Patent application title: SPLINTER PROTECTION WITH OPTICAL AND THERMAL FUNCTIONALITY
Tilmann Kuhn (Hinterzarten, DE)
Christoph Mayrhofer (Kandern, DE)
Jurgen Frick (Freiburg, DE)
Michael Hermann (Freiburg, DE)
Jan Wienold (Emmendingen, DE)
Volker Wittwer (Freiburg-Tiengen, DE)
IPC8 Class: AE04H906FI
Class name: Static structures (e.g., buildings) auxiliary imperforate panel-like shield attached to main panel, barrier, or frame auxiliary pane attached to main pane
Publication date: 2009-02-12
Patent application number: 20090038244
Patent application title: SPLINTER PROTECTION WITH OPTICAL AND THERMAL FUNCTIONALITY
GAUTHIER & CONNORS, LLP
Origin: BOSTON, MA US
IPC8 Class: AE04H906FI
The present invention relates to a curtain which is suitable as shatter
protection and has optical and thermal functionality. Curtains of this
type are required in particular in order to protect buildings for example
during terrorist attacks. This fundamentally relates to any type of
building, in particular however, office buildings with large areas of
The fundamental concept of the present invention is to provide curtains
which absorb the huge amount of energy, for example of an explosion,
however also irreversible damage of the curtain being able to be
accepted. It is thereby essential that the curtain absorbs the acting
energy and inter alia prevents any possibly occurring fragments of a
glass facade being thrown into the room and being able to injure people
there. The curtain is configured for this purpose as an internally
situated or externally situated curtain, advantageously as a slatted
curtain/shutter or even as a roller blind.
1. A curtain for the facade of a building,whereinthe curtain is configured
in such a manner that it is stable under the effect of large pressure
2. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein a large number of bars which are disposed parallel and adjacent and are held together by connecting means to form a two-dimensional structure.
3. The curtain according to claim 2, wherein the bars have hollow chambers for stabilisation on at least one part of their length or they are configured as hollow profiles.
4. The curtain according to claim 3, wherein the hollow chambers or hollow profiles are filled at least in regions with a material.
5. The curtain according to claim 4, wherein the hollow chambers or hollow profiles are filled at least in regions with a liquid, a gel, a plastic material, a foam and/or sand.
6. The curtain according to claim 3, wherein the hollow chambers or hollow profiles are sealed to be liquid-impermeable and/or gas-impermeable.
7. The curtain according to claim 2, wherein the bars have surface regions which extend along the bars and protrude beyond the hollow chambers or the hollow profiles.
8. The curtain according to claim 2, wherein the profile or the cross-section of the bars is configured in such a manner that the bars cannot be stacked or the curtain cannot be moved away, gathered up and/or rolled up.
9. The curtain according to claim 2, wherein the profile or the cross-section of the bars is configured in such a manner that the bars can be stacked or the curtain can be moved away, gathered up, rolled up, shifted and/or folded.
10. The curtain according to claim 2, wherein the bars have an external contour with at least one first surface which extends in the longitudinal direction of the bars and delimits the external contour and a second surface which abuts against the first surface perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the bars and delimits the external contour,the first surface, in anti-clockwise direction/turning to the left, enclosing an angle β with the horizontal and the second surface, in the clockwise direction/turning to the right, enclosing an angle γ with the horizontal.
11. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein there applies for β and γ 70.degree.≦β≦110.degree., advantageously β=90.degree. and/or 0.degree.≦γ≦85.degree., advantageously 45.degree.≦β≦85.degree., advantageously 45.degree.≦β≦60.degree..
12. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein a third surface which delimits the external contour of the bars abuts against the first surface on the side which is orientated away from the second surface, said surface, in anticlockwise direction (turning to the left), enclosing an angle α with the horizontal.
13. The curtain according to claim 12, wherein there applies for the angle α: -30.degree.≦α≦90.degree., preferably 0.degree.≦α≦45.degree., preferably 30.degree.≦α≦40.degree., preferably α=0.degree..
14. The curtain according to claim 10, wherein a fourth surface abuts against the second surface on the side which is orientated away from the first surface, said fourth surface, in the clockwise direction/turning to the right, enclosing an angle δ with the horizontal.
15. The curtain according to claim 14, wherein there applies for the angle δ--60.degree.≦δ≦60.degree., advantageously 0.degree.≦δ≦60.degree., advantageously 0.degree.≦δ≦25.degree..
16. The curtain according to claim 12, wherein the first surface, the second surface and the third surface and possibly the fourth surface enclose a hollow space.
17. The curtain according to claim 16, wherein the first surface, the second surface and the third surface form a hollow space with a triangular cross-section.
18. The curtain according to the preceding claim, wherein the fourth surface (D) protrudes beyond the hollow space formed by the first (B), second (C) and third (A) surface.
19. The curtain according to claim 10, wherein the first, second, third and/or fourth surface is formed by structural elements of the bars.
20. The curtain according to claim 10, wherein the first, second and third surface and possibly the fourth surface represent the envelope for structural elements of the bars.
21. The curtain according to claim 20, wherein the bars respectively have a large number of two-dimensional elements which extend in the longitudinal direction of the bars and are disposed adjacently perpendicular to the surface plane of the curtain the adjacent two-dimensional elements of one bar being connected to each other alternately at their upper edge or at their lower edge.
22. The curtain according to claim 21, wherein the height of the two-dimensional elements reduces in the direction of the outside of the building.
23. The curtain according to claim 2, wherein the bars have folds, beads, edges and/or bends which extend in the longitudinal direction for stabilisation.
24. The curtain according to claim 2, wherein the bars are coated, in particular glued, at least in regions.
25. The curtain according to claim 24, wherein the bars are coated at least in regions with a woven fabric, in particular made of composite material, in particular made of carbon fibres, aramide fibres and/or Kevlar.
26. The curtain according to claim 24, wherein the bars are not coated at bending points.
27. The curtain according to claim 24, wherein the bars are coated only or in particular on the side which is orientated away from the outside of the building in the mounted state.
28. The curtain according to claim 24, wherein the bars are coated only or in particular on flat regions of the bars or on the concave inside of curved regions.
29. The curtain according to claim 24, wherein the bars are coated only or in particular at those regions which are flat before and/or after roller-shaping of the bars and/or are subjected only to pressure or without tension during roller-shaping of the bars.
30. The curtain according to claim 2, wherein the bars have predetermined bending points at least in regions in their longitudinal direction.
31. The curtain according to claim 30, wherein the bars have surface regions which extend along the bars and protrude beyond the main body of the bars and a predetermined bending point, in particular in the form or a bead or omega-bead, being disposed between the main body and the surface regions.
32. The curtain according to claim 30, wherein the surface regions have a width perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the bars which is greater than or at least equal to the spacing of the main body of two bars from each other in the mounted state of the curtain.
33. The curtain according to claim 2, wherein the bars comprise plastic material, composite material, in particular fibre-reinforced plastic material, and/or metal, in particular metal sheet, in particular aluminium and/or stainless steel, or contain these materials.
34. The curtain according to claim 2, wherein at least the surface which is orientated away from the building in the mounted state of the curtain is configured to be reflective, in particular metallically reflective, highly reflective, diffusely scattering, asymmetrically scattering, painted, in particular painted white, coated or glued with a foil, in particular a foil with a wood appearance, or coated or glued with a real wood veneer.
35. The curtain according to claim 2, wherein at least the surface which is directed towards the building in the mounted state of the curtain is configured painted, in particular painted white, coated or glued with a foil, in particular a foil with a wood appearance or coated or glued with a real wood veneer.
36. The curtain according to claim 2, wherein the bars have, externally at the bottom, a sharp edge in the mounted state of the curtain.
37. The curtain according to claim 2, wherein the surface of the bars which is orientated towards the building interior in the mounted state of the curtain is not situated further inwards with its upper end than with its lower end.
38. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein the surface of the bars which is orientated towards the building interior in the mounted state of the curtain extends vertically.
39. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein a two-dimensional woven fabric, knitted fabric and/or hosiery fabric, the woven fabric, knitted fabric and/or hosiery fabric having or comprising as fibre component glass fibres, carbon fibres, aramide fibres and/or combinations hereof.
40. The curtain according to claim 39, wherein the fibre component is covered with plastic material, metallised, in particular vapour coated with aluminium, and/or painted, in particular painted white.
41. The curtain according to claim 29, wherein the curtain can be rolled up and/or wound up.
42. The curtain according to claim 39, wherein the curtain cannot be rolled up and/or wound up.
43. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein the curtain is mounted at least laterally, at the upper edge and/or lower edge.
44. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein the curtain is mounted elastically and/or deformably.
45. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein the curtain is mounted laterally, at the upper edge and/or at the lower edge in rails, in particular in rails with a C-profile, clamping strips and or nail strips as mounting.
46. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein the curtain is mounted all around in a rigid or stable frame as mounting.
47. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein the mounting is elastic and/or deformable.
48. The curtain according to claim 47, wherein the curtain is mounted all around in a rigid frame which is mounted elastically for its part.
49. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein the curtain is braced laterally, at the top and/or at the bottom.
50. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein the curtain is braced laterally, at the top and/or at the bottom elastically and/or deformably.
51. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein the curtain is braced by means of looped cords.
52. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein the curtain is braced by means of metal threads or strips, woven fabric threads or strips, in particular Kevlar threads or strips, and/or by means of threads or strips made of a plastic material or fibre composite material.
53. The curtain according to claim 1, wherein the curtain is braced by means of strips, the curtain and the strips being riveted to each other.
The present application is a continuation of PCT Application No. PCT/EP2007/001045 filed on Feb. 7, 2007 that claims priority to German Application No. DE 102006005509.8, filed on Feb. 7, 2006. Both applications are incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a curtain which is suitable as shatter protection and has optical and thermal functionality.
Curtains of this type are required in particular in order for example to protect buildings during terrorist attacks. They are required in all sorts of buildings but in particular in office buildings with large areas of glass.
Buildings with large areas of glass, in particular office buildings, are subject to particular dangers during terrorist attacks or also basically during explosion occurrences. The reason is that normal sun protection systems are not stable enough, in particular non-buckling, in order to protect the areas of glass from the pressure of the explosion wave. In the state of the art, there is no building curtain known, neither on the inside nor the outside of the building, which could effectively protect the areas of glass here.
It is therefore the object of the present invention to produce a building curtain which combines inter alia protection against high pressures or the consequences associated therewith, in particular shatter protection, with optical and thermal functionality at the same time.
This object is achieved by the curtain according to claim 1. Advantageous developments of the curtain are indicated in the respective dependent claims.
In contrast to the state of the art in which efforts are made to make the glass facades so stable that they survive explosions/terrorist attacks or similar without damage, the present invention offers a completely different route. It has recognised that it is in fact achievable if, instead of making the glass facades stable, specific components absorb the enormous amount of energy in that damage, even irreversible, is accepted for them. It is therefore allowed here that the--often large-area--glazing is damaged. However this is where the present invention intervenes in that it makes available a curtain which prevents fragments, which are possibly produced, from being able to be thrown into the room and injuring persons there.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
According to the invention these can be internally situated curtains, ones situated between the panes or externally situated, said curtains enabling in addition, in the form of a blind or a shutter, sun protection, dazzle protection, a view and daylight provision. These curtains can thereby be able to be folded, folded away, moved away, rolled up and the like. However it is also possible to provide stationary curtains which always remain in the protective position.
Thus it would then be possible either for the curtain constantly to be "simply left down as sun protection" or also to deploy the curtain, for example to uncouple it, shift it, unroll it and the like, only if the security situation demands it, for example in embassies.
If it is movable and weather-resistant, such a curtain can also be used as an externally situated, stable, in particular wind-stable, curtain. This makes it possible then for the first time, even in multi-story buildings over 100 metres in height, to deploy an externally situated sun protection, which has not been possible to date because of the wind loading. Such an externally situated sun protection in high office buildings would offer a large energy saving potential in the trend of the moment for whole glass facades. The curtain according to the invention is thus already financially viable as a result of savings in operating costs and a smaller air-conditioning plant. Also less ventilation and air-conditioning technology has an effect on the profitability of the curtain according to the invention via a smaller spatial requirement for shafts and channels and a correspondingly greater rentable area. In combination with energy saving regulations, for example of the European Union, the curtain according to the invention makes possible a small revolution in multi-storey construction with complete glass facades.
The curtain according to the invention achieves in addition high acceptance since at the very least it does not impair the thermal and visual comfort of the users. For the users it also serves for the purpose of increasing the thermal and visual comfort in the room and is configured to be aesthetically appealing. Furthermore, it is possible to assume functions, with the curtain according to the invention, which are normally assumed by another component so that investment costs in the other component are then saved.
According to the invention, the curtain can be configured either as a slatted curtain/shutter or as a roller blind.
If a roller blind is used, then this can be produced advantageously from a two-dimensional woven fabric, knitted fabric and/or hosiery fabric, the latter having as fibre components glass fibres, carbon fibres, aramide fibres or combinations hereof. The fibre component can thereby be metallised, covered with plastic material, for example also vapour coated with aluminium. Such a roller blind can be configured to be able to be rolled and/or wound up, but this is not necessary. In certain circumstances, also variants are advantageous in which the blind is static and remains permanently in its position.
If the woven fabric is metallised, then in particular the aesthetic demands of the users can be met since the optical appearance is thus improved. In the case of a surface configuration which has a light colour, for example white, sun protection is improved because of the high reflectivity of the material. Such a blind can then absorb a load three-dimensionally, for example due to pressure, and serve also as shatter protection since it can intercept fragments of the glass facade. In the last case, an internally situated mounting should be implemented, i.e. on the building side relative to the glass facade. Furthermore, fibres which can be stretched with energy absorption can be used so that they absorb energy very well.
As an alternative, the curtain can also advantageously be configured in the form of a slatted curtain/shutter, i.e. have a large number of bars which are disposed in parallel and adjacent and are connected to each other for example via strips or cables such that the individual bars hang horizontally in front or behind the facade. There is generally intended here and subsequently by bars any structure which has an elongated extension, as for example shutter slats have. Perpendicular to this longitudinal direction, a bar of this type can have a two-dimensional or even a three-dimensional structure/profile.
The bars can thereby be configured as static structures or also rotatable structures similarly to a shutter.
If the shutter-like systems need not be able to be gathered up, it is not necessary that the slats are stackable. As a result, greater freedom exists in the shaping of the profiles of the individual bars. Also for roller blind-like, fabric-like systems, greater freedom exists in the formation of the fabric (for example resistance to wear or thickness of the fabric) if these do not require to be able to be rolled up or wound up.
For the shutter-like or slat-like curtains, there are now various advantageous development options in order to make these insensitive to high pressures or to ensure shatter protection.
On the one hand, the slats can be made more stable by means of additional folds, edges, bends and/or hollow chambers or similar structures. The starting point here is profiles, such as for example the C-slat, the Z-slat, the Genius slat and the Ganzmetallstore or even the slat systems marketed under the trade name s_enn.
There are suitable here as metals, metals such as aluminium sheet or stainless steel sheet from which the slats can be produced by roller-shaping. In this case, care should be taken that the corresponding structures are disposed and configured such that the roller-shaping of the slats is not consequently prevented. However other materials, such as plastic materials, composite materials and the like, are also possible.
A further possibility for improving the shatter protection or pressure resistance resides in reinforcing the profiles at corresponding places or completely. This can be effected for example by gluing with a foil, the gluing being intended to take place preferably at those places which can be glued before the roller-shaping process or also thereafter. This means that places which are flat before the roller-shaping and after the roller-shaping or are subjected to pressure merely during roller-shaping, such as for example the inside of curved surfaces or ones to be curved, can advantageously be glued.
In addition to gluing with foil for reinforcing the profiles, it is also possible to glue these profiles before or after the roller-shaping entirely or partially with a fabric, such as for example Kevlar, in order that fragments if necessary cannot pierce the slats. In order to enable both sun protection and explosion protection, the foil or the fabric is applied only on the inner side of the slats, i.e. on the building-side surface of the slats, and a reflective or highly-reflective surface is advantageously provided externally in addition. There are suitable as such for example a diffuse white-painted or even a metallic high-reflective coated surface or even a retrostructure. Also asymmetrically scattering surfaces can be used advantageously.
A few advantageous developments provide producing the slats from stainless steel sheets by roller-shaping and gluing these partially before the roller-shaping with Kevlar strips. The bent points must thereby be recessed and only the surfaces which are still flat after the roller-shaping are glued. This is possible for example for the profile known under the name s_enn, as described also in DE 101 39 583 A1.
It is also possible to glue the slats for example of a Ganzmetallstore, after roller-shaping, with a fabric such as Kevlar, not only in order to prevent fragments piercing the metal but also to increase the bending stability. Such a variant is suitable for use as externally situated or internally situated protective curtain which optionally can be activated.
A further possibility for stabilising the slats or bars resides in configuring these as a hollow profile which is filled at least on one part of its length or at least in regions. It is possible as a result to distribute a high initial impulse to a large surface via the viscosity of the filling. There are suitable for this purpose in particular fillings with liquids or with a gel.
However it is also possible according to the invention to fill the high profiles with sand or the like in order to increase the inertia and bending stability of the bars.
The profiles can also be foamed, for example using a lance. There is also suitable as material for bars of this type a metal, for example aluminium, steel or stainless steel, or also plastic material. These can then be combined to form a curtain comprising a plurality of stacked units, the respectively individual stability of which is increased by this measure.
A further possibility for increasing the stability, the pressure insensitivity or shatter protection of the bars resides in providing specific regions of the bars with predetermined bending points. When a pressure occurrence takes place, for example an explosion, the predetermined bending points are activated and the curtain is closed completely or partially. By folding down a part of the bars at the predetermined bending point, a part of the energy from the pressure wave is absorbed in addition. The predetermined bending point can thereby have an elastic configuration, but advantageously also a non-elastic one so that the curtain is subsequently closed irreversibly.
As a result of bending the bars or the curtain, energy is consequently absorbed in total by the deformation and the openings present in the curtain are reduced in size so that the region situated behind is better protected.
The mounting of the curtain according to the invention can also be developed according to the invention. The reason is that normally curtains of this type are not guided such that the entire curtain offers sufficient resistance to bending of the curtain. However, the individual elements of the curtain are fixed, such as for example in the case of the Ganzmetallstore of the company Huppebaumann. The development of the present invention begins here, in which the movability is completely dispensed with and the curtain is braced at the top and bottom in addition to being fixed in a lateral guide. This has the great advantage that deformation of the individual elements (bars, slats, fabric) of the curtain can be allowed without there being a risk that the curtain bends away in its entirety. With a fixing mechanism of this type, the energy is absorbed by deformation of the entire curtain and thus the force which the pressure wave exerts on the curtain as a whole and the mounting is reduced. This means that the curtain is no longer torn in its entirety from its anchor.
The bracings in particular can be elastic or deformable in order that energy is also absorbed by the bracing if an explosion occurrence or a pressure wave occurs.
Thus a part of the energy of the pressure wave is absorbed both by the deformation of the individual elements of the curtain and also of the bracing.
A further possibility resides in bracing the curtain in a relatively rigid frame or in a rigid frame which is configured to be so stable that it does not deform. As a result, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of slits in the deformed state at the sides. In this case, the rigid frame can itself be mounted again elastically or deformably.
Insofar as the bracing changes in the length thereof under the effect of pressure, such deflection of the curtain must be compensated for by a higher curtain. The lateral fixing of the curtain can be effected in the case of non-movable curtains with a clamping strip or a nail strip.
For reasons of dazzle protection, care should be taken advantageously with all embodiments of the curtain according to the invention that respectively a sharp or cut, preferably sharp-edged cut edge is present externally at the bottom and no round or bent structure (with a significant radius).
However also variants without these properties are conceivable but which then have poorer properties with respect to dazzle protection.
As a further technical measure for increasing the stability of the slats in the case of a shutter slat, such as e.g. the C-slat, the Z-slat, slats which are known under the name Huppelux Genius, Retroflex, Retrolux-O, Retrolux-U or Ganzmetallstore (of the company Huppebaumann), these are glued entirely or partially with Kevlar or similar and are not guided with guide cords but with looped cords. These distort less easily. Looped cords of this type should be stable (e.g. metal threads, Kevlar, a fibre composite and the like). The lower rail here should then also be fixed in order that the curtain is securely tensioned.
In order to meet the aesthetic demands of the users, the foils used for gluing can be applied externally, i.e. not in a hollow chamber. A surface with a wood appearance is suitable here in a particularly advantageous manner. The foil can advantageously be provided as outermost layer with a real wood veneer.
For suitability of the curtain according to the invention and user-friendliness, it is basically preferred if, in the case of the innermost surface of the bars, the upper end is not situated further inwards than the lower end in order that the inside cannot be impinged upon by reflected light which is reflected upwards from the element situated thereunder (slat or bar). It is particularly preferred if the inner surface is vertical.
This requirement is particularly important if the bars have two surfaces, for example a first and second surface, which are connected to each other at their upper end. The profile of the bar in this case is an inverted V-shape. This is likewise important if for example a triangular profile is produced with a further third surface which abuts against the lower end of the first surface. If a further surface is provided which abuts against the lower end of the second profile, then square surfaces are possible and, when using further abutting surfaces, pentagonal and other profiles. The fourth surface can however protrude beyond a triangle formed by the first to third surface. In this case, the third surface can abut with its free end on the lower end of the second surface or else on the lower end of the fourth surface or anywhere between the upper end of the second surface and the lower end of the fourth surface.
In the case of such an arrangement, requirements arise, as are described in detail in claims 10 to 22, for the arrangement of the individual surfaces in the assembled state of the curtain.
This applies also when these surfaces are merely imaginary surfaces which surround the bar structures as an envelope.
A few examples of curtains according to the invention are now given subsequently. There are thereby shown
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE ILLUSTRATED EMBODIMENTS
FIGS. 1-14 various forms of curtains and bar profiles for curtains of this type and also
FIG. 15 a mounting according to the invention for the curtains according to the invention.
In Figures A to E, FIG. 1 shows profiles for bars for static, internally situated applications, the profiles or the curtains not being able to be moved away. In FIG. 1A, a curtain which has a large number of bars 2A, 2B, 2C is shown. Above and below the bars 2A or 2C, further bars of this type can be situated. The bars are connected to each other via for example laser-welded metal strips 4 or also riveted. In the plane of the metal strips 4, the bars have a spacing 5.
As represented in FIG. 1, the corresponding profile, represented in cross-section as in FIG. 1B, has in total three surfaces. A first surface 11 is orientated vertically, against which, starting from the upper end thereof, a second surface 12 and, immediately extending this, a fourth surface 14 abuts. A third surface 13 extends from the lower end of the first surface 11 diagonally upwards in the direction of the second surface 12 or of the fourth surface 14. At the point where the surface 13 abuts on the surfaces 12 and 14, is the point which notionally separates the two surfaces 12 and 14 from each other. The three surfaces 11, 12, 13 now enclose a hollow space 16 and together form with surface 14 the slat 2. FIG. 1B shows here, as in the following, respectively the cross-sections or profiles of the individual slats.
The surface 14 terminates externally on the right at the bottom in a sharp edge 17 so that no reflection occurs there which could dazzle the user inside the room (on the left of the slat 2 in FIG. 1B).
The spacing of the slat bars depends upon the position of use and purpose of use. For example, in areas near the equator the sun is higher than in temperate latitudes so that the slat bars there can have a larger spacing. Alternatively, the surface 14 can also be shorter or longer.
A surface of this type is shown for example in FIG. 1C.
In FIG. 1D, the bar 2 of FIG. 1A or 1B is modified in that a fifth surface 15 is provided, which surface extends along the surface 12 to the upper end thereof starting from the outer end of the third surface 13. As a result, this stabilises the entire structure and the hollow space 16.
FIG. 1E is a corresponding structure, however the fourth surface 14, in comparison with FIG. 1D, is shorter.
The bars represented in FIG. 1 can be produced for example simply by roller-shaping.
Here as in the following, the same or similar reference numbers are used for the same or similar elements by all the Figure descriptions and in all the Figures.
FIG. 2 now shows cross-sections or profiles through bars 2 which are similar to those in FIG. 1B or 1E.
In FIG. 2A, a profile as in FIG. 1B is represented, however, the hollow space 16 here being filled by means of a gel 18. In addition, a predetermined bending point 19 is provided between the second surfaces 12 and the fourth surface 14 so that, with the effect of pressure from the exterior, the fourth surface 14 bends and reduces or closes the intermediate space to the slat situated next thereunder.
In FIG. 2B, the hollow space 16 is likewise closed with a gel or a liquid 18, the other profile being configured as in FIG. 1E.
In FIG. 2C, the profile form of FIG. 2D is further modified in that a predetermined bending point is configured as bead 19 between the second and the fourth surface. Furthermore, the fourth surface 14 is glued by means of a foil 20 in the inside of the space.
The profiles represented in FIG. 2 are suitable for non-movable static internally situated applications.
FIG. 3 likewise shows profiles for non-movable static internally situated applications.
In FIG. 3A the fourth surface 14 is thereby sub-divided into two surface portions 14a and 14b, a bending point being situated between the two surface portions 14a and 14b so that these enclose an angle <180°.
In FIG. 3B, this profile shape is developed in that the hollow space 16 is filled with a gel, a liquid, sand, plastic material or a foam and in addition the surfaces of the surface regions 14a and 14b which are orientated towards the inside of the space are reinforced with a foil.
FIG. 4 shows further profiles which are non-movable for static internally situated applications. In this case, the profiles are configured similarly to FIG. 3A or 3B, beads 19 being provided as predetermined bending points between the surfaces 12 and 14. The surface 14 is furthermore configured divided in two parts as surface region 14a and 14b, these being glued by foils on their surface which is orientated towards the inside of the space. These foils described with 20a and 20b may be applied separated from each other for the respective surface regions 14a and 14b (see FIG. 4B or also be continuous as represented in FIG. 4C). FIG. 4A again shows the profile from FIG. 4B in the context of a curtain, again the profiles 2a, 2b and 2c being connected to each other and suspended via metal strips 4.
The reinforcing foil in FIG. 4A and FIG. 4B can be applied before the roller-shaping process because the foil is applied only on surfaces which are flat both before and after the roller-shaping process. In FIG. 4C, a profile is represented in which the continuous foil 20a, 20b can be applied merely after the shaping process.
In both cases, during the mechanical effect, the curtain closes because of bending of the predetermined bending point 19. As can be detected in FIG. 4A, the fourth surfaces 14 are configured such that they close completely the intermediate space between individual slats 2a and 2b with a given fold.
FIG. 5 likewise shows non-movable profiles for static internally situated applications. Again a profile is thereby chosen with a triangular basic structure, constructed from a first surface, a second surface 11, a second surface 12 and a third surface 13 against which a fourth surface 14 abuts externally. In FIG. 5B, a predetermined bending point 19 is disposed between the second surface 12 and the fourth surface 14 and the fourth surface 14 is glued and reinforced with a foil 20d. At the external end of the surface 14, the latter is bent over (reference number 21) and has a sharp edge 17 at the end thereof.
In the case of the two profiles represented in FIG. 5A and FIG. 5B, the surfaces 11, 12 and 13 are glued and reinforced on the inside in the hollow space by means of foils 20a, 20b and 20c.
FIG. 6 shows the profile from FIG. 5B again enlarged, but the hollow space 16 being however filled with a filling 18 comprising liquid, gel, sand, plastic material or foam.
FIG. 7 shows further profiles for non-movable statically internally situated applications, the cavity or hollow space 16 having no mechanical connection. The profiles in FIG. 7B correspond to that in FIG. 6, a further surface 15 however abutting against the free edge in FIG. 6 of the third surface 13 and extending parallel to the second surface 12. In FIG. 7A, the surfaces of the first surface 11, the third surface 13 and the fifth surface 15, which are orientated towards the hollow space 16, are reinforced by gluing with foils, whilst the hollow space in FIG. 7B is filled with liquid, gel, sand, plastic material or foam.
FIG. 8 also shows profiles for non-movable statically internally situated applications. Relative to the profile in FIG. 1B, the third surface 13 here extends horizontally and abuts with the free end thereof on the fourth surface 14. In FIG. 8A, starting from this free end, a fifth surface 15 is provided which again extends parallel to the fourth surface 14 in the direction of the first surface 11 and terminates in the hollow space 16.
In FIG. 8B, the third surface 13 terminates at the bending point between the second surface 12 and the fourth surface 14, a fifth surface 15 abutting against the free end of the surface 13 and extending parallel to the fourth surface 14, but terminating in front of the fourth surface 14.
FIG. 8C shows a profile shape as in FIG. 8A, however a further surface 15b and a surface 15c abutting against the fifth surface, designated here with 15a. The third surface 13, the fifth surface 15a and the surfaces 15b and 15c again enclose a triangular hollow space 16b.
FIG. 9 shows further profiles, a vertically downward extending fifth surface 15a abutting here against the fourth surface 14. The first surface 11, the second surface 12, the fourth surface 14, the fifth surface 15a and the third surface 13 thereby form a pentagon, the first surface 11 extending vertically and the third surface 13 extending extensively horizontally with a slight upwards movement. The second surface 12 extends from the upper end of the first surface 11 downwards and then bends in the direction of the horizontal towards the fourth surface 14. This then merges into the vertical fifth surface 15a.
In the interior of the hollow space 16a, a further surface 15b extends upwards, starting from the free end of the third surface 13 until it almost abuts against the fourth surface 14. There it bends downwards towards the connection point to the first surface 11 and the third surface 13. The third surface 13, the surfaces 15b and 15c thus form a hollow space 16b.
In FIG. 9B, this profile is varied in that the surface 15c extends slightly upwards, extending parallel to the fourth surface 14 up to the first stretch 11, and then is angled vertically downwards into the further surface 15d. The hollow space 16b enclosed by the third surface 13 and the surfaces 15b, 15c and 15d is square here.
This shape is further modified in FIG. 9C in that the surface 15d continues again bending into a surface 15e which extends from the connecting corner between the surface 11 and the third surface 13 up to the connecting corner between the third surface 13 and the surface 15b parallel to the surface 13.
In all these embodiments in FIG. 9, a mechanical connection at the points between the individual profile elements or surfaces, characterised by the dotted circle, is possible.
These profiles are built upon the profile known with the description s_enn and can be rolled up for internally and externally situated applications. Basically, the cavities produced with these profiles do not require a mechanical connection. It is however conceivable that the profiles are connected to each other with mechanical connections, such as gluing, soldering or welding.
FIG. 10 now shows a profile, as represented in FIG. 9A, the surface 15C however being omitted. In this profile, a foil is applied, in FIG. 10A, on the surfaces 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15b respectively on the hollow space side. These foils are glued on before the roller-shaping in order to reinforce the corresponding surfaces. In FIG. 10B, the hollow space is filled with gel, sand, plastic material or foam, as a result of which the rigidity, bending stability and inertia of this profile is substantially increased. This curtain is very readily suitable as externally situated sun protection.
FIG. 11 shows further profiles which can be rolled up for internally and externally situated application, the profile surfaces not necessarily requiring to be mechanically connected in it but being able if necessary also to be connected, for example by gluing, soldering or welding.
FIG. 11A thereby shows a square profile which is formed by the surfaces 11, 12, 13 and 14. The surfaces 11, 13, 14 are thereby extensively orthogonal relative to each other, the surface 14 being however shorter than the surface 11. Between the upper end of the surface 11 and the upper end of the surface 14, the surface 12 now extends diagonally. Furthermore, a further surface 15a extends upwards from the free end of the surface 13 parallel to the surface 14. The surface 14 protrudes slightly beyond the free end of the surface 13 and forms a sharp edge there.
In FIG. 11A, the thus formed square hollow space 16 is filled with a gel, a liquid, a plastic material, sand or even a foam.
In FIG. 11B, a surface 15b extends in addition from the upper end of the surface 15a to the connecting point between the surfaces 11 and 13 so that the surfaces 13, 15a and 15b enclose a hollow space 16b.
In FIG. 11C, the cross-section (profile) of a bar (slat) is represented, which is constructed from similar surfaces as in FIG. 11A. However from the upper end of the surface 15a up to approximately the centre of the surface 11, a further surface 15b extends which continues from there downwards in a surface 15c up to the connecting point between the surfaces 11 and 13. The surfaces 13, 15a, 15b and 15c hence enclose a square hollow space 16b.
In FIG. 11D, the profile from FIG. 11B is developed in that now from the free end of the surface 15b a further surface 15c extends parallel to the surface 13 up to the connecting point between the surface 13 and the surface 15a. The surfaces 15a, 15b and 15c consequently enclose a triangular hollow space 16b.
These profiles which are shown in FIG. 11 can likewise be rolled up and are therefore suitable for movable curtains.
FIG. 12 now shows a profile which was developed from those of FIG. 1B. Between the surfaces 12 and 14 there is now situated an omega-bead so that, when pressure is applied from the outside (from the right), the surface 14 can bend slightly and thus close the curtain. Furthermore, the hollow space 16 is filled by means of a gel, a liquid, sand, plastic material or a foam.
In FIG. 12B, the profile from FIG. 1B is developed in that the surface 14 extends upwards, whilst the surface 12 extends downwards. Consequently, a rounded transition region 19 is provided at the connecting region between the surfaces 12 and 14.
If the surface 14 also extends downwards and if it is connected to the surface 13 or the free end thereof instead of to the surface 12, then a transition region 19 can be produced here which is rounded in the other direction.
Upwardly open recesses 19, as in FIGS. 12A and B, are suitable mainly for internally situated applications since they become dirty more easily. Downwardly open rounded regions 19, as in FIG. 12C, are suitable not only for internally situated but also for externally situated applications.
FIG. 13 shows two further profiles, the shape of which differs fundamentally from the previously shown profiles.
In this case, the profiles comprise a Z-shaped or accordion-shaped successive arrangement of a large number of individual surfaces 22a to 22g (FIG. 13A) or 22a to k (FIG. 13B).
The surface 22a situated in the room interior is vertical, whilst surfaces which are inclined alternately slightly to the right or to the left abut against it. The adjacent surfaces are thereby connected to each other alternately at their upper or lower end so that in total an accordion-like absorber structure is produced.
In FIG. 13A, an eye 6 is illustrated with a viewing direction 8 and also a light incidence direction 7.
Whilst, in FIG. 13A, the height of the surfaces increases from the internally situated surfaces 22a to the externally situated surfaces 22g and thus good energy absorption is achieved whilst accepting poorer dazzle protection properties since the shiny tips of the surfaces can be seen from inside, the heights of the surfaces 22a to 22k, in FIG. 13B, decrease from the inside (surface 22a) to the outside (surface 22k). In this way, the externally situated connecting points or tips cannot be seen from the inside. The envelope 9 which delimits the surfaces 22a, 22k at the upper end thereof, is illustrated for this purpose in FIG. 13B. This envelope 9 extends at an angle α in clockwise direction (turning to the right) relative to the horizontal. This angle α preferably is between 0 and 80°, particularly preferred between 30 and 75°.
Furthermore, the envelope 9b and the envelope 9c are illustrated in FIG. 13B. The envelope 9b thereby corresponds to the first surface 11 which occurs in the other profiles, the envelope 9a to the second surface 12 which occurs in the other profiles and the envelope 9b corresponds to the third surface 13 which occurs in the other profiles illustrated in FIGS. 1 to 12. The same advantageous selection criteria with respect to the orientation thereof apply now for the envelope 9a, 9b and 9c as for the first surface 11, the second surface 12 and third surface 13, as are described in claims 5 to 17.
FIG. 14 now shows four developments of the slat structure illustrated in FIG. 13B. FIG. 14A shows this structure from FIG. 13B once again, whilst a surface 14 abuts, in FIG. 14B, on the smallest outermost situated surface 22i and extends slightly upwards. The upper end of the surface 22a and the outer end of the surface 14 now represent two points on the line 9a. The line 9a designates that viewing direction, at which no dazzling occurs through the surfaces 22b to 22i and 14. Dazzling can occur in viewing directions which are further up.
In FIG. 14C the surface 14 extends as in FIG. 14B, but slightly downwards, a sharp edge 17 being formed here at the end thereof in order to avoid dazzling.
Whilst in FIGS. 14A, 14B and 14C both the upper ends of the successive surfaces 22a to 22i are situated on a downwardly extending envelope and also the lower ends of the surfaces 22a to 22i are situated on an upwardly extending envelope, the surfaces 22a to 22i in FIG. 14D are disposed such that the upper ends are situated on an envelope which extends from the inside at the top to the outside at the top. However, the lower ends of the surfaces 22a to 22i are disposed horizontally relative to each other.
FIGS. 13 and 14 thus show energy-absorbing structures which also offer dazzle protection, mainly for internally situated application because of becoming dirty. They can advantageously comprise painted aluminium, stainless steel, plastic material or composite materials. It is advantageous if, as in FIGS. 14B to 14D, a light-deflecting surface 14 is also incorporated, which improves the daylight provision.
The material of these energy-absorbing structures must be so ductile with elastic deformation that it does not break or it must be elastic. In particular painted aluminium, stainless steel, other metals, plastic materials or also composite materials are suitable for this purpose. All these profiles can be produced preferably by roller-shaping.
FIG. 15 now shows examples of particularly stable bracings according to the invention. In FIG. 15A, the individual horizontal elements (slats, bars) 33 of the curtain are connected via strips 34a to 34d which extend perpendicular to the horizontal elements. These strips can be metal, fabric (e.g. Kevlar) or plastic material strips, each of the strips being fixed individually. As a result, the bending risk is reduced. The horizontal elements are mounted in addition laterally in vertical rails 32, for example configured as in FIG. 15B, in rails 32a or 32b in C-profile, the horizontal elements in 32b being fixed in addition by nails. Such a mounting 30 makes it possible for the curtain to be retained in a particularly stable manner.
In FIG. 15C, the curtain is connected to its horizontal elements 33a to 33h likewise via the above-described strips 34a to 34d in the vertical. However both the strips 34a to 34d are mounted on their upper and on their lower end here and the horizontal elements 33a to 33h on their left or right end via vertical rails 32 and horizontal rails 35a, 35b of a stable frame. This frame can be mounted elastically, for its part, in order to ensure the energy absorption and flexibility of the entire curtain.
Patent applications by Michael Hermann, Freiburg DE
Patent applications by Tilmann Kuhn, Hinterzarten DE
Patent applications in class Auxiliary pane attached to main pane
Patent applications in all subclasses Auxiliary pane attached to main pane