501, CA215472, CA157057, CA272126, CA132749, CA282608, CA185323, CA134724, CA131522, CA298731, CA172476, CA093967, CA157851, CA177663, CA265966, CA164160, CA157052, CA145182, CA184790, CA069776, CA222319, CA156078, CA190828, CA140192, CA133240, CA211567, CA166155, CA067205, CA195541, CA091963, CA172143, CA089803, CA163027, CA090747, CA191514, CA139123, CA162363, CA225047, CA109794) SEQ ID No. 48: SCCCCL4005F05.g (CA280584, CA301445, CA101272, CA094199, CA251241, CA287651, CA277095, CA217700) SEQ ID No. 49: SCCCCL6002B05.g (CA235513, CA140487, CA095693, CA183575, CA187535, CA270075, CA259493, CA262265, CA181192, CA279039) SEQ ID No. 50: SCCCCL6003D08.g (CA261317, CA207685, CA249487, CA295361, CA295292, CA176975, CA249563, CA259708, CA096709) SEQ ID No. 51: SCCCFL4094H12.g (CA235328, CA253578) SEQ ID No. 52: SCCCLB1001D03.g (CA070103, CA233451, CA280144, CA161397, CA073973, CA246052, CA266278, CA187448, CA087616, CA105439, CA292489, CA289895, CA251852, CA112903, CA217956, CA110778, CA193638, CA079528, CA109891, CA157072) SEQ ID No. 53: SCCCLB1003E11.g (CA183789, CA280103, CA133961, CA139899, CA070532, CA110960, CA153393, CA133885, CA263460, CA115969, CA153912, CA115964, CA271209, CA135793, CA271124, CA186641, CA170726, CA186568) SEQ ID No. 54: SCCCLR1001A06.g (CA190346, CA248924, CA092763, CA083592, CA188740, CA077113, CA116115, CA158015, CA121535, CA204604, CA216472, CA105973) SEQ ID No. 55: SCCCLR1001E04.g (CA286692, CA185203, CA283556, CA297496, CA283763, CA107947, CA281797, CA273397, CA288055, CA182167, CA272567, CA275912, CA115183, CA261160, CA169335, CA275587, CA116155, CA276409, CA275516, CA113912, CA180802, CA281743, CA169255, CA275068, CA283676, CA274801, CA185414, CA288928, CA297998, CA276051, CA247335, CA278026, CA276440, CA295185, CA110175, CA182175, CA281251, CA287476, CA277138, CA277597, CA281255, CA277512, CA170522, CA282815, CA216931, CA208645, CA208714, CA117824, CA119303, CA295245, CA210512, CA297891, CA180801, CA284125, CA275675, CA301424, CA285422, CA182158, CA286170, CA182550, CA284723, CA286095, CA282404, CA274292, CA183110) SEQ ID No. 56: SCCCLR1022B11.g (CA262370, CA175573, CA283139, CA282225, CA175736, CA098979, CA274092, CA283705, CA234778, CA090105, CA291719, CA234765, CA149808, CA156650, CA184954, CA162473, CA165344, CA283982, CA145397, CA227663, CA217233, CA193153, CA098173, CA170572, CA168929, CA133676, CA119647, CA096824, CA169015, CA181636, CA176861, CA108797, CA095801, CA102799, CA168953, CA142627, CA140623, CA150372, CA211448, CA065362, CA283916, CA262588, CA296130, CA137717, CA144579, CA281526, CA097927, CA260822, CA178228, CA099128, CA192194, CA301126, CA135072, CA179839, CA150376, CA234766, CA297660, CA281655, CA176409, CA273865, CA297545, CA284140, CA297734, CA098177, CA073430, CA259653, CA136165, CA135273, CA153599, CA181778, CA282925, CA153678, CA070825, CA144282, CA296412, CA097932) SEQ ID No. 57: SCCCLR1022F10.g (CA233639, CA260053, CA185523, CA222669, CA095561, CA167708, CA222802, CA278697, CA175743, CA221789, CA121319, CA177308, CA299149, CA273209, CA244627, CA215981, CA178001, CA066057, CA244686, CA234654, CA297895, CA179682, CA207766, CA186315, CA194047, CA233580, CA186380, CA269743, CA186727, CA179261, CA186798, CA146095, CA229185, CA239458, CA240513, CA221284, CA118249, CA276970, CA253631, CA163389, CA194377, CA184587, CA138682, CA083453, CA186061, CA168226, CA289825, CA261002, CA279246, CA099796, CA254874, CA222389, CA269896, CA133477, CA221786, CA298984, CA256819, CA167056, CA181465, CA164471, CA222384, CA178907, CA244604, CA118336, CA266032, CA118095, CA084230, CA280986, CA258373, CA266089, CA250738, CA193208, CA122349, CA185474, CA119690, CA175851, CA103705, CA099948, CA299982, CA276941, CA298487, CA148104, CA187876, CA107311, CA066053, CA273213, CA137497, CA222054, CA182618, CA244395, CA273241, CA244475, CA257856, CA205271, CA085415, CA192092, CA097961) SEQ ID No. 58: SCCCLR1024A02.g (CA177199, CA178859, CA148547, CA271595, CA165098, CA191796, CA284535, CA119371, CA257923, CA284457, CA139287) SEQ ID No. 59: SCCCLR1024C03.g (CA214530, CA092678, CA259139, CA119392, CA138689, CA142234, CA110468, CA166793, CA235001, CA239014, CA187582, CA153171, CA166778, CA229316, CA108240, CA142532, CA231084, CA122112, CA249179, CA267413, CA116485, CA188769, CA130021, CA193695, CA073718, CA205841, CA183536, CA161063, CA206262, CA235000, CA190341, CA202723, CA090059, CA090058, CA236017, CA082031, CA187867, CA155918, CA103108, CA070579, CA079479, CA110879, CA119822) SEQ ID No. 60: SCCCLR1048D07.g (CA147475, CA291066, CA096819, CA204869, CA181487, CA192930, CA209156, CA067272, CA147995, CA244339, CA180480, CA171800, CA284134, CA196820, CA244421, CA243578, CA182300, CA186405, CA186430, CA283235, CA179955, CA184880, CA186482, CA145597, CA186507, CA208666, CA197511, CA175966, CA145686, CA256333, CA204958, CA209389, CA101793, CA101156, CA221552, CA181039, CA166999, CA180658, CA256408, CA253875, CA192877, CA197390, CA166969, CA093997, CA240271, CA205247, CA182628, CA181383, CA099255, CA146394, CA070562, CA213081, CA185160, CA070652, CA070769, CA180031, CA291102, CA170929, CA204905, CA132911, CA218801, CA134618, CA171253, CA206709, CA167078, CA222191, CA134393, CA244769, CA298008, CA133579, CA140427, CA221930, CA171805, CA147956, CA145072, CA115358, CA168857, CA145152, CA221551, CA254585, CA222208, CA193664, CA168945, CA135732, CA106240, CA288063, CA067331, CA105045, CA182416, CA253889, CA267756, CA211247, CA197638, CA122733, CA220849, CA217920, CA217294, CA159483, CA267841, CA122809, CA064754, CA168537, CA205015, CA217367, CA212148, CA195018, CA141826, CA173132, CA185041, CA152829, CA183112, CA222487, CA066599, CA244066, CA165764, CA096242, CA207168, CA187102, CA121886, CA172779, CA232513, CA221622, CA163385, CA187635, CA165823, CA108173, CA216201, CA196736, CA145978, CA253253, CA143737, CA220822,
CA066971, CA137693, CA192288, CA169323, CA149105, CA235200, CA133460, CA231421, CA256401, CA155413, CA115687, CA231501, CA065787, CA066028, CA130814, CA166921, CA195510, CA065872, CA119495, CA211215, CA234020, CA097049, CA110451, CA219727, CA130446, CA107579, CA104154, CA170754, CA169355, CA138200, CA167435, CA192429, CA190819, CA138088, CA170937, CA187379, CA222270, CA169442, CA256336, CA171875, CA289972, CA204877, CA133091, CA253873, CA146649, CA171683, CA174259, CA182738, CA180326, CA146716, CA132203, CA157422, CA192841, CA257875, CA180828, CA157372, CA234853, CA112786, CA181526, CA205074, CA186020, CA194299, CA217863, CA185113, CA211872, CA121463, CA133052, CA173016, CA068878, CA195370, CA170626, CA070371, CA216657, CA068962, CA243574, CA171193, CA216340, CA297779, CA182680, CA067729, CA180065, CA207908, CA067811, CA180150) SEQ ID No. 61: SCCCLR1048F03.g (CA127113, CA065075, CA127212, CA277499, CA129554, CA121603, CA121408, CA125178, CA127440, CA276807, CA126903, CA283043, CA236098, CA097364, CA118155, CA281809, CA070362, CA297080, CA278048, CA121485, CA301525, CA116435, CA120637, CA284860, CA277432, CA276771, CA189482, CA124010, CA276938, CA120532, CA288405, CA122385, CA276469, CA215504, CA065010, CA275948, CA126086, CA208335, CA209295, CA210653, CA126762, CA219057, CA127157, CA072321, CA125785, CA206577, CA190063, CA284449, CA070651, CA285051, CA065024, CA120482, CA117975, CA208190, CA129193, CA289201, CA168876, CA289063, CA096730, CA128766, CA282961, CA189708, CA285413, CA067943, CA275056, CA065005, CA274114, CA276236, CA067075, CA126585, CA126946, CA193276, CA177371, CA286524, CA281416, CA176878, CA301261, CA120733, CA267336, CA190241, CA119190, CA297298, CA116632, CA117265, CA276973, CA125066, CA119744, CA227317, CA279870, CA124816, CA285933, CA121585, CA212660, CA173116, CA125319, CA282719, CA212404, CA284489, CA066031, CA285534, CA285189, CA118289, CA284558, CA119511, CA274189, CA065095, CA129555, CA283138, CA283217, CA285867, CA124018, CA281823, CA296966, CA288144, CA123645, CA126639, CA278851, CA297029, CA117985, CA296567, CA195886, CA068236, CA219344, CA065081, CA208255, CA129812, CA296642, CA126079, CA068319, CA129203, CA125738, CA276707, CA194608, CA282969, CA122439, CA122553, CA276334, CA281049, CA281213, CA208478, CA265249) SEQ ID No. 62: SCCCLR1065F03.g (CA119768, CA180227) SEQ ID No. 63: SCCCLR1066G08.g (CA130183, CA119863, CA190094, CA189956, CA118906, CA129694) SEQ ID No. 64: SCCCLR1068D03.g (CA131141, CA282509, CA101490, CA156675, CA119997, CA266674, CA131210, CA107609, CA265499) SEQ ID No. 65: SCCCLR1C02F07.g (CA288961, CA273685, CA256939, CA112913, CA107999, CA276603, CA241855, CA085479, CA193799, CA252891, CA097052, CA257482, CA203818, CA239070, CA266548, CA099488, CA252672, CA202292, CA279439, CA187630, CA298704, CA125723, CA251524, CA179558, CA177714, CA119975, CA276149, CA128085, CA264406, CA124059, CA247506, CA246266, CA222791, CA100437, CA252417, CA189608, CA225806) SEQ ID No. 66: SCCCLR1C03G01.g (CA114535, CA287070, CA203793, CA113049, CA227918, CA143767, CA239356, CA111397, CA177088, CA130728, CA189457, CA164190, CA236768, CA141069, CA122177, CA110741, CA276010, CA072413, CA272629, CA174772, CA256494, CA077651, CA269728, CA178457, CA115111, CA287055, CA126217, CA193225, CA178389, CA247689, CA228551, CA138141, CA227995, CA286643, CA189695, CA256499, CA228805, CA106329, CA202331, CA141201, CA142188, CA123003, CA256606, CA097345, CA167647, CA290389, CA154610, CA081435, CA256686, CA126629, CA115110, CA151805, CA081363, CA167055, CA235116, CA133295, CA148899, CA173127, CA099540, CA148811, CA192344, CA235424, CA272042, CA147268) SEQ ID No. 67: SCCCLR1C03H09.g (CA194061, CA211639, CA280503, CA116278, CA077744, CA211491, CA209038, CA100317, CA072278, CA096295, CA132466, CA250830, CA292901, CA255776, CA065950, CA160220, CA106513, CA097514, CA098595, CA104618, CA131327, CA119740, CA264663, CA299848, CA218570, CA183289, CA097825, CA158831, CA135080, CA100314, CA132712, CA100433, CA193691, CA138566, CA103770, CA189715, CA160835, CA134464, CA167292, CA196381, CA172852, CA155853, CA084870, CA180963, CA155411, CA156712, CA154796, CA139279, CA163490, CA284118, CA156681, CA110548, CA248342, CA208017, CA169428, CA233919, CA204384, CA295171, CA179262, CA275173, CA100318, CA272098, CA196446, CA244403, CA220478, CA210201, CA218571, CA117867, CA096983, CA132497, CA122468, CA251047, CA136481, CA138022, CA211494, CA190471, CA175863, CA209234, CA143825, CA133828, CA067734, CA180756, CA137429, CA103045, CA100994, CA068413, CA234182, CA227939, CA263768, CA273411, CA205106) SEQ ID No. 68: SCCCLR1C04C02.g (CA125668, CA125865, CA189739, CA125492) SEQ ID No. 69: SCCCLR1C04G08.g (CA244725, CA238883, CA238483, CA199706, CA117832, CA204153, CA261571, CA167779, CA176803, CA189784, CA193796, CA276132) SEQ ID No. 70: SCCCLR1C05B03.g (CA143788, CA143875, CA143787, CA143708, CA101128, CA143785, CA157761, CA250652, CA185977, CA183646, CA120887, CA189812, CA287301) SEQ ID No. 71: SCCCLR1C05B07.g (CA165238, CA208083, CA066000, CA126133, CA201529, CA116306, CA122356, CA295947, CA160571, CA120466, CA122884, CA211355, CA071582, CA264046, CA155655, CA085182, CA225540, CA066152, CA122081, CA177997, CA176532, CA071498, CA221498, CA171047, CA279593, CA189816, CA242630, CA092278, CA125314, CA170969, CA281472, CA081806, CA160840, CA272348, CA233103, CA204708, CA280170, CA198137, CA233033, CA118959, CA165234, CA086800, CA123824, CA258260, CA128698, CA140416, CA284775, CA201691, CA192826, CA189953, CA132444, CA198335, CA091105, CA091933, CA201610, CA121611, CA207356, CA259590) SEQ ID No. 72: SCCCLR1C05G07.g (CA297138, CA290571, CA262529, CA220559, CA204203, CA069404, CA115586, CA193158, CA121039, CA174217, CA115870, CA174293, CA104946, CA274619, CA220266, CA142369, CA242315, CA160721, CA158160, CA210774, CA218047, CA233747, CA278657, CA128109, CA152442, CA184091, CA100098, CA097713, CA103537, CA217191, CA196047, CA274571, CA272485, CA069076, CA196586, CA261588, CA142478, CA202565, CA108110, CA084880, CA257882, CA229994, CA196659, CA066247, CA133689, CA297542, CA173977, CA182109, CA202628, CA230076, CA086869, CA219503, CA073403, CA098116, CA173463, CA204754, CA186033, CA233775, CA101254, CA214205, CA095524, CA069310, CA128718, CA069189, CA203720, CA243929, CA287679, CA284184, CA262863, CA261604, CA123605, CA119184, CA284257, CA202222, CA119783, CA196568, CA259819, CA172217, CA196643, CA068643, CA104586, CA271898, CA222538, CA091523, CA264674, CA193641, CA104655, CA132878, CA125332, CA156254, CA069514, CA300556, CA176289, CA070284, CA189868, CA070369, CA195256, CA147140, CA089091, CA234689, CA066214, CA067046, CA192673, CA269296, CA243676, CA067124, CA264162, CA263530, CA160302, CA157527, CA207879, CA249440, CA104497, CA193097, CA104395, CA294629, CA117002, CA104480, CA211739, CA261852, CA126214, CA108276, CA099770, CA111230, CA166005, CA254045, CA132264, CA268441, CA132728, CA290796, CA173401, CA196261, CA272490, CA233980, CA260947, CA193010, CA225272, CA290862, CA252690, CA070750, CA114221, CA070826, CA066738, CA172334, CA229793, CA267884, CA224989, CA207706, CA229890, CA156552, CA192222, CA190669, CA160369, CA275764, CA066572, CA216926, CA165930, CA244384, CA291738, CA223497, CA286984, CA178039, CA244462, CA208957, CA240296, CA067855, CA263436, CA181579, CA223577, CA146490, CA249333, CA185057, CA201456, CA211242, CA144460, CA157071, CA193340, CA097777, CA194601, CA214431, CA098121, CA295608, CA127853, CA138257, CA138018, CA218660, CA141681, CA221859, CA218738, CA185406, CA197336, CA100940, CA197241, CA284997, CA291940, CA159153, CA240718, CA215992, CA225524, CA210365, CA159221, CA264160, CA235294, CA159304, CA248608, CA186071, CA211758, CA069425, CA110260, CA072797, CA105702, CA120991, CA100099, CA105781, CA244089, CA266283, CA208917, CA177938, CA167214, CA181492, CA146602, CA065458, CA183802, CA295110, CA183809, CA104306, CA227708, CA183876, CA267695, CA181557, CA158128, CA104378, CA267781, CA183921, CA227789, CA147775, CA262173, CA147225, CA164441, CA186580, CA300171, CA264964, CA166300, CA186652, CA204896, CA285255, CA226022, CA217982, CA224315, CA105942, CA158616, CA297551, CA117447, CA220364, CA168851, CA276987, CA190237, CA106022, CA116056, CA264622, CA184486, CA271818, CA168430, CA189345, CA233898, CA172815, CA155992, CA206379, CA166234, CA187152, CA212298, CA099983, CA204961, CA273020, CA169701, CA284310, CA180342, CA064888, CA183975, CA284388, CA262319, CA186021, CA248789, CA262273, CA282426, CA177536, CA248866, CA212699, CA110479, CA176162, CA144804, CA141216, CA275881, CA176238, CA184086, CA141296, CA224239, CA204895, CA276923, CA197046, CA221422, CA068719, CA068789, CA144258, CA183632, CA130681, CA136685, CA184391, CA112468, CA183495, CA103881, CA211815, CA204894, CA293260, CA099929, CA094118, CA284494, CA254873, CA135620, CA190021, CA284622, CA192812, CA135705, CA068304, CA103086, CA155097, CA173863, CA068377, CA110653, CA255712, CA209951, CA185502, CA278212, CA117995, CA255796, CA168934, CA098017, CA219302, CA257679, CA169019, CA278196, CA105166, CA101795, CA087846, CA193447, CA270003, CA105242, CA191196, CA266313, CA288753, CA257281, CA282991, CA096227, CA068749, CA197855, CA065529, CA222362, CA243507, CA068817, CA065600, CA118181, CA068718, CA238905, CA273579, CA213371, CA166910, CA185022, CA122534, CA158024, CA068788, CA070547, CA065590, CA064671, CA183774, CA164793, CA119888, CA091778, CA202473, CA082838, CA138229, CA099466, CA191901, CA124125, CA164484, CA261289, CA243775, CA172637, CA253160, CA067154, CA172720, CA097408, CA160296, CA253234, CA273519, CA067231, CA129930, CA097192, CA126132, CA126138, CA127189, CA295338, CA206463, CA067398, CA099677, CA097714, CA124424, CA294414, CA180655, CA294483, CA268542, CA211287, CA168728, CA268608, CA147090, CA117060, CA297065, CA193107, CA195812) SEQ ID No. 73: SCCCLR1C08G10.g (CA242767, CA121427, CA190110, CA265913, CA256539, CA230257) SEQ ID No. 74: SCCCLR2001H09.g (CA296017, CA073224, CA150710, CA161861, CA275518, CA121510, CA236217, CA121324, CA106856, CA275589, CA105456, CA186919, CA115199, CA072158, CA105535, CA198312, CA279139, CA267315, CA088244, CA228873, CA199179, CA117254, CA110928, CA120536, CA172530, CA188752, CA127047, CA079583, CA114477, CA074802, CA236212, CA208088, CA074878, CA214679, CA152717, CA292362, CA109321, CA121262, CA236850, CA257917, CA109407, CA131450, CA170188, CA117821, CA249112, CA073701, CA165055, CA280305) SEQ ID No. 75: SCCCLR2002E04.g (CA189063, CA103400, CA105310, CA257545, CA074280, CA081249, CA225565, CA111480, CA200578, CA205658, CA172577, CA107282, CA203202, CA110134, CA086789, CA075665,
CA119351, CA175412, CA278217, CA262185, CA289641, CA297337, CA178188, CA110401, CA071940, CA256334, CA073443, CA271459, CA114734, CA214806, CA277079, CA150950, CA112857, CA201428, CA190220, CA290653, CA189454, CA115238, CA127110, CA112237, CA300604, CA178184, CA129133, CA178175, CA286335, CA212524, CA213221, CA223367, CA077677, CA210590, CA251136, CA223442, CA255159, CA124471, CA104032, CA206849, CA200562, CA278797, CA278234, CA121278, CA295565, CA207628, CA249525, CA091812, CA187657, CA216232, CA124525, CA177704, CA211004, CA238405, CA220308) SEQ ID No. 76: SCCCLR2002F08.g (CA211650, CA110492, CA148400, CA300475, CA150508, CA150497, CA300102, CA300257, CA095819, CA104906, CA091149, CA153754, CA258870, CA269965, CA297954, CA065422, CA174959, CA194403, CA106313, CA139292, CA248471, CA282371, CA168458, CA300988, CA166296, CA067041, CA288473, CA180947, CA067119, CA065892, CA162857, CA272827, CA296238, CA274958, CA114610, CA273634, CA127125, CA260192, CA300615, CA285686, CA152730, CA082206, CA105905, CA285436, CA070842, CA218583, CA168512, CA070916, CA101647, CA295802, CA211573, CA262162, CA132706, CA287764, CA285726, CA272603, CA196573, CA273889, CA105900, CA296728, CA262057, CA162541, CA064764, CA297035, CA297113, CA225722, CA125625, CA281507, CA129167, CA288837, CA106118, CA287900, CA177953, CA124483, CA128800, CA218582, CA276318, CA287392, CA278517, CA218499, CA218007, CA299081, CA295773, CA207196, CA145252, CA150651, CA261878, CA107256, CA155204, CA155181, CA296047, CA085447, CA127248, CA171611, CA300905, CA274697, CA184257, CA278069, CA275866, CA070109, CA141467, CA070191, CA152802, CA287858, CA190605, CA154302, CA199564, CA283532, CA209584, CA296251, CA291158, CA064871, CA102133, CA275969, CA141502, CA275504, CA141819, CA275580, CA106944, CA120936, CA150645, CA118413, CA274736, CA296185, CA223170, CA208853, CA283624, CA067879, CA107873, CA264649, CA288282, CA138280, CA148571, CA276218, CA260193) SEQ ID No. 77: SCCCLR2002H11.g (CA127148, CA113376, CA090822, CA175277, CA144706, CA191342, CA249121, CA112140) SEQ ID No. 78: SCCCLR2003E10.g (CA261916, CA072670, CA127180, CA082686, CA098222, CA072679, CA227230, CA230364, CA102583, CA131720) SEQ ID No. 79: SCCCLR2C01F06.g (CA125903, CA130165, CA127342, CA123725) SEQ ID No. 80: SCCCLR2C02A05.g (CA116671, CA130253) SEQ ID No. 81: SCCCLR2C02D03.g (CA262689, CA083750, CA101533, CA177058, CA236874, CA100362, CA128908, CA171906, CA102805, CA115056, CA127401, CA146627, CA158448, CA098804, CA146619, CA258980, CA215587, CA265819, CA265880, CA212035, CA261941, CA071913, CA267912, CA154469, CA079309, CA174463, CA118147, CA146622, CA273451, CA117370, CA267710, CA188407, CA122342) SEQ ID No. 82: SCCCRT1001E01.g (CA145556, CA265124, CA140467, CA259428, CA269652, CA132841, CA253363, CA298816, CA258474, CA265609, CA240255, CA185830, CA130669, CA139431, CA130399, CA260672, CA138292, CA218105, CA266538, CA269994, CA218177, CA258974, CA145910, CA190685, CA221999, CA190860, CA259945, CA080912, CA278886, CA264789, CA145914, CA107290, CA273194, CA260082, CA137145, CA265723, CA145474, CA131856, CA265716) SEQ ID No. 83: SCCCRT2002G11.g (CA098113, CA259292, CA167710, CA160985, CA167765, CA277212, CA301138, CA252372, CA264993, CA166058, CA174697, CA080916, CA298478, CA108271, CA213368, CA173993, CA211356, CA158908, CA162533, CA194961, CA184093, CA096644, CA161001, CA300513, CA144742, CA229700, CA266477, CA092549, CA193396, CA197153, CA096270, CA267077, CA174874, CA298338, CA158349, CA214804, CA136971, CA263769, CA225513, CA214883, CA157020, CA263846, CA281339, CA164770, CA160919, CA203458, CA290101, CA161006, CA114942, CA289802, CA195261, CA298479, CA198016, CA197064, CA298238, CA171959, CA172546, CA273048, CA299633, CA137199, CA156278, CA160900, CA194153, CA265809, CA160988, CA247104, CA174172, CA265871, CA191620, CA198789, CA175182, CA141419, CA174246, CA256737, CA123842, CA171971, CA172544, CA109630, CA163657, CA174143, CA256660, CA217966, CA109716, CA268027, CA157316, CA295099) SEQ ID No. 84: SCCCRZ1001F02.g (CA103948, CA150083, CA259661, CA300458, CA260819, CA115748, CA132394, CA139574, CA150333, CA137265, CA174881, CA276459, CA187808, CA162788, CA225541, CA236121, CA272799, CA143215, CA086510, CA126049, CA140320, CA190692, CA214128, CA293279, CA232739, CA288829, CA232827, CA205598, CA154561, CA258276, CA137338, CA285532, CA128190, CA142456, CA201134, CA132162, CA228245, CA126555, CA071690, CA209954, CA143470, CA248359, CA200342, CA115266, CA136159, CA207491, CA279420, CA272494, CA229717, CA287861, CA289897, CA292215, CA288557, CA123136, CA106015, CA109649, CA124195, CA256039, CA106083, CA259023, CA109734, CA182936, CA146835, CA267500, CA260093, CA161128, CA213896, CA260715, CA247923, CA260696, CA232980, CA235230, CA161214, CA233046, CA183253, CA106339, CA205597, CA226389, CA213070, CA085049, CA118942, CA065078, CA265611, CA065008, CA284023) SEQ ID No. 85: SCCCRZ1001H05.g (CA145736, CA287892, CA192135, CA146862, CA234792, CA101303, CA204402, CA151180, CA119789, CA288119, CA151262, CA080448, CA145653, CA095725) SEQ ID No. 86: SCCCRZ1002E08.g (CA179035, CA191340, CA233483, CA300253, CA085975, CA269763, CA262601, CA236263, CA070203, CA086063, CA190618, CA085969, CA300380, CA120960, CA294874, CA180727, CA292085, CA301489, CA086058, CA273085, CA131694, CA285350, CA182564, CA244750, CA238660, CA244829, CA243124, CA180028, CA144527, CA228073, CA159113, CA260317, CA161623, CA185003, CA184781, CA101457, CA136411, CA287945, CA269808, CA299418, CA142515, CA174197, CA128767, CA268523, CA174275, CA282823, CA146924, CA251224, CA172558, CA131340, CA200210, CA228169, CA184495, CA201598, CA178951, CA130651, CA183353) SEQ ID No. 87: SCCCRZ1002H08.g (CA279826, CA135036, CA124184, CA076729, CA240511, CA076725, CA146959, CA291640, CA146710, CA066324, CA122936, CA203952, CA156670, CA162985, CA245296, CA278468, CA117478, CA184525, CA207771, CA116304, CA240781) SEQ ID No. 88: SCCCRZ1004H12.g (CA216874, CA081561, CA106731, CA251585, CA066538, CA114810, CA148014, CA114649, CA267565, CA267650, CA088912, CA149128, CA227151, CA105454, CA125437, CA269856, CA187518, CA066036, CA286910, CA265042, CA234010, CA160780, CA185108, CA149229, CA110623, CA264544, CA095591, CA150496, CA111584, CA176699, CA140671, CA108165, CA123092, CA283700, CA287402, CA167981, CA064988, CA275544, CA177425, CA141224, CA275615, CA211803, CA125932, CA212296, CA141306, CA191643, CA140689, CA279161, CA079659, CA240039, CA159148, CA174083, CA067685, CA198561, CA143599, CA267523, CA097307, CA067769, CA267610, CA101896, CA096607, CA124965, CA248186, CA124435, CA108814, CA134608, CA192137, CA108989, CA134689, CA166683, CA094488, CA291849, CA109073, CA153798, CA147144, CA299990, CA173707, CA267553, CA225467, CA273321, CA110109, CA267638, CA104185, CA161871, CA290349, CA270432, CA163555, CA154762, CA222553, CA270296, CA166573, CA108407, CA182036, CA164299, CA202506, CA075284, CA225393, CA277703, CA202590, CA102086, CA110611, CA065056, CA233782, CA197286, CA229575, CA277050, CA157909, CA277094, CA140749, CA137396, CA196896, CA282885, CA239918, CA301434, CA196962, CA164275, CA084201, CA275533, CA145361, CA234812, CA275603, CA081143, CA186963, CA195293, CA131246, CA163061, CA180624, CA120533, CA181897, CA192846, CA159009, CA067687, CA225503, CA193928, CA170449, CA067771, CA156228, CA157265) SEQ ID No. 89: SCCCRZ2001A10.g (CA083266, CA170546, CA213983, CA240546, CA214055, CA068172, CA243400, CA112026, CA159624, CA178417, CA149593, CA195353) SEQ ID No. 90: SCCCRZ2001E12.g (CA220407, CA069786, CA266584, CA117131, CA149640, CA102694, CA107051, CA126788, CA178629, CA116298, CA189528) SEQ ID No. 91: SCCCRZ2003E12.g (CA290451, CA171106, CA257067, CA126312, CA285909, CA191695, CA175249, CA277181, CA198875, CA264876, CA228763, CA257385, CA149818, CA268790, CA228758, CA239922, CA147478) SEQ ID No. 92: SCCCRZ2C01F09.g (CA238345, CA110244, CA292133, CA226215, CA290161, CA089133, CA225941, CA087675, CA081960, CA263629, CA263709, CA271851, CA098120, CA103239, CA241010, CA081617, CA127228, CA241092, CA249515, CA289050, CA081621, CA285377, CA149903, CA084191, CA237910, CA287616, CA170459, CA180444, CA241705, CA072646, CA198212, CA140343, CA074071, CA260574, CA275241, CA219063, CA230826, CA216366, CA284463, CA231731, CA275313, CA277199, CA284538, CA085114, CA146451, CA238575, CA170457, CA241499, CA276966, CA150000, CA194018, CA282348, CA151656, CA292177, CA151735, CA081964, CA276948, CA281247, CA148593, CA127998, CA297924, CA098115, CA225142, CA104406) SEQ ID No. 93: SCCCSD1003E02.g (CA284001, CA285612, CA291203, CA278558, CA277223, CA285546, CA272455, CA284812, CA288109, CA285276, CA274083, CA274097, CA282761, CA284853, CA282957, CA276485, CA288135, CA282680, CA287028, CA288317, CA301448, CA281013, CA278500, CA287354) SEQ ID No. 94: SCCCSD1092A08.g (CA284222, CA275878, CA276919, CA284291, CA284297, CA281361, CA273485, CA285647, CA286280, CA287406) SEQ ID No. 95: SCCCSD2001E05.g (CA282080, CA282487, CA278050, CA284383, CA274256) SEQ ID No. 96: SCCCSD2C03G12.g (CA301232, CA297876, CA297283) SEQ ID No. 97: SCCCST1001C04.g (CA096261, CA241976, CA265094, CA217159, CA169670, CA085862, CA103281, CA236141, CA230822, CA166981, CA178741, CA173538) SEQ ID No. 98: SCCCST1006B11.g (CA211361, CA070492, CA219037, CA070499, CA178358, CA173923, CA217421, CA217710) SEQ ID No. 99: SCCCST3001H12.g (CA182157, CA090806, CA135450, CA192177, CA157038, CA180203, CA186190, CA185139, CA088464, CA107032, CA186187) SEQ ID No. 100: SCEPAM1020A03.g (CA298761, CA238039, CA072781, CA202979, CA265514, CA203056, CA216879, CA274267, CA154767, CA072753, CA232137, CA272619) SEQ ID No. 101: SCEPLR1030B03.g (CA284018, CA296786, CA191311, CA135484, CA132970, CA260298, CA293358, CA232052, CA145338, CA296858, CA300403, CA289136, CA190455, CA256928, CA276730, CA114900, CA151879, CA131612, CA285822, CA281761, CA277035, CA131569, CA256849, CA139403, CA120776, CA111640, CA144584, CA109836, CA163350, CA103723, CA138138) SEQ ID No. 102: SCEPLR1030E06.g (CA120812, CA166500, CA121058, CA157792, CA147349) SEQ ID No. 103: SCEPRZ1008F02.g (CA084261, CA147347, CA090873, CA152001, CA234969, CA091560, CA150615, CA253916, CA204783, CA205748, CA192626, CA201996, CA202076, CA280863, CA162916, CA088703,
CA085702, CA175387, CA269587, CA152933, CA092690, CA229677, CA152922, CA200559, CA156055, CA170331, CA140801, CA256055, CA152711, CA153264, CA199353, CA091994, CA151595, CA221404, CA153337, CA198274, CA151680, CA273193, CA214750, CA249251, CA084265, CA113829) SEQ ID No. 104: SCEPRZ1010E06.g (CA153095, CA171009, CA300383, CA134779, CA147516, CA171086, CA290145, CA187047, CA190622, CA249955, CA131632, CA285405, CA195540, CA146683, CA255486, CA274214, CA143354, CA262861, CA250035, CA196569, CA205156, CA196644, CA296007, CA172028, CA184943, CA117936, CA257643) SEQ ID No. 105: SCEPRZ3087C08.g (CA160294, CA160210) SEQ ID No. 106: SCEQLB2019B08.g (CA279976, CA272048) SEQ ID No. 107: SCEQLR1007G03.g (CA140431, CA259456, CA211527, CA271749, CA266277, CA141614, CA215266, CA220502, CA201033, CA142803, CA094784, CA172036, CA107212, CA194369, CA295096, CA065513, CA157629, CA181854, CA099236, CA296097, CA068795, CA145592, CA157045, CA169225, CA195900, CA289800, CA083770, CA103698, CA196336, CA066685, CA279318, CA134272, CA169306, CA144849, CA173189, CA190898, CA206313, CA176452, CA257180, CA084874, CA101125, CA249765, CA284335, CA162053, CA180997, CA197651, CA143812, CA188901, CA194298, CA234171, CA085641, CA267721, CA123786, CA267873, CA139542, CA208084, CA097722, CA158840, CA103745, CA232413, CA177068, CA138787, CA200611, CA183259, CA094119, CA293858, CA299758, CA232497, CA181726, CA207021, CA270176, CA077309, CA123096, CA142484, CA251020, CA205516, CA074457, CA144233, CA130849, CA171502, CA136847, CA265729, CA120240, CA192591, CA265372, CA195921, CA209672, CA125513, CA192394, CA259229, CA293855, CA105693, CA081981, CA131054, CA269628, CA146587, CA088333, CA158446, CA258765, CA134005, CA143367, CA258108, CA068778, CA271982, CA101526, CA227906, CA127817, CA117772, CA107439, CA088988, CA300259, CA135337, CA213654, CA190891, CA182017, CA120975, CA092302, CA202807, CA094566, CA274758, CA082503, CA094014, CA237917, CA089634, CA194363, CA089726, CA084158, CA145586, CA125521, CA142320, CA234258, CA229530, CA293659, CA300521, CA109689, CA191974, CA081639, CA294851, CA109766, CA074622, CA198332, CA200961, CA187329, CA281641, CA066256, CA299442, CA264175, CA121806, CA266806, CA241746, CA215496, CA255625, CA234149, CA068777, CA195842, CA178628, CA178717, CA142335, CA109521, CA148397, CA094810, CA096159, CA269632, CA077723, CA134029, CA094404, CA198903, CA294206, CA169711, CA181781, CA168554, CA079807, CA198035, CA071310, CA086691, CA180555, CA193559, CA203910, CA100811, CA085634, CA076712, CA069456, CA263383, CA280255, CA176816, CA066414, CA212509, CA167475, CA295033, CA194573, CA071797, CA076495, CA148279, CA101133, CA186819, CA180647, CA187603, CA198759, CA235563, CA291664, CA204052, CA284342, CA102950, CA118149, CA085453, CA085470, CA097975, CA183735, CA264115, CA198176) SEQ ID No. 108: SCEQLR1091A10.g (CA114539, CA257837, CA077076, CA262215, CA274238, CA211402, CA274108, CA230959, CA121144, CA256388, CA288382, CA079882, CA230878, CA241079, CA256311, CA237783, CA240995, CA073200, CA235765, CA113590, CA126147, CA077764, CA118720, CA123712, CA286990, CA281182, CA111839, CA124521, CA077641, CA255256, CA111725, CA129312, CA216352, CA209624, CA111908, CA155939, CA189115, CA135189, CA235762, CA291159, CA238370) SEQ ID No. 109: SCEQRT1024B02.g (CA216940, CA225607, CA179965, CA204515, CA132482, CA185736) SEQ ID No. 110: SCEQRT1024E12.g (CA295147, CA260615, CA254686, CA132523, CA197622, CA204899, CA190453, CA212246, CA197604, CA270758, CA270346, CA130936, CA269290, CA256715, CA132252, CA182867, CA107713, CA256638, CA258402, CA217358, CA184651, CA109919, CA185468, CA217428, CA156179, CA220042, CA109994, CA284009, CA214271, CA139017, CA135234, CA260181, CA234511, CA161112, CA102825, CA183055, CA103445, CA192331, CA107252, CA161202, CA288819, CA107320, CA258917, CA244198, CA220062, CA259939, CA069469, CA244275, CA220141, CA185728, CA284013) SEQ ID No. 111: SCEQRT1025D04.g (CA210404, CA217344, CA296134, CA217415, CA187015) SEQ ID No. 112: SCEQRT1025D06.g (CA132593, CA141785, CA141018, CA215251) SEQ ID No. 113: SCEQRT1026H08.g (CA145460, CA069364, CA140129, CA250315, CA145544, CA141404, CA293054, CA282922, CA163907, CA261070, CA163990, CA205321, CA173746, CA283810, CA134025, CA170490, CA240108, CA069401, CA280554, CA277690, CA168030, CA240167, CA222954, CA132730, CA217518, CA277435, CA191682, CA190599, CA133625, CA264946, CA277153, CA070912, CA217975, CA146562, CA284169, CA143199, CA087655, CA287350, CA273405, CA084518, CA301511, CA143266, CA290482) SEQ ID No. 114: SCEQRT1028C03.g (CA139365, CA286665, CA260598, CA139023, CA285888, CA274666, CA137906, CA281362, CA285687, CA136311, CA141788, CA103170, CA133136, CA269938, CA284682, CA288527, CA141870, CA285073, CA285465, CA284318, CA287456, CA130761, CA137490, CA144380, CA297849, CA131873, CA143782, CA281126, CA143182, CA191432, CA284091, CA278152, CA164514, CA139044, CA138535, CA283285, CA106682, CA102643, CA136156, CA132845, CA276716, CA275759, CA284563, CA268586, CA268592, CA143781, CA268641, CA284432, CA273135, CA139564, CA297995, CA268645, CA287370, CA143142, CA138952, CA143227, CA297005, CA101363, CA142135, CA115501, CA278630, CA138496, CA101781, CA286567, CA141623, CA136320, CA136240, CA288341, CA288312, CA104716, CA288071, CA193582, CA130778, CA297953, CA104799, CA143442, CA274724, CA104459, CA104545, CA274625, CA290645, CA278030, CA275085, CA138291, CA145190, CA144775, CA290713, CA133241, CA141076, CA272524, CA146265, CA293757, CA135230, CA139625, CA277500, CA131620, CA269954, CA131757, CA106126, CA268581, CA273592, CA106187, CA136999, CA288204, CA277749, CA143039, CA278287, CA139806) SEQ ID No. 115: SCEQRT1031D02.g (CA074042, CA088825, CA075266, CA271676, CA295638, CA133114, CA268786, CA112006, CA291853, CA269112, CA089768, CA292656, CA273097, CA078197, CA073875, CA074037, CA189360, CA260450) SEQ ID No. 116: SCEQRT1033H06.g (CA101392, CA115952, CA155650, CA133340, CA213648, CA215953, CA108139, CA102933, CA163612) SEQ ID No. 117: SCEQRT2098H06.g (CA172591, CA163271, CA229649, CA139483) SEQ ID No. 118: SCEQRT2099H01.g (CA086208, CA264357, CA086287, CA080644, CA266323, CA161194, CA300091, CA287964, CA221671, CA131618, CA251982, CA221152, CA159591, CA221951, CA156418, CA240390, CA161187, CA159676, CA139559, CA077881, CA161261, CA110139, CA077863) SEQ ID No. 119: SCEQRT2100B02.g (CA217945, CA139573, CA204327, CA260706, CA204248, CA269222, CA269284) SEQ ID No. 120: SCEQRZ3020C02.g (CA250725, CA161134, CA165966, CA160060, CA156919, CA164968, CA251491, CA069428) SEQ ID No. 121: SCEZAM2058E08.g (CA188635, CA183792, CA195687, CA084907, CA081270, CA081191, CA173384) SEQ ID No. 122: SCEZHR1047A01.g (CA103161, CA101776) SEQ ID No. 123: SCEZHR1087F06.g (CA253395, CA197374, CA287472, CA103877, CA278023) SEQ ID No. 124: SCEZHR1088E02.g (CA301005, CA296733, CA247972, CA103945, CA243569, CA251930) SEQ ID No. 125: SCEZLB1009A09.g (CA281626, CA244568, CA116483, CA237705, CA298353, CA298000, CA113117, CA284416, CA277289, CA284348, CA276706, CA290833, CA203091, CA101727, CA176398, CA132760, CA096672, CA290760, CA282167) SEQ ID No. 126: SCEZLB1010E10.g (CA111286, CA201293, CA292534, CA113224, CA078624) SEQ ID No. 127: SCEZLB1012F10.g (CA174564, CA069051, CA216445, CA163915, CA198521, CA068371, CA296305, CA113392, CA099142, CA163996, CA166390, CA116217, CA210122, CA074493, CA114992, CA275989) SEQ ID No. 128: SCEZLR1052E07.g (CA121650, CA116831, CA120886) SEQ ID No. 129: SCEZRZ3098G10.g (CA296471, CA160526, CA273318, CA275478, CA283208, CA160609, CA285866, CA277278, CA158745, CA283693, CA285324, CA285071, CA284153, CA274955, CA285128, CA297181, CA278664, CA272542, CA273750, CA294380, CA287923, CA273821, CA294450, CA297756, CA274726, CA296701, CA277926, CA296395, CA286712, CA286723, CA286722, CA275718, CA275927, CA283291, CA275408) SEQ ID No. 130: SCEZST3147A10.g (CA194007, CA182656) SEQ ID No. 131: SCJFFL3C03C02.g (CA230214, CA230128, CA229489) SEQ ID No. 132: SCJFLR1035E04.g (CA086527, CA195068, CA069060, CA083548, CA295865, CA177350, CA177349, CA277098, CA276954, CA155838, CA197797, CA244043, CA088503, CA121818, CA080812, CA155548, CA078754, CA089206, CA163208, CA129874, CA211416, CA276961, CA144131, CA158866, CA155542, CA199612, CA263981) SEQ ID No. 133: SCJFLR1074E09.g (CA262344, CA266655, CA176711, CA133325, CA122163, CA131810, CA082004, CA181680, CA180565, CA078933, CA085138, CA210263, CA210980, CA184457, CA262635, CA176142, CA234269, CA176141, CA178297, CA183158, CA082635, CA082991, CA198762, CA190715, CA190706, CA274415, CA081600, CA279078, CA181928, CA081942, CA267908, CA089450, CA084567, CA186427, CA078935) SEQ ID No. 134: SCJFRT1005C11.g (CA177520, CA225223, CA106003, CA253319, CA171361, CA209379, CA270001, CA185425, CA155754, CA167026, CA270006, CA106095, CA213061, CA170199, CA287881, CA132140, CA204757, CA155038, CA133369, CA254157, CA280727, CA260033, CA146511, CA186031, CA161879, CA296036, CA220424, CA220423, CA102390, CA184239) SEQ ID No. 135: SCJFRT1007E01.g (CA267659, CA267574, CA259232, CA265484, CA145383, SCJLLB2077E09.b) SEQ ID No. 136: SCJFRT1007H07.g (CA232046, CA260877, CA092783, CA231963, CA204189, CA133468, CA244788, CA244787, CA254691, CA244858, CA204513, CA230346, CA256769, CA108120, CA089835, CA204647, CA264840, CA230425, CA268306, CA258270, CA222112, CA165049, CA222037, CA259725, CA114043, CA233931, CA259471) SEQ ID No. 137: SCJFRT2055G07.g (CA096216, CA243260, CA285937, CA230920, CA140859, CA083416) SEQ ID No. 138: SCJFRZ2007F10.g (CA162683, CA160048, CA279259, CA151224, CA159697, CA156537, CA162591, CA113918, CA160134, CA162626, CA081758, CA165192, CA159782, CA162706, CA151304, CA266640) SEQ ID No. 139: SCJFRZ2012F04.g (CA151819, CA226484, CA196727, CA176517, CA200020) SEQ ID No. 140: SCJFRZ2034D04.g (CA293545, CA237627, CA152997) SEQ ID No. 141: SCJFRZ3C03H08.g (CA159498, CA159411) SEQ ID No. 142: SCJFST1009H11.g (CA176832, CA174223, CA174300) SEQ ID No. 143: SCJLLR1054C03.g (CA072193, CA122571, CA137632, CA070187, CA191143, CA188078, CA249372, CA249371, CA077923, CA208829, CA208828, CA070105, CA261620) SEQ ID No. 144: SCJLRT1016G06.g (CA135201, CA141549) SEQ ID No. 145: SCJLRT1021D12.g (CA169233, CA144275, CA169232, CA076021, CA075936, CA184045, CA135772, CA095372,
CA216051, CA168410) SEQ ID No. 146: SCJLRT1023A09.g (SCJLRT1023A09.g, CA182963, CA250841, CA248659) SEQ ID No. 147: SCJLRZ1021D12.g (CA242041, CA249059, CA254109, CA213847, CA137917, CA148975, CA118183, CA214586, CA197889, CA144551, CA196585, CA262465) SEQ ID No. 148: SCJLST1022A12.g (CA212757, CA175747, CA184421) SEQ ID No. 149: SCMCLR1123E10.g (CA123814, CA077430, CA225563) SEQ ID No. 150: SCMCRT2103B04.g (CA172001, CA142458, CA218053) SEQ ID No. 151: SCMCSD2061D05.g (CA281642, CA278782, CA287422) SEQ ID No. 152: SCQGHR1010D02.g (CA106316) SEQ ID No. 153: SCQGHR1012B09.g (CA287612, CA106449) SEQ ID No. 154: SCQGLR1085F11.g (CA264338, CA126544, CA192941, CA167483, CA123056, CA124270, CA272314, CA261490, CA279307, CA265550, CA271792, CA122975, CA264343, CA270329, CA273106) SEQ ID No. 155: SCQGRT1040G03.g (CA142863, CA142796, CA136289) SEQ ID No. 156: SCQGSB1082E12.g (CA170065) SEQ ID No. 157: SCQSRT1036D03.g (CA136902, CA135021, CA287878, CA274443, CA296937, CA138673, CA191058) SEQ ID No. 158: SCQSSB1077D06.g (CA170725) SEQ ID No. 159: SCRFHR1009G06.g (CA217470, CA107403, CA198006, CA217550) SEQ ID No. 160: SCRFLR1012D12.g (CA215552, CA192043, CA124962, CA125195, CA145888, CA121817, CA278865, CA174653, CA248262, CA272947, CA260358, CA291459, CA203303, CA143179, CA141645, CA178853, CA187649, CA206782, CA090093, CA143252, CA278919) SEQ ID No. 161: SCRFLR1012F12.g (CA145277, CA176384, CA102865, CA218229, CA171925, CA191792, CA195660, CA218314, CA240492, CA198659, CA244914, CA182463, CA131724, CA244997, CA171817, CA194382, CA205344, CA170805, CA205416, CA173212, CA170885, CA181179, CA170637, CA183044, CA195239, CA206962, CA185418, CA139670, CA195249, CA176430, CA181413, CA181342, CA091964, CA183864, CA222085, CA258352, CA140506, CA180474, CA119811, CA222017, CA195130, CA185570, CA296593, CA194982, CA183360, CA173154, CA186079, CA296664, CA171270, CA195468, CA183252, CA294806, CA132456, CA195394, CA206688, CA256506, CA131509, CA187503, CA256594, CA108050, CA159196, CA240650, CA177662, CA159279, CA177742, CA239913, CA171438, CA156947, CA173255, CA256346, CA235445, CA256418, CA186679, CA219554, CA187631, CA186748, CA245097, CA185375, CA219625, CA181621, CA187266, CA123999, CA244218, CA245173, CA182407, CA253693, CA184655, CA143210, CA180512, CA256622, CA244292, CA185011, CA143274, CA168051, CA130540, CA207436, CA219682, CA066624, CA216694, CA178229, CA256208, CA213213, CA171923, CA189901, CA181034, CA102783, CA146612, CA118091, CA130413, CA185759, CA180234, CA184401, CA069670, CA186382, CA186701, CA164112, CA186458, CA186769, CA191147, CA181041, CA191952, CA298549, CA187520, CA155473, CA111918, CA181356, CA215886, CA145798, CA143022, CA249269, CA168083, CA215375, CA073688, CA161824, CA216676, CA198787, CA145199, CA254628, CA186888, CA213066, CA091970, CA215884, CA143890, CA222334, CA220813, CA171807, CA181203, CA130692, CA186145, CA260159, CA158846, CA064841, CA295391, CA192487, CA132539, CA300897, CA141052, CA155506, CA182241, CA187303, CA258020, CA066321, CA125200, CA170189, CA108039, CA159362, CA173331, CA298200, CA101575, CA159451, CA116648, CA183460, CA107663, CA240851, CA289373, CA185342, CA240929, CA216040, CA186847, CA181218, CA172612, CA180663, CA136914, CA217359, CA163192, CA172697, CA228382, CA217429, CA159166, CA185025, CA192456, CA102223, CA156933, CA101474, CA183302, CA186227, CA159239, CA269601, CA181346, CA102790, CA187044, CA184058, CA195530, CA255719, CA136787, CA255803, CA140448, CA247100, CA183704, CA222949, CA183064, CA168215, CA292284, CA272087, CA174156, CA131207, CA203204, CA181678, CA195537, CA174230, CA113053, CA213323, CA181745, CA183105, CA137679, CA221917, CA234916, CA191379, CA207396, CA249902, CA203603, CA257333, CA192868, CA108462, CA131411, CA272376, CA194489, CA249816, CA257417, CA207923, CA183017, CA194671, CA163065, CA185665, CA257591, CA182994, CA279934, CA208015, CA186256, CA177351, CA132757, CA146153, CA172253, CA181813, CA182473, CA181263, CA182486, CA185227, CA144437, CA210632, CA179930, CA163280, CA178697, CA187150, CA102845, CA183295, CA203119, CA167619, CA183126, CA240601, CA167572, CA197131, CA187498, CA187269, CA181877, CA154563, CA166216, CA198634, CA255532, CA221973, CA205215, CA165092, CA211170, CA179824, CA185664, CA162302, CA185103, CA138255, CA173288, CA168237, CA234213, CA138061, CA256349, CA170955, CA162207, CA168159, CA134163, CA181092, CA256421, CA081501, CA134612, CA216664, CA171033, CA180502, CA108052, CA134694, CA242240, CA185226, CA193845, CA210899, CA159347, CA266029, CA159436, CA171415, CA135255, CA233811, CA171999, CA187597, CA180638, CA135773, CA253334, CA131134, CA182234, CA184039, CA166175, CA180410, CA280449, CA297478, CA194983, CA215483, CA264565, CA107740) SEQ ID No. 162: SCRFLR1034G06.g (CA241449, CA235335, CA117136, CA164653, CA178183, CA254415, CA125238, CA164095, CA222593, CA230775, CA129494, CA187277, CA096098, CA163037, CA217349, CA216253, CA163492) SEQ ID No. 163: SCRFLR2037F09.g (CA209741, CA268887, CA178192, CA261014, CA242867, CA265801, CA197228, CA129199, CA263453, CA263426, CA146361, CA212193, CA198338, CA263428, CA292726) SEQ ID No. 164: SCRUAD1063D03.g (CA068586, CA068642, CA209109, CA068658, CA068557) SEQ ID No. 165: SCRUAD1064B08.g (CA068774, CA209078, CA068700) SEQ ID No. 166: SCRUFL1112F04.b (CA249652, CA097438, CA097351) SEQ ID No. 167: SCRULB1060F05.g (CA173325, CA260726, CA086474, CA255253, CA258837, CA166401, CA075394, CA076741, CA220439, CA079619, CA202888, CA275737, CA272422, CA086576, CA261359, CA115018, CA176599) SEQ ID No. 168: SCRULB2065G10.g (CA271141, CA266659, CA271226) SEQ ID No. 169: SCRUSB1062E12.g (CA169672, CA208550, CA182671, CA171140, CA184190) SEQ ID No. 170: SCSBAD1084C01.g (CA104637, CA090516, CA196055, CA105810, CA069997, CA104732, CA225658, CA250072, CA255717, CA256367, CA256852, CA104815, CA255801, CA223408, CA217811, CA230204, CA222042, CA266094, CA202055) SEQ ID No. 171: SCSBAM1084E01.g (CA134918, CA160648, CA271201, CA163376, CA159473, CA079123, CA287106) SEQ ID No. 172: SCSBAM1085B06.g (CA155118, CA160431, CA238835, CA164387, CA159328, CA079174, CA166634, CA111526) SEQ ID No. 173: SCSBAM1086F04.g (CA079296) SEQ ID No. 174: SCSBHR1050B11.g (CA210645, CA170681, CA167697, CA107340, CA215631, CA206834, CA108412, CA182286, CA197994, CA277167, CA163113, CA192646, CA276916, CA265467, CA181920, CA184384, CA273323, CA211222, CA211754, CA185581, CA219190, CA260157, CA102243, CA286611, CA185579, CA218411, CA288879, CA193027, CA229712, CA196151, CA218111, CA212330, CA256722, CA283661, CA195272, CA206786, CA197939, CA102985, CA182506, CA284298, CA268890, CA068317, CA213471, CA211376, CA124505, CA068559, CA110532, CA110645, CA196292, CA274987, CA291082) SEQ ID No. 175: SCSBHR1052E03.g (CA109838, CA103669, CA108022) SEQ ID No. 176: SCSBSD2029D11.g (CA273475, CA291058, CA296853, SCEPSD1006B07.g, CA296781) SEQ ID NO. 177: SCSBSD2029F05.g (CA277625, CA286610, CA287004, CA286219) SEQ ID NO. 178: SCSBST3096H04.g (CA250727, CA185029, CA081571, CA209300, CA099207) SEQ ID NO. 179: SCSFAD1125C08.g (CA218816, CA217232, CA265904) SEQ ID NO. 180: SCSGAM1094D05.g (CA162116, CA086160, CA079959, CA166087, CA164634, CA259450, CA162089, CA268215, CA162088, CA088600, CA268472, CA260072, CA265273, CA155162) SEQ ID NO. 181: SCSGFL4193B05.g (CA256924, CA227764, CA065586) SEQ ID NO. 182: SCSGHR1069F04.b (CA068965, CA109244) SEQ ID NO. 183: SCSGLR1045F05.g (CA227916, CA126326, CA235027, CA271367, CA096003, CA217599, CA092647, CA123937, CA126293, CA212141, CA184768, CA103141, CA109865, CA103057, CA198702, CA103058) SEQ ID NO. 184: SCSGSB1009D11.g (CA172723, CA195396, CA172640) SEQ ID NO. 185: SCUTAM2005B03.g (CA090809, CA245425) SEQ ID NO. 186: SCUTAM2115C12.g (CA086564, CA086570, CA092157) SEQ ID NO. 187: SCUTLR2023D06.g (CA243852, CA300860, CA067973, CA111863, CA261222, CA116646, CA107988, CA176922, CA173185, CA085544, CA264052, CA129911, CA208820, CA070339) SEQ ID NO. 188: SCUTRZ2022G04.g (CA282192, CA102010, CA299087, CA217805, CA162851, CA237908, CA101358, CA289898, CA293565, CA122383, CA070388, CA177777, CA069853, CA153426, CA248297, CA159447) SEQ ID NO. 189: SCUTST3084F06.g (CA186860, CA273919, CA181491, CA213324, CA181556) SEQ ID NO. 190: SCUTST3152C08.g (CA209403, CA181973, CA187843) SEQ ID NO. 191: SCVPAM1055A12.g (CA099145, CA234768, CA279908, CA080282, CA243494, CA065806, CA162304, CA074300, CA198499, CA234769, CA099202, CA218059) SEQ ID NO. 192: SCVPCL6041F01.g (CA233726, CA099858, CA222285) SEQ ID NO. 193: SCVPFL3040D12.g (CA246849, CA247391, CA225824) SEQ ID NO. 194: SCVPFL3045B09.g (CA244206, CA242703, CA242545, CA227029, CA254139, CA255498, CA243610, CA228891, CA256240, CA241190, CA226680, CA230797, CA241549) SEQ ID NO. 195: SCVPLR1049B12.g (CA128277, CA128268, CA113688, CA280120, CA201390, CA126944, CA263569, CA111798, CA142645, CA117891) SEQ ID NO. 196: SCVPLR2005G05.g (CA115417, CA269672, CA275150, CA196175, CA136519, CA150580, CA111903, CA181691, CA285411, CA071020, CA199358, CA253634, CA100886, CA199448, CA229814, CA164912, CA205467, CA104448, CA274931, CA238127, CA130082, CA265998, CA104535, CA110496, CA229735, CA266059, CA151909, CA215144, CA214637, CA175326, CA277166, CA095092, CA166114, CA197942, CA200312, CA187461, CA214780, CA273212, CA110942, CA180970, CA254976, CA243592, CA219837, CA214623) SEQ ID NO. 197: SCVPLR2012A10.g (CA128947, CA084780, CA130173, CA112670, CA081361, CA091553, CA189411, CA074286) SEQ ID NO. 198: SCVPLR2027D02.g (CA139889, CA281733, CA276600, CA137157, CA287148, CA196795, CA121234, CA190870, CA121263, CA285555, CA271374, CA218165, CA101129, CA275809, CA219005, CA191396, CA218180, CA218095, CA190921, CA135275, CA103450, CA132968, CA218924, CA218108, CA290505, CA130317, CA110080, CA143050, CA145955, CA131998, CA143749, CA145806, CA108915, CA187045, CA141195, CA140686, CA103304, CA108830, CA102906, CA219000, CA282088)
SEQ ID NO. 199: SCVPRT2074D04.g (CA216242, CA101435, CA136611, CA237797, CA108537, CA090875, CA145883, CA175433, CA177864, CA145938, CA164642) SEQ ID NO. 200: SCVPRT2081G05.g (CA146516) SEQ ID NO. 201: SCVPRZ2038C12.g (CA116869, CA116232, CA246884, CA229323, CA101842, CA138831, CA095760, CA069655, CA170285, CA195638, CA133601, CA067592, CA291694, CA112695, CA217972, CA273837, CA067665, CA247936, CA144990, CA136455, CA278472, CA142261, CA247884, CA169426, CA136187, CA140235, CA294606, CA290785, CA138166, CA095965, CA169509, CA289245, CA290853, CA238260, CA284373, CA253974, CA274756, CA174589, CA197138, CA089467, CA176404, CA301325, CA176402, CA108223, CA263499, CA089556, CA085065, CA145765, CA209854, CA078829, CA185533, CA284004, CA223109, CA184146, CA196166, CA229320, CA133147, CA231712, CA287218, CA221504, CA153992, CA088034, CA267926, CA178000, CA237734, CA225054, CA203790, CA232984, CA300291, CA278621, CA204937, CA226326, CA100069, CA254749, CA096038, CA129441, CA096280, CA298558, CA246279, CA242469, CA199423, CA299287, CA122008, CA187480, CA240020, CA283618, CA277794, CA273434, CA207921, CA205591, CA138290, CA265687, CA246929, CA084012, CA102242) SEQ ID NO. 202: SCVPRZ2043F09.g (CA154468, CA276289) SEQ ID NO. 203: SCVPRZ3025G09.g (CA166458, CA215142, CA219273, CA067980, CA219244) The EST Genbank accession numbers are in parentheses. The SEQ ID No. refers to the sequence identifiers in the sequence listings. The listed ESTs assembled to the indicated sequence and should be considered one transcript. Each SAS is differentially expressed between plants with low and high sucrose content.
TABLE-US-00005 TABLE V Genes differentially expressed between a high brix pool of eight plants and a low brix pool of eight plants. The individuals were selected from an F3 progeny of a cross between Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum genotypes. RNA samples from the indicated tissues were used to generate probes for cDNA microarray hybridizations. The fifth column indicates the average ratios (fold induction) in high against low brix comparisons. The last column indicates the average ratios (fold induction) in low against high brix comparisons. The average brix in the high brix population was 22.82. The average brix in the low population was 9.84. Tissue SAS Category Description of homologue High Brix Low Brix Internode 1 SCJFST1009H11.g No matches 2.03165 SCCCCL3001F04.g No matches 4.26102 SCRFLR2037F09.g Calcium Calreticulin 1.58339 SCCCRZ1001H05.g Transcription HLH (helix-loop-helix) 2.19048 Internode 5 SCSBHR1050B11.g Others Putative senescence-associated protein 4.01392 SCEZST3147A10.g Transcription Zinc finger proteins C3H 2.13461 SCCCCL3080A11.b Ubiquitination Polyubiquitin 1.70138 SCCCCL3001F04.g No matches 3.88735 SCSBHR1050B11.g Others Putative senescence-associated protein 3.99269 SCCCLR1048F03.g Unknown protein 1.5888 SCQGHR1012B09.g Stress Probable cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 6.70883 SCEQRT1033F01.g Zinc finger proteins C2C2/Dof 4.19139 SCCCLR1C03H09.g Ubiquitination Polyubiquitin 1.76444 SCVPRZ2038C12.g Ubiquitination Polyubiquitin 1.68302 Internode 9 SCJLLR1054C03.g Protein kinases Undefined 2.81512 SCEZRZ3098G10.g Pathogenicity Protease inhibitors thaumatin 2.44691 SCVPFL3046C06.b Protein Phosphatases Serine/Threonine - PPM Family PP2C Catalytic Subunit 2.84969 SCJFRZ2007F10.g Development ARC1 (arm repeat protein) 3.02837 SCCCRZ1004H12.g Transcription EIL (ethylene-insensitive3-like) 2.47389 SCCCLR1C03H09.g Ubiquitination Polyubiquitin 3.36544 SCVPRZ2038C12.g Ubiquitination Polyubiquitin 2.93819 SCBFSB1046D04.g Protein kinases Calcium-related CBL-interacting 2.48022 SCJFRZ2012F04.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK Undefined 2.471 SCCCRZ1002E08.g Stress Drought and cold response putative aquaporin 2.95528 SCAGLR1043E04.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP74A 2.77448 SCCCLR2003E10.g Transcription NAM NAC 2.61186 SCCCLR1048F03.g Unknown protein 4.17702 SCBGLR1115D10.g No matches 2.14401 SCCCAM1001A03.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins Multidrug resistant-like 2.16906 SCUTAM2005B03.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP90 2.27431 SCVPCL6041F01.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK with lectin domain 1.82155 SCCCRZ1001F02.g Stress Drought and cold response putative aquaporin 2.01257 SCRUFL1112F04.b Others RNA stability UDP-GlcNAc 2.45556 Leaf SCACLR1036B06.g Protein kinases Calcium-related CBL-interacting 1.98763 SCEPLR1030B03.g Pathogenicity R-genes (receptors) With LRR/Tomato LRP protein 1.56394 SCBGLR1099G02.g Transcription AP2/EREBP DREB1 2.17826 SCCCCL3120C09.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK with Lys domain 1.96465 SCJFLR1035E04.g Transcription Scarecrow 1.53914 SCACLR2014E12.g Ubiquitination E2 1.66079 SCCCSD2001E05.g Pathogenicity Protease inhibitors thaumatin 2.19065 SCCCLR1068D03.g Small GTPases Rab 1.83141 SCAGLR1043E04.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP74A 1.88887 SCEQRT1024E12.g Hormone biosynthesis Salicylic Acid 2.01108 SCSGFL4193B05.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP73 1.98329 SCCCCL3001F04.g No matches 2.18921 SCCCLR1001E04.g House keeping/controls Rubisco small subunit 2.33399 SCBGLR1003D06.g Ubiquitination E2 1.97415 SCEQRT2099H01.g Protein kinases Calcium-related CDPK 1.62919 SCACCL6008H06.g Stress Drought and cold response Low temperature induced (L 1.87927 SCCCRZ1002E08.g Stress Drought and cold response putative aquaporin 1.76115 SCBFST3136A06.g No matches 2.23606 SCEQRT1026H08.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP75 1.88583 SCVPFL3045B09.g Stress Metalothionein 2.01704 SCSGHR1069F04.b Stress Cytochrome P450 2.51921 SCQSRT1036D03.g Pathogenicity R-genes transduction PR 1.87037 SCAGLR2026G12.g No matches 1.94474 SCEQRT1028C03.g Pathogenicity R-genes transduction PR 2.41575 SCUTRZ2022G04.g Others Heat shock protein 2.3825 SCQGSB1082E12.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK Undefined 2.41928 indicates data missing or illegible when filed
TABLE-US-00006 TABLE VI Genes differentially expressed between a high brix pool of eight plants and a low brix pool of eight plants. The individuals were selected from an F1 progeny of a cross between two commercial varieties, SP80-144 and SP85-7215. RNA samples from the indicated tissues were used to generate probes for cDNA microarray hybridizations. The fifth column indicates the average ratios (fold induction) in high against low brix comparisons. The last column indicates the average ratios (fold induction) in low against high brix comparisons. The average brix in the high brix population was 14.36. The average brix in the low population was 8.87. Tissue SAS Category Description of homologue High Brix Low Brix Leaf SCVPRZ2043F09.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK Undefined 2.94471 SCCCSD2C03G12.g Pathogenicity Fungal resistance Undefined 4.43542 SCJFRT1007E01.g Stress Dioxygenases 1.94338 SCUTAM2115C12.g Unknown protein 2.21849 SCSBAM1086F04.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK Undefined 2.77975 SCCCSD1092A08.g No matches 3.85136 SCVPRZ3025G09.g Hormone biosynthesis Jasmonic Acid 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase 5.65617 SCAGAM2125C01.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK Undefined 1.59055 SCCCST1006B11.g Protein kinases SNF1-related 2.62841 SCJLST1022A12.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK undefined with LRR 2.81094 SCRULB1060F05.g Inositol Inositol kinases 1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase 7.28074 SCJFFL3C03C02.g No matches 2.07492 SCCCCL4005F05.g Protein kinases Undefined 2.29254 SCVPFL3040D12.g Transcription CREB-binding/acetyltransferase-related 3.10639 SCSGLR1045F05.g Unknown protein 1.69705 SCMCLR1123E10.g Others T-complex protein (chaperonin) 3.08493 SCCCRZ1001C01.g Stress Drought-induced 2.21354 SCCCLR1C05B03.g Transcription Myb 2.39082 SCBFLR1039B05.g Others Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase 2.72608 SCSBSD2029D11.g No matches 2.0015 SCVPCL6041F01.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK with lectin domain 3.02993 SCCCLR2001H09.g Stress Thioredoxin 1.82511 SCBGLR1096E06.g Others Putative inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 2.29479 SCQSSB1077D06.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK Undefined 1.95563 SCEZLB1009A09.g Hormone related Similar to BLE1 protein 2.29938 SCEZLR1052E07.g No matches 2.98578 SCCCCL4002E02.g Others Extensin 1.87858 SCCCRZ2003E12.g Transcription bZIP 2.41759 SCCCLB1001D03.g Protein Phosphatases Serine/Threonine - PPP Family PP2A/Catalytic Subunit 1.88391 SCAGLB1070E01.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK Undefined 7.40783 SCJLRZ1021D12.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK undefined with LRR 3.33105 SCCCRT2002G11.g Protein kinase Cell cycle-related MHK (male germ cell associated) 3.57013 SCCCLR2C02D03.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins Chaperonin 10 1.94335 SCCCRT2002G11.g Protein kinase Cell cycle-related MHK (male germ cell associated) 3.77176
TABLE-US-00007 TABLE VII Genes differentially expressed between a high brix variety and a low brix variety. Two individuals were selected from SP83-2847 and two individuals from SP91-1049. RNA samples from the indicated tissues were used to generate probes for cDNA microarray hybridizations. The fifth column indicates the average ratios (fold induction) in high against low brix comparisons. The last column indicates the average ratios (fold induction) in low against high brix comparisons. The average brix in SP91-1049 was 20.2. The average brix in SP83- 2847 was 16.2. Tissue SAS Category Description of homologue High Brix Low Brix Leaf SCCCLR2002F08.g Hormone related Auxin auxin repressed 2.48663 SCRUAD1064B08.g No matches 6.06841 SCEQRT1024E12.g Hormone biosynthesis Salicylic Acid 1.58685 SCBFST3136A06.g No matches 2.2018 SCSGSB1009D11.g Unknown protein 4.54795 SCACCL6008H06.g Stress Drought and cold response Low temperature induced (LTI) 4.15788 SCSBAM1085B06.g Hormone biosynthesis Jasmonic Acid Linoleic acid desaturase 2.43754 SCJLRT1016G06.g Stress Wound-induced Ribonuclease 4.45431 SCCCLR1024C03.g Stress Drought and cold response putative aquaporin 1.72509 SCCCLR1001E04.g House keeping/controls Rubisco small subunit 3.10813
TABLE-US-00008 TABLE VIII Genes differentially expressed between a high brix variety and a low brix variety. Two individuals were selected from SP89-1115 and two individuals from SP94-3116. RNA samples from the indicated tissues were used to generate probes for cDNA microarray hybridizations. The fifth column indicates the average ratios (fold induction) in high against low brix comparisons. The last column indicates the average ratios (fold induction) in low against high brix comparisons. The average brix in SP89-1115 was 19.9. The average brix in SP94- 3116 was 14.2. Tissue SAS Category Description of homologue High Brix Low Brix Leaf SCAGSD2042G08.g No matches 2.56194 SCEQRT1033H06.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK undefined with LRR 2.58749 SCJLRT1016G06.g Stress Wound-induced Ribonuclease 2.4137 SCEQRT1024B02.g Protein kinases Undefined (with insertion domain) 5.41746 SCCCRZ2001A10.g Inositol Inositol kinases 1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase 3.90421 SCCCLR1022B11.g Stress Drought and cold response Cysteine proteinase RD19A precursor 1.74873 SCBFLR1060F03.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK undefined with LRR 3.23768
TABLE-US-00009 TABLE IX Genes differentially expressed between a high brix pool of eight plants and a low brix pool of eight plants. The individuals were selected from an F1 progeny of a cross between two commercial varieties, SP80-180 and SP80-4966. RNA samples from the indicated tissues were collected from March to July and used to generate probes for cDNA microarray hybridizations. The fifth column indicates the average ratios (fold induction) in high against low brix comparisons. The last column indicates the average ratios (fold induction) in low against high brix comparisons. The average brix in the high brix population was 18.47 in March, 21.79 in May and 22.63 in July. The average brix in the low population was 13.66 in March, 17.59 in May and 18.96 in July. Tissue SAS Category Description of homologue High Brix Low Brix Internode 1 march SCEPLR1030E06.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK undefined with LRR 1.87064 SCACLR2007G02.g Protein kinases Others Abcisic acid-inducible 1.90147 SCEZLB1012F10.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins GNGC family 1.88909 SCEQRT1024E12.g Hormone biosynthesis Salicylic Acid 1.85544 SCJLRT1016G06.g Stress Wound-induced Ribonuclease 2.07306 SCJFRT1005C11.g Hormone biosynthesis Ethylene ACC oxidase 3.48319 SCVPLR2005G05.g Others Putative Mob1/phocein family protein 1.6251 SCEQRT1026H08.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP75 2.40851 SCCCLR1C04C02.g No matches 2.07835 SCQGHR1010D02.g Others Putative terpene synthase 3.02686 SCBGLR1023D05.g Pathogenicity R-genes transduction LSD1 2.21144 SCUTRZ2022G04.g Others Heat shock protein 1.71301 SCCCLR1C02F07.g Inositol Others myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase 1.83045 SCEQRT1028C03.g Pathogenicity R-genes transduction PR 2.46157 SCVPLR1049B12.g Unknown protein 2.59241 SCSBAM1084E01.g Protein kinases MAPK/MAPKK/MAPKKK MAPK 1.98747 SCCCLR2002E04.g Others Putative Bet v I pollen allergen 2.2259 SCCCCL6002B05.g Hormone biosynthesis Auxin Nitrilase 1.67598 SCJLRT1021D12.g Stress Wound-induced Chalcone synthase 3.6397 SCVPLR2027D02.g Stress Wound-induced Chalcone synthase 1.73982 SCEZLB1010E10.g Transcription Other Auxin-response factors With B3 domain 1.62134 SCRFLR1012D12.g Hormone biosynthesis Auxin Nitrilase 1.76443 SCCCLR1C05G07.g Others S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1.93684 SCSBHR1052E03.g Stress ABA and stress induced 2.27594 SCRFLR1012F12.g Others caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 2.22106 SCCCAM2C04G08.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase leucine-rich transmembrane 1.67218 kinase (LTK1) SCACCL6008H06.g Stress Drought and cold response Low temperature induced (LTI) 1.91951 SCRFLR1034G06.g Protein kinases Undefined 1.76667 SCUTST3084F06.g Stress Drought and cold response Low temperature induced (LTI) 1.73383 SCAGLR1043E04.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP74A 2.05809 SCJFRT1007H07.g Hormone biosynthesis Jasmonic Acid Lipoxygenase 3.99155 SCCCRT1001E01.g Hormone biosynthesis Jasmonic Acid Lipoxygenase 2.71944 Internode 1 july SCCCLR2C01F06.g Stress Wound-induced 1.78615 SCEPRZ1010E06.g Protein Phosphatases Serine/Threonine - PPM Family PP2C-like 1.55514 SCCCLR2002F08.g Hormone related Auxin auxin repressed 1.60673 SCJFRZ3C03H08.g Pathogenicity R-genes (receptors) With LRR 1.75681 SCEQRT2098H06.g Pathogenicity R-genes (receptors) With LRR/NBS-LRR 1.68827 SCEZAM2058E08.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK Undefined 1.60291 SCACSB1037A07.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP98A 1.63 SCAGLR1043F02.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins HSP70s (heat shock) 2.03737 SCJFRZ2007F10.g Development ARC1 (arm repeat protein) 1.82989 SCRUSB1062E12.g Others Putative triacylglycerol lipase 1.49831 SCCCRZ1001C01.g Stress Drought-induced 1.52895 SCEZHR1088E02.g Protein Phosphatases Tyrosine Phosphatases Dual Specificity Protein 1.87674 Phosphatases (DSPP) Internode 5 march SCCCLR1066G08.g Transcription HGM (High mobility group protein) 1.57463 SCEZRZ1015G02.g Unknown protein Putative protein kinase Casein kinase I 1.91199 SCAGFL1089C03.g Stress Glutathione S-transferase 2.10704 SCEZLR1031G10.g Protein kinases Cell cycle-related CDC2/CRK2 2.14401 SCSGSB1009D11.g Unknown protein 2.09248 SCCCFL4094H12.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK Undefined 1.76665 SCRULB2065G10.g No matches 2.15317 SCQGLR1085F11.g Stress Drought-induced 2.7353 SCJFRZ2034D04.g Others SET-domain protein 2.69909 SCBFFL4114B06.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK Undefined 3.67808 SCEPRZ3087C08.g Stress Drought and cold response Low temperature induced (LTI) 1.78187 SCCCLR1065F03.g Pathogenicity R-genes (receptors) With LRR/NBS-LRR 1.7714 SCCCLR2C01F06.g Stress Wound-induced 2.334 SCUTLR2023D06.g Transcription CCAAT Hap 1.68942 SCEQLR1007G03.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins EF-1 alpha 1.64492 SCACLR2007G02.g Protein kinases Others Abcisic acid-inducible 1.57037 SCUTRZ2022G04.g Others Heat shock protein 2.11424 SCQGRT1040G03.g Development Expansin 1.7436 SCEQRT1026H08.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP75 1.59596 SCAGFL1089G08.g no match 2.06063 SCJFRZ3C03H08.g Pathogenicity R-genes (receptors) With LRR 2.76853 SCEQRT2098H06.g Pathogenicity R-genes (receptors) With LRR/NBS-LRR 2.6343 SCCCLR2002H11.g Unknown protein 1.64637 SCVPRT2081G05.g Protein kinases Cell cycle-related CDK 2.15674 SCCCLR1022F10.g Others Glycine hydroxymethyltransferase 2.02802 SCBFSB1047C02.g Others Hypothetical protein 2.58471 SCRULB1060F05.g Inositol Inositol kinases 1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase 1.65757 SCCCLR1024A02.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK Undefined 1.60332 SCEPRZ1008F02.g Transcription LIM (protein-protein interaction) 1.833 SCCCFL4094H12.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK Undefined 1.84294 SCACCL6008H06.g Stress Drought and cold response Low temperature induced (LTI) 1.92651 SCJLRT1016G06.g Stress Wound-induced Ribonuclease 3.13455 SCEZST3147A10.g Transcription Zinc finger proteins C3H 2.21445 SCCCRZ1002H08.g Others Saposin B domain-containing protein 2.32254 SCCCLB1003E11.g Protein kinases Others REK-like 3.07187 SCSFAD1125C08.g Pathogenicity Polygalacturonase-inhibiting 2.31427 Internode 5 july SCCCLR1C04G08.g Protein kinases Casein kinases Casein kinase I 1.76524 SCVPRT2074D04.g Others unknown protein 1.75747 SCJFRZ3C03H08.g Pathogenicity R-genes (receptors) With LRR 2.52658 SCRFLR1012F12.g Others caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 1.63946 SCCCLR1024C03.g Stress Drought and cold response putative aquaporin 2.50238 SCEQLR1091A10.g Others 60S Ribosomal protein L23 1.74167 SCCCRZ2C01F09.g Ubiquitination E2 1.62723 SCEPAM1020A03.g Protein kinases Others ATN1-like 1.9435 SCSBHR1050B11.g Others Putative senescence-associated protein 3.83889 SCJFRZ2007F10.g Development ARC1 (arm repeat protein) 2.38995 SCCCRZ1001H05.g Transcription HLH (helix-loop-helix) 4.15387 SCEQRT1033F01.g -- Zinc finger proteins C2C2/Dof 3.65977 SCCCLR1048D07.g Hormone biosynthesis Salicylic Acid 4.58868 SCSBHR1050B11.g Others Putative senescence-associated protein 2.34488 SCSBSD2029F05.g Unknown protein 2.73215 SCCCLR2003E10.g Transcription NAM NAC 2.44948 SCCCLR2C02A05.g Development Expansin 1.58639 SCACSB1037A07.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP98A 1.85253 SCCCLR1C03G01.g Hormone biosynthesis Jasmonic Acid Linoleic acid desaturase 1.47918 SCCCLR1C05B07.g Protein kinases Calcium-related CBL-interacting 2.71519 SCSBHR1050B11.g Others Putative senescence-associated protein 2.45088 SCMCRT2103B04.g Protein kinases Undefined 1.73105 SCCCLB1003E11.g Protein kinases Others REK-like 3.30364 SCVPAM1055A12.g Protein kinases Casein kinases Casein kinase I 1.67698 SCEZHR1088E02.g Protein Phosphatases Tyrosine Phosphatases Dual Specificity Protein 3.28753 Phosphatases (DSPP) SCCCRZ1001F02.g Stress Drought and cold responsive putative aquaporin 2.29254 SCEZHR1087F06.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP84 2.3784 SCBFRZ2046D07.g Protein kinases RLCK NAK-like 2.13676 SCRUAD1063D03.g No matches 1.93091 SCSGFL4193B05.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP73 1.58639 SCJFRZ2014A03.g -- R-genes (receptors) With LRR/NBS-LRR 2.52532 SCCCLR1048F03.g Unknown protein 2.10185 SCSBHR1050B11.g Others Putative senescence-associated protein 3.73288 Internode 9 march SCVPLR2012A10.g Hormone biosynthesis Ethylene ACC oxidase 1.78441 SCEQRT2100B02.g Stress Drought and cold response putative aquaporin 2.00347 SCCCRZ1001F02.g Stress Drought and cold response putative aquaporin 1.7121 SCMCRT2103B04.g Protein kinases Undefined 1.80135 SCAGLR1043F02.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins HSP70s (heat shock) 2.89959 SCEZHR1088E02.g Protein Phosphatases Tyrosine Phosphatases Dual Specificity Protein 2.79028 Phosphatases (DSPP) SCCCST3001H12.g Stress Drought and cold response putative aquaporin 2.0084 SCCCRZ1002E08.g Stress Drought and cold response putative aquaporin 1.79386 SCCCLR1024C03.g Stress Drought and cold response putative aquaporin 1.80152 SCJFRT2055G07.g Ubiquitination Polyubiquitin 1.60639 SCEPRZ1010E06.g Protein Phosphatases Serine/Threonine - PPM Family PP2C-like 1.53961 SCCCCL3002C09.b Stress Glutathione S-transferases 1.55841 SCEZRZ1015G02.g Unknown protein Putative protein kinase Casein kinase I 1.85411 SCCCSD2001E05.g Pathogenicity Protease inhibitors thaumatin 6.05847 SCUTST3090E03.g Unknown protein 1.56216 SCBFFL5074C09.g Stress Drought and cold response reversibly glycosylated 1.79364 polypeptide SCAGFL1089C03.g Stress Glutathione S-transferases 1.6557 SCSGSB1009D11.g Unknown protein 2.4264 SCCCSD1003E02.g Pathogenicity Protease inhibitors thaumatin 4.87282 SCCCLR2C01F06.g Stress Wound-induced 3.40039 SCCCAD1001C08.g Stress Peroxidases P7X 1.97943 SCCCAM2004G02.g Hormone related Auxin Auxin transport/auxin eflux carrier 1.78676 SCSFAD1125C08.g Pathogenicity Polygalacturonase-inhibiting 1.60435 SCCCLR1001A06.g Others Extensin-like protein 1.57973 SCAGLR1043E04.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP74A 1.9974 SCBFSB1047C02.g Others Hypothetical protein 2.05746 SCCCLR2C01G07.g Protein kinases SNF1-related 1.76015 SCEZHR1047A01.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK undefined with LRR 1.60061 SCVPCL6041F01.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK with lectin domain 1.59157 SCEQRT1028C03.g Pathogenicity R-genes transduction PR 4.96024 SCCCST1001C04.g No matches 1.67914 SCRFHR1009G06.g Stress Infected libraries 2.02309 SCCCCL3120G07.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins HSP70s (heat shock) 1.67313 SCRFLR1012F12.g Others caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 1.76972 SCMCSD2061D05.g Protein kinases Undefined 2.00471 Internode 9 july SCRFLR1012F12.g Others caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 1.73901 SCCCLR1022F10.g Others Glycine hydroxymethyltransferase 1.93433 SCSGAM1094D05.g Hormone biosynthesis Salicylic Acid 1.62394 SCSBAD1084C01.g Others Tubulin alpha-1 chain 1.7221 SCSBAD1084C01.g Others Tubulin alpha-1 chain 1.70571 SCEPRZ1008F02.g Transcription LIM (protein-protein interaction) 2.3459 Leaf march SCCCAD1004H02.g Stress Catalases 2.34832 SCVPCL6042B11.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK Undefined 2.05874 SCCCLR2C01F06.g Stress Wound-induced 1.68028 Leaf may SCUTST3084F06.g Stress Drought and cold response Low temperature induced (LTI) 2.65146 SCJFLR1074E09.g Stress Drought and cold response Low temperature induced (LTI) 1.7881 SCCCLR1C08G10.g Transcription Myb LHY/CAA1 1.7247 SCACLR1126E09.g No matches 1.88699 SCCCLR2C01F06.g Stress Wound-induced 1.98605 SCEQLB2019B08.g Protein kinases SNF1-related 2.27361 SCEQRT1031D02.g Adapters 14-3-3 proteins 1.89991 SCCCRZ1002E08.g Stress Drought and cold response putative aquaporin 2.22348 SCQGLR1085F11.g Stress Drought-induced 2.57185 SCJLRT1023A09.g Transcription HLH (helix-loop-helix) 2.21673 SCSBAM1085B06.g Hormone biosynthesis Jasmonic Acid Linoleic acid desaturase 1.87983 SCEPRZ3087C08.g Stress Drought and cold response Low temperature induced (LTI) 2.40687 SCEQRT1025D06.g Adapters 14-3-3 proteins 2.23722 SCCCRZ2001E12.g Transcription HLH (helix-loop-helix) PIF-like 2.17995 SCUTST3152C08.g Calcium Calmodulin 1.78114 SCACCL6008H06.g Stress Drought and cold response Low temperature induced (LTI) 3.24015 SCSBST3096H04.g Inositol Inositol phosphatases Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 2.8703 5-Phosphatase SCEQRZ3020C02.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase RLK undefined with LRR 1.70665 SCCCCL6003D08.g Ubiquitination F-box protein 1.9614
SCEQRT1025D04.g Receptors G-protein coupled 1.78293 SCEPRZ1010E06.g Protein Phosphatases Serine/Threonine - PPM Family PP2C-like 2.54771
Confirmation of Expression Data
Real-time PCR reactions were performed to confirm the expression data obtained. cDNA templates were generated from a pool of 8 individuals from the cross between commercial varieties (SP80-180 and SP80-4966), from the multiple crossings among S. officinarum and S. spontaneum genotypes or from individual tissue samples. Leaf or internode RNA derived from three HB genotypes (CTC98-243, CTC98-246, CTC98-253) and three LB genotypes (CTC98-261, CTC98-265, CTC98-272) (FIG. 3). The mRNA levels for nine SAS show some variation in the different genotypes and pools but all transcript levels are in agreement with the expected based on microarray results.
The differential expression of the genes in high and low sugar content plants could also be confirmed by northern blot hybridization. Four genes with greater expression in the high sugar content plants from the SP80-180 vs. SP80-4966 progenies (SCSBAM1085B06.g, SCACLR1126E09.g, SCEQRZ3020CO2.g and SCCCLR1C08G10.g) and three with increased expression in the low sugar content plants (SCSBST3096H04.g, SCEQLB2019B08.g and SCQGLR1085F11.g) were analyzed by RNA-blots using total RNA from three sugarcane individuals to provide replication for gene expression trends. FIG. 4 shows that the microarray data was confirmed in at least two of the three independent samples collected nine months after planting, indicating a high consistency between the two data sets.
To confirm gene expression trends along the growing season we determined the mRNA levels for the same seven genes in the 7HS (high sugar) and 7LS (low sugar) pools collected 6, 7, 9, 11 and 13 months after planting (FIG. 5). The inset graph represents the expression profile of each gene plotted for each population. The four genes found to be enriched in the high sugar content plants were consistently differentially expressed along the growing season (FIG. 5 a-d). These genes are possibly involved in the control of sucrose synthesis, accounting for the higher sugar content in these segregant plants. The genes with more transcripts in the low sugar content plants showed a less consistent pattern (FIG. 5 e-g). All of them were differentially expressed in the plants at nine months after planting, confirming the expression observed by microarrays, but only the one encoding dehydrin, a stress-related protein (FIG. 5g) had a more consistent pattern along the growing season.
Identity/Function of Differentially Expressed Genes
The SAS represented in our array were chosen from 7381 genes catalogued by the SUCAST project (Papini-Terzi et al., 2005; Souza et al., 2001) and from the SUCAMET Catalogue of sugarcane metabolism genes (available on the World Wide Web at sucest-fun.org). The SUCAST Catalogue includes Protein and Functional categories such as Receptors, Protein Kinases, Protein Phosphatases, Small GTPases, Transcription Factors, Calcium, Inositol, Ubiquitination, Hormone Biosynthesis, Development, Stress and Pathogenicity, among others. The catalogue also contains 548 SAS corresponding to hypothetical proteins or new genes for which no function can be inferred solely from the sequence or no similarity has been found to genes in public databases (`no matches`). The tissue-specificity of the selected genes has been evaluated in a previous work (Papini-Terzi et al., 2005), which revealed 217 genes with preferential expression in one of the six tissues analyzed (flowers, buds, leaves, roots, mature and immature internodes) and 153 highly ubiquitous genes.
Leaf mesophyll cells are the primary photosynthetic tissue, and photosynthate, mainly in the form of sucrose, is transported to meristems and developing organs. In sugarcane, growing young leaves and stem are the main carbohydrate-importing tissues. Source and sink tissues must be co-ordinately regulated at the level of gene expression and enzyme activity to produce rapid growth and efficient sucrose accumulation. Light and sugars regulate growth activities by a coordinated modulation of gene expression and enzyme activities in both, carbohydrate-exporting (source) and carbohydrate-importing (sink) tissues. Gene regulation is based on sensing different signals or stimuli, which then is transmitted through a signaling pathway that in the end leads to an increase or decrease of transcription. In sugar signaling, the first step is to sense the nature and level of the specific sugar. While elevated cellular levels of sugar up regulate genes involved in the synthesis of polysaccharides, storage proteins, pigments, as well as genes associated with defense responses and respiration, sugar deprivation enhances the expression of genes involved in photosynthesis and resource remobilization, such as the degradation of starch, lipid, and protein (Koch, 1996; Yu, 1999; Ho et al., 2001). Although the regulatory effect of sugars on photosynthetic activity and plant metabolism has long been recognized, the concept of sugars as central signaling molecules is relatively new (reviewed by Rolland et al., 2002).
In this work, we evaluated the expression levels of SUCAST and SUCAMET genes in four tissues (leaf, internodes 1, 5 and 9) from three sugarcane populations with contrasting sugar accumulation capacities and four commercial varieties. We describe a total of 203 SAS (Sequence ID Nos 1-203) differentially expressed between the high and low brix populations in at least one of the tissues analyzed (Tables V to IX). Two of them appeared differentially expressed in five of the samples analyzed, four in four, fourteen in three and thirty in two, totalling 50 genes for which transcripts are altered in more than one sample (Table X). The differentially expressed genes belong to several functional categories including calcium signalling, stress responses, transcription and ubiquitination. These genes and their variants can be used to predict sugar content from plants or generate plants with higher sucrose content.
TABLE-US-00010 TABLE X Number of occurrences of differential expression for each SAS in all the samples analyzed. Occurrences Number of SAS 5 2 4 4 3 14 2 30 1 153
Since a significant number of genes encoding SNF1 related-kinases were found differentially expressed (see below) we looked for differentially expressed genes encoding SNF1s and their regulators in commercial varieties that varied in sucrose content. Table XIV lists several members of this family of proteins whose expression was found to be associated to sucrose content.
In an alternate approach, mature (Internode 9), intermediately mature (Internode 5) and immature (Internode 1) culm samples were compared. The aim of these comparisons was to reveal genes differentially expressed when internodes rich in sucrose were compared to the first internodes poor in sucrose. A total of 186 genes were identified as developmentally regulated during culm maturation (Tables XV to XX). Forty-six of them were also found to be differentially expressed in the direct comparisons between high and low brix and eighteen of them were altered in up to 5 of the samples analysed. Table XXI shows the 18 SAS found differentially expressed in at least two of the biological samples considered (the data regarding 14 of them were retrieved from Felix, 2006 as indicated in the Table). SEQ ID No:s 229-373 relate to the 140 SAS whose expression was altered in high sugar internodes which are not contained in the SEQS Nos 1-203 group. The data revealed by this experimental design indicates that the genes differentially expressed in high vs. low brix plants may have a role in culm maturation and may improve this process and consequently alter sucrose content if altered in transgenic plants.
There are several genes encoding protein kinases involved with the calcium signalling pathway altered in association with sucrose content. One (SCEQRT2099H01.g) is similar to members of the CDPK family (Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase) and nine others (SCACLR1036B06.g, SCBFSB1046D04.g, SCCCLR1C05B07.g, SCEQLB2019B08.g, SCMCRT2103B04.g, SCCCLR2C01G07.g, SCCCLB1002D12.g, SCEQRT2030G04.g, SCSGHR1070F12.g) to CIPKs (CBL-interacting protein kinases) from the SnRK3 subgroup of plant SNF-like protein kinases (Hrabak et al., 2000). An Arabidopsis CIPK14 has been shown to be induced by sucrose, and sucrose-responsive elements in its promoter have been identified (Lee et al., 2005). Several studies have reported that some CDPKs and SnRK (SNF1-related kinases) are able to phosphorylate and regulate the enzyme sucrose synthase (Hardin et al., 2003; Hardin et al., 2004; Huber et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 1999). Plant SNF1-related kinases are regulated by regulatory subunits AKINbetagamma (Lumbreras et al., 2001). We found two SAS coding for such SnRK putative regulatory subunits, SCEQLR1092H10.g and SCJFST1011B06.g, the latter being differentially expressed in seven of the samples analyzed. We also found a gene encoding a SnRK1 (SCJFRZ2032G01.g) down-regulated in mature internodes in relation to immature internodes. SnRK1 (SNF1-Related Protein Kinase-1) is a plant protein kinase with a catalytic domain similar to that of SNF1 (Sucrose Non-fermenting-1) of yeast and AMPK (AMPactivated protein kinase) of animals (Halford et al., 2003). Carraro et al., (2001) identified at least 22 sugarcane expressed sequence tag (EST) contigs encoding putative SnRKs in the SUCEST database. Studies led to the hypothesis that SnRK1 is activated in response to high intracellular sucrose and/or low intracellular glucose levels (Halford et al., 2003). The first plant protein to be identified as a substrate for SnRK1 was a HMG-CoA reductase in A. thaliana (Dale et al., 1995). Subsequently, two other important enzymes, SPS and NR were shown to be substrates for SnRK1 phosphorylation in Ser-binding sites. In both cases, phosphorylation results in inactivation of the enzyme, although the inactivation of NR and SPS also requires the binding of a 14-3-3 protein to the phosphorylation site (Bachmann et al., 1996; Moorhead et al., 1999).
Four genes encoding CIPKs were found to be differentially expressed when mature and immature internodes were compared (SCJFRZ2032C08.g, SCJLRT1023G09.g, SCCCLR1C05B07.g, SCJLRZ1023H04.g). Our published studies have also identified two additional genes encoding SNF1-related SnRK3 CIPKs (SCCCLR2C01G07.g and SCMCRT2103B04.g) that are differentially regulated when mature and immature sugarcane internodes are compared that corroborate the present data and confirm a role for SNF-related kinases and their regulators in sucrose synthesis and accumulation (Felix, 2006). Additionally, three genes encoding SNF1-related kinases similar to osmotic stress-related kinases (SCCCST1004A07.g, SCEPRZ1009C10.g and SCCCST1006B11.g) were also found to be differentially expressed.
CIPKs interact with Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBL) (Shi et al., 1999). We found six genes encoding CBLs in the SUCEST database and thirty-one CIPKs, twenty-four of which were analyzed in this work. A calreticulin (SCRFLR2037F09.g) and a calmodulin (SCUTST3152C08.g) were found to be enriched in LB immature internodes and leaves respectively, and five calmodulin-binding proteins to be up-regulated (SCCCAM1001A03.g, SCCCLR2C02D03.g, SCEZLB1012F10.g, SCAGLR1043F02.g, SCEQLR1007G03.g, SCCCCL3120G07.g). Calcium signalling is effected via changes of calcium concentration and calcium sensing proteins such as calmodulin, calcineurin and calreticulin (Sanders et al., 2002). The latter relay the signal downstream through phosphorylation cascades and changes in gene expression. Studies with the sucrose synthase from maize showed that phosphorylation of this enzyme at the residue Ser-15 by CDPKs stimulates its sucrose cleavage activity (Hardin et al., 2003; Huber et al., 1996). Moreover, CDPKs may phosphorylate at Ser-170 and target this enzyme for 26S-proteasome-dependent degradation (Hardin et al., 2003; Hardin & Huber, 1999). Sucrose synthase is related to several physiological processes, including sink/source relationships within the plant (Hanggi & Fleming, 2001; Zrenner et al., 1995) and may contribute to sucrose accumulation in sugarcane. Additionally, it has been shown that some calcium-dependent kinases can phosphorylate and inactivate sucrose-phosphate synthase, which has a key role in sucrose biosynthesis (McMichael et al., 1995; Pagnussat et al., 2002). Taken together, these results suggest that, as sucrose biosynthesis seems to be (at least partially) a SNF1- and calcium-regulated process, genes encoding the calcium-dependent kinases and SNF1-related protein kinases and their modulators differentially expressed in our study may represent critical points in the control of sucrose synthesis and accumulation in sugarcane. Consequently, these sugarcane genes can be used to increase sucrose content in transgenic plants.
To confirm that differential gene expression associated to sucrose content was indeed reflecting a role for these genes in sucrose synthesis or accumulation we obtained sugarcane transgenic plants where the gene encoding CIPK-8 (SAS SCEQLB2019B08.g) was silenced by RNAi interference. Sugarcane embryonic callus from the cultivars SP80-185, SP94-3116, CTC1, SP83-2847, SP80-1842 and SP91-1049 were bombarded by biolistics with a construct where 331 by of SAS SCEQLB2019B08.g (SEQ ID No. 378) was cloned in the sense and antisense orientation. The 331 by fragment was obtained by PCR using the primers SNFL1 (SEQ ID No. 374): 5'-CCCTCTAGACTCGAG CATTCATTCCATTCCGTTCC-3' and SNFL2 (SEQ ID No. 375): 5'-CCCAAGCTTGAATTC CGCCACCAGTAGCAAATTCT-3'. The fragment was digested with the enzymes XhoI and EcoRI and cloned in the pHannibal vector (Wesley et al., 2001) digested with the same enzymes for the sense orientation. The same fragment was then digested with HindIII and XbaI and cloned in the vector already containing the sense construct digested with the same enzymes for the antisense orientation. FIG. 7 shows an alignment to two additional EST sequences encoding CIPKs (CIPK-29 SCSGHR1070F12.g and CIPK-1 SCCCCL5001D11.g) that are 95 and 85% identical, respectively, to the CIPK-8 fragment region amplified (red line) and show 65% overall identity when the three complete sequences are considered. CIPK-29 has also been identified as differentially expressed when high brix and low brix plants were compared using cDNA microarrays. CIPK-1 was not detected by our array experiments as a differentially expressed gene. Transgenic plants were generated by co-transformation of the pHannibal-CIPK RNAi construct and the pHA9 vector (Wei and Albert, U.S. Pat. No. 6,706,948) which contains the maize ubi1 promoter driving a neomycin phosphotransferase II gene and NOS terminator. To verify that CIPK-8 mRNA levels were decreased in the transgenic plants obtained CIPK-8 mRNA levels were quantitated by Real-time PCR. 8 shows the mRNA levels for CIPK-8 in relation to the reference gene GAPDH. The real-time PCR primers used are listed in Table XII. Since CIPK-29 and CIPK-1 were very similar to CIPK-8 their mRNA levels were also measured in the transgenic plants. Leaves from four plants from cultivar SP94-3116 transformed with the CIPK-8 RNAi construct and four construct plants transformed with the empty vectors alone are shown. The data indicates successful silencing for the CIPK-8 gene when control and RNAi CIPK-8 plants are compared. The data also indicates that the construct introduced was able to silence the CIPK-29 and CIPK-1 genes as well. To confirm the increased sucrose content due to the silencing of the genes total and reductive sugar levels were determined by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). FIG. 8 indicates the sucrose levels in control and CIPK silenced plants as well as the ratio between sucrose to glucose+fructose. Silenced plants presented in average 64.18 μg of sucrose/mg of leaf dried weight while control plants presented 21.95 μg/mg. The ratio of sucrose/glucose+fructose was also altered. CIPK silenced plants presented a ratio of 6.81 of sucrose over the monosaccharides while the control plants showed an average ratio of 0.57. This may possibly indicate an overall 12 fold more efficient conversion of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose into sucrose in the leaves of silenced plants.
Since both CIPK-8 and CIPK-29 were found to be differentially expressed in sugarcane leaves we postulate that CIPK kinases regulate sucrose synthesis in sugarcane. Additionally, CIPKs may have a role in regulating sugar accumulation in the internode tissues since several of them were detected as differentially expressed in these organs. Since the fragment used to silence the differentially expressed CIPK-8 and CIPK-29 was also efficient in silencing CIPK-1, which has an overall identity to CIPK-8 and CIPK-29 of 65%, it is possible that the use of SNF1-related genes with identity to the genes protected in this patent, either to the whole genes, or fragments of the genes, of at least 65%, but not restricted to 65%, may also be able to silence the protected genes. The reverse scenario is also plausible. Since CIPK-1, a gene that was not detected in our microarray data as associated to sucrose content, was silenced by the CIPK-8 construct even though it presented only 65% sequence identity to its overall available sequence, it is possible to silence sucrose associated genes by using sequences from similar sucrose-unrelated genes.
Additional genes that may contribute to sucrose synthesis and accumulation are described below. We identified five genes encoding aquaporins among the differentially expressed genes when high brix and low brix plants were compared (SCCCLR1024C03.g, SCCCRZ1001F02.g, SCCCRZ1002E08.g, SCCCST3001H12.g, SCEQRT2100B02.g). In a previous work they were demonstrated to be down-regulated in the mature internodes (Felix, 2006). This large and diverse family of membrane proteins, also known as MIPs (Major Intrinsic Proteins) is primarily involved in the regulation of water movement between cells and cell compartments, although many of them also facilitate the passage of small solutes (rev. Maurel and Chrispeels, 2001; Chaumont et al, 2005). According to their subcellular localization, aquaporins can be classified as plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) or tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs). The aquaporins genes we identified as differentially expressed fall into both of these categories. The accumulation of sucrose in such high concentrations as seen in sugarcane cells certainly represents an osmotic challenge, which demands efficient control of solute compartmentation. As key players in the equilibration of water potentials via regulation of membrane permeability, aquaporins may have a fundamental role in the process of sugar storage in sugarcane vacuoles. It has been observed in Arabidopsis that loss of the aquaporin TIP1; 1 severely affects carbohydrate metabolism and transport (Ma et al., 2004) and the authors postulate that this aquaporin could be involved in a vesicle-based routing of carbohydrates towards the central vacuole. Due to the diversity of roles described for the members of this family, additional experiments are necessary to elucidate the possible roles of these sugarcane aquaporins in the sugar accumulation process. Sugar-signaling pathways do not operate in isolation but are part of cellular regulatory networks. Recent results clearly show cross talk between different signaling systems, especially those of sugars, phytohormones, and light. Most of the stress-related genes are cold- and drought-induced; there is also a ribonuclease that appeared altered four times and a wound-induced protein differentially expressed in 5 samples. Four sugarcane stress-related ESTs belong to a class of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic proteins (LTI) involved in maintaining the integrity of the plasma membrane during cold, dehydration and salt stress conditions. These genes are activated by environmental factors, such as dehydration and salinity and by chemical signals such as abscisic acid (ABA) (Morsy et al., 2005).
Sixteen differentially expressed genes encode transcription factors. A putative AP2/EREBP transcription factor (SCBGLR1099G02.g) was shown to have enhanced expression in leaves from plants with high sugar content. AP2/EREBP form a family of plant-specific transcription factors that contains an AP2/EREBP (ethylene responsive element binding protein) domain, a conserved region of 60 aminoacids involved in DNA binding (Jofuku et al., 1994; Okamuro et al., 1993; Riechmann and Meyerowitz, 1998). AP2 transcription factors are involved in the specification of flower organ and meristem identity, and suppression of flower meristem indeterminacy (Bowman et al., 1989; Irish and Sussex, 1990; Kunst et al., 1989; Okamuro et al., 1993). AP2 is also required for ovule and seed coat development (Jofuku et al., 1994; Leon-Kloosterziel et al., 1994; Modrusan et al., 1994). Although the most remarkable function of AP2 is in flower development, its transcripts are also detected in leaves, stems, and seedlings (Jofuku et al., 1994), opening the possibility of diverse functions for different members of the AP2 family. It was already shown that ap2 mutations cause changes in the ratio of hexose to sucrose during seed development (Ohto et al., 2005). Because of this observation, it is believed that potential targets of AP2 activity may be enzymes involved in sugar metabolism.
We found eight CYP-related genes altered among the differentially expressed genes (SCEQRT1026H08.g, SCAGLR1043E04.g, SCUTAM2005B03.g, SCSGFL4193B05.g, SCACSB1037A07.g, SCEZHR1087F06.g, SCSGHR1069F04.b, SCQGHR1012B09.g). Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are used widely in plant biosynthetic and detoxicative pathways including synthesis of lignins, UV protectants, pigments, defense compounds, fatty acids, hormones, signaling molecules, breakdown of endogenous and toxic compounds (Schuler and Werck-Reichhart, 2003). During sugarcane internode maturation, parenchyma cells differentiate into highly specialized sucrose-storage compartments. This process imposes cellular reorganization to cope with osmotic and oxidative stress, and involves progressive lignification and suberization of cell walls to prevent pathogen invasion and water loss (Kolattukudy, 1984; Jacobsen et al., 1992), which may explain the predominance of stress-related genes (34 SAS) among the genes described in this work.
Eighteen differentially expressed SAS encode for hormone biosynthesis or hormone-related genes either when comparing the high brix against low brix plants or the high brix against low brix internodes (SCCCAM2004G02.g, SCCCCL6002B05.g, SCCCFL4091A07.g, SCCCLR1048D07.g, SCCCLR1C03G01.g, SCCCLR2002F08.g, SCCCRT1001E01.g, SCEQRT1024E12.g, SCEQRT1028H06.g, SCEZLB1009A09.g, SCJFRT1005C11.g, SCJFRT1007H07.g, SCRFLR1012D12.g, SCSBAM1085B06.g, SCSGAM1094D05.g, SCVPLR2012A10.g, SCVPRZ2038F04.g, SCVPRZ3025G09.g). Three encode for salicylic acid biosynthesis and six of them code for jasmonate biosynthesis genes. Two ESTs that were up regulated in high sugar content (HS) mature leaves codes for an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase-FAD8. In higher plants, the membrane lipids contain a high proportion of trienoic fatty acids (TAs). It has been suggested that these fatty acids, especially linolenic acid, are precursors of a defense-related signal molecule, jasmonate (JA). In Arabidopsis, three genes encoding the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase, namely FADS, FAD7 and FAD8, are responsible for the production of TAs. Environmental stimuli, such as wounding, salt stress and pathogen invasion, which lead to a rapid increase in JA production, significantly induce expression of the FAD7 and FAD8 genes (Nishiuchi and Iba, 1998). The data points to a role of JA and salicylic acid synthesis in sucrose metabolism. This is the first report of the involvement of these hormones in sucrose synthesis.
Recent evidence suggests that plants have many different types of receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) that may transduce extra cellular information into the cell. Twenty-one sugarcane SAS encoding for a RLK were found to be differentially enriched in the high sugar content plants and seventeen when mature and immature internodes were compared. RLKs have been identified from a number of plants and have been categorized into classes based on different structural motifs found in their extra cellular domains. The physiological functions of most RLKs are unknown, but some of them are involved in disease resistance and plant development (Becraft, 2002).
A SAS homologous to a gene encoding a Myb-repeat transcription factor (SCCCLR1C08G10.g), similar to CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED (CCA1) or LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY), was up regulated in High Sugar mature leaves. CCA1/LHY and the TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) are thought to participate in a negative feedback loop, which is part of a model for the central oscillator in the Arabidopsis circadian clock. In higher plants the circadian clock controls hypocotyl elongation, daily leaf movements, flowering time and the rhythm of CO2 fixation (McClung, 2001). A sugarcane LHY/CCA1 was found to be enriched in the high sugar content individuals and this expression profile was also observed throughout the growing season. In tomato, Jones and Ort (1997) have demonstrated that the circadian rhythm controls the timing of sucrose-phosphate synthase phosphatase activity, which in turn, determines the activation of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS). SPS catalyses the conversion of UDP-glucose and fructose-6-phosphate to sucrose-6-phosphate, the second last step in sucrose biosynthesis (Huber and Huber, 1996). Pathre et al., (2004) demonstrated that the diurnal variation observed in the activity of SPS was not due to any intrinsic rhythm, but due to the transient changes in environmental conditions, like irradiance and temperature. When the circadian clock was correctly tuned with the environment, Arabidopsis plants presented increased photosynthesis and growth (Dodd et al., 2005). The sugarcane EST was mainly expressed in mature and immature leaves, lateral bud and flower, but also presented a weak expression in immature internodes and roots (not shown). We hypothesize that the expression profile of LHY/CCA1 transcripts in HS plants could be related to a photosynthetic advantage and, consequently, an enhanced carbon fixation. LHY/CCA1 may control the transcription of a protein phosphatase that subsequently activates the SPS enzyme, increasing sucrose synthesis.
Two SAS encoding for 14-3-3 proteins SCEQRT1025D06.g and SCEQRT1031D02.g) were found to be more expressed in mature leaves from the Low Sugar population and four to be down-regulated in mature internodes ((SCCCRZ1001D02.g, SCCCLR1022D05.g, SCEQRT1025D06.g, SCEQRT1031D02.g). Recent reports pointed out the importance of these adapter proteins in plant metabolic pathways (Ferl, 2004). It was suggested that the members of this family affect nitrate fixation by regulating nitrate reductase (NR) and carbohydrate metabolism by binding to SPS. This enzyme has several putative phosphorylation sites that regulate its activity by 14-3-3 dependent and independent mechanisms. Non-14-3-3 events include phosphorylation of SPS on Ser-424 and Ser-158 which is thought to be responsible for light/dark modulation and osmotic stress activation of the enzyme (McMichael et al., 1993; Toroser and Huber, 1997). However, there is a site-specific regulatory interaction between 14-3-3 proteins and Ser-229 of spinach SPS, which inhibits SPS activity (Toroser et al., 1998). This regulatory node is likely to be the same that occurs in the NR regulation. In its unphosphorylated state, SPS is active. Phosphorylation by a kinase (e.g. SNF1, Bachmann et al., 1996; Moorhead et al., 1999) does not inactivate SPS, but tags the enzyme for 14-3-3 binding, which completes the signal-induced transition toward inactivation. SPS that is phosphorylated and bound by 14-3-3s may be inactivated directly in a reversible manner or may be destabilized and subjected to proteolysis (Sehnke et al., 2002; Comparot et al., 2003). It has been reported that during sugar starvation targets for 14-3-3 proteins are degraded by proteases; the function of this is not clear but it was suggested to represent a safety valve for metabolic regulation (Cotelle et al., 2000). Various research groups reported the impact of 14-3-3 proteins on metabolism. Overexpression of 14-3-3 proteins in potato induced an increase in catecholamine and soluble sugars contents in leaves, whilst a 14-3-3 antisense experiment increased the tuber starch content, NR activity and amino acid composition (Prescha et al., 2001; Swiedrych et al., 2002). In addition, Zuk et al., (2003) observed a significant increase in potato SPS and NR activities when all of the six 14-3-3 isoforms were repressed.
There are three enzymes involved on the biosynthetic pathway of lignin: cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT). A SAS coding for a COMT (SCRFLR1012F12.g) was found to be differentially expressed in four different samples. Lignins are phenolic polymers found in the secondary cell walls of vascular plants. They play an important role by reducing the permeability of the cell wall to water and provide mechanical strength and defense against wounding and infection (Lewis and Yamamoto, 1990). The importance of lignin biosynthesis as dominant process in maturing sugarcane stems was observed by Casu et al., (2004). The storage parenchyma of the sugarcane maturing stem internodes is extensively lignified and Jacobsen et al., (1992) proposed that this process parallels to the increase in sucrose content observed in matures internodes. This lignification could provide defense against wounding and infection for these plants. Low lignin levels could, on the other hand, lead to high sucrose accumulation, or COMT could have an additional function in sucrose synthesis or accumulation that has not been previously identified. To test for this hypothesis and confirm that COMT differential gene expression associated to sucrose content was indeed reflecting a role for these genes in sucrose synthesis or accumulation we obtained sugarcane transgenic plants where SAS SCRFLR1012F12.g was silenced by antisense expression. Sugarcane embryonic callus from the cultivars SP83-2847, SP91-1049, SP80-185, CTC1 and CTC5 were bombarded by biolistics with a construct where a 535 by fragment of SAS SCRFLR1012F12.g (SEQ ID No. 380) was cloned in the antisense orientation in the BamHI site of vector pAHC17. The 535 by fragment was obtained by PCR using the primers COMT(AS)pAHC17 forward (SEQ ID No. 376): 5' CGCGGATCCGACGTCGTCAAGTGCCAGAT3' and COMT(AS)pAHC17 reverse (SEQ ID No. 377): 5'CGGGATCCGCGTTGGCGTAGATGTAGGT3'. The fragment was digested with the enzyme BamHI, cloned in the pAHC17 vector (Christensen and Quail, 1996) digested with the same enzyme and clones were sequenced to identify a construct where the insert was in the antisense orientation. Transgenic plants were generated by co-transformation of COMT(AS)/pAHC17 construct and the pHA9 vector (Wei and Albert, U.S. Pat. No. 6,706,948). To verify that COMT SCRFLR1012F12.g mRNA levels were decreased in the transgenic plants obtained COMT mRNA levels were quantitated by Real-time PCR. FIG. 9 shows the mRNA levels for SCRFLR1012F12.g in relation to the reference gene GAPDH in plants of variety SP83-2847 transformed with the COMT(AS/pAHC17 construct. The real-time PCR primers used are listed in Table XII. Leaves from five plants transformed with the COMT antisense construct and five plants transformed with the vectors alone are shown. The data indicates successful silencing for the COMT gene when control and antisense plants are compared. To check if silencing of the genes would lead to increased sucrose content, total and reductive sugar levels were determined by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). FIG. 9 indicates the sucrose levels in control and COMT silenced plants as well as the ratio between sucrose to glucose+fructose. Silenced plants presented in average 29.34 μg of sucrose/mg of leaf dried weight while control plants presented 20.7 μg/mg. The ratio of sucrose/glucose+fructose was also altered. COMT silenced plants presented a ratio of 1.74 of sucrose over the monosaccharides while the control plants showed an average ratio of 0.71. This may possibly indicate an overall 2.4 fold more efficient conversion of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose into sucrose in the leaves of silenced plants.
Signals can be perceived and amplified at the cell membrane by receptors coupled to a variety of signaling pathways, including the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) pathway. This second messenger is produced from the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate and raises Ca2+ levels in the cytosol (Berridge, 1993). The inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (5Ptases) comprise a large group of enzymes that can hydrolyze 5-phosphates from a variety of inositol phosphates, like IP3 (Majerus et al., 1999). There are four genes encoding inositol metabolism enzymes altered in our data (SCRULB1060F05.g, SCSBST3096H04.g, SCCCLR1C02F07.g, SCCCRZ2001A10.g) when high brix and low brix plants were compared and a Phospholipase C(SCSBHR1052C05.g) down-regulated in sugar-rich internodes. Inositol derivatives may be involved in the modulation of Ca2+ levels and there are many evidences for a role of Ca2+ in sugar signaling (reviewed by Rolland et al., 2002, see above).
In sugarcane, the use of wild ancestors as a means to incorporate new traits or to improve variability in a well established breeding program is something that requires a lot of attention and caution from the breeder. Such parents can carry a large proportion of variation inferior to current commercial hybrids, and sugar content is likely to be poor. The crosses and selections done in this study aimed to produce sugar content variability, introducing new genes that exist in wild ancestors and that had never been explored in the development of hybrid commercial varieties. The final objective was, once a large variability was created from the introgression studies, to perform bulk segregation analysis in extremes of the population to eventually identify genes that could be linked to sugar content. The markers identified in this work have been shown to be useful to analyze crosses between individuals from the introgression study and elite cultivars and follow the sugar content genes coming from wild ancestors.
It is worth to mention that the use of wild germplasm from 21 S. officinarum and 13 S. spontaneum genotypes allowed the selection of more divergent materials than the crosses between the commercial varieties. The range of brix content from 8.6 (the extreme individual for LB) to 23.9 (the extreme individual for HB) could never be reached using progeny derived from conventional crosses. This is a valuable population for using in sucrose accumulation studies. The results produced are probably different from the ones that could be obtained with populations derived from crosses between commercial varieties, with higher brix content but not so contrasting phenotypes.
The approach described produced data and molecular markers to be used in breeding programs, in the characterization of transgenic plants designed to contain more sucrose, and/or used as candidate genes for genetic manipulation in transgenic plants or non-transgenic plants in order to improve the sugar content of commercial varieties. Changes in more than one gene expression are more significant while changes in three or a higher number of genes are highly significant when searching for molecular markers but a pattern of expression of just one gene was shown to be useful in characterizing a plant or population of plants in regards to sucrose content. Additionally, silencing of two genes differentially expressed by RNA interference and antisense expression proved useful in the development of transgenic plants with increased sucrose content. It is very likely that changes in transcript levels are accompanied by changes in the protein levels encoded by the genes, thus quantification of the corresponding proteins may also be used to identify plants with contrasting sucrose accumulation capacities. Measures of sucrose content can accompany gene expression measures and be complementary in defining plants with gene expression favorable to sucrose accumulation. These individuals may be crossed and rounds of selection with the aid of the markers can follow each generation to yield better sucrose producing plants.
TABLE-US-00011 TABLE XIII List of Sugarcane Assembled Sequences (SAS) and their SEQ ID Nos. SEQ ID No. 229: SCACLR1057C07.g (CA073791, CA220104, CA175807, CA173305, CA161664, CA208707, CA275831, CA082360, CA232127, CA208522, CA082500, CA158772, CA254078, CA154812, CA168711, CA265487, CA216423, CA082097, CA282869, CA163131, CA242148, CA116387, CA088301, CA205272, CA216758, CA083652, CA178498, CA275830, CA164981, CA173335, CA257615, CA239707, CA164577, CA085299, CA209305, CA191774, CA082901, CA206163, CA219544, CA256136, CA242861, CA087944, CA219617, CA172548, CA089365, CA242929, CA296024, CA211326, CA077845, CA065159, CA220037, CA078282, CA176305, CA087014) SEQ ID No. 230: SCACLR1130D02.g (CA100457, CA108544, CA104245, CA139305, CA183555, CA184261, CA075000, CA116753, CA124475, CA107618) SEQ ID No. 231: SCACLR1130H08.g (CA285355, CA296620, CA190345, CA236470, CA199128, CA223158, CA296543, CA237253, CA116793, CA223246, CA275687) SEQ ID No. 232: SCACLR2022H05.g (CA185596, CA107538, CA278239, CA142728, CA095392, CA190254, CA255382, CA118885, CA186426, CA242032, CA083853, CA088965, CA186503, CA072676, CA246552, CA088959, CA292397, CA269566, CA163748, CA243048, CA287796, CA095283, CA194496, CA285226, CA102940, CA265718, CA242052, CA194677, CA157478, CA238095, CA282663, CA127731, CA104186) SEQ ID No. 233: SCAGLR1021G10.g (CA184947, CA241174, CA116948, CA235280, CA148829, CA187937, CA290068, CA148916, CA253948, CA153438, CA200242, CA288775, CA242709, CA242784, CA147421, CA150935, CA110552, CA234507, CA277424, CA072428, CA220958, CA221034, CA261229, CA220980, CA225630, CA215861, CA229847, CA275017, CA229919, CA227414, CA289769, CA239844, CA184991) SEQ ID No. 234: SCBFAD1046D01.g (CA284358, CA285672, CA258515, CA260599, CA285724, CA284423, CA065523, CA269123) SEQ ID No. 235: SCBGFL3095D08.g (CA230968, CA243310, CA230887) SEQ ID No. 236: SCBGFL4052C11.g (CA221542, CA181746) SEQ ID No. 237: SCBGFL4053F12.g (CA219396, CA221898) SEQ ID No. 238: SCBGLR1096C08.g (CA190075, CA236012, CA290681, CA281821, CA111779, CA102557, CA224586, CA290611, CA245672, CA118621, CA219281, CA212792, CA118254, CA239357, CA123219, CA245691) SEQ ID No. 239: SCBGLR1117A05.g (CA069967, CA206454, CA115471, CA222775, CA300103, CA216451, CA069882, CA240610, CA121419, CA253181, CA119047) SEQ ID No. 240: SCCCCL2001B01.b (CA075874, CA110039, CA262153, CA138938, CA222746, CA206852, CA195629, CA065975, CA111213, CA243704, CA139758, CA067579, CA228104, CA112899, CA219971, CA159289, CA067652, CA243309, CA260244, CA136110, CA260251, CA265770, CA207439, CA141173, CA260652, CA108966, CA233446, CA109052, CA266455, CA264812, CA196943, CA065789, CA204592, CA065874, CA228837, CA267875, CA067584, CA114662, CA219472, CA219452, CA067658, CA093038, CA235273) SEQ ID No. 241: SCCCCL4003D08.g (CA064615, CA239044, CA246974, CA074795, CA290714, CA074872, CA094033, CA095138, CA183882, CA249457, CA102981, CA172565, CA263531, CA183925, CA255937, CA084305, CA285149, CA085127, CA228150, CA248344, CA064616, CA290646) SEQ ID No. 242: SCCCCL4004A10.g (CA101534, CA147302, CA227522, CA219008, CA114047, CA177473, CA250309, CA131850, CA222728, CA096239, CA121915, CA209925, CA174118, CA158138, CA264731, CA219404, CA241947, CA239850, CA139416, CA088821, CA149323, CA075509, CA192414, CA168488, CA070307, CA191927, CA227992, CA191529, CA267246, CA213285, CA250111, CA258031, CA224522, CA122970, CA072224, CA082052, CA098902, CA098895, CA094073, CA296040, CA238636, CA098164, CA237674) SEQ ID No. 243: SCCCCL4004C06.g (CA184820, CA224856, CA126504, CA232891, CA206438, CA212819, CA232897, CA214257, CA101169, CA082190, CA167693, CA214057, CA300033, CA094090, CA252628, CA167758, CA111995, CA074267, CA228379, CA211130, CA249343, CA209709, CA085064, CA202861, CA119928, CA225134, CA164339, CA225122) SEQ ID No. 244: SCCCCL4007H07.g (CA259044, CA299572, CA172510, CA266911, CA094384, CA217028, CA119215, CA269647, CA187053, CA288923, CA172798, CA216961, CA180079, CA300646, CA298791) SEQ ID No. 245: SCCCCL5002B10.g (CA221338, CA161278, CA221548, CA126743, CA176053, CA095223, CA158980, CA175702, CA137305, CA108318) SEQ ID No. 246: SCCCCL5004D02.g (CA192143, CA236211, CA277456, CA238363, CA207316, CA083476, CA300881, CA105556, CA167444, CA195960, CA101127, CA174295, CA171982, CA179165, CA082796, CA095389, CA299706, CA235517, CA171513, CA297597, CA079747, CA159787, CA097371, CA079116) SEQ ID No. 247: SCCCFL4091A07.g (CA223439, CA251804, CA235024) SEQ ID No. 248: SCCCHR1004D03.g (CA286507, CA215612, CA183433, CA065784, CA175929, CA102729, CA205573, CA264021, CA158422) SEQ ID No. 249: SCCCHR1004H09.g (CA198695, CA218094, CA240658, CA183261, CA257018, CA185072, CA107735, CA165864, CA162193, CA280279, CA102770, CA238555, CA267028, CA131832, CA257098) SEQ ID No. 250: SCCCLB1023E12.g (CA179300, CA198187, CA088499, CA224987, CA116260, CA238936, CA132328, CA210346, CA300142, CA158693, CA092253, CA271421, CA241178, CA182283, CA089207, CA194934, CA092199, CA296333, CA075354, CA224675, CA084007, CA113237, CA296334, CA066934, CA136894, CA192584, CA111805, CA067884, CA211313, CA216712, CA092778, CA066873, CA098107, CA280346, CA144921) SEQ ID No. 251: SCCCLB2004C08.g (CA279906, CA261059) SEQ ID No. 252: SCCCLR1001D10.g (CA249418, CA083581, CA252565, CA087780, CA126329, CA116150, CA256293, CA189955, CA208608, CA189961, CA239503, CA122010, CA180875, CA107889, CA265080, CA154811, CA250574, CA288166, CA276490, CA203244, CA208413, CA209900, CA124777, CA289690) SEQ ID No. 253: SCCCLR1022D05.g (CA199003, CA295779, CA243427, CA242039, CA202852, CA128804, CA079318, CA079910, CA281772, CA281793, CA250251, CA140942, CA081545, CA084937, CA074621, CA106617, CA181947, CA091378, CA247107, CA140865, CA148961, CA086118, CA235025, CA111400, CA130075, CA114483, CA193046, CA087052, CA275872, CA119131, CA224651, CA240046, CA295949, CA255246, CA231690, CA222739, CA130833, CA189913, CA216812, CA152690, CA129200, CA094241, CA087758, CA300112, CA099509, CA295694, CA152604, CA289169, CA275873, CA100849, CA151157, CA278748, CA126737, CA219267, CA143476, CA217366, CA188937, CA149217, CA129933, CA230200, CA088938, CA121701, CA110053, CA143403, CA217293, CA276362, CA230113, CA155717, CA228428, CA066322, CA148305, CA273294, CA125293, CA279142, CA133423, CA190364, CA241302, CA109003, CA171238, CA124306, CA288895, CA152905, CA137901, CA241224, CA171157, CA189103, CA073313, CA280288, CA222537, CA244293, CA195698, CA284927, CA244221, CA240565, CA131978, CA143850, CA147045, CA116042, CA273851, CA118529, CA250276, CA114167, CA092744, CA111595, CA082835, CA283118, CA119664, CA090489, CA243388, CA139738, CA198502, CA074106, CA241811, CA193935, CA090417, CA144601, CA242944, CA263741, CA242878, CA181943, CA100925, CA154899, CA255036, CA298711, CA255877, CA231477, CA301130, CA079473, CA293695, CA249587, CA201652, CA270939, CA092502, CA231391, CA142524, CA293643, CA155896, CA272121, CA148488, CA249518, CA295765, CA227150, CA169631, CA100111, CA173458, CA219272, CA067413, CA086035, CA169552, CA238069, CA227079, CA101601, CA280785, CA264367, CA118824, CA220340, CA116614, CA118307, CA072726, CA255181, CA143851, CA128705, CA142362, CA230449, CA131091, CA251477, CA151152, CA192477, CA124603, CA092380, CA126294, CA071894, CA300717, CA179264, CA233938, CA126045, CA293018, CA283292, CA168278, CA162958, CA202235, CA266711, CA131176, CA119234, CA111790, CA232293, CA175336, CA092372, CA232205, CA247106, CA117673, CA297133, CA073144, CA227288, CA150142, CA297060, CA139824, CA205064, CA116036, CA202889, CA215601, CA296581, CA119907, CA144265, CA192882, CA298102, CA198270, CA216807, CA182514, CA128480, CA105914, CA108571, CA177022, CA232110, CA128410, CA125896, CA232195, CA289717, CA295716, CA301502) SEQ ID No. 254: SCCCLR1022H07.g (CA256002, CA153512, CA119708, CA201590, CA232582, CA203039) SEQ ID No. 255: SCCCLR1024E11.g (CA236213, CA119421, CA239312, CA087963, CA236209, CA093728, CA121529, CA144287, CA110967, CA120342, CA078164) SEQ ID No. 256: SCCCLR1024F10.g (CA248370, CA191668, CA174627, CA136231, CA240508, CA146036, CA228222, CA220265, CA237574, CA268651, CA242965, CA146965, CA237607, CA243057, CA268723, CA266000, CA163172, CA150009, CA235949, CA119432, CA132957, CA153279, CA074733, CA155267, CA134767, CA153353, CA208681, CA074819, CA174997, CA294180, CA298533, CA251324, CA105997, CA066993, CA203286, CA291734, CA274193, CA071109, CA071088, CA249083, CA208769, CA177604, CA106088, CA067069) SEQ ID No. 257: SCCCLR1068G11.g (CA132953, CA232759, CA292317, CA213697, CA232845, CA242579, CA071844, CA133612, CA213781, CA124103, CA281045, CA243542, CA268384, CA080234, CA228260, CA112544, CA220447, CA238600, CA120333, CA130280, CA222523, CA085868, CA238048, CA289325, CA085954, CA289237, CA290116, CA252889, CA230658, CA175174, CA133538, CA246442, CA230739, CA133616, CA111266, CA080878, CA127449, CA113622, CA130344, CA225351, CA239513, CA206259, CA289382, CA246811, CA191694, CA129517, CA257025, CA108272, CA257105, CA089953, CA082439, CA285102, CA090031, CA220448, CA120037, CA296110, CA233332, CA189423, CA246856, CA247427, CA116596, CA233412, CA246807, CA224412, CA299018, CA126355, CA221362, CA298715, CA128521, CA077715, CA242434, CA071472, CA128603, CA071560, CA123524, CA236982, CA139104, CA120188, CA248016) SEQ ID No. 258: SCCCLR1072E03.g (CA149803, CA140849, CA154999, CA217167, CA149970, CA197516, CA179657, CA113459, CA205466, CA299206, CA119586) SEQ ID No. 259: SCCCLR1072H06.g (CA293008, CA292012, CA208082, CA212163, CA095120, CA250666, CA095061, CA250751, CA266742, CA140748, CA299559, CA221625, CA199195, CA280252, CA249305, CA283511, CA119620, CA273507, CA284119) SEQ ID No. 260: SCCCLR1C04E03.g (CA295762, CA246851, CA247540, CA295704, CA250739, CA076585, CA129498, CA250812, CA189759, CA153500, CA182502, CA273004, CA180831, CA225947, CA295943, CA137602, CA283935, CA137601, CA225870, CA276088, CA239790, CA125960, CA283930, CA085833, CA236700,
CA129446, CA206958, CA219091, CA204694, CA114854, CA164705, CA133070, CA264948, CA076438, CA151018, CA121378, CA288667, CA166549, CA127343, CA076524, CA120880, CA267188, CA205607, CA228116, CA137280, CA117418, CA237518, CA182380, CA235506, CA203663, CA075662, CA113908, CA202142, CA156760, CA117805, CA156119) SEQ ID No. 261: SCCCLR1C07B07.g (CA281556, CA102608, CA183206, CA267464, CA216559, CA126478, CA178227, CA224781, CA220964, CA230932, CA196879, CA111576, CA159229, CA285341, CA284646, CA159313, CA267717, CA089742, CA228165, CA120559, CA267804, CA296594, CA117476, CA283020, CA291172, CA296665, CA280265, CA248548, CA090139, CA141203, CA131303, CA142862, CA269709, CA074994, CA141285, CA106243, CA141103, CA189990, CA266648, CA120035, CA134522, CA157584, CA118179, CA243432, CA210686, CA238135, CA248480, CA127949, CA290279, CA178232, CA290337, CA279227, CA148788, CA277386, CA292004, CA163922, CA248059, CA148876, CA216395, CA163999, CA249878, CA222979, CA080867, CA288178, CA267417, CA113988, CA112566, CA225163, CA249795, CA224169, CA267504, CA160144, CA199747, CA296541, CA207876, CA173201, CA127744, CA257183, CA270601, CA186974, CA244929, CA121034, CA245946, CA094024, CA249521, CA257253, CA165727, CA270682, CA109618, CA165164, CA137020, CA283548, CA274874, CA165279, CA281754, CA280871, CA079423, CA238032, CA228443, CA157012) SEQ ID No. 262: SCCCLR2001E10.g (CA262799, CA127278, CA280201, CA287309, CA089562, CA078214, CA077866, CA287533, CA211102, CA180904, CA089473, CA074528, CA079677, CA082818, CA118437, CA269971, CA092559, CA247542, CA285807, CA091331, CA277276, CA271301, CA072671, CA263353, CA205812, CA280164, CA116982, CA073860, CA263266, CA116704, CA089413, CA158170, CA173734, CA180319, CA163659, CA163766, CA124561, CA278597, CA072426, CA178645, CA271786, CA264556, CA120664, CA112499, CA185831, CA084497, CA160409, CA083810, CA113314, CA160061, CA187809, CA189668, CA238848, CA163841, CA114235, CA165641, CA121314, CA129676, CA263145, CA279135, CA177340, CA174900, CA152748, CA102472, CA112114, CA188798, CA077061, CA185135, CA077762, CA116858, CA178901, CA147468, CA188663, CA177888, CA274039, CA118008, CA273237, CA174048, CA264113, CA088386, CA281646, CA157750, CA190335, CA175668, CA270524, CA154487, CA121143, CA180710, CA181093, CA091054, CA127015, CA187162, CA092675, CA291128, CA106777, CA088977) SEQ ID No. 263: SCCCLR2002D04.g (CA074921, CA117323, CA243313, CA211783, CA127099, CA286494, CA075012, CA073105, CA128761, CA128376, CA128367, CA243946, CA122696, CA128446, CA230627, CA198414, CA298411, CA122974, CA238383, CA216280, CA230711, CA209970, CA118723, CA241869, CA123055, CA088133, CA241946, CA125071, CA124739, CA240999, CA119298, CA080587, CA112133, CA270423, CA241082, CA292850, CA114123, CA226786, CA257737, CA149929, CA120520, CA202694, CA120498, CA123517, CA073839) SEQ ID No. 264: SCCCLR2002G09.g (CA116535, CA124657, CA116605, CA116498, CA072958, CA257354, CA247799, CA235108, CA103542, CA112157, CA224839, CA257438, CA123168, CA252080, CA080895, CA102459, CA238997, CA081185, CA236648, CA078277, CA081264, CA112560, CA112156, CA239544, CA125043, CA088777, CA248898, CA118825, CA107504, CA118646, CA248977, CA140223, CA203859, CA115827, CA103133, CA115782, CA122771, CA074515, CA229803, CA116712, CA123493, CA085075, CA122840, CA073424, CA229900, CA200897, CA073545, CA115514, CA072446, CA232187, CA072969, CA110011, CA073999, CA245664, CA298980, CA125253, CA072002, CA213810, CA190056, CA230875, CA115022, CA101040, CA230956, CA228508, CA280886, CA102455, CA245446, CA126608, CA245426, CA097164, CA243299, CA116857, CA140025, CA257680, CA101571, CA116664, CA130312, CA105336, CA129039, CA256731, CA095294, CA256654, CA110599, CA073864, CA115403, CA127138, CA227390) SEQ ID No. 265: SCCCLR2C03D05.g (CA147771, CA241187, CA239901, CA282278, CA280090, CA263518, CA278293, CA187784, CA242098, CA244500, CA117444, CA243119, CA220678, CA181765, CA163903, CA182831, CA154699, CA250434, CA142468, CA127482, CA115131, CA226443, CA230328, CA129679, CA250352, CA272571, CA121245, CA246334, CA263117, CA247571, CA186969, CA152166, CA198196, CA112365, CA257624, CA204733, CA194041, CA181847, CA155624, CA240278, CA201864, CA181440, CA277850, CA181770, CA230413, CA128431, CA142473, CA187851, CA163982, CA128359, CA129154, CA153759, CA163714, CA129531, CA167236, CA226189, CA287855, CA203879, CA274284, CA260310, CA124731) SEQ ID No. 266: SCCCRT1001E12.g (CA262088, CA264485, CA209806, CA114408, CA194065, CA206359, CA254730, CA178254, CA166387, CA132375, CA092696, CA092563, CA126173, CA092562, CA190880, CA170137, CA102870, CA190269, CA119262, CA089823, CA213508, CA144221, CA183640, CA130410, CA064605, CA298178) SEQ ID No. 267: SCCCRT2001H11.g (CA236346, CA191174, CA300423, CA105281, CA230838, CA137439, CA200619, CA195246, CA213844, CA181724, CA108176, CA092614, CA228948, CA200693, CA203186, CA209467, CA187262, CA240256, CA241667, CA299526, CA262309, CA143552, CA295095, CA254981, CA220456, CA236075, CA235832, CA300428, CA250139, CA254632, CA243208, CA293154, CA294205, CA250212, CA269402, CA261591, CA294137, CA201093, CA243170, CA291895, CA256863, CA256942, CA166864, CA241994, CA182531, CA254163, CA196827, CA137128, CA262306, CA073149, CA245330) SEQ ID No. 268: SCCCRT2002B03.g (CA220568, CA243112, CA230852, CA160770, CA180268, CA272704, CA230939, CA137141, CA244400) SEQ ID No. 269: SCCCRZ1001A09.g (CA212821, CA074667, CA146782, CA272930, CA107169, CA260410) SEQ ID No. 270: SCCCRZ1001C12.g (CA117861, CA182890, CA138133, CA096667, CA183036, CA276095, CA167830, CA099489, CA192252, CA137344, CA125255, CA251500, CA229153, CA082252, CA111079, CA181249, CA071519, CA298523, CA198397, CA146190, CA180974, CA071438, CA170017, CA071603, CA244468, CA086723, CA146809, CA179822, CA163106, CA139751, CA194118) SEQ ID No. 271: SCCCRZ1001D02.g (CA227562, CA113855, CA074155, CA273171, CA244452, CA244374, CA144616, CA220668, CA244135, CA208913, CA197975, CA269055, CA125771, CA281706, CA285773, CA300153, CA154032, CA245267, CA239706, CA146811, CA248711, CA179814, CA194730, CA268428, CA113399, CA242036, CA227897, CA122687, CA082472, CA299324, CA082329, CA292801, CA292314, CA247082, CA260871, CA222252, CA233879, CA130465, CA140466, CA200065, CA073081, CA114463, CA192580, CA296734, CA269090, CA243519, CA078544, CA228562, CA169691, CA177628, CA112868, CA205245, CA269027, CA080412, CA240406, CA146360, CA229125, CA161211, CA230974, CA300322, CA295571, CA121414, CA151083, CA230896, CA232918, CA140354, CA167344, CA221235, CA161123, CA278179, CA092771, CA255868, CA214663, CA250421, CA260387, CA285663, CA089684, CA250336, CA254468, CA293447, CA244735, CA254392, CA292654, CA252918, CA126311, CA278803, CA076762, CA258105, CA136523, CA077192, CA225269, CA077910, CA230058, CA285260, CA229975, CA286249, CA158350, CA233369, CA243156, CA235192, CA092793, CA233280, CA269567, CA080589, CA121250, CA148111, CA117103, CA243125, CA242823, CA297617, CA070960, CA070900, CA182159, CA200781, CA082483, CA202989, CA133586, CA202917, CA166792, CA204111, CA133514, CA191341, CA229632, CA274798, CA112081, CA083506, CA087024, CA283073, CA075468, CA116699, CA117304, CA228310, CA123022, CA147101, CA280824, CA122938, CA269278, CA242644, CA286222, CA189979, CA231030, CA225697, CA216181, CA271428, CA287898, CA216319, CA249895, CA100564, CA255365, CA182292, CA090466, CA259629, CA185920, CA101429, CA130039, CA235211, CA235276, CA130053, CA090380, CA120551, CA242902, CA216182, CA242824, CA080452, CA260017, CA081490, CA278950, CA076773, CA182164, CA209332, CA247081, CA194098, CA262165) SEQ ID No. 272: SCCCRZ1001G10.g (CA222661, CA243406, CA269416, CA111447, CA122777, CA169118, CA240909, CA124462, CA122846, CA250422, CA244712, CA249447, CA287599, CA070902, CA110739, CA146855, CA256535, CA244795, CA078236, CA067840, CA070962, CA265769, CA156647, CA196108) SEQ ID No. 273: SCCCRZ1002F06.g (CA139097, CA266223, CA099736, CA191325, CA138926, CA269667, CA211498, CA224822, CA216862, CA270060, CA301136, CA287834, CA146274, CA096108, CA181984, CA202409, CA084257, CA098085, CA291642, CA240057, CA110222, CA291673, CA217925, CA224622, CA218519, CA240142, CA271896, CA124695, CA232981, CA227222, CA073020, CA209126, CA233047, CA251280, CA072868, CA206681, CA107412, CA298995, CA094500, CA195663, CA211432, CA066295, CA146933, CA220697, CA106447, CA099272, CA076956, CA069454, CA275222, CA145292, CA136184, CA179267, CA148544, CA179893, CA156981, CA114064, CA191309, CA217009, CA069184, CA212599, CA264583, CA229486, CA172986, CA096567, CA067167, CA197128, CA172767, CA253169, CA291720, CA146613, CA180633, CA121860, CA133791, CA199922, CA067244, CA262313, CA078445, CA131567, CA253243, CA074238, CA120588, CA268873, CA238585, CA219714, CA218602, CA267988, CA268534, CA070614, CA145612, CA160457, CA180428, CA268951, CA234136, CA098447, CA193324, CA136123, CA218518, CA184233, CA139019, CA145699, CA260610, CA182962, CA239591, CA099732, CA105807, CA107503, CA138654, CA212476, CA239233, CA252352, CA131278, CA085013, CA220627, CA117443, CA079490, CA238164, CA180322, CA112470, CA142140, CA075732, CA073680, CA068067, CA157313, CA179892, CA233146, CA240845, CA075816, CA068156, CA246078, CA233227, CA279126, CA240923, CA094282, CA069497, CA197493, CA182107, CA166736, CA255275, CA251326, CA198871, CA281656, CA137037, CA070883, CA296203, CA078532, CA207814, CA070947, CA199983, CA282429, CA143090, CA191565, CA189249, CA198125, CA197513, CA203121, CA264333, CA214261, CA196418, CA251452, CA171285, CA156984, CA197506, CA211996, CA100356, CA094466, CA133046, CA270062, CA249901, CA211434, CA225569, CA189822, CA093801, CA100946, CA249815, CA131571, CA220355, CA136957, CA099350, CA064927, CA285088, CA217335, CA139813, CA146454, CA186309, CA217407, CA070684, CA268600, CA199112, CA126792, CA112223, CA265918, CA186374, CA070764, CA099737, CA226973, CA251532, CA142208, CA190634, CA279252, CA174635, CA237846, CA131296, CA224758, CA209005, CA132410, CA187486, CA230626, CA228588, CA080166, CA226226, CA131487, CA209980, CA240058, CA211052, CA230710, CA065368, CA080253, CA165083, CA129937, CA215432, CA280033, CA244591, CA065145, CA064807, CA168165, CA198439, CA218272, CA099578, CA219277, CA218353, CA096715, CA142481, CA142630, CA084917, CA100264, CA213047, CA134830, CA175003, CA121078, CA237503, CA135573, CA244608, CA134915, CA254178, CA135661, CA136819, CA069455, CA157330, CA164187, CA097370, CA067491, CA145272, CA214390, CA098535, CA097056, CA266148)
SEQ ID No. 274: SCCCRZ1003A03.g (CA259202, CA100500, CA082076, CA122924, CA157918, CA095401, CA187294, CA090612, CA080881, CA112947, CA090695, CA130558, CA146966, CA072719, CA296093, CA262625, CA170785, CA145446, CA178555, CA206391, CA250364, CA171994, CA145530, CA147572, CA240600, CA250453, CA095399, CA282848, CA115658, CA095183, CA237700, CA079664, CA233842, CA180299, CA262035) SEQ ID No. 275: SCCCRZ1C01H06.g (CA186428, CA147401, CA147396, CA102140, CA131386, CA067698, CA089218, CA174951, CA158992, CA071179, CA196935, CA190380, CA132381, CA232396, CA211475, CA270590, CA124159, CA132671, CA175342, CA300402, CA165879, CA192094, CA110028, CA118616, CA147228, CA140507, CA149523, CA117528, CA130394, CA179398, CA225915, CA187763, CA266799, CA122963, CA217785, CA232794, CA262910, CA292429, CA094522, CA232704, CA127615, CA245193) SEQ ID No. 276: SCCCRZ2001F06.g (CA209945, CA125138, CA089034, CA188983, CA140093, CA239385, CA128670, CA123109, CA283553, CA077454, CA149645, CA077376, CA239384, CA110981, CA289986, CA257955, CA274339, CA283333, CA285711, CA248034, CA094452, CA248046, CA119336, CA225096, CA248683, CA225120) SEQ ID No. 277: SCCCRZ2002C09.g (CA227904, CA086301, CA178222, CA149034, CA179328, CA164395, CA150695, CA300591, CA266120, CA214033, CA179414, CA101215, CA232117, CA266196, CA230767, CA106384, CA221659, CA077653, CA090620, CA242756, CA203337, CA104567, CA090436, CA214675, CA090702, CA182664, CA299455, CA160657, CA169652, CA115444, CA110086, CA170759, CA104628, CA090335, CA168143, CA252390, CA083307, CA256278, CA081478, CA076382, CA257169, CA205954, CA076469, CA213516, CA257243, CA192918, CA280631, CA151528, CA122818, CA122358, CA088685, CA210655, CA188323, CA253393, CA238275, CA191873, CA135967, CA150598, CA230233, CA091237, CA126923, CA188824, CA280882, CA079326, CA184911, CA173242, CA248830, CA251291, CA246358, CA131973, CA256847, CA075481, CA280627, CA244443, CA241676, CA234839, CA191350, CA132923, CA167430, CA214518, CA289890, CA129459, CA231295, CA234594, CA231360, CA122705, CA171017, CA174592, CA213097, CA203677, CA249784, CA241848, CA154628, CA084636, CA147920, CA084027, CA210274, CA085409, CA073058, CA257603, CA171251, CA235287, CA194012, CA274516, CA189176, CA205967, CA114776, CA249998, CA170208, CA200483, CA079438, CA110598, CA213534, CA081442, CA158958, CA171823, CA201301, CA113037, CA162250, CA091597, CA199925, CA105728, CA149023, CA245774, CA257029, CA294516, CA255995, CA203027, CA251151, CA257109, CA233064, CA089686, CA165671, CA206864, CA197554, CA120723, CA294637, CA195134, CA222415, CA206697, CA089770, CA082495, CA270377, CA096681, CA204010, CA084811, CA225968, CA080123, CA268286, CA177754, CA225888, CA080209, CA280835, CA075666, CA159929, CA223078, CA148574, CA186803, CA139688, CA082737, CA169610, CA071215, CA251920, CA071288, CA253042, CA226647, CA067362, CA149705, CA175116, CA183854, CA253113, CA194680, CA229952, CA203951, CA145489, CA183906, CA185885, CA236571, CA183894, CA229664) SEQ ID No. 278: SCCCRZ2004E04.g (CA265204, CA171814, CA107719, CA149900, CA193048, CA135977, CA070442) SEQ ID No. 279: SCCCRZ2C03B03.g (CA152461, CA091354, CA290267, CA150127, CA098420, CA160838, CA091259, CA210324, CA246275, CA160924, CA099832, CA246979) SEQ ID No. 280: SCCCRZ2C03B08.g (CA189326, CA128922, CA152978, CA275251, CA116757, CA206159, CA277339, CA273726, CA288950, CA288339, CA122779, CA274965, CA165128, CA149798, CA281356, CA185850, CA273473, CA083665, CA112203, CA118075, CA119323, CA258675, CA150131, CA260681, CA189332, CA183249, CA282545, CA114816, CA285606, CA284673, CA221505, CA277051, CA113469, CA274816, CA220035) SEQ ID No. 281: SCCCRZ2C03D11.g (CA212623, CA218773, CA234879, CA188440, CA150157, CA167123, CA160865, CA152558, CA153910, CA160953, CA292253, CA198906, CA146128, CA152637, CA253272, CA199372, CA081496, CA084800, CA210001, CA165052, CA173701, CA098184, CA198989, CA300667, CA211850, CA160948, CA207047, CA095115, CA136241, CA198430, CA256720, CA251375, CA166995, CA221307, CA110797, CA199377, CA154437, CA256643, CA237901, CA155637, CA237281, CA243431, CA199465, CA113301, CA201599, CA152440, CA186303, CA218694, CA091459, CA075606, CA102523) SEQ ID No. 282: SCCCRZ2C04A07.g (CA150208, CA254428, CA264432, CA109026, CA289248, CA212120, CA068378, CA269484, CA290794, CA150592, CA267114, CA108938, CA148663) SEQ ID No. 283: SCCCRZ3002D03.g (CA157090, CA166754, CA166468, CA081540, CA166789, CA159915, CA166748, CA158667, CA166054, CA160001, CA159544, CA158534, CA157577, CA163132, CA162955, CA159630, CA162379, CA156383, CA159213, CA156380, CA159296, CA157027, CA155724, CA166592, CA160596, CA157767, CA159130, CA159692, CA160663, CA157459, CA160591, CA162831, CA157771, CA161878, CA159777, CA157345, CA162828, CA160660, CA165592, CA157437, CA156341, CA161644, CA163699, CA166773, CA166732, CA155976, CA166749, CA166465, CA158668, CA166747, CA166717, CA156749, CA157068, CA161600, CA157110, CA155898, CA156928, CA155357, CA155731, CA155982, CA166777, CA165945, CA155803, CA166847, CA158604, CA154735, CA154876, CA157483, CA154704, CA159558, CA162867, CA156720, CA159340, CA157550, CA157322, CA156111, CA159644, CA159429) SEQ ID No. 284: SCCCST1004A07.g (CA183604, CA186275, CA243234, CA183683, CA186721, CA100350, CA187378, CA155740, CA175579, CA231947, CA228851, CA155725, CA154689, CA254179, CA172559, CA225984, CA264609, CA242994, CA158084, CA268024, CA173756, CA225902, CA163001, CA185577, CA159081, CA227411, CA139414, CA167973) SEQ ID No. 285: SCCCST1005H10.g (CA156092, CA252584, CA251786, CA095869, CA200174, CA229003, CA150731, CA267208, CA111168, CA193424, CA298858, CA284582, CA173902, CA239780, CA210407, CA253368, CA239582) SEQ ID No. 286: SCCCST1007H11.g (CA239834, CA294188, CA174066, CA294125, CA289019, CA267191, CA205751, CA247131, CA186999, CA082859, CA248451, CA197532, CA248572, CA248681, CA229903, CA291504, CA223912, CA268732, CA229818, CA268664, CA177922, CA299828, CA085026, CA107150, CA270735, CA171072, CA250481, CA198295, CA224502, CA270670, CA111282, CA250414, CA170995, CA248529, CA250649, CA252343, CA115211, CA169576, CA250568, CA169653) SEQ ID No. 287: SCCCST2004D11.g (CA276737, CA286409, CA290332, CA180097, CA274366, CA290274, CA276791, CA283900) SEQ ID No. 288: SCCCST3C01D11.g (CA192121, CA200064) SEQ ID No. 289: SCEPCL6019E04.g (CA278974, CA178777, CA258916, CA210789, CA096932, CA228505, CA292383, CA287368, CA260767, CA258913, CA067293) SEQ ID No. 290: SCEPLB1043H04.g (CA112277, CA268601, CA084506, CA123703, CA130941, CA298376, CA100990, CA092352, CA111629, CA259193, CA175844, CA069065, CA236418, CA259195, CA194776, CA197355, CA285641, CA279779, CA274614, CA208294) SEQ ID No. 291: SCEPRZ1009C10.g (CA216178, CA089411, CA192966, CA085572, CA147458, CA210405, CA186340, CA080065, CA195484, CA176812, CA086836, CA299623, CA186790, CA174279, CA270325) SEQ ID No. 292: SCEQLB1065H07.g (CA113324, CA112585, CA112172) SEQ ID No. 293: SCEQRT1028H06.g (CA185370, CA217107, CA185369, CA181686, CA144447, CA259824, CA259055, CA224656, CA132900, CA139337) SEQ ID No. 294: SCEQRT2091B08.g (CA177838, CA138900, CA131473) SEQ ID No. 295: SCEZLR1009F06.g (CA241512, CA233926, CA203368, CA147610, CA244100, CA143820, CA235700, CA224287, CA076822, CA136422, CA204148, CA132715, CA243514, CA121484, CA149083, CA270033, CA224204, CA235620) SEQ ID No. 296: SCEZLR1052D02.g (CA290091, CA101830, CA232662, CA121616, CA136331, CA269565, CA099181, CA274273, CA261699, CA244896, CA264816, CA291831, CA244980, CA242167, CA088365, CA207802, CA164209, CA083724, CA102047, CA144138, CA287479) SEQ ID No. 297: SCEZLR1052F07.g (CA074246, CA121654, CA248895, CA133812, CA282557, CA241182, CA114856, CA211933, CA248974, CA276743, CA101051, CA270608, CA276796) SEQ ID No. 298: SCEZRZ1012A02.g (CA297050, CA147663, CA157700, CA105038, CA261583, CA271380, CA215641, CA159641, CA069275, CA177800, CA270487) SEQ ID No. 299: SCJFAM1066B05.g (CA268766, CA074908, CA268710, CA228447, CA244764, CA274990, CA065083, CA074999) SEQ ID No. 300: SCJFHR1C03E01.b (CA105064, CA292248) SEQ ID No. 301: SCJFLR1013A09.g (CA235310, CA282013, CA179055, CA283254, CA183161, CA290788, CA164417, CA252946, CA141957, CA096624, CA265391, CA288713, CA274581, CA190135, CA208818, CA279074, CA197553, CA228792, CA167001, CA243611, CA173593, CA132194, CA159403, CA301384, CA172463, CA157575, CA122731, CA163302, CA159490, CA122807, CA290934, CA084459, CA209937, CA276141, CA124943, CA291009, CA101340, CA219373, CA282113, CA301068, CA151204, CA155518, CA261457, CA226015, CA281400, CA277290, CA106860, CA151298, CA131594, CA209070, CA274261, CA230293, CA281699, CA102959, CA242254, CA230377, CA110744, CA297719, CA273517, CA288217, CA283872, CA069932, CA161956, CA152851, CA167994, CA279904, CA072926, CA151486, CA294369, CA285703, CA152126, CA151570, CA123278, CA294297, CA197602, CA169959, CA243645, CA301385, CA264726, CA288442, CA273556, CA139713, CA195766, CA119825, CA145652, CA101345, CA295834, CA278607, CA167657, CA145735, CA164101, CA293116, CA289163, CA284698, CA072930, CA164096, CA274175, CA199249, CA282860, CA253978, CA282859, CA277633, CA274222, CA277807, CA217957, CA066317, CA154676, CA281278, CA131869, CA121746, CA143651, CA283796, CA240378, CA276222, CA180047, CA180206, CA178970, CA280226, CA109795, CA268088) SEQ ID No. 302: SCJFRT1062G05.g (CA134706, CA195808, CA245921, CA134625, CA104221) SEQ ID No. 303: SCJFRZ2009F04.g (CA151389, CA159376, CA226687, CA146560, CA166765, CA197932, CA159464, CA270358, CA183354) SEQ ID No. 304: SCJFRZ2010A09.g (CA151517, CA183884, CA151430) SEQ ID No. 305: SCJFRZ2028F11.g (CA186745, CA152421, CA186827, CA211953, CA191943, CA198909, CA224105, CA200632, CA255362, CA066398, CA131076, CA201119, CA299210, CA299133, CA200718, CA131498, CA157938, CA205075, CA160778, CA064989, CA277477, CA281350) SEQ ID No. 306: SCJFRZ2032C08.g (CA117340, CA295374, CA295303, CA152817) SEQ ID No. 307: SCJFRZ2032G01.g (CA133254, CA248557, CA175553, C0A290388, CA170294, CA152856, CA171924, CA205645, CA233534, CA221515, CA081654, CA171952, CA065512, CA081995, CA166558, CA065587,
CA078958, CA211764, CA237388, CA258073) SEQ ID No. 308: SCJFST1009G05.g (CA296907, CA174288, CA269643, CA174211, CA193249) SEQ ID No. 309: SCJLHR1028C12.g (CA106176, CA106117, CA108309, CA107078) SEQ ID No. 310: SCJLLR1054C09.g (CA207848, CA168087, CA168395, CA212085, CA167523, CA091873, CA122611, CA155006, CA181705, CA134394, CA225549, CA210454, CA254817, CA110775, CA178602, CA294600, CA247901, CA176250, CA191684, CA069266, CA300512, CA165622, CA155090, CA067961, CA171908, CA209040, CA173982, CA094706, CA240234, CA103017, CA122429, CA150920, CA112960, CA162575, CA122515, CA160567, CA113924, CA066919, CA160642, CA221530, CA208709, CA071863, CA214558, CA220510, CA123419, CA244626, CA231363, CA228474, CA111123, CA134073, CA146492, CA244685, CA219982, CA073891, CA174808, CA221075, CA262113, CA114521, CA162927, CA115467, CA161791, CA168280, CA152952, CA091868, CA233706, CA164651, CA204996, CA129415, CA172853, CA166113, CA107134, CA254985, CA159872, CA159959, CA088872, CA173464) SEQ ID No. 311: SCJLLR1108H07.g (CA076625, CA161661, CA086613, CA161602, CA165554, CA245933, CA085287, CA123416, CA161598, CA175504, CA232025, CA166769, CA102997, CA076538, CA107411, CA155427, CA084502, CA106431, CA154641, CA106546, CA157227, CA154884, CA079948, CA179653, CA211436, CA121982, CA162963, CA258991, CA160716, CA243419, CA079250, CA072412, CA086508) SEQ ID No. 312: SCJLRZ1023H04.g (CA265135, CA190996, CA292308, CA268081, CA256348, CA207478, CA081712, CA292758, CA256420, CA167022, CA291705, CA091971, CA179799, CA140075, CA266752, CA291699, CA258363, CA113856, CA149162, CA260595, CA140368, CA246964, CA235343, CA155907, CA140145, CA279058, CA274307, CA165644, CA278889, CA205578, CA091372, CA181941, CA166813, CA299890, CA177590, CA072486, CA156132, CA248336) SEQ ID No. 313: SCJLRZ1026F03.g (CA149469, CA205387, CA289827, CA184015, CA247348, CA282029, CA187706, CA205445) SEQ ID No. 314: SCMCCL6055H06.g (CA183309, CA272155, CA071587, CA154790, CA236184, CA111608, CA231710, CA288208, CA098251, CA238333, CA187031, CA071503, CA293423) SEQ ID No. 315: SCMCFL5005A02.g (CA236668, CA293232, CA251482) SEQ ID No. 316: SCQGLR1019A10.g (CA158123, CA074136, CA078695, CA202125, CA242927, CA291653, CA258225, CA223738, CA242859, CA124066, CA230103, CA120900, CA154098, CA255904, CA223648, CA129680, CA230031, CA082294, CA246357, CA262363, CA265415, CA118654, CA213833, CA125970, CA127771, CA246827, CA247296, CA087908, CA171645, CA102269, CA272756, CA137758, CA088231, CA148006, CA122701, CA187495, CA239190, CA230034, CA228513, CA074865, CA285487, CA147299, CA125885, CA236307, CA076601, CA116390, CA074785) SEQ ID No. 317: SCQGLR1085G10.g (CA246799, CA299090, CA247266, CA285442, CA124279, CA092800, CA073766, CA200888, CA282968) SEQ ID No. 318: SCQGLR2032G10.g (CA080092, CA073014, CA139013, CA225342, CA159885, CA165867, CA299929, CA118209, CA159972, CA108533, CA108413, CA106301, CA086875, CA086531, CA129084) SEQ ID No. 319: SCQGRZ3011D06.g (CA161694, CA227205, CA245780, CA216248) SEQ ID No. 320: SCQGSB1140F12.g (CA213355, CA173336) SEQ ID No. 321: SCQGST1034G10.g (CA178801, CA186336, CA179790, CA176353, CA177570, CA236876, CA131335, CA214405, CA236124, CA186273, CA284135, CA216656, CA300978) SEQ ID No. 322: SCQSHR1023F08.g (CA282568, CA106894, CA104925, CA211813) SEQ ID No. 323: SCRFFL5034G07.g (CA292908, CA237588, CA237589) SEQ ID No. 324: SCRLAD1100E08.g (CA218592, CA211503, CA218509) SEQ ID No. 325: SCRLAM1010D08.g (CA212204, CA199909, CA248341, CA242304, CA256227, CA172929, CA220898, CA078708, CA247486, CA280865) SEQ ID No. 326: SCRLFL1008C11.g (CA228213, CA201789, CA206320) SEQ ID No. 327: SCRLFL1012B10.g (CA200156, CA199546) SEQ ID No. 328: SCRLFL3007C04.g (CA226398) SEQ ID No. 329: SCRLLR1111D02.g (CA293691, CA293635, CA125789) SEQ ID No. 330: SCRLSD1012E03.g (CA274071, CA285380) SEQ ID No. 331: SCRLST3166F11.g (CA182238, CA171790, CA184723) SEQ ID No. 332: SCRUAD1063C06.g (CA068638, CA265707, CA068550, CA109839) SEQ ID No. 333: SCRUAD1133D10.b (CA217707, CA260899, CA295151) SEQ ID No. 334: SCRURT2010A10.g (CA144026, CA210038, CA197343, CA252900, CA067500) SEQ ID No. 335: SCSBAM1084F08.g (CA198503, CA079138, CA079137) SEQ ID No. 336: SCSBHR1052C05.g (CA196243, CA215089, CA164400, CA195955, CA108007, CA139925, CA215090, CA224796, CA098473, CA209222, CA197036, CA209253) SEQ ID No. 337: SCSBHR1056H08.g (CA105333, CA108213) SEQ ID No. 338: SCSBLB1035F03.g (CA264024, CA104540, CA115550, CA212924) SEQ ID No. 339: SCSBSD2058D04.g (CA287176, CA297226, CA287175) SEQ ID No. 340: SCSFAD1124E07.g (CA066760, CA217172, CA066828, CA217514) SEQ ID No. 341: SCSFHR1043G09.g (CA108353, CA218662, CA212351) SEQ ID No. 342: SCSGFL5C08F04.g (CA246146, CA236946, CA246999) SEQ ID No. 343: SCSGLR1045E07.g (CA168455, CA126284, CA177719, CA172031) SEQ ID No. 344: SCSGRT2066D05.g (CA070717, CA175523, CA145621, CA187735) SEQ ID No. 345: SCUTAM2088G02.g (CA091716, CA090231, CA091719) SEQ ID No. 346: SCUTFL3073E12.g (CA257224, CA241247, CA292613) SEQ ID No. 347: SCUTLR1037F04.g (CA170823, CA177197, CA279404, CA222805, CA121507, CA289444, CA282074, CA207370, CA115893, CA105265, CA226291, CA170108, CA263098, CA132119, CA107841, CA085728, CA126622, CA227826, CA227505, CA260163, CA262467, CA193720, CA219325, CA177230, CA103517, CA170340, CA170414, CA105596, CA112997, CA228100, CA234662, CA258511, CA097304, CA120418) SEQ ID No. 348: SCUTLR1037F12.g (CA156611, CA293535, CA249045, CA087183, CA189165, CA086047, CA290121, CA081883, CA214139, CA229204, CA113764, CA213924, CA260485, CA126357, CA230132, CA221003, CA187849, CA273962, CA225939, CA102197, CA283956, CA183828, CA218025, CA195893, CA085608, CA263834, CA290919, CA183344, CA241008, CA104921, CA066522, CA290997, CA172858, CA095919, CA247671, CA186981, CA133280, CA245107, CA257283, CA115814, CA258330, CA212915, CA119073, CA194926, CA239944, CA104400, CA113297, CA104485, CA087184, CA069789, CA179218, CA231826, CA231159, CA086089, CA076690, CA246370, CA254495, CA091273, CA100677, CA106434, CA230786, CA253134, CA257292, CA231505, CA225180, CA241459, CA198266, CA115318, CA161747, CA103920, CA152307, CA133281, CA086095, CA231031, CA187270, CA242618, CA144012, CA111808, CA238509, CA253529, CA089266, CA157653, CA228713, CA106021, CA117820, CA126627, CA104401, CA211834, CA182929, CA104486) SEQ ID No. 349: SCUTLR1058C02.g (CA262461, CA168036, CA230840, CA293241, CA281414, CA281585, CA106941, CA142008, CA151458, CA092310, CA270530, CA270458, CA225598, CA151543, CA202726, CA128347, CA241827, CA282746, CA128419, CA119915, CA204605, CA215500, CA170573, CA164411, CA134253, CA142288, CA176323, CA195642, CA255302, CA158993, CA283479, CA283473, CA126682, CA118166, CA213449, CA157587, CA207851) SEQ ID No. 350: SCUTLR2008E01.g (CA123373, CA129763, CA128815) SEQ ID No. 351: SCUTRZ2024G05.g (CA234849, CA204407, CA105515, CA224224, CA109551, CA143843, CA279720, CA161103, CA224302, CA299491, CA122794, CA179195, CA153592, CA105749, CA164517) SEQ ID No. 352: SCUTST3086B02.g (CA213057, CA224653) SEQ ID No. 353: SCUTST3129E01.g (CA172415, CA213379, CA187638) SEQ ID No. 354: SCVPCL6041F12.g (CA082429, CA161720, CA139420, CA272127, CA238764, CA215035, CA194711, CA209687, CA171991, CA172016, CA165652, CA156463) SEQ ID No. 355: SCVPCL6042B07.g (CA169577, CA081626, CA106612, CA099887, CA081969) SEQ ID No. 356: SCVPLR149C09.g (CA295256, CA300966, CA278033, CA090854, CA282609, CA121190, CA216481, CA267073, CA111152, CA126945, CA280319, CA278841, CA262278, CA287391, CA296360, CA296426, CA248739, CA287386, CA259530, CA296500, CA266143, CA216477, CA150885, CA248822, CA096454, CA099843, CA252370, CA087591, CA266218, CA071726, CA081002, CA087680, CA240033, CA219541, CA202897, CA077216, CA219614, CA066229, CA281069) SEQ ID No. 357: SCVPLR1049E12.g (CA124363, CA107272, CA132969, CA09837, CA126955, CA122520, CA182701, CA167289) SEQ ID No. 358: SCVPLR2005H03.g (CA107547, CA139171, CA074786, CA265130, CA268083, CA243200, CA074866, CA134745, CA100667, CA131059, CA264817, CA254269, CA268118, CA264761, CA121869, CA201866, CA220819, CA156636, CA097099, CA289841, CA222964, CA116567, CA091798, CA219374, CA138613, CA221255, CA132550, CA289940, CA251888, CA205653, CA100956, CA293549, CA243537, CA136973, CA120370, CA158202, CA228366, CA260312) SEQ ID No. 359: SCVPLR2012B07.g (CA130160, CA266175, CA077480, CA072583, CA084569, CA194404, CA278936, CA240283, CA201232, CA288279, CA077401, CA066454, CA180797, CA244848, CA266247, CA130150, CA137685, CA233499) SEQ ID No. 360: SCVPLR2019B03.g (CA087275, CA087192, CA125068, CA101699, CA222267, CA259282, CA248553, CA223061, CA172804, CA200147, CA130990, CA225681, CA231261, CA223347, CA255228, CA273849, CA254244, CA156394, CA163312, CA117607, CA078324, CA072741, CA248475, CA212519, CA124666, CA126419, CA268138, CA105146, CA299030, CA177516, CA222789, CA105222, CA253702, CA202841, CA077031, CA077074, CA295407, CA118765, CA265852, CA289740, CA156183, CA197419, CA292775, CA207673, CA225709, CA153732, CA169731, CA102976, CA254955, CA228712, CA067636, CA264512, CA130214, CA130204, CA106807, CA207166, CA198764, CA216476, CA197293, CA103316, CA202300, CA077735, CA211185, CA067184, CA159570, CA258272, CA067264, CA159656, CA200260, CA117368, CA183438) SEQ ID No. 361: SCVPLR2027A05.g (CA235611, CA214709, CA235691, CA229065, CA216821, CA251974, CA085301, CA101012, CA271269, CA197839, CA223162, CA118164, CA086683, CA223250, CA221375, CA188324, CA130277, CA130307, CA291410, CA227333, CA279299, CA289704, CA167019, CA207029, CA206493, CA270388, CA176609, CA255410, CA166845, CA070734, CA073573, CA070813, CA112278, CA295884) SEQ ID No. 362: SCVPRZ2038F04.g
(CA278038, CA154019, CA185583) SEQ ID No. 363: SCVPRZ3025A12.g (CA070455, CA292147, CA245381, CA166400, CA204294, CA242140) SEQ ID No. 364: SCVPRZ3029G09.g (CA239171, CA273853, CA166786, CA203209) SEQ ID No. 365: SCMCST1053A06.g (CA110730, CA157435, CA164231, CA176670, CA079493, CA088347) SEQ ID No. 366: SCCCLB1C06H02.g (CA189458, CA167345, CA115196, CA207187, CA252023) SEQ ID No. 367: SCJLRT1023G09.g (CA077219, CA072472, CA136050, CA078881, CA266374, CA224918, CA162043, CA091967, CA074650) SEQ ID No. 368: SCCCST1004C05.g (CA098064, CA072037, CA194838, CA098063, CA173775, CA074361, CA079156, CA098059, CA084783) SEQ ID No. 369: SCCCLB1002D12.g (CA092064, CA238036, CA222592, CA227487, CA110870, CA207790) SEQ ID No. 370: SCSGHR1070F12.g (CA076267, CA109334) SEQ ID No. 371: SCEQLR1092H10.g (CA279813, CA186407, CA212604, CA279552, CA186484, CA135161, CA069193, CA103839, CA121281, CA153767, CA285432, CA182006, CA131451, CA285178, CA078267, CA078257, CA205885, CA136733, CA205884, CA097155, CA264106, CA279798, CA163611, CA091480, CA091191, CA187913, CA261976, CA277443, CA204843, CA273593, CA287502, CA287253, CA085398, CA222671) SEQ ID No. 372: SCJFST1011B06.g (CA239247, CA174473, CA262684, CA211312, CA218557) SEQ ID No. 373: SCEQRT2030G04.g (CA138771, CA145363, CA291384) The EST Genbank accession number is in parentheses. The SEQ ID No. refers to the sequence identifiers in the sequence listing. The listed ESTs assembled to the indicated sequence and should be considered one transcript. Each SAS is differentially expressed between plants with low and high sucrose content or between internode tissues of high and low sucrose content.
TABLE-US-00012 TABLE XIV SNF-related like kinase genes and regulatory subunits differentially expressed between high brix and low brix varieties. Four individuals were selected from SP83-2847 (V1), four from SP94-3116 (V3), four from SP91-1049 (V2) and four from SP89-1115 (V4). RNA samples from the indicated tissues and collected months were used to generate probes for cDNA microarray hybridizations. The last four columns indicate the average ratios and the fold induction when the high and low brix samples were compared against an equimolar mixture of RNAs from the same varieties collected in march (when the cell is empty differential expression was not detected on the sample) The average brix measures are shown in FIG. 6. High Brix Low Brix Experiment SAS Category sub category 1 sub category 2 sub category 3 V2 V4 V1 V3 Leaf March SCCCLB1002D12.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases caneCIPK-24 SNF-like/CBL- 3.2 interacting Protein Kinase SCSGHR1070F12.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases caneCIPK-29 SNF-like/CBL- 2.7 interacting Protein Kinase SCEQLR1092H10.g Carbohydrate met SIP homologue -- -- 2.5 (AKIN gamma) SCJFST1011B06.g Carbohydrate met Similar to -- -- 6.7 4.6 AKINbetagamma May SCJFST1011B06.g Carbohydrate met Similar to -- -- 10.5 3.7 4.7 6.2 AKINbetagamma September SCEQRT2030G04.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases caneCIPK-26 SNF-like/CBL- 3.2 interacting Protein Kinase SCEQLR1092H10.g Carbohydrate met SIP homologue -- -- 2.7 (AKIN gamma) SCJFST1011B06.g Carbohydrate met Similar to -- -- -4.1 1.5 AKINbetagamma Internode 1 March SCJFST1011B06.g Carbohydrate met Similar to -- -- 1.5 1.9 3.0 AKINbetagamma May SCJFST1011B06.g Carbohydrate met Similar to -- -- 2.4 AKINbetagamma July SCJFST1011B06.g Carbohydrate met Similar to -- -- 3.1 2.4 3.6 2.7 AKINbetagamma September SCJFST1011B06.g Carbohydrate met Similar to -- -- -3.0 -1.8 AKINbetagamma
TABLE-US-00013 TABLE XV Genes differentially expressed between internode 9 (mature, rich in sugar) and internode 1 (immature, poor in sugar) from a pool of seven high brix plants. SAS Category Description of homologue High Low SCCCLR1001E04.g Carbohydrate Metabolism Photosynthesis RUBISCO - small subunit 5.17088 SCSGFL5C08F04.g Unknown protein 14.5502 SCCCLR1024E11.g Stress Superoxide dismutases Cu/Zn 3.52866 SCCCLR1068G11.g DNA metabolism Histone H2B 3.17131 SCEZRZ1012A02.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP9 5.68635 SCSBAD1084C01.g Others Tubulin alpha-1 chain 2.37024 SCCCLR2002D04.g DNA metabolism Histone H4 3.09739 SCJFRZ2032G01.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases caneSnRK1-2 1.69948 SCCCLR2002F08.g Hormone related Auxin auxin repressed 2.0465 SCVPFL3045B09.g Stress Metalothionein 3.46187 SCJLHR1028C12.g Stress Infected libraries Histone H4 4.71202 SCVPLR2019B03.g Pathogenicity Polygalacturonase inhibitor 4.46784 SCJLRZ1023H04.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases caneCIPK-9 4.32708 SCCCLR2C03D05.g Stress Superoxide dismutases Cu/Zn 4.75184 SCCCRT2001H11.g Small GTPases Arf 1.9028 SCCCRZ1001D02.g Adapters 14-3-3 proteins 1.90957 SCCCRZ2C03D11.g Transcription Scarecrow 2.8597 SCRLLR1111D02.g No matches (non-coding) 3.55119 SCCCRZ1002F06.g Stress Drought and cold response Enolase 2.15317 SCBFAD1046D01.g Transcription HLH (helix-loop-helix) 3.05338 SCRLST3166F11.g No matches (non-coding) 1.7087 SCCCRZ2002C09.g Others Alpha tubulin 2.30795 SCCCCL3120C09.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase cane RLK with LysM-1 2.72539 SCEQRT1025D06.g Adapters 14-3-3 proteins 1.76605 SCSGLR1045E07.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneLTK1-15 3.27161 (leucine-rich transmembrane kinase) SCCCRZ1001A09.g Unknown protein 3.47497 SCUTFL3073E12.g Unknown protein 3.88751 SCJFLR1074E09.g Stress Drought and cold response Low temperature induced (LTI) 2.73407 SCUTST3129E01.g Unknown protein 3.16936 SCVPLR2005H03.g Transcription Aux/IAA 2.96052 SCCCLR2002G09.g DNA metabolism Histone H4 5.40529 SCVPRT2074D04.g Unknown protein 10.9716 SCMCST1053A06.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase canePERK1-3 2.55721 SCCCRZ1001G10.g Transcription Aux/IAA 3.20251 SCBFLR1039B05.g Carbohydrate Metabolism Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase 7.23097 SCCCRZ1C01H06.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins Apyrase 5.42483 SCSBSD2029F05.g Unknown protein 29.3706 SCSFHR1043G09.g Stress Infected libraries S-adenosylmethionine synthase 2.57568 SCEZHR1087F06.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP84 3.71447 SCJFLR1013A09.g Stress Drought and cold response Cysteine proteinase 2.34682 RD19A precursor SCCCAD1004H02.g Stress Catalase 4.81462 SCSBHR1056H08.g Receptors EIN2 (ethylene) 2.2665 The individuals were selected from an F1 progeny of a cross between two commercial varieties, SP80-180 and SP80-4966. RNA samples from internode 9 (mature, rich in sugar) and internode 1 (immature, poor in sugar) were collected in March from the seven highest brix individuals and used to generate probes for cDNA microarray hybridizations. The column High indicates the average ratios (fold induction) of genes more expressed in internode 9 than in internode 1. The column Low indicates the average ratios (fold induction) of genes more expressed in internode 1 than in internode 9. The average brix in the highest sugar internodes was 18.47.
TABLE-US-00014 TABLE XVI Genes differentially expressed between Internode 9 (mature, rich in sugar) and internode 1 (immature poor in sugar) from a pool of seven high brix plants. SAS Category Description of homologue High Low SCCCHR1004D03.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneRLK-CII1 2.886 SCEQRT2091B08.g Pathogenicity R-genes NBS-LRR 6.61364 SCCCRZ1001D02.g Adapters 14-3-3 proteins 4.07912 SCACLR2022H05.g Lipid metabolism Acyl carrier protein-like 2.62875 SCCCLR1022D05.g Adapters 14-3-3 proteins 2.98657 SCCCHR1004H09.g Others Putative cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase 1.92571 SCAGLR1021G10.g Transcription Homeobox knotted homeobox 2.32589 SCCCRZ1C01H06.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins Apyrase 7.92529 SCAGLR2026G12.g No matches 3.39302 SCCCRZ2002C09.g Others Alpha tubulin 4.67588 SCEZRZ1012A02.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP9 4.61871 SCUTST3129E01.g Unknown protein 1.91148 SCRFLR2037F09.g Calcium Calreticulin 2.02563 SCCCLR1072H06.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneRLK-CIII5 2.00064 SCCCRZ2C03B08.g Unknown protein 2.91431 SCRLAM1010D08.g Transcription Homeobox knotted homeobox 2.79028 SCRLFL3007C04.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneRLK-D5 4.32835 SCSBAD1084C01.g Others Tubulin alpha-1 chain 4.77431 SCCCLR2C02A05.g Development Expansin 2.51264 SCBFST3136A06.g No matches 1.64093 SCCCST1005H10.g Stress Drought and cold response erd3-like 2.28191 SCVPRZ3025A12.g Protein kinases RLCK canePBS1-6 3.88743 SCBGFL4053F12.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneRLK-DV2 3.57578 SCCCST1007H11.g Small GTPases Rab 2.33447 SCJFRZ2009F04.g Transcription Aux/IAA 2.29158 SCJLLR1054C09.g Transcription Aux/IAA 2.65943 SCJFST1009G05.g Protein kinases Putative RLCK caneRLCK-A3 2.13741 SCBFLR1039B05.g Carbohydrate Metabolism Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase 11.4992 SCSBHR1052C05.g Inositol Others Phospholipase C 1.7622 SCCCLR2C03D05.g Stress Superoxide dismutases Cu/Zn 3.71548 SCCCCL4004C06.g Unknown protein 5.53096 SCCCCL3120C09.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase cane RLK with LysM-1 4.75777 SCCCRT1001E12.g Small GTPases Rab 3.51448 SCEQRT1028H06.g Hormone biosynthesis Auxin Nitrilase 2.22559 SCCCRT2001H11.g Small GTPases Arf 3.62744 SCSGLR1045E07.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneLTK1-15 (leucine-rich transmembrane kinase) 4.26249 SCCCRZ1001C12.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP51 1.63378 SCCCLB1023E12.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneRLK-DXIV1 (with LRR) 1.75209 SCUTAM2115C12.g Unknown protein 4.03376 SCCCRZ1001G10.g Transcription Aux/IAA 4.81226 SCCCLR1024E11.g Stress Superoxide dismutases Cu/Zn 2.64644 SCCCLR1072E03.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneRLK-AX3 3.18447 SCCCRZ2C04A07.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP71E 7.26294 SCVPRT2074D04.g Unknown protein 17.1483 SCCCCL5002B10.g Protein kinases Undefined-unclassified caneUPK-87 2.6046 SCRURT2010A10.g Transcription Putative transcription factor (myb) 3.35245 SCRUSB1062E12.g Lipid metabolism Putative triacylglycerol lipase 2.38531 SCBGLR1096C08.g Protein kinases Cell cycle-related caneCDK-18 3.2602 SCUTST3086B02.g Transcription AP2/EREBP Tiny 2.12353 SCSBLB1035F03.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase-unclassified caneURLK-119 (with LRR) 5.9116 SCEPRZ1009C10.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases cane osmotic stress-activated protein kinase-1 3.54108 SCJLRZ1026F03.g Protein kinases Putative RLCK caneRLCK-AII2 2.347 SCEQRT1031D02.g Adapters 14-3-3 proteins 3.968 SCSGFL5C08F04.g Unknown protein 16.0517 SCUTRZ2024G05.g Transport Putative vesicle transport v-SNARE protein 1.9247 SCQGLR1085G10.g Transcription MADS 1.7433 SCRUAD1063C06.g Pathogenicity Polygalacturonase-inhibiting 1.66301 SCEPCL6019E04.g Carbohydrate metabolism Malic enzyme 1.89688 SCCCAD1004H02.g Stress Catalases 2.66819 SCRLST3166F11.g No matches (non-coding) 1.95495 SCSFAD1124E07.g Transcription Myb 4.31601 SCCCCL5004D02.g No matches 1.51467 SCQGSB1140F12.g Pathogenicity R-genes NBS-LRR 2.44294 SCCCRZ1003A03.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins HSP7s (heat shock) 1.78283 The individuals were selected from an F1 progeny of a cross between two commercial varieties, SP80-180 and SP80-4966. RNA samples from internode 9 (mature, rich in sugar) and internode 1 (immature, poor in sugar) were collected in July from the seven highest brix individuals and used to generate probes for cDNA microarray hybridizations. The column High indicates the average ratios (fold induction) of genes more expressed in internode 9 than in internode 1. The column Low indicates the average ratios (fold induction) of genes more expressed in internode 1 than in internode 9. The average brix in the highest sugar internodes was 22.63.
TABLE-US-00015 TABLE XVII Genes differentially expressed between Internode 9 (mature rich in sugar) Internode 1 (immature, poor in sugar) from a pool of seven low brix plants. SAS Category Description of homologue High Low SCUTFL3073E12.g Unknown protein 2.0326 SCBGLR1096E06.g Nucleotide metabolism Putative inosine monophosphate dehydrogena 2.58395 SCBFLR1039B05.g Carbohydrate Metabolis Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase 5.33996 SCSBAD1084C01.g Others Tubulin alpha-1 chain 2.90392 SCUTLR1037F12.g Protein metabolism 60S Ribosomal protein L5 2.60981 SCCCST1004C05.g Protein kinases Others caneIre1-1 (Similar to ER-located tran 2.12312 SCCCLB1001D03.g Protein Phosphatases Serine/Threonine - PPP Family PP2A/Cataly 1.55983 SCCCCL5002B10.g Protein kinases Undefined-unclassified caneUPK-87 1.91338 SCRLFL1012B10.g Protein kinases Cell cycle-related caneCDK-6 1.8469 SCJFRZ2010A09.g Ubiquitination E1 2.19142 SCVPAM1055A12.g Protein kinases Casein kinases caneCKI-11 2.3001 SCRLSD1012E03.g Ubiquitination Ubiquitin 1.97292 SCCCLR2002D04.g DNA metabolism Histone H4 2.17368 SCJFRZ2032G01.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases caneSnRK1-2 2.89539 SCSBHR1050B11.g Development Putative senescence-associated protein 7.68477 SCCCLR2002G09.g DNA metabolism Histone H4 4.16496 SCVPCL6042B07.g Protein kinases Others cane cyclin G-associated kinase-like p 1.98527 SCJLLR1108H07.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins ACA 1.94396 SCVPFL3045B09.g Stress Metalothionein 2.75676 SCCCLR2C03D05.g Stress Superoxide dismutases Cu/Zn 2.09879 SCJLRT1023G09.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases caneCIPK-19 1.95006 SCVPLR1049C09.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins ATPase 2.32277 SCCCRT1001E12.g Small GTPases Rab 1.78307 SCVPLR2019B03.g Pathogenicity Polygalacturonase inhibitor 4.69134 SCVPRZ3029G09.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneLTK1-16 (leuci 1.72477 SCCCLB1023E12.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneRLK-DXIV1 ( 1.94444 SCEZLR1052D02.g Unknown protein 1.9867 SCCCRZ1001G10.g Transcription Aux/IAA 2.01005 SCEZLR1052F07.g Protein Phosphatases Serine/Threonine - PPP Family PP2A/Subu 1.69977 SCCCRZ1004H12.g Transcription EIL (ethylene-insensitive3-like) 2.6871 SCACLR1130H08.g Transcription Zinc finger proteins C2C2/YABBY 2.10948 SCCCLR1024F10.g Transcription Other Auxin-response factors With B3 doma 3.03055 SCQGRZ3011D06.g Transcription Alfin-like 2.17274 SCCCLR1048F03.g Unknown protein Chloroplast hypothetical protein 3.39922 SCCCLR1068G11.g DNA metabolism Histone H2B 3.37772 SCQSHR1023F08.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP71 4.45371 SCUTAM2088G02.g Unknown protein Putative GTP-binding protein 1.80345 SCRFLR2037F09.g Calcium Calreticulin 2.87788 SCCCLR1C03G01.g Hormone biosynthesis Jasmonic Acid Linoleic acid desaturase 3.49276 SCUTST3129E01.g Unknown protein 1.93583 SCQGHR1012B09.g Stress Probable cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 5.67878 SCVPCL6041F12.g Ubiquitination Ubiquitin-specific protease 1.8455 SCJLHR1028C12.g Stress Infected libraries Histone H4 3.76242 SCVPLR2005H03.g Transcription Aux/IAA 3.15361 SCEQRT1031D02.g Adapters 14-3-3 proteins 2.23343 SCCCCL3120C09.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase cane RLK with Lys 1.97526 SCCCLR2C02A05.g Development Expansin 2.39903 SCCCCL4003D08.g Transcription Zinc finger proteins C3H 1.90193 SCSBSD2058D04.g Ubiquitination Ubiquitin 1.88495 SCVPRT2074D04.g Unknown protein 6.8061 SCCCRZ1001D02.g Adapters 14-3-3 proteins 2.70281 SCMCST1053A06.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase canePERK1-3 2.4114 SCCCLB2004C08.g Ubiquitination Ubiquitin 1.92442 SCCCRZ1002F06.g Stress Drought and cold response Enolase 2.80387 SCCCLR1022H07.g Protein kinases Cell cycle-related caneCDK-11 2.39455 SCCCRZ1001A09.g Unknown protein 1.97585 SCSGAM1094D05.g Hormone biosynthesis Salicylic Acid 2.47418 SCCCLR1024E11.g Stress Superoxide dismutases Cu/Zn 2.62077 SCCCRZ1C01H06.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins Apyrase 3.09699 SCQGLR2032G10.g Ubiquitination Polyubiquitin 1.63756 SCACLR1057C07.g Two component Response regulators (ARR-like) 2.18371 SCCCRZ2002C09.g Others Alpha tubulin 2.66313 SCQGST1034G10.g Protein kinases Putative RLCK caneRLCK-AIV3 2.34207 SCBGFL4052C11.g Transcription EIL (ethylene-insensitive3-like) 1.73335 The individuals were selected from an F1 progeny of a cross between two commercial varieties, SP80-180 and SP80-4966. RNA samples from internode 9 (mature, rich in sugar) and internode 1 (immature, poor in sugar) were collected in March from the seven lowest brix individuals and used to generate probes for cDNA microarray hybridizations. The column High indicates the average ratios (fold induction) of genes more expressed in internode 9 than in internode 1. The column Low indicates the average ratios (fold induction) of genes more expressed in internode 1 than in internode 9. The average brix in the highest sugar internodes was 13.66. indicates data missing or illegible when filed
TABLE-US-00016 TABLE XVIII Genes differentially expressed between Internode 9 (mature, rich in sugar) and Internode 1 (immature, poor in sugar) from a pool of seven low brix plants. SAS Category Description of homologue High Low SCCCRZ2C04A07.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP71E 9.59342 SCCCST1004A07.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases cane osmotic stress-activated protein kinase-7 2.37339 SCCCLR1024E11.g Stress Superoxide dismutases Cu/Zn 2.21539 SCCCCL5002B10.g Protein kinases Undefined-unclassified caneUPK-87 2.15162 SCCCRZ2C03D11.g Transcription Scarecrow 3.38429 SCBFAD1046D01.g Transcription HLH (helix-loop-helix) 2.74633 SCBFLR1039B05.g Carbohydrate Metabolism Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase 13.7587 SCBGFL4053F12.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneRLK-DV2 4.08493 SCEQRT1028H06.g Hormone biosynthesis Auxin Nitrilase 2.39496 SCCCRT2001H11.g Small GTPases Arf 2.33013 SCCCCL4004C06.g Unknown protein 4.61263 SCCCRZ1C01H06.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins Apyrase 8.66427 SCCCRZ2C03B08.g Unknown protein 2.92174 SCCCLR1001E04.g Carbohydrate Metabolism Photosynthesis RUBISCO - small subunit 4.99165 SCSGFL5C08F04.g Unknown protein 17.9899 SCUTAM2115C12.g Unknown protein 3.94798 SCJLRZ1023H04.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases caneCIPK-9 4.18557 SCMCFL5005A02.g Stress Glutathione peroxidases 2.65839 SCVPRT2074D04.g Unknown protein 15.4127 SCAGLR1021G10.g Transcription Homeobox knotted homeobox 2.46187 SCJLLR1054C09.g Transcription Aux/IAA 2.43353 SCEPRZ1009C10.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases cane osmotic stress-activated protein kinase-1 2.41081 SCCCLR2C03D05.g Stress Superoxide dismutases Cu/Zn 3.06534 SCRLAM1010D08.g Transcription Homeobox knotted homeobox 2.66789 SCBFST3136A06.g No matches 1.73546 SCRLFL3007C04.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneRLK-D5 3.92386 SCCCHR1004H09.g Others Putative cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase 1.67693 SCCCRZ1001D02.g Adapters 14-3-3 proteins 2.07764 SCEZRZ1012A02.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP9 4.02698 SCCCRZ1001G10.g Transcription Aux/IAA 4.19655 SCCCCL3120C09.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase cane RLK with LysM-1 4.50352 SCCCRZ2002C09.g Others Alpha tubulin 2.30687 SCRUAD1063C06.g Pathogenicity Polygalacturonase-inhibiting 1.85181 SCCCST2004D11.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase cane RLK with lectin domain-2 6.70096 SCCCLR2002F08.g Hormone related Auxin auxin repressed 1.67626 SCJFRZ2007F10.g Development ARC1 (arm repeat protein) 2.00974 The individuals were selected from an F1 progeny of a cross between two commercial varieties, SP80-180 and SP80-4966. RNA samples from internode 9 (mature, rich in sugar) and internode 1 (immature, poor in sugar) were collected in July from the seven lowest brix individuals and used to generate probes for cDNA microarray hybridizations. The column High indicates the average ratios (fold induction) of genes more expressed in internode 9 than in internode 1. The column Low indicates the average ratios (fold induction) of genes more expressed in internode 1 than in internode 9. The average brix in the highest sugar internodes was 18.96.
TABLE-US-00017 TABLE XIX Genes differentially expressed between Internode 5 (intermediately mature, rich in sugar) and Internode 1 (immature, poor in sugar) from a pool of seven high brix plants. SAS Category Description of homologue High Low SCCCCL2001B01.b Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins Apyrase 3.83704 SCRLAM1010D08.g Transcription Homeobox knotted homeobox 2.47858 SCEPLB1043H04.g No matches 2.03771 SCRLFL3007C04.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneRLK-D5 2.19385 SCJFRZ2032G01.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases caneSnRK1-2 2.49118 SCRLSD1012E03.g Ubiquitination Ubiquitin 2.12917 SCEQRT1033F01.g Pathogenicity Zinc finger proteins C2C2/Dof 7.73845 SCVPLR1049E12.g Small GTPases Rab 2.20693 SCCCCL4003D08.g Transcription Zinc finger proteins C3H 3.08079 SCSBHR1050B11.g Development Putative senescence-associated protein 3.39882 SCCCRT2001H11.g Small GTPases Arf 1.91729 SCVPRT2074D04.g Unknown protein 9.59628 SCJLLR1108H07.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins ACA 2.13521 SCEQRT1028H06.g Hormone biosynthesis Auxin Nitrilase 1.72814 SCCCRZ1001G10.g Transcription Aux/IAA 2.77082 SCRURT2010A10.g Transcription Putative transcription factor (myb) 2.08173 SCSBSD2058D04.g Ubiquitination Ubiquitin 1.77273 SCAGLR1021G10.g Transcription Homeobox knotted homeobox 2.61934 SCCCLR1024F10.g Transcription Other Auxin-response factors With B3 domain 2.32277 SCSFHR1043G09.g Stress Infected libraries S-adenosylmethionine synthase 2.3562 SCCCLR1048F03.g Unknown protein Chloroplast hypothetical protein 20.3768 SCEZLR1052E07.g No matches 1.59145 SCCCRZ2C03D11.g Transcription Scarecrow 3.57548 SCSGRT2066D05.g Stress Cytochrome P450 3.17506 SCCCRZ3002D03.g Transcription LIM (protein-protein interaction) 5.10403 SCVPRZ2038F04.g Hormone biosynthesis Jasmonic Acid Linoleic acid desaturase 2.7837 SCCCLR1C03G01.g Hormone biosynthesis Jasmonic Acid Linoleic acid desaturase 2.1299 SCUTLR1037F04.g Others Ankyrin repeat family protein Xa21 binding 2.00053 SCCCCL5002B10.g Protein kinases Undefined-unclassified caneUPK-87 2.09228 SCCCLR1C05B07.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases caneCIPK-3 2.30631 SCJFRZ2007F10.g Development ARC1 (arm repeat protein) 16.2237 SCEPLR1030B03.g Pathogenicity Tomato LRP protein 1.77057 SCQGHR1012B09.g Stress Probable cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 2.2378 SCCCCL3120C09.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase cane RLK with LysM-1 1.69331 SCEPRZ1009C10.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases cane osmotic stress-activated protein kinase-1 2.15245 SCRUFL1112F04.b Others RNA stability UDP-GlcNAc 2.7596 SCVPLR2027A05.g Transcription Other Auxin-response factors With B3 domain 2.55167 SCCCRZ1001D02.g Adapters 14-3-3 proteins 2.02234 SCVPRZ3025A12.g Protein kinases RLCK canePBS1-6 2.16888 SCJLRZ1023H04.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases caneCIPK-9 3.53497 SCEQRT2099H01.g Protein kinases Calcium-related caneCDPK-27 1.84964 SCCCRZ1001H05.g Transcription HLH (helix-loop-helix) 4.52862 SCMCCL6055H06.g Pathogenicity Tomato LRP protein 1.96121 SCCCRZ1002F06.g Stress Drought and cold response Enolase 2.22871 SCCCLR1048D07.g Hormone biosynthesis Salicylic Acid 14.2767 SCCCRZ1C01H06.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins Apyrase 4.7337 SCSGAM1094D05.g Hormone biosynthesis Salicylic Acid 5.14944 SCCCLR1072E03.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneRLK-AX3 2.08456 SCSGFL5C08F04.g Unknown protein 10.083 SCCCRZ2C04A07.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP71E 4.14116 SCUTAM2088G02.g Unknown protein Putative GTP-binding protein 1.82251 SCCCLR1C04G08.g Protein kinases Casein kinases caneCKI-3 4.08444 SCUTLR2008E01.g No matches 1.84352 SCQSRT1036D03.g Pathogenicity R-genes transduction PR 2.02071 SCRLST3166F11.g No matches (non-coding) 1.63126 SCEQLB1065H07.g No matches 2.42131 SCRLAD1100E08.g No matches 2.36751 SCRUAD1133D10.b Receptors Photoreceptors Blue light receptor cry1 2.95879 SCCCLR1001D10.g Transcription Putative AP2-domain transcription factor 2.30605 SCSBHR1056H08.g Receptors EIN2 (ethylene) 4.24768 SCCCLR1C07B07.g Others Glycine-rich RNA-binding protein 1.84253 SCCCRZ2C03B03.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase cane RLK with LysM-2 1.76512 SCCCLR2001H09.g Stress Thioredoxin 2.00805 SCRLFL1008C11.g No matches 2.48511 The individuals were selected from a F1 progeny of a cross between two commercial varieties, SP80-180 and SP80-4966. RNA samples from internode 5 (Intermediate sugar) and internode 1 (Low sugar) were collected in July from the seven highest brix individuals and used to generate probes for cDNA microarray hybridizations. The column High indicates the average ratios (fold induction) of genes more expressed in internode 5 than in internode 1. The column Low indicates the average ratios (fold induction) of genes more expressed in internode 1 than in internode 5. The average brix in the highest sugar internodes was 22.63.
TABLE-US-00018 TABLE XX Genes differentially expressed between Internode 5 (intermediately mature, rich in sugar) and Internode 1 (immature, poor in sugar) from a pool of seven low brix plants. SAS Category Description of homologue High Low SCCCST1004A07.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases cane osmotic stress-activated protein kinase-7 2.24911 SCVPLR2027A05.g Transcription Other Auxin-response factors With B3 domain 1.92017 SCEZRZ1012A02.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP9 2.66254 SCBFLR1039B05.g Carbohydrate Metabolism Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase 6.00106 SCCCRZ1001G10.g Transcription Aux/IAA 1.58291 SCEQRT1033F01.g Pathogenicity Zinc finger proteins C2C2/Dof 2.69468 SCCCRZ1C01H06.g Calcium Calmodulin-binding proteins Apyrase 4.50294 SCSBAM1084F08.g Unknown protein Similar to cyclin 4.00643 SCCCLR1001E04.g Carbohydrate Metabolism Photosynthesis RUBISCO - small subunit 2.99228 SCSGAM1094D05.g Hormone biosynthesis Salicylic Acid 3.03142 SCCCLR1048D07.g Hormone biosynthesis Salicylic Acid 3.86262 SCSGFL5C08F04.g Unknown protein 7.37235 SCCCRZ3002D03.g Transcription LIM (protein-protein interaction) 3.27664 SCVPRT2074D04.g Unknown protein 9.96472 SCRURT2010A10.g Transcription Putative transcription factor (myb) 1.75219 SCCCRZ2C03D11.g Transcription Scarecrow 2.57578 SCRLFL3007C04.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneRLK-D5 2.6318 SCCCCL4004C06.g Unknown protein 2.12353 SCJFRZ2007F10.g Development ARC1 (arm repeat protein) 4.00615 SCCCLR1048F03.g Unknown protein Chloroplast hypothetical protein 3.74571 SCCCRZ2C04A07.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP71E 7.42158 SCSGRT2066D05.g Stress Cytochrome P450 2.16937 SCBGLR1117A05.g Small GTPases Ran 1.86344 SCCCLR1C04E03.g Ubiquitination E2 1.56768 SCSBAD1084C01.g Others Tubulin alpha-1 chain 1.72259 SCMCLR1123E10.g Others T-complex protein (chaperonin) 2.39987 SCVPLR2012B07.g Two component Phosphorelay intermediate Similar to ATHP1 ATHP2 ATHP3 2.91613 SCQGLR1019A10.g Small GTPases Ran 2.08538 SCQSRT1036D03.g Pathogenicity R-genes transduction PR 1.86776 SCCCLR2001H09.g Stress Thioredoxin 2.43049 SCRFFL5034G07.g No matches 2.21962 SCCCLR2002F08.g Hormone related Auxin auxin repressed 1.78828 SCCCLR1C07B07.g Others Glycine-rich RNA-binding protein 2.24474 SCJFAM1066B05.g Transcription HIT (histidine triad) PKC inhibitor 1.85085 SCCCRT2002B03.g Protein metabolism Putative ribosomal protein S14 2.48804 SCRLLR1111D02.g No matches (non-coding) 1.70582 SCCCCL4007H07.g No matches 1.9409 SCJFHR1C03E01.b Protein kinases Undefined canePK-BII3 1.60982 SCCCFL4091A07.g Hormone related Giberellin Giberellin responsive 1.79817 SCJFRT1062G05.g Transcription CCAAT 1.68245 SCCCRZ2001F06.g Protein metabolism Putative 6S ribosomal protein L11 2.1963 SCSBSD2029F05.g Unknown protein 5.22372 SCJFRZ2028F11.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneSERK-5 2.07098 SCCCRZ2003E12.g Transcription bZIP 1.7904 SCUTLR2008E01.g No matches 2.06397 SCCCST3C01D11.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase-unclassified caneURLK-84 (with LRR) 1.97063 SCSBSD2029D11.g No matches 1.77589 SCEQLR1091A10.g Protein metabolism 60S Ribosomal protein L23 2.04218 SCCCLR2001E10.g No matches 1.96151 SCQSSB1077D06.g Receptors Receptor Ser/Thr kinase caneRLK-DXII4 2.11245 SCEZHR1087F06.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP84 1.72424 SCRLFL1008C11.g No matches 2.58471 SCEZLR1009F06.g Carbohydrate metabolism Pyruvate dehydrogenase 2.60268 SCCCCL4004A10.g Others Putative polyprotein 1.97711 SCJFLR1013A09.g Stress Drought and cold response Cysteine proteinase RD19A precursor 2.11721 SCSBHR1056H08.g Receptors EIN2 (ethylene) 3.47771 SCCCLR1001D10.g Transcription Putative AP2-domain transcription factor 1.884 SCCCRZ2002C09.g Others Alpha tubulin 1.84438 The individuals were selected from a F1 progeny of a cross between two commercial varieties, SP80-180 and SP80-4966. RNA samples from internode 5 (Intermediate sugar) and internode 1 (Low sugar) were collected in July from the seven lowest brix individuals and used to generate probes for cDNA microarray hybridizations. The column High indicates the average ratios (fold induction) of genes more expressed in internode 5 than in internode 1. The column Low indicates the average ratios (fold induction) of genes more expressed in internode 1 than in internode 5. The average brix in the highest sugar internodes was 18.96.
TABLE-US-00019 TABLE XXI An example of genes that are differentially expressed both when High and Low Brix plants are compared and when Mature (Internode 9) and Immature (Internode 1) internodes are compared. Data indicated with an asterisk has been published by Felix J. M. (2006). SAS category sub category 1 sub category 2 High vs Low brix Internode 9 vs Internode 1 SCRFLR2037F09.g Calcium Calreticulin Down High Brix Down Mature Internode SCCCRT1001E01.g Hormone biosynthesis Jasmonic Acid Lipoxygenase Down High Brix Down Mature Internode* SCCCLR2002F08.g Hormone related Auxin auxin repressed Down High Brix Down Mature Internode SCRFLR1012F12.g Others caffeic acid 3-O- Up High Brix Up Mature Internode* methyltransferase SCSFAD1125C08.g Pathogenicity Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Down High Brix Down Mature Internode* SCCCLR2C01G07.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases caneCIPK-20 Up High Brix Up Mature Internode* SCMCRT2103B04.g Protein kinases SNF-like kinases caneCIPK-21 Up High Brix Up Mature Internode* SCEPRZ1010E06.g Protein Phosphatases Serine/Threonine - PPM Family PP2C-like Down High Brix Down Internode* SCCCLR2C01F06.g Stress Wound-induced Up High Brix Up Mature Internode* SCJLRT1021D12.g Stress Wound-induced Chalcone synthase Down High Brix Down Internode* SCJFRT1005C11.g Hormone biosynthesis Ethylene ACC oxidase Up High Brix Down Mature Internode* SCVPLR2012A10.g Hormone biosynthesis Ethylene ACC oxidase Up High Brix Down Mature Internode* SCCCLR1048D07.g Hormone biosynthesis Salicylic Acid Up High Brix Down Mature Internode SCEQRT1024E12.g Hormone biosynthesis Salicylic Acid Up High Brix Down Mature Internode* SCCCLR1C02F07.g Inositol Others myo-Inositol-1- Up High Brix Down Mature Internode* phosphate synthase SCEZHR1087F06.g Stress Cytochrome P450 CYP84 Down High Brix Up Mature Internode SCAGFL1089C03.g Stress Glutathione S-transferases Up High Brix Down Mature Internode* SCCCCL3002C09.b Stress Glutathione S-transferases Up High Brix Down Mature Internode*
Genes of this Invention
The invention provides polynucleotides described above and their variants.
"Variants" is intended to include substantially similar polynucleotide sequences, as long as they still have a same or substantially similar function as polynucleotides of this invention, e.g., marker for plants with different sugar content, ability to modulate sugar content. Common sources for variants include sequence identity variants, fragments, hybridizing sequences, complements, or mutated sequences. A fragment of the sequence is defined as a portion or region of the sequence that can be used to alter the expression levels of one of the genes encoding SEQ ID Nos. 1-203 or 229 to 373 in transgenic plants.
Naturally and non-naturally occurring "variants" of differentially expressed sequences within the invention include nucleic acid molecules having at least about 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, or 95% sequence identity with the native sugarcane sequences disclosed herein, i.e., SEQ ID Nos. 1-203 or 229 to 373, or complements of these sequences. More preferably, the variants have 97%, 98%, 99%, or at least about 99.5% sequence identity to the whole sequence or a fragment of the sequence. Comparisons for determination of sequence identity can be made using methods known to those of skill in the art.
"Variants" also include nucleic acids molecules that hybridize under high stringency conditions, as defined herein, to the sugarcane nucleic acid sequences of SEQ ID Nos. 1-203 or 229 to 373 or the complement of the sequences of SEQ ID Nos. 1-203 or 229 to 373. For example, such "variants" may be nucleic acid molecules that hybridize to the sequence of SEQ ID Nos. 1-203 or 229 to 373 or the complement of the sequences of SEQ ID Nos. 1-203 or 229 to 373 under low stringency conditions, moderate stringency conditions, or high stringency conditions. (See Sambrook et al. (Most recent edition) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.).
As used herein, the phrase "low stringency hybridization conditions" refers the following conditions and equivalents thereto: hybridization at 5×SSC, 2% SDS, and 100 μg/ml single stranded DNA at 40° C. for 8 hours, followed by at least one wash in 2×SSC, 0.2% SDS, at 40° C. for thirty minutes. As used herein, the phrase "moderate stringency hybridization conditions" refers the following conditions and equivalents thereto: hybridization at 5×SSC, 2% SDS, and 100 μg/ml single stranded DNA at 50° C. for 8 hours, followed by at least one wash in 0.1×SSC, 0.1% SDS, at 50° C. for thirty minutes. As used herein, the phrase "high stringency hybridization conditions" refers the following conditions and equivalents thereto: hybridization at 5×SSC, 2% SDS, and 100 μg/ml single stranded DNA at 65° C. for 8 hours, followed by at least one wash in 0.1×SSC, 0.1% SDS, at 65° C. for thirty minutes.
Alternatively, nucleic acids of this invention are those having a nucleotide sequence that is the complement of the full-length or portions of the sequences of SEQ ID Nos. 1-203 or 229 to 373.
Polynucleotides can be as short as 14 nucleotides, but they are not restricted to this length.
The genes can also be mutated by radiation or chemical mutagenesis using EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate) and mutated alleles identified by Tilling or RFLP generating plants with increased sucrose content through non-transgenic methodologies.
One or more point mutations can be introduced into a nucleic acid molecule to yield a modified nucleic acid molecule using, for example, site-directed mutagenesis (see Wu (Ed.), Meth. In Enzymol. Vol. 217, San Diego: Academic Press (1993); Higuchi, "Recombinant PCR" in Innis et al. (Ed.), PCR Protocols, San Diego: Academic Press, Inc. (1990), each of which is incorporated herein by reference). Such mutagenesis can be used to introduce a specific, desired amino acid insertion, deletion or substitution; alternatively, a nucleic acid sequence can be synthesized having random nucleotides at one or more predetermined positions to generate random amino acid substitutions. Scanning mutagenesis also can be useful in generating a modified nucleic acid molecule encoding substantially the amino acid sequence as polypeptides of this invention.
Polypeptides of this Invention
In certain embodiments, this invention provides polypeptides partially or fully encoded by the polynucleotides of this invention or by variants of a polynucleotide of this invention.
In other embodiments, the polypeptide has an amino acid sequence substantially similar to that encoded by polynucleotides of this invention. As used herein, the term "substantially the same amino acid sequence," is intended to mean a polypeptide or polypeptide segment having an identical amino acid sequence, or a polypeptide or polypeptide segment having a similar, non-identical sequence that is considered by those skilled in the art to be a functionally equivalent amino acid sequence. In particular, polypeptide with "substantially the amino acid sequence" can have one or more modifications such as amino acid additions, deletions or substitutions, including conservative or non-conservation substitutions.
Comparison of sequences for substantial similarity can be performed between two sequences of any length and usually is performed with sequences between about 6 and 1200 residues, preferably between about 10 and 100 residues and more preferably between about 25 and 35 residues. Such comparisons for substantial similarity are performed using methodology routine in the art.
The preferred percentage of sequence similarity for polypeptides includes polypeptides having at least about 65% similarity, 70% similarity, 75% similarity, 80% similarity, 85% similarity, 90% similarity, 95% similarity, 97% similarity, 98% similarity, 99% similarity, or more preferably at least about 99.5% similarity.
Sequence similarity is preferably calculated as the number of similar amino acids in a pairwise alignment expressed as a percentage of the shorter of the two sequences in the alignment. The pairwise alignment is preferably constructed using the Clustal W program, using the following parameter settings: fixed gap penalty=10, floating gap penalty=10, protein weight matrix=BLOSUM62. Similar amino acids in a pairwise alignment are those pairs of amino acids which have positive alignment scores defined in the preferred protein weight matrix (BLOSUM62). The protein weight matrix BLOSUM62 is considered appropriate for the comparisons described here by those skilled in the art of bioinformatics. (The reference for the clustal w program (algorithm) is Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. and Gibson, T. J. (1994) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, positions-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research, 22:4673-4680; and the reference for BLOSUM62 scoring matrix is Henikoff, S. and Henikoff, J. G. (1993) Performance evaluation of amino acid substitution matrices. Proteins, 7:49-61.)
It is understood that minor modifications of primary amino acid sequence can result in a polypeptide that has substantially equivalent or enhanced function polypeptides of this invention. Further, various molecules can be attached to polypeptide thereof, for example, other polypeptides, antigenic or other peptide tags, carbohydrates, lipids, or chemical moieties.
Sugarcane Plants For Identification of Genes of This Invention
1--An Example of Characterization of a Progeny Derived from Wild-Type Ancestors:
Two initial intra-specific polycrosses could be performed, one among Saccharum officinarum genotypes and the other combining Saccharum spontaneum genotypes. The crossing and selection process that could follow is illustrated in FIG. 1. For each generation 500 individuals could be sampled for brix content and gene expression and the extreme segregants selected. The hybrid individuals selected for molecular studies could be planted in the field in one row of 5 meters using standard sugarcane cultivation practices. Brix readings and tissue samples could be collected very early in the season, in March of the following year, when plants were 10 months. For brix content determination plants could be sampled by using a hand held juice sample collector. Juice could be collected by punching a hole in the middle of the 5th visible internode counted from the top after removal of the lowest dry leaf sheath still attached to the culm. A few drops of the juice could be placed in a handheld refractometer (N1, ATAGO, Japan) and a direct brix reading obtained. Individuals or pools of individuals (for example, seven or eight individuals) can have their tissues collected and RNA extracted.
2--Examples of a Progeny Derived from Commercial Varieties:
Five hundred sugarcane F1 plants from a cross between two commercial varieties (SP80-180×SP80-4966, or SP80-144×SP85-7215) could be kept in a green house or field-grown. They could segregate for stem sugar content in a normal manner and the seven plants presenting extreme values for gene expression associated to high sugar and low sugar could be selected. Mature leaves (Leaf +1, Van Dillewijn, 1952), immature leaf, mature internode, immature and intermediate internode, root, lateral bud and a mix of flowers in different developmental stages could be collected from the selected plants 6, 7, 9, 11 and 13 months after planting (but not restricted to). Tissues collected at each time point could be pooled from seven individuals of each group or characterized for each individual sample. For RNA blot analysis all time points could be evaluated, or only one time point could be evaluated. Gene expression profiles could be analyzed independently, using three individuals from each group (for example), or be determined for a group of plants.
B--Commercial Varieties or Cultivars
Varieties can be field-grown for a year (for example, since September) and samples collected throughout the year (for example in March, May, July or September, but not restricted to). Tissue samples can be collected from 2 to 4 individuals of each variety which are pooled or analyzed independently. Examples of varieties that have been shown to have altered expression for the genes are the high sucrose and precocious accumulating cultivars SP91-1049 and SP89-1115 in comparison to the low sucrose and late accumulating cultivars SP83-2847 and SP94-3116. Samples can be collected as described above.
Methods for Determining the Ability of a Plant to Accumulate Sugar
In certain embodiments, this invention uses genes that are differentially expressed in plants having different sugar levels, such as SEQ ID NO:s 1 to 203 and SEQ ID NO:s 229 to 373, to determine the ability of the plant to accumulate sugar. In some embodiments, the expression level of genes is measured using various methods known in the art, such as those described below. In other embodiments, the expression level of the polypeptide expressed by polynucleotides of this invention is detected.
Measurement of Gene Expression
Gene expression can be determined using any technique that will measure the product of the gene's activity, for example transcript or mRNA levels or protein levels, including cDNA microarrays, oligonucleotide arrays or gene chips, quantitative PCR, northern blots, western blots/ELISA/mass spectrometry, according to the methods described in this work.
Gene expression can be measured by various methods, including: quantitative PCR real-time PCR cDNA microarrays oligonucleotide arrays or gene chips northern blots any technique that will measure transcript levels for genes such as NASBA or TMA any technique that will use hybridization of genes or of a product of the gene as a measure of gene expressionany technique that will measure a product of gene expression such as the protein encoded by the genes such as with the aid of an antibody (as in western blots and ELISA) or mass spectrometry.cDNA MicroarraysTissue Sampling and RNA Extraction from Sugarcane Plants
The first leaf with a visible dewlap (leaf +1) and internodes 1, 2, 5 and 9 (counted from top to bottom where number 1 was the smallest visible internode after all leaves were removed) can be collected from 6 to 18 month old plants. The internodal tissue can be separated from the node, cut in small pieces, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at -80° C. Internodes 1 and 2 can be pooled prior to RNA extraction and are referred as internode 1. Frozen tissues can be grinded using a homogenizer. 2-2.5 g were weighted and grinded to a fine powder, in liquid nitrogen, using pre-cooled mortar and pestle. The pulverized tissue will be transferred to a 50 ml tube and homogenized with 5 ml Trizol® (Invitrogen) per gram of tissue. The manufacturer's recommendations for high polysaccharide content tissues will be followed for the mature internode samples. Samples can be incubated for 5 min at room temperature (RT), with occasional vortexing. The homogenate will be centrifuged at 3,000 rpm; 4° C. for 10 min and the supernatant transferred to a new 50 ml tube. 0.2 ml of chloroform (RT) will be added for each ml of Trizol® solution. The solution will be mixed vigorously for 15 s and incubated for 3 min at RT. After centrifugation (3,000 rpm, 4° C., 15 min), the aqueous phase will be transferred to tubes containing 0.6 volumes of isopropanol. The solution will be mixed several times by gentle inversion and incubated at RT for 10 min Tubes will be centrifuged at 10,000 rpm, 4° C. for 10 min and the supernatant was carefully discarded. Pellets will be washed with cold 75% ethanol. Samples will be briefly vortexed and centrifuged at 6,000 rpm for 5 min. The supernatant can be again discarded and pellets washed with cold 100% ethanol. After centrifugation, the supernatant will be discarded and pellets were allowed to dry at RT for at least 10 min Pellets will be resuspended in 20 μl of warm diethyl pyrocarbonate-treated water, vortexing gently for about 15 min RNA samples can be quantified in a spectrophotometer and loaded on 1.0% agarose/formaldehyde gels for quality inspection.
PCR Amplification and Array Printing
Sugarcane cDNA plasmid clones of 6438 ESTs obtained from the SUCEST collection can be re-arranged and amplified in 100 μl PCR reactions (40 cycles, annealing at 51° C.), directly from bacterial clones in culture, using T7 and SP6 primers. For this work, clones had their identity validated by re-sequencing. PCR products can be purified by filtration using 96 well filter plates (Millipore Multiscreen® MAFBNOB50). Samples can be visualized on 1% agarose gels to inspect PCR-amplification quality and quantity. Purified PCR products (in 10 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0 solution) can be mixed with an equal volume of DMSO in 384 well V-bottom plates. Microarrays can be constructed by arraying cDNA fragments on DMSO optimized, metal coated glass slides (type 7, Amersham Biosciences) using the Generation III Microarray Spotter (Molecular Dynamics/Amersham Pharmacia Biotech). Each cDNA fragment was spotted for this work on the slides at least four times (i.e., technical replicates). Following printing, the slides will be allowed to dry and the spotted DNA was bound to the slides by UV-cross linking (50 mJ).
Probe Preparation and Hybridization
Ten micrograms of total RNA can be reverse transcribed, labeled, and hybridized using the reagents provided with the CyScribe Post-Labeling kit (Amersham Biosciences), according to the manufacturer's instructions. The products of the labeling reactions can be purified in Millipore Multiscreen® filtering plates to remove unincorporated labeled nucleotides. Microarrays can be co-hybridized with the fluorescently labeled probes. Hybridizations were performed overnight at 42° C. in humid chambers. The slides can be then washed in 1×SSC and 0.2% SDS (10 min, 55° C.), twice in 0.1×SSC and 0.2% SDS (10 min, 55° C.), and in 0.1×SSC (1 min, RT). Slides will then be rinsed briefly in filtered milli-Q water and dried with a nitrogen stream.
Data Acquisition, Processing and Statistical Analysis
Slides can be scanned using the Generation III Scanner® (Molecular Dynamics) adjusting the photomultiplier tube (PMT) to 700 for both channels. Images can be processed and data collected using the ArrayVision (Imaging Research Inc.) software. For this work, local median background was subtracted from the MTM (median-based trimmed mean) density for each spot. Data from clones that generated poor-quality PCR fragments (no amplification or unspecific bands) or poor-quality spots (visually inspected) were excluded. The data were stored and managed by the BioArray Software environment14 free web-based database.
A set of custom programs based on R language were developed for data processing based on methods described previously (Papini-Terzi et al., 2005). Pearson correlation values among the samples were calculated using normalized expression ratios obtained from high sugar samples against low sugar samples or test samples versus pool of samples hybridizations for 6438 genes. We used homotypic or `self-self` hybridizations of the reference pool sample to define intensity-dependent cutoff levels that would indicate differentially expressed genes. The identification of differentially expressed genes was performed using a local implementation of the HTself method (Vencio and Koide, 2005; available at blasto.iq.usp.bd/˜rvencio/HTself), that uses "self-self" hybridizations to derive an intensity-dependent cut-off for significant fold-changes integrating the probability density function to 98% for different signal intensity levels. The SAS (Sugarcane Assembled Sequences) presenting more than 70% of its replicates outside fold-change cut-off curves were defined as differentially expressed. The fluorescence ratios were normalized to account for systematic errors using the LOWESS fitting (Yang et al. 2002) and used to calculate the expression ratios for all genes between the tissue sample and the reference sample. For every gene, the percentage of replicates within or outside the cutoff limits was calculated in each tissue sample. Further details on the method are available on the World Wide Web at sucest-fun.org/pub/SUCAST.
Other methods that compare an expression pattern to another or score a change from expressed to non-expressed, or the reverse are useful. Changes in intensity of expression may be scored, either increases or decreases. Any statistically significant change can be used. Typically changes in one of SEQ ID NO. 1-203 are suitable. However, more genes may be usefully analyzed. SEQ ID NO. 1-203 gene expression data can be used as molecular classifiers or used to train methods to distinguish between high and low sucrose plants or populations of plants using a variety of established techniques such as the Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (Meireles et al., 2004), the Prediction Analysis of Microarrays software PAM (Tibshirani et al., 2002) or commonly used methods as SVM (Support Vector Machines) or LVQ (Learning Vector Quantization) (Mattfeldt et al., 2004). By doing so, SEQ ID NO. 1-203 expression profile can be used to predict between high brix and low brix plants and can be used to classify the individuals of a progeny or cultivars. Genes whose expression were found to be unaltered in the microarray experiments can aid in defining classes and be used to train the algorithms, together with the differentially expressed SEQ ID NO. 1-203. Table XI lists as an example 25 SAS (SEQ ID NO. 204 to 228) and the corresponding ESTs that are consistently expressed in similar levels in all samples analyzed (high and low brix).
TABLE-US-00020 TABLE XI Twenty-five genes not differentially expressed between all the high and all the low brix populations and varieties. SEQ ID NO. 204: SCAGLR1043C02.g (CA291199, CA126773, CA103634, CA278537, CA291283, CA105620, CA129564, CA135982, CA154949, CA137234, CA131175, CA131096, CA267022, CA136766, CA079897, CA112911, CA202743, CA212218, CA130074, CA116962, CA300529, CA233427, CA275519, CA215010, CA190793, CA264955, CA275590, CA148445, CA276733, CA197411, CA285562, CA143450, CA158699, CA148266, CA276787, CA223611, CA131410, CA129260, CA282689, CA143509, CA127374, CA223701, CA107631, CA102547, CA200880, CA126777, CA168082, CA143088, CA139235) SEQ ID NO. 205: SCAGRT3046D01.g (CA300723, CA294382, CA264769, CA294452) SEQ ID NO. 206: SCBGLR1002D06.g (CA278315, CA117650, CA127739, CA212804, CA073244, CA138816, CA152521, CA152509, CA153113, CA283276, CA259474, CA289253, CA101319, CA126194, CA187565, CA093995, CA150472, CA252354, CA226461, CA286965, CA142703, CA298971, CA286850, CA111071, CA128235, CA130953, CA283578, CA181244, CA190282, CA241875, CA076812) SEQ ID NO. 207: SCCCCL3005D01.b (CA271043, CA272368, CA215896, CA098903, CA093456, CA150890, CA266868, CA263152, CA093454, CA284141, CA270967, CA070480, CA223204, CA261258) SEQ ID NO. 208: SCCCCL3080C09.g (CA259330, CA152240, CA289512, CA124276, CA269953, CA282554, CA150365, CA076742, CA124252, CA125409, CA189780, CA150360, CA067168, CA185260, CA268877, CA287161, CA079640, CA180418, CA284801, CA268954, CA296365, CA118827, CA184393, CA289786, CA111364, CA150081, CA229568, CA200556, CA120906, CA286941, CA225985, CA285992, CA255183, CA262927, CA277963, CA103076, CA118794, CA118790, CA103799, CA129390, CA286405, CA100864, CA129384, CA074893, CA093506, CA214051, CA129364, CA111366, CA152568, CA076728, CA074983, CA124214, CA093579, CA122181, CA071338, CA249655, CA152647, CA128317, CA131033, CA071425, CA077256, CA117737, CA078093, CA199165, CA168557, CA125328, CA084326, CA150876, CA082480, CA254028, CA189858, CA276734, CA118424, CA268830, CA231681, CA276788, CA117438, CA225602, CA277928, CA114620, CA247257, CA185669, CA076943, CA075590, CA202758) SEQ ID NO. 209: SCCCCL7001A04.g (CA100620, CA223268, CA100961, CA199955, CA223191, CA279575, CA103970, CA110326) SEQ ID NO. 210: SCCCLB1C03B04.g (CA086997, CA198468, CA164949, CA299431, CA189172, CA279831, CA175292, CA190805, CA155239, CA074671, CA131422, CA172088, CA237966, CA113643, CA099312, CA097078, CA168581) SEQ ID NO. 211: SCCCLR1022H01.g (CA119702, CA189837, CA274251, CA124160, CA152830, CA202385, CA214786, CA223178, CA094030, CA092004, CA283613, CA277116, CA146444, CA297712, CA223255, CA067746, CA116394, CA067839, CA297889) SEQ ID NO. 212: SCCCLR1070B11.g (CA194863, CA069696, CA120150, CA067031, CA087323, CA292894, CA165329, CA185869, CA168662, CA064663, CA256320, CA079508, CA064662, CA209676) SEQ ID NO. 213: SCCCLR1072A03.g (CA257676, CA241502, CA103767, CA119541, CA212813, CA072979, CA076246, CA260516, CA173103, CA092491, CA279357, CA076330, CA298956, CA235977, CA283443, CA067187, CA172026, CA102965, CA243748, CA157421, CA254836, CA086831, CA067267, CA254991, CA165072, CA254121, CA281218, CA194801, CA107489, CA241226, CA183169, CA259059, CA110302, CA074064, CA211578, CA259058, CA241304, CA222499, CA167440, CA166656, CA103379, CA092495, CA251886, CA198331, CA197814, CA095062, CA089849, CA181078, CA238993, CA080070, CA160829, CA257963, CA077196, CA244970, CA085039, CA170461, CA159351, CA272807, CA245352, CA107493, CA159440) SEQ ID NO. 214: SCCCLR1075G05.g (CA064776, CA104174, CA262368, CA073013, CA168309, CA121412, CA226304, CA230815, CA129021, CA299276, CA123604, CA267396, CA263329, CA120286, CA177583, CA147731, CA264721, CA123599, CA263403, CA194813, CA241253) SEQ ID NO. 215: SCCCLR1078F05.g (CA124384, CA112238, CA228635, CA253815, CA228634, CA120519, CA228633, CA088403, CA284381, CA153412, CA257810, CA243271, CA089170) SEQ ID NO. 216: SCCCNR1001B12.g (CA282544) SEQ ID NO. 217: SCCCRZ2002E06.g (CA079679, CA231568, CA121168, CA149726, CA278060, CA136300) SEQ ID NO. 218: SCCCRZ2C04B04.g (CA246886, CA220871, CA154329, CA280029, CA268704, CA150217, CA219829, CA268689, CA068008, CA068007, CA117830, CA087866, CA261807, CA268749, CA156666, CA205929, CA158955, CA167141, CA239715) SEQ ID NO. 219: SCEPAM1020E03.g (CA072822, CA072801, CA188039, CA072796) SEQ ID NO. 220: SCEQRT1024H10.g (CA139099, CA281552, CA281378, CA132555, CA287054, CA251801, CA132401, CA143578, CA284175, CA143345, CA143889, CA284251, CA143429, CA143390, CA284886, CA296940, CA143494, CA139010, CA138862, CA300775, CA143467, CA134226, CA277302, CA141676, CA285542, CA142420, CA258267, CA267581, CA130719, CA274036, CA267666, CA144676, CA278111) SEQ ID NO. 221: SCEQRT1030A03.g (CA228274, CA133004, CA230581, CA230389, CA230510, CA235035, CA197298, CA088047) SEQ ID NO. 222: SCJFRT1009A08.g (CA133624, CA190354) SEQ ID NO. 223: SCJFRZ2009G01.g (CA088829, CA075098, CA139326, CA272034, CA075189, CA151398, CA276729, CA223035, CA237807, CA111462, CA106723, CA213636, CA123369, CA135723, CA244358, CA246251, CA226436, CA190274, CA123851, CA244439, CA132084, CA178674, CA113343) SEQ ID NO. 224: SCJLFL3014C10.g (CA227690, CA227772) SEQ ID NO. 225: SCMCCL6055H06.g (CA183309, CA272155, CA071587, CA154790, CA236184, CA111608, CA231710, CA288208, CA098251, CA238333, CA187031, CA071503, CA293423) SEQ ID NO. 226: SCQGLR1019C05.g (CA239321, CA259641, CA170537, CA094369, CA124046, CA147545, CA082777, CA187852, CA199413, CA154540, CA169696, CA099319, CA204586, CA196716, CA199496, CA171670, CA200284, CA234725, CA068506) SEQ ID NO. 227: SCQSST1037B07.g (CA261004, CA241250, CA183198, CA296123, CA067033, CA177822, CA241340, CA217804, CA266141, CA126550, CA217886, CA183583, CA285691, CA266216) SEQ ID NO. 228: SCSBSD1029F09.g (CA281292, CA275363, CA285616, CA286914, CA273656, CA286500, CA296413, CA283987, CA291253, CA274747) The SAS (Sugarcane Assembled Sequences) and corresponding ESTs presenting more than 70% of its replicates inside fold-change cut-off curves were defined as not differentially expressed and can be used as controls in real-time PCR reactions or to train classification algorithms.
Quantitative or Real-Time PCR(RT-PCR)
Any method to measure mRNA levels for the genes can be used. For this work, five micrograms of total RNA were treated with DNAse I (Amplification grade, Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer's instructions and an aliquot of 7.5 μl of the treated RNA was reverse-transcribed using the SuperScript First-Strand Synthesis System for RT-PCR (Invitrogen). The 20 μl reverse transcription reactions contained the RNA template, 2 μl 10X RT buffer, 0.5 mM each dATP, dGTP, dCTP and dTTP, 50 ng random hexamers, 0.25 μg oligo(dT), 5 mM MgCl2, 10 mM DTT (dithiothreitol), 40 U Rnase OUT and 50 U SuperScript II Reverse Transcriptase. RNA, random hexamers, dNTPs, and oligo(dT) were mixed first, incubated at 70° C. for 5 min and placed on ice. Subsequently, the remaining components, except the SuperScript II Reverse Transcriptase, were added to the reaction and the mixture was heated to 25° C. for 10 min and then incubated at 42° C. for 2 min. The SuperScript II Reverse Transcriptase was added to each tube and the reaction was incubated at 42° C. for 1.5 h, 72° C. for 10 min, and chilled on ice. An identical reaction without the reverse transcriptase was performed as a control, to confirm the absence of genomic DNA. The cDNA product was treated with 2 U of RNAseH (Invitrogen) for 30 min at 37° C. and for 10 min at 72° C. Real-time PCR reactions were performed using SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems) in a GeneAmp 5700 Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems). Primers were designed using the Primer Express 2.0 Software (Applied Biosystems). BLAST searches against the SUCEST database were conducted to ensure the specificity of the selected primers. The primer sequences designed are listed in Table XII. Each reaction was performed in duplicates and contained 2 μl of a 1:10 dilution of the synthesized cDNA, primers to a final concentration of 600 nM each, 12.5 μl of the SYBR Green PCR Master Mix and PCR-grade water to a total volume of 25 μl. The parameters for the PCR reaction were 50° C. for 2 min, 95° C. for 10 min, 40 cycles of 95° C. for 15 s and 60° C. for 1 min. The specificity of the amplified products was evaluated by the analysis of the dissociation curves generated by the equipment. Negative controls were also prepared in order to confirm the absence of any contamination. The ratio between the relative amounts of the target gene and the endogenous control gene in the RT-PCR reactions was determined based on the 2.sup.-ΔΔCt method18 with modifications. The normalized expression level was calculated as L=2.sup.-ΔCt and ΔCT=CT,target-CT,reference, for each sample. A polyubiquitin gene (SCCCST2001G02.g) and a GAPDH gene (SCQGAM2027G09.g) was used as an endogenous reference in the RT-PCR reactions after verification that its mRNA levels were similar in the populations and individuals tissues (not shown).
TABLE-US-00021 TABLE XII Oligonucleotide sequences used in real-time PCR reactions. SAS Category Subcategory Oligonucleotide sequences SCEQRT1024E12.g Hormone Salicylic Acid CTTCCAGGGCACTCCCATT GAGAACTGCGCGAACATGAG biosynthesis (SEQ ID No. 381) (SEQ ID No. 396) SCRFLR1012F12.g Others Caffeic acid 3-O- CGGGTTCAAGGCCACCTA AGGTGTGCGTATTTACTTGATGAA methyltransferase (SEQ ID No. 382) CT (SEQ ID No. 397) SCEQRT1028C03.g Pathogenicity R-genes transduction- GAAATCGAGCCTCTCCTTCGT GCAGCATCAGGCAGTTCAAC PR protein (SEQ ID No. 383) (SEQ ID No. 398) SCAGLR1043E04.g Stress Cytochrome P450-CYP74A TGAAGCGGACGAATTTGAGTAG AGCTCGCCATAGAGACTTGGAT (SEQ ID No. 384) (SEQ ID No. 399) SCEQRT1026H08.g Stress Cytochrome P450-CYP75 GAACACCAGGTCCTGGTAGTTGT AGCAACCGCCCTCCAAA (SEQ ID No. 385) (SEQ ID No. 400) SCACCL6008H06.g Stress Low temperature AATCCCATCCATCCAAGCTAAG CGGCGGCCGATCCT induced(LTI) (SEQ ID No. 386) (SEQ ID No. 401) SCCCRZ1002E08.g Stress Putative aguaporin AGGCATTGGAAACAACCATGA GCTTTCAGATGCCGATTCAAG (TIP) (SEQ ID No. 387) (SEQ ID No. 402) SCJLRT1016G06.g Stress Ribonuclease TACTACACGCTGAGCCAGATCAA CACTCCACGTAGGGCTCGAA (SEQ ID No. 388) (SEQ ID No. 403) SCCCLR2003E10.g Transcription NAM-NAC CATCTTCTCCCACTCGTTCTT AGGGATCGCTCAGCTGGAT CTT (SEQ ID No. 389) (SEQ ID No. 404) SCCCST2001G02.g Ubiquitination Polyubiquitin CCGGTCCTTTAAACCAACTCAGT CCCTCTGGTGTACCTCCATTTG (SEQ ID No. 390) (SEQ ID No. 405) SCEQLB2019B08.g Protein CIPK-8 TCCGCATATACGAGGTGATG AAAGAGCTCGCCACCAGTAG Kinase (SEQ ID No. 391) (SEQ ID No. 406) SCSGHR1070F12.g Protein CIPK-29 GGAAATCTCGACGATGAAGTTGA TTGTTTACTTCCCATCACCTCGTA Kinase (SEQ ID No. 392) (SEQ ID No. 407) SCCCCL5001D11.g Protein CIPK-1 GGACCTCTGGTGCAACGTAGTT CGCTATCTCAGCAAATCAAGGA Kinase (SEQ ID No. 393) (SEQ ID No. 408) SCQGAM2027G09.g GAPDH* COMT CACGGCCACTGGAAGCA TCCTCAGGGTTCCTGATGCC (SEQ ID No. 394) (SEQ ID No. 409) SCRFLR1012F12.g Others CGGGTTCAAGGCCACCTA AGGTGTGCGTATTTACTTGATGAA (SEQ ID No. 395) CT (SEQ ID No. 410) Primers were designed using the Primer Express 2.0 Software (Applied Biosystems) andBLAST searches were conducted to ensure the specificity of the selected primers. The polyubiquitin gene (SCCCST20001G02.g) or the GAPDH gene (SCQGAM2027G09.g) were used as the endogenous reference in the RT-PCR reactions. The GAPDH primer sequences were retrieved from Iskandar et al., (2004).
Electrophoresis of total RNA samples (10 μg) can be carried out on 1.5% formaldehyde-containing agarose gels by standard procedures (Sambrook et al., 1989) and transferred to nylon filter (Hybond-N.sup.+, Amershan Biosciences). For this work, for each gene tested, the longest EST clone of each SUCEST SAS was selected as probe for RNA blot hybridization. Inserts were labeled with the Read-To-Go kit (Amershan Biosciences) according to the protocol recommended by the manufacturer. Hybridized filters were exposed to imaging plates for 24 h and the digitized images of RNA blot hybridization signals were detected with the FLA3000-G screen system (Fuji Photo Film, Japan) and quantified with the Image Gauge software v. 3.12 (Fuji Photo Film, Japan).
Methods for Detecting Protein Expression Levels
To measure or evaluate the proteins encoded by polynucleotide SEQ ID NO. 1-203 or SEQ ID Nos. 229 to 373 a number of well established techniques can be used (Cell Biology --A Laboratory Handbook, Academic Press). Antibodies can be raised against a purified recombinant protein expressed, for example in bacterial strains, after the coding sequence is cloned in a bacterial expression vector such as the pET vector series from Invitrogen. Plant tissue samples can be collected, protein extracts can be prepared and separated by gel electrophoresis or applied in multi-well plates, and protein levels can be measured by western blot or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) using the antibody and a secondary antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase or fluoresceine isothiocyanate. Alternatively, whole proteome analysis can analyze the proteins encoded by SEQ ID NO. 1-203 or SEQ ID Nos. 229 to 373 in large scale with the aid of mass-spectrometry technology (MALDI-TOF and related techniques) after protein separation. Techniques that can analyze (for a review see Newton at al., 2004) and evaluate protein levels in large scale have also been described (Kirpatrick et al., 2005).
Transgenic Plants of this Invention
Transgenic plants can be generated using SEQ ID NO. 1 to 203 or SEQ ID Nos. 229 to 373. Alternatively, transgenic plants can be generated by a variety of techniques using additional genes and characterized using SEQ ID NO.1 to 203 or SEQ ID Nos. 229 to 373. Techniques for transforming a wide variety of higher plant species are well known and described (Weising et al., 1988). A DNA sequence coding for the desired polypeptide, for example a cDNA sequence encoding a full length protein, will preferably be combined with transcriptional and translational initiation regulatory sequences which will direct the transcription of the sequence from the gene in the intended tissues of the transformed plant. For example, for overexpression, a plant promoter fragment may be employed which will direct expression of the gene in all tissues of a regenerated plant.
Such promoters are referred to herein as "constitutive" promoters and are active under most environmental conditions and states of development or cell differentiation. Examples of constitutive promoters include the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S transcription initiation region, the 1'- or 2'-promoter derived from T-DNA of Agrobacterium tumafaciens, the maize ubi1 promoter derived from the ubiquitin gene, and other transcription initiation regions from various plant genes known to those of skill in the art.
Genes can be introduced into plants in expression cassettes that will increase the expression of the genes or silence the genes by anti-sense expression or RNA interference and lead to a higher sucrose content plant according to the methods described in this work.
Methods for Generating Plants with Increased Sugar Content
In certain embodiments, this invention provides methods for generating plants with increased sugar content by either increasing the expression of or interfering with the expression of or decreasing the expression of the polynucleotides of this invention. In some embodiments, the plant is transgenic and generated by expression of a gene expressing or interfering with the expression of a polynucleotide or polypeptide of this invention. Transgenic plants can be generated using SEQ ID NO. 1 to 203 or SEQ ID Nos. 229 to 373. In other embodiments, the plant is one generated by standard breeding techniques or mutagenesis.
Preparation of Recombinant Vectors for Plant Transformation
SEQ ID NO. 1-203 or SEQ ID Nos 229 to 373 can be used to generate transgenic plants with higher sucrose content. For this, recombinant DNA vectors suitable for transformation of plant cells are prepared. Transgenic plants can be obtained that express a recombinant expression cassette containing a promoter linked to one of polynucleotides 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO. 229 to 373 that causes an increase in sucrose content in the transgenic plant when compared to control untransformed plants or plants transformed with vector alone.
Depending on whether increased sugar content is correlated with increased or decreased expression of a particular polynucleotide, DNA constructs can be designed to either increase or interfere with/decrease the expression of specific genes.
Gene expression can be increased using recombinant DNA constructs with a polynucleotide of interest in the sense orientation relative to the promoter to achieve gene overexpression.
Gene expression can be decreased using recombinant DNA constructs with a polynucleotide of interest in the antisense orientation relative to the promoter to achieve gene silencing. For example, a fragment of a gene of interest can be cloned in the pAHC17 vector (Christensen and Quail, 1996). Transgenic plants obtained through this method include sugarcane transgenic plants T1a, T1f, T2a, T2c and T3d originated from cultivar SP83-2847. Embryogenic calli originated from this cultivar were transformed by biolistic as described below with the COMT-AS/pAHC17 construct containing a 535 by fragment of SEQ NO. 161 cloned into the BamHI site for the antisense orientation. Plants were co-transformed with pHA9 vector (Wei and Albert, U.S. Pat. No. 6,706,948).
Gene expression can be decreased or interfered with by suppressing transcription of a gene or the accumulation of the mRNA corresponding to that gene thereby preventing translation of the transcript into protein. Posttranscriptional gene suppression is mediated by transcription of integrated recombinant DNA to form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) having homology to a gene targeted for suppression. This formation of dsRNA most commonly results from transcription of an integrated inverted repeat of the target gene, and is a common feature of gene suppression methods known as anti-sense suppression, co-suppression and RNA interference (RNAi). Transcriptional suppression can be mediated by a transcribed dsRNA having homology to a promoter DNA sequence to effect what is called promoter trans suppression.
More particularly, posttranscriptional gene suppression by inserting a recombinant DNA construct with anti-sense oriented DNA to regulate gene expression in plant cells is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,107,065 (Shewmaker et al.) and U.S. Pat. No. 5,759,829 (Shewmaker et al.). Transgenic plants transformed using such anti-sense oriented DNA constructs for gene suppression can comprise integrated DNA arranged as an inverted repeats that result from insertion of the DNA construct into plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, as disclosed by Redenbaugh et al., in "Safety Assessment of Genetically Engineered Flavr Savr® Tomato, CRC Press, Inc. (1992). Inverted repeat insertions can comprise a part or all of the T-DNA construct, e.g., an inverted repeat of a complete transcription unit or an inverted repeat of transcription terminator sequence. Screening for inserted DNA comprising inverted repeat elements can improve the efficiency of identifying transformation events effective for gene silencing whether the transformation construct is a simple anti-sense DNA construct which must be inserted in multiple copies or a complex inverted repeat DNA construct (e.g., an RNAi construct) which can be inserted as a single copy.
Posttranscriptional gene suppression by inserting a recombinant DNA construct with sense-oriented DNA to regulate gene expression in plants is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,283,184 (Jorgensen et al.,) and U.S. Pat. No. 5,231,020 (Jorgensen et al.,). Inserted T-DNA providing gene suppression in plants transformed with such sense constructs by Agrobacterium is organized predominately in inverted repeat structures, as disclosed by Jorgensen et al., Mol. Gen. Genet., 207:471-477 (1987). See also Stam et al. The Plant Journal, 12(1), 63-82 (1997) who used segregation studies to support Jorgensen's finding that gene silencing is mediated by multimeric transgene T-DNA loci in which the T-DNAs are arranged in inverted repeats. Screening for inserted DNA comprising inverted repeat elements can improve the gene silencing efficiency when transforming with simple sense-orientated DNA constructs. Gene silencing efficiency can also be improved by screening for single insertion events when transforming with an RNAi construct containing inverted repeat elements
As disclosed by Redenbaugh et al., gene suppression can be achieved by inserting into a plant genome recombinant DNA that transcribes dsRNA. Such a DNA insert can be transcribed to an RNA element having the 3' region as a double stranded RNA. RNAi constructs are also disclosed in EP 0426195 A1 (Goldbach et al., 1991) where recombinant DNA constructs for transcription into hairpin dsRNA for providing transgenic plants with resistance to tobacco spotted wilt virus. Double-stranded RNAs were also disclosed in WO 94/01550 (Agrawal et al.,) where anti-sense RNA was stabilized with a self-complementary 3' segment. Agrawal et al., referred to U.S. Pat. No. 5,107,065 for using such self-stabilized anti-sense RNAs for regulating gene expression in plant cells; see International Publication No. 94/01550. Other double-stranded hairpin-forming elements in transcribed RNA are disclosed in International Publication No. 98/05770 (Werner et al.,) where the anti-sense RNA is stabilized by hairpin forming repeats of poly(CG) nucleotides. See also U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2003/0175965 A1 (Lowe et al.,) which discloses gene suppression using and RNAi construct comprising a gene coding sequence preceded by inverted repeats of 5'UTR. See also U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2002/0048814 A1 (Oeller) where RNAi constructs are transcribed to sense or anti-sense RNA which is stabilized by a poly(T)-poly(A) tail. See also U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2003/0018993 A1 (Gutterson et al.,) where sense or anti-sense RNA is stabilized by an inverted repeat of a of the 3' untranslated region of the NOS gene. See also U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2003/0036197 A1 (Glassman et al.,) where RNA having homology to a target is stabilized by two complementary RNA regions.
Gene silencing can also be effected by transcribing RNA from both a sense and an anti-sense oriented DNA, e.g., as disclosed by Shewmaker et al., in U.S. Pat. No. 5,107,065 where in Example 1a binary vector was prepared with both sense and anti-sense aroA genes. See also U.S. Pat. No. 6,326,193 where gene targeted DNA is operably linked to opposing promoters.
Gene silencing can also be affected by transcribing from contiguous sense and anti-sense DNA. In this regard see Sijen et al. The Plant Cell, Vol. 8, 2277-2294 (1996) discloses the use of constructs carrying inverted repeats of a cowpea mosaic virus gene in transgenic plants to mediate virus resistance. Such constructs for posttranscriptional gene suppression in plants by double-stranded RNA are also disclosed in International Publication No. WO 99/53050 (Waterhouse et al.,), International Publication No. WO 99/49029 (Graham et al.), U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/465,800 (Fillatti), U.S. Pat. No. 6,506,559 (Fire et al.). See also U.S. application Ser. No. 10/393,347 (Shewmaker et al.,) that discloses constructs and methods for simultaneously expressing one or more recombinant genes while simultaneously suppressing one or more native genes in a transgenic plant. See also U.S. Pat. No. 6,448,473 (Mitsky et al.,) that discloses multi-gene suppression vectors for use in plants. All of the above-described patents, applications and international publications disclosing materials and methods for posttranscriptional gene suppression in plants are incorporated herein by reference.
Transcriptional suppression such as promoter trans suppression can be affected by a expressing a DNA construct comprising a promoter operably linked to inverted repeats of promoter DNA for a target gene. Constructs useful for such gene suppression mediated by promoter trans suppression are disclosed by Mette et al. The EMBO Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 241-148, 1999 and by Mette et al. The EMBO Journal, Vol. 19, No. 19, pp. 5194-5201-148, 2000, both of which are incorporated herein by reference.
Suppression can also be achieved by insertion mutations created by transposable elements may also prevent gene function. For example, in many dicot plants, transformation with the T-DNA of Agrobacterium may be readily achieved and large numbers of transformants can be rapidly obtained. Also, some species have lines with active transposable elements that can efficiently be used for the generation of large numbers of insertion mutations, while some other species lack such options. Mutant plants produced by Agrobacterium or transposon mutagenesis and having altered expression of a polypeptide of interest can be identified using the polynucleotides of the present invention. For example, a large population of mutated plants may be screened with polynucleotides encoding the polypeptide of interest to detect mutated plants having an insertion in the gene encoding the polypeptide of interest.
In some embodiments, DNA constructs can be the full length cDNA cloned in the expression vector pAHC17 (Christensen and Quail, 1996) in a sense orientation for overexpression or in an antisense orientation for gene silencing. Full length cDNAs can be amplified by PCR using specific primers and cloned into the BamHI site of the vector pAHC17 that will drive the constitutive expression of genes under the control of the maize ubi1 promoter (Christensen et al. 1992) and has been shown to be effective in the transformation and expression of genes in sugarcane. Other examples of constitutive promoters include the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S transcription initiation region, the 1'- or 2'-promoter derived from T-DNA of Agrobacterium tumaefaciens, the ubi4 and ubi9 promoters isolated from sugarcane polyubiquitin genes (Wei et al. 1999; Wei et al. 2003), the rice actin Act1 promoter (McElroy et al. 1990, McElroy et al. 1991), the pEmu promoter (Last et al. 1990, Chamberlain et al. 1994) and other transcription initiation regions from various plant genes known to those of skill.
Alternatively, expression vectors can be constructed using sugarcane promoters. Constitutive promoters and regulatory elements can be isolated from genes that are expressed constitutively or at least expressed in most if not all tissues of the plant. Such genes include, for example, the 153 genes described by Papini-Terzi et al., 2005 as ubiquitously expressed in sugarcane tissues.
Alternatively, the sugarcane promoter may direct expression of a nucleic acid of the invention in a specific tissue, organ or cell type (i.e. tissue-specific promoters) such as the 217 genes described by Papini-Terzi et al., 2005 as being preferentially expressed in roots, internodes, leaves, lateral buds or inflorescences of sugarcane. For antisense constructs full length cDNA or cDNA fragments of around (but not restricted to) 500 by in length can be used. If a full length coding sequence is not available it can be cloned for instance by RACE (Frohman et al., 1988). For RNA interference (RNAi) the vector pKannibal and pHannibal (Wesley et al., 2001) can be used. Primers can be designed that specifically amplify around (but not restricted to) 200 to 400 by of the target gene. Two PCR fragments will be produced with oligonucleotide primers planned to allow for cloning in the sense and antisense orientation and for a self complementary hairpin to be formed when expressed in the plant cell. The PCR fragments will contain restriction sites at their end that will allow for their introduction on the sites of XhoI/EcoRI/KpnI (sense) and ClaI/HindIII/XbaI/BamHI (antisense) in the pKannibal or pHannibal vector for instance. If proper polypeptide expression is desired, a polyadenylation region at the 3'-end of the coding region should be included. The polyadenylation region can be derived from the natural gene, from a variety of other plant genes, or from T-DNA. Transgenic plants obtained through this method include sugarcane transgenic plants 12SNF8b, 12SNF7c, 8SNF2a and 8SNF2b originated from cultivar SP94-3116. Embryogenic calli originated from this cultivar were transformed by biolistic as described below using a 331 by fragment of SEQ NO. 106 cloned into the XhoI/EcoRI sites for the sense and HindIII/XbaI sites for the antisense orientations.
The expression vector comprising the sequences (e.g., promoters or coding regions) from genes of the invention will typically comprise a marker gene that confers a selectable phenotype on plant cells. For example, the marker may encode biocide resistance, particularly antibiotic resistance, such as resistance to kanamycin, G418, bleomycin, hygromycin, or herbicide resistance, such as resistance to chlorosulfuron or Basta.
Vector DNA preparation for transformation of sugarcane by bombardment uses a variation of the co-precipitation method of Klein et al. (1988a,b).
Plant Transformation and Propagation
Sugarcane transformation is as a well established technique (see Falco et al., 2000 for an example). Transgenic plants are recovered from embryogenic callus transformed using a modified biolistic protocol. Callus initiation and maintenance from sugarcane varieties is done on medium containing Murashige & Skoog salts, 3 mg/L 2,4-D, 5% coconut water, 150 mg/L citric acid, 250 mg/L Clavulin Beecham, and 7 g/L agar (CI-3 medium). Young leaf rolls of 6-12 month old plants are cultured for a month in the dark, at 27° C. and selected embryogenic callus is subcultured on the same medium every 3 weeks. Embriogenic calli can be bombarded with plasmid expression vectors containing one of the sequences 1 to 203 or SEQ ID Nos. 229 to 373. After bombardment, calli are kept in the dark for 1 week on CI-3 medium, without selection, for recovery. Transgenic calli are selected on the same medium containing 35 mg/L of geneticin for 6 weeks. Resistant calli are placed on the same medium without 2,4-D to regenerate plants. After approximately 3 months, plants are transferred to soil and kept in the greenhouse, where they are tested for vector genomic insertion and expression. Non-transgenic control plants are obtained by regeneration from the same callus type going through the same tissue culture steps without bombardment and selection. Generally, embryogenic calli of the Brazilian sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) genotype SP80-180, SP80-185, SP94-3116, CTC1, SP83-2847, SP80-1842, SP91-1049. (but not restricted to) can be co-transformed with the plasmid pHA9 containing genes coding for neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) and a plasmid containing the gene of interest (one of SEQ ID NO. 1 to 203 or SEQ ID NO. 229 to 373 in plasmid pAHC17, pKannibal or pHannibal, for instance), by particle bombardment. Transformed plants will be initially selected on culture medium containing Geneticin, and resistance can be confirmed by localized application of a kanamycin solution to leaves of hardened plants at the nursery if desired. Southern analysis can confirm stable integration of both target and neo genes. Alternatively, plants can be submitted to analysis by PCR to confirm the insertion of the expression constructs in the sugarcane genome. Oligonucleotide primers specific to the expression constructs will be used in amplification reactions using genomic DNA extracted from a sample of the transformed plants. Confirmed plants are then allowed to regenerate to 4 cm high plants and then allowed to grow in green houses when the expression levels of the target gene will be verified by real-time PCR. Also, brix measures will be taken to verify sucrose content. Alternatively, genes can be introduced into sugarcane or other plants using techniques such as electroporation or microinjection of plant cell protoplasts.
Plant regeneration from cultured protoplasts is described in Evans et al., Protoplasts Isolation and Culture, Handbook of Plant Cell Culture, pp. 124-176, MacMillilan Publishing Company, New York, 1983; and Binding, Regeneration of Plants, Plant Protoplasts, pp. 21-73, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1985. Regeneration can also be obtained from plant callus, explants, organs, or parts thereof. Such regeneration techniques are described generally in Klee et al. Ann. Rev. of Plant Phys. 38:467-486 (1987). The introduction of DNA constructs using polyethylene glycol precipitation is described in Paszkowski et al. EMBO. J. 3:2717-2722 (1984). Electroporation techniques are described in Fromm et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:5824 (1985). Additional details of ballistic transformation techniques are described in Klein et al. Nature 327:70-73 (1987). Transgenes can also be transferred to plant cells without the need of a vector DNA backbone, using linear transgene constructs (Fu et al., 2000, Loc et al., 2002).
Alternatively, the DNA constructs may be combined with suitable T-DNA flanking regions and introduced into a conventional Agrobacterium tumefaciens host vector. The virulence functions of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens host will direct the insertion of the construct and adjacent marker into the plant cell DNA when the cell is infected by the bacteria. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation techniques, including disarming and use of binary vectors, are well described in the scientific literature. See, for example Horsch et al. Science 233:496-498 (1984), and Fraley et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:4803 (1983) and Gene Transfer to Plants, Potrykus, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1995).
Alternatively, the DNA constructs may be combined with suitable T-DNA vectors, such as pCAMBIA vectors pC1105.1, pC1105.1r or modified versions of those, and introduced into alternative bacterial host vectors such as Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium sp. or Mesorhizobium loti (also known as Transbacter strains) as described (Broothaerts et al., 2005).
Sugar measurements can be done in six month old plants. Total and reductive sugars can be determined in leaves from control and transgenic plants collected, immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and lyophilized Twenty mg of the lyophilized material can be ground using a ball mill and subjected to extraction of soluble sugars with 1 mL of ethanol 80% for 20 minutes. This process is repeated six times (exhaustive extraction). The alcoholic extract is dried in a rotoevaporator and resuspended in 1 mL of milli-Q water. The levels of total and reductive sugars (Glc+Fru) are quantified by a colorimetric method using the phenol-sulphuric (Dubois et al., 1956) and the Somogy-Nelson (Somogy, 1945) procedures and glucose 1 mg/mL as standard. The sucrose content is estimated by subtracting the amount of reductive sugars from the amount of total sugars. Transgenic plants can also be characterized for brix content and considered to be improved for sucrose content if a brix difference of 3 degrees is observed. Differential expression of SEQ ID NO. 1-203 can be used in sucrose yield field-trials to select for the best events (transformants) or in a pre-test prior to field trials. Tissue samples can be obtained as described above.
Identification of Plants with Mutated Alleles
Variations in SEQ ID NO. 1-203 or SEQ ID NO. 229 to 373 locus can be generated by non-transgenic methods, can be found in progenies generated by traditional breeding, or can be found in naturally occurring genotypes.
The Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum genotypes, the progenies of crosses between them and the crosses of commercial varieties described in this work can be screened for mutations in SEQ ID NO. 1-203 or SEQ ID NO. 229 to 373. Alternatively, sugarcane seeds can be mutagenized to increase the allelic variation for SEQ ID Nos. 1-203 or SEQ ID NO. 229 to 373. For example sugarcane can be chemically mutagenized with EMS (Ethylmethane sulfonate--EMS).
Mutations or natural variations in SEQ ID NO. 1-203 or SEQ ID NO. 229 to 373 can be identified by Tilling as was described for wheat (Slade et al., 2005). With Tilling a library of DNA samples from mutagenized or naturally occurring variants, or variants generated by traditional breeding can be identified. Mutations will be detected by amplifying regions of SEQ ID NO. 1-203 by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The PCR products will be heated and re-annealed to allow heteroduplexes to form between mutated and wild-type DNA. Heteroduplexes are identified through cleavage of mismatched sites by endonucleases such as Cell and cleaved products identified by gel-electrophoresis. The nature of the mutation will be identified by sequencing the PCR fragment.
Use as Molecular Markers: Generation Of Molecular Markers Based On Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms
SEQ ID NO. 1-203 can be used to detect differences between individuals at the DNA sequence level. Genomic DNAs from any number of individuals can be digested with a restriction enzyme, preferably a six-base pair cutting enzyme, electrophoresed and can be probed with any of the SEQ ID NO. 1-203 DNA clones, labelled with radioisotopes. Polymorphisms in the hybridization patterns can be due to differences in the gene sequences between the individuals. The term "restriction fragment length polymorphism" has been coined to describe this variation. For example, genomic DNA can be extracted from sugarcane individuals from any of the populations cited in this invention, digested with one restriction enzyme, such as (but not limited to) EcoRI, Hind III, Drat, BamHI. Restriction fragments can be separated on 0.8% (w/v) agarose gel, using TAE (40 mM Tris acetate, pH 8.0; 2 mM EDTA) as running buffer at 20 mA for 22 h and transferred to nylon membranes.
SEQ ID NO. 1-203 can be used to generated probes using 32PdCTP using any commercial kit, such as the Rediprime II kit from Amersham (USA). Hybridizations can be performed in a hybridization solution containing for example 0.5 M Na2PO4 pH 7.2, 1% BSA, 7% SDS, 100 μg/mL sheared herring sperm DNA), at 65° C. for up to 24 h. The membranes can be washed once during 20 min at 65° C. solution I (2×SSC; 5% SDS), then 20 min at 65° C. in solution II (1×SSC; 5% SDS 5%) and 20 min at 65° C. in solution III (0.5×SSC; 5% SDS).
Restriction fragment length polymorphism can be visualized by exposition to an imaging plate for 3-10 days at -80° C. and detected using a phosphorimager, such as the FLA3000 (Fuji, Japan). Those skilled in the art will easily use standard procedures to marker notation, analysis of each molecular marker segregation in the population individuals, and finally the linkage analysis to predict the usefulness of each of the SEQ ID Nos. 1-203 as molecular markers. An example of these steps has been described by Garcia et al., (2006).
Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and examples for purposes of clarity and understanding, it will be obvious that certain modifications and alternative embodiments of the invention are contemplated which do not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the foregoing teachings and appended claims.
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