Patent application title: COLIPSE-LIPASE INHIBITORS IN THE PREPARATION OF A PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION IN ORDER TO PREVENT OBESITY
Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson (Goteborg, SE)
FORSKARPATENT I SYD AB
IPC8 Class: AA61K31131FI
Class name: Acyclic c-o-group containing monoether
Publication date: 2008-09-18
Patent application number: 20080227865
Patent application title: COLIPSE-LIPASE INHIBITORS IN THE PREPARATION OF A PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION IN ORDER TO PREVENT OBESITY
GAUTHIER & CONNORS, LLP
FORSKARPATENT I SYD AB
Origin: BOSTON, MA US
IPC8 Class: AA61K31131FI
The present invention relates to novel colipase-lipase inhibitors of the
general formulae to be used in the treatment of prophylaxis of obesity,
as well as pharmaceutical compositions containing the same, and method
for treating obesity using said compounds.
1. A use of a compound defined by the following general
formulaewhereinR1 and R2 each independently is hydrogen, or
lower alkyl,R3 and R4 each independently is hydrogen, or lower
alkylX is --O--, --C-- or --S--,Y is a covalent bound or is
[--CH2--CH2--O--]x, wherein x is an integer from 0 to 8,
preferably 0 to 5,m is an integer from 0 to 30, preferably 4 to 16, more
preferably 4 to 12,R5 is hydrogen, CH3 or CF3 in the
preparation of a pharmaceutical composition, in order to prevent and/or
2. A use according to claim 1, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is used for the inhibition of colipase-pancreatic lipase controlled digestion of lipids in the intestine, in order to prevent and/or reduce obesity,
3. A use according to claim 1, wherein X, Y, (CH2)m and R5 together comprises at least 8 carbon atoms.
4. A use according to claim 1, wherein (CH2)m comprises one or more double or triple bonds.
5. A use according to claim 1, wherein the active compound is2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-stearyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-tetradecyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-oleyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-linolyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-dodecyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-octy-ether2-(Diethylamino)-ethyl-stearyl ether2-(Diethylamino)-ethyl-oleyl ether2-(Diethylamino)-ethyl-linolyl ether2-(Diethylamino)-ethyl-dodecyl ether2-(Diethylamino)-ethyl-octyl ether2-(Diisopropylamino)-ethyl-stearyl ether2-(Diisopropylamino)-ethyl-oleyl ether2-(Diisopropylamino)-ethyl-linolyl ether2-(Diisopropylamino)-ethyl-dodecyl ether2-(Diisopropylamino)-ethyl-octyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol-stearyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol-linolyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol-oleyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol-dodecyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol-octyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol butyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol methyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol ethyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-triethyleneglycol-dodecyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-triethyleneglycol-octyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-triethyleneglycol butyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-triethyleneglycol methyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-triethyleneglycol ethyl ether2-(Dipropylamino)-ethyl-octaethyleneglycol dodecyl ether2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-octaethyleneglycol dodecyl ether2-(Diethylamino)-ethyl-octaethyleneglycol dodecyl etherN,N-dimethyl hexadecyl amineN,N-dimethyl tetradecyl amineN,N-dimethyl dodecyl amine
6. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an inhibiting amount of a colipase-lipase inhibitor of the general formulaewhereinR1 and R2 each independently is hydrogen, or lower alkyl,R3 and R4 each independently is hydrogen, or lower alkyl,X is --O--, --C--, or --S--,Y is a covalent bound or is [--CH2--CH2--O--]x, wherein x is an integer from 0 to 8, preferably 0 to 5, m is an integer from 0 to 30, preferably 4 to 16, more preferably 4 to 12,R5 is hydrogen, CH3 or CF3 for the inhibition of colipase-pancreatic lipase controlled digestion of lipids in the intestine, in order to prevent and/or reduce obesity together with any pharmaceutically inert excipients.
11. A use of a compound defined by the following general formulaewhereinR1 and R2 each independently is hydrogen, or lower alkyl,R3 and R4 each independently is hydrogen, or lower alkyl,X is --O--, --C-- or --S--,Y is a covalent bound or is [--CH2--CH2--O--]x, wherein x is an integer from 0 to 8, preferably 0 to 5,m is an integer from 0 to 30, preferably 4 to 16, more preferably 4 to 12,R5 is hydrogen, CH3 or CF3 in the preparation of a pharmaceutical composition for reducing appetite, in order to prevent and/or reduce obesity.
12. A use of a compound defined by the following general formulaewhereinR1 and R2 each independently is hydrogen, or lower alkyl,R3 and R4 each independently is hydrogen, or lower alkyl,X is --O--, --C-- or --S--,Y is a covalent bound or is [--CH2--CH2--O--]x, wherein x is an integer from 0 to 8, preferably 0 to 5,m is an integer from 0 to 30, preferably 4 to 16, more preferably 4 to 12,R5 is hydrogen, CH3 or CF3 in the preparation of a pharmaceutical composition for reducing the expression of pancreatic lipase, in order to prevent and/or reduce obesity.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a new group of therapeutically active organic compounds useful in particular as inhibitors of the lipase-colipase system for the prevention of obesity.
2. Description of Prior Art
Lipases is a group of enzymes taking part in the digestion of fat by hydrolysing lipids present in the food thereby allowing absorption of the fat by the intestinal tract. The lipases are mainly three, viz gastric lipase, pancreatic lipase and carboxylic ester lipase.
Pancreatic lipase is the main enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols in the diet. The pancreatic lipase is a typical lipase catalysing the hydrolysis of water-insoluble substrates forming an interface. The enzyme is said to be activated by interfaces.
The most peculiar property of lipase is that the activity is strongly inhibited by surface active agents like the naturally occurring bile salts. To overcome this nature has come to use another pancreatic protein, colipase.
Colipase binds to lipase in a 1:1 molar ratio and also binds to the bile-salt covered triacylglycerol interface in this way anchoring lipase to its triacylglycerol substrate. Colipase as such has no lipolytic activity.
Colipase is formed by pancreas and is excreted as a procolipase.
It has been established that mice deficient in procolipase and fed a high fat diet will have cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and insulin concentrations in blood serum at about the same levels as mice fed on low fat diet. (D'Agostino, D. et al., J. Biol. Chem. vol 277, no. 9, pp 7170-7177 (2002)).
Obesity has in recent days become an ever increasing problem to population of the industrialized world, whereby e.g., the average weight of a male at the age of 20 has increased with about 10 kilogrammes during the last 20 years. Obesity leads to the formation of the so-called metabolic syndrome, to which diabetes and cardio-vascular diseases belong. The worst forms of obesity are visceral fat accumulation, liver fat accumulation and even muscular fat accumulation.
The high fat intake or over intake of fat is due to a number of factors, such as too much sitting still, too much of fat rich food (so called "junk food"), and an erroneous diet information. It is also a relic of old days tradition of having a large calorie intake due to a heavier workday.
Food of today does not provide a long-term feeling of satisfaction either, which in turn leads to an increased food intake. However, a lipid diet remaining in the intestine will increase the feeling of satisfaction for a longer time period, and thus there is a desire having lipids remaining in the intestines to satisfy the demand from the brain. One way of preventing obesity is by administering a preparation under the trademark XENECAL®, which is a lipase inhibitor in general.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,588,843 discloses a synthesis of (alkoxyalkyl)amines, whereby the compound explicitly prepared is 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl dodecyl ether. The compound is said to have a use as an intermediate for lubricating oil additives, such as detergent-dispersants and pour point depressants, soap and detergent products, such as surface active agents, and foam stabilizers, extenders for polymers, such as polyurethanes and epoxy resins, agricultural chemicals, such as herbicides, fungicides, plant growth regulators, insecticides, vermicides, miticides, and the like. No pharmaceutical use is proposed.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The main object of the present invention is to provide a therapeutically active compound which inhibits pancreatic lipase--colipase action, thereby reducing digestion of lipids from the diet, thereby preventing obesity in general by reduced lipid absorption.
Another object is to obtain a situation in the intestines where diet lipid/fat remains in the intestines providing a basis for a better feeling of satisfaction, thereby avoiding an over-intake of food.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIGS. 1A and 1B are graphs of dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether inhibiting lipase activity in vitro assay;
FIGS. 2A and 2B are graphs of high-fat food intake in rats treated with dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether for 5 days;
FIG. 3 is a graph of the low-fat food intake in rats treated with dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether for 5 days;
FIG. 4 is a graph of the change in body weight in rats treated with dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether for 5 days;
FIGS. 5A and 5B are graphs of the reduction of blood lipids in rats treated with dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether for 5 days;
FIGS. 6A-6C are graphs of the amount of serum PYY, leptin and ghrelin in rats treated with dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether for 5 days;
FIG. 7 is a Western blot of the pancreatic lipase protein expression in rats treated with dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether for 5 days; and
FIGS. 8A and 8B are graphs of the acute effects of dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether on serum triglycerides and fatty acids.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
It has now been found possible to meet these requirements by means of the present invention, which offers a group of compounds to be used in the manufacture of therapeutically active preparations for the treatment of obesity.
The group of compounds is defined by the following general formulae
whereinR1 and R2 each independently is hydrogen, or lower alkyl,R3 and R4 each independently is hydrogen, or lower alkyl,
X is --O--, --C--, or --S--,
Y is a covalent bound or is [--CH2--CH2--O--]x, wherein x is an integer from 0 to 8, preferably 0 to 5,m is an integer from 0 to 30, preferably 4 to 16, more preferably 4 to 12,R5 is hydrogen, CH3 or CF3,whereby when R1 and R2 are each methyl, X is --O--, Y is a covalent bond, R5 is CH3 m is not 11, or when R1 and R2 are each methyl, X is --O--, Y is a covalent bond R5 is hydrogen, m is not 12.
Lower alkyl R1 and lower alkyl R2 mean a lower, straight or branched alkyl group having up to 7 carbon atoms in the chain, preferably up to 4 carbon atoms, more preferably up to 2 carbon atoms. R1 and R2 will thus mean each independently methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, isobutyl, and tert-butyl. R1 and R2 may also be the same or different. R1 and R2 are preferably each methyl and/or ethyl.
Lower alkyl R3 and lower alkyl R4 mean a lower, straight or branched alkyl group having up to 7 carbon atoms in the chain, preferably up to 4 carbon atoms, more preferably up to 2 carbon atoms. R3 and R4 will thus mean each independently methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, isobutyl, and tert-butyl. R3 and R4 may also be the same or different.
R3 and R4 are each preferably hydrogen.X is oxygen or sulphur, preferably oxygen.
Y denotes a covalent bound or the group [--CH2--CH2--O--]x, which latter thus denotes a polyethylene glycol chain having up to 8 moieties, preferably up to 5 moieties. However, x is preferably 0 (zero). x is thus the integer 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.
The integer m is 0 to 30, thus the group --(CH2)m--CH3 can comprise up to 31 carbon atoms. This group having up to 31 carbon atoms is straight or branched, preferably straight. m is preferably up to 11, more preferably up to 7, most preferably up to 3. m is thus the integer 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30.
In a preferred embodiment X, Y, (CH2)m and R5 together comprises at least 8 carbon atoms.
In a further preferred embodiment the chain --(CH2)m-- comprises one or more double or triple bonds, whereas the number of hydrogen atoms may be less than 2m, and can thus be 2m-2, 2m-4, 2m-6, in cases of one, two or three triple bonds, or 2m-4, 2m-8, or 2m-12 in case of one, two or three triple bonds. In case of double bonds and triple bonds, i.e. unsaturation, stereo isomeric forms may be present. Thus racemic as well as stereo isomeric pure compounds will exist.
In a further aspect of the invention it encompasses the use of a compound defined by the following general formulae
whereinR1 and R2 each independently is hydrogen, or lower alkyl,R3 and R4 each independently is hydrogen, or lower alkyl,
X is --O--, --C-- or --S--,
Y is a covalent bound or is [--CH2--CH2--O--]x, wherein x is an integer from 0 to 8, preferably 0 to 5,m is an integer from 0 to 30, preferably 4 to 16, more preferably 4 to 12,R5 is hydrogen, CH3 or CF3, in the preparation of a pharmaceutical composition for the inhibition of colipase-pancreatic lipase controlled digestion of lipids in the intestine, in order to prevent and/or reduce obesity.
In particular the invention encompasses the following compounds and their use: 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-stearyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-tetradecyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-oleyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-linolyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-dodecyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-octyl ether 2-(Diethylamino)-ethyl-stearyl ether 2-(Diethylamino)-ethyl-oleyl ether 2-(Diethylamino)-ethyl-linolyl ether 2-(Diethylamino)-ethyl-dodecyl ether 2-(Diethylamino)-ethyl-octyl ether 2-(Diisopropylamino)-ethyl-stearyl ether 2-(Diisopropylamino)-ethyl-oleyl ether 2-(Diisopropylamino)-ethyl-linolyl ether 2-(Diisopropylamino)-ethyl-dodecyl ether 2-(Diisopropylamino)-ethyl-octyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol-stearyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol-linolyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol-oleyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol-dodecyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol-octyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol butyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol methyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-pentaethyleneglycol ethyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-triethyleneglycol-dodecyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-triethyleneglycol-octyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-triethyleneglycol butyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-triethyleneglycol methyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-triethyleneglycol ethyl ether 2-(Dipropylamino)-ethyl-octaethyleneglycol dodecyl ether 2-(Dimethylamino)-ethyl-octaethyleneglycol dodecyl ether 2-(Diethylamino)-ethyl-octaethyleneglycol dodecyl ether N,N-dimethyl hexadecyl amine N,N-dimethyl tetradecyl amine N,N-dimethyl dodecyl amine
The compounds of the present invention are prepared in accordance with the following example.
Preparation of Dimethylaminoethyl Dodecyl Ether
Sodium was melted during reflux in toluene as a solvent. When all sodium had reacted the dimethyl ethanolamine is added dropwise and is allowed to boil while stirred over the night. The sodium chloride formed is filtrated off, while the dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether is present in the solution. The solution is evaporated in vacuo. The product is then dissolved in heptane, and is extracted using 50% methanol to remove unreacted dimethyl ethanolamine. The reaction mixture is evaporated in vacuo and will now contain the desired product as well as unreacted dodecylchloride. The product is dissolved in heptane and is purified by means of silica gel chromatography. The purity of the product is determined using thin layer chromatography.
Refraction indexes and melting points of some of the compounds prepared are:
TABLE-US-00001 Compound RI Melting point (° C.) N,N-dimethyltetradecyl amine 1.441 0 to 20° C. Dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether 1.439 0 to 20° C. Dimethylaminoethyl octyl ether 1.425 <-20° C.
The present compounds can be tested in different models, in vitro and in vivo. Below one in vitro model and one in vivo model are described, by means of which the present compounds have been tested. Relevant data are shown as well.
Determination of Lipolysis by Colipase/Lipase
The most important enzyme in the gastro-intestinal tract being responsible for the hydrolysis of lipids/fats in the gastro-intestinal tract is lipase, pancreatic lipase, together with its protein cofactor colipase. These are two proteins, which are secreted from the pancreatic gland. The lipase is totally inactive without colipase in the environment the intestine forms, wherein the lipids/fat is emulsified by means of bile acids. The colipase binds to lipase in a molar 1:1 complex and then moves the complex to the triglyceride surface. In the binding between lipase and colipase hydrogen bonds are present, between arg38 of the colipase and ser343 of the lipase and from glu15 of the colipase and the asn241 of the lipase molecules. In the binding of colipase to the substrate (the lipids/fat) there are both hydrophobic bonds as well as ion-ion bonds present. By an isolated lack of colipase it has been shown that colipase has a decisive role for the lipolysis in the gastro-intestinal tract of humans. Pure lipase and colipase have been produced in accordance with the following.
NaTDC (sodium taurodeoxycholate)Lipase, purified from human pancreatic glandColipase, purified from human pancreatic gland
0.5 ml of tributyrine is mixed with 15 ml of a buffer containing 1 mM CaCl2, 150 mM NaCl, 2 mM tris-maleate, pH 7.0 and 4 mM NaTDC (sodium taurodeoxycholate). An emulsion is obtained by continuous stirring. pH is titrated by means of a pH-state, where 0.1 N NaOH is added automatically to keep an constant pH. 10 μl of lipase is added from a stock solution containing 70 units of lipase/ml, followed by 10 μl of colipase from a stock solution containing 1 mg colipase/ml. An activity is registered which is determined to be 100%. An addition of an inhibitor is then made. A new assay is used for every concentration, prepared in the same way. The inhibition is registered as percentage of control. A dose-response plot is obtained for the compounds having an inhibiting ability.
The inhibiting effect in the in vitro model given above of different compounds of the invention is given in Table 1 below.
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 1 Amount of inhibitor Activity Control Activity Inhibitor (μmol) (μmol/min) (μmol/min) A. Compound dimethylaminoethyl octyl ether. 0 2.49 0.304 0.249 4.98 0.319 0.215 8.71 0.314 0.136 12.44 0.356 0.069 18.66 0.32 0.053 21.89 0.293 0.035 24.88 0.278 0 B. Compound dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether. 0 0.97 0.313 0.237 1.95 0.301 0.204 3.89 0.308 0.127 6.81 0.319 0.069 9.73 0.327 0.033 14.59 0.328 0.013 19.46 0.332 0 C. Compound dimethylaminoethyl pentaethyleneglycol dodecyl ether. 0 0.26 0.307 0.273 0.52 0.29 0.236 1.05 0.302 0.222 2.62 0.299 0.13 5.23 0.314 0.083 7.85 0.312 0.04 10.46 0.3 0.015 15.69 0.319 0.009 20.92 0.282 0 D. Compound dipropylaminoethyl octaethyleneglycol dodecyl ether. 0 0.2 0.256 0.256 0.4 0.28 0.256 0.8 0.259 0.209 2.01 0.25 0.136 4.02 0.246 0.096 8.04 0.244 0.033 12.06 0.252 0.011 16.08 0.247 0 E. Compound N,N-dimethyl tetradecyl amine 0 1.04 0.226 0.179 2.07 0.243 0.121 4.14 0.223 0.056 7.25 0.257 0.045 10.35 0.282 0.033 15.53 0.256 0
As evident from above the compounds tested all possess an inhibiting activity in the test model given.
Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-220 g, stored in cages using a 12 hours of light/12 hours of darkness cycle were used. They had free admittance to food and water prior to the test. The day prior a test the rats were fasted, and were anaesthetised in the morning using diethyl ether. 1 ml of Intralipid (200 mg/ml) with and without inhibitor was fed to the rats by means of a syringe through the mouth and ending in the stomach. Blood samples were taken at time 0, prior to the test start, and then after 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after feeding with Intralipid. After centrifugation, serum was separated and stored at -20° C. for analysis. Analyses of free fatty acids, triglycerides and total cholesterol were made. The test has been repeated, also using different dosages of the inhibitors tested.
The results show, as evident from Table 2 below, an inhibition of the absorption of fat to the blood circulation determined as triglycerides and fatty acids concentrations.
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 2 In vivo experiments in accordance with the in vivo protocol given herein, in rat showing effect on concentration of free fatty acids and triglycerides in blood serum against control. Free fatty acids Triglycerides (mmol) (mg/dl) 0 30 60 120 180 0 30 60 120 180 Inhibitor (min) (min) Control 0.60 0.92 1.05 0.95 0.85 96 111 109 130 95 Compound C12* 0.56 0.63 0.70 0.60 0.62 103 95 98 95 77 Control 0.61 0.78 0.84 0.94 0.72 n.d.** Compound C12 0.57 0.67 0.72 0.72 0.74 n.d. *Compound C12 is dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether. **n.d. means not determined.
The results show, as evident from Table 3 below, a dose dependent inhibition of the absorption of fat to the blood circulation determined as fatty acids concentrations.
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 3 Compound dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether in dose-response evaluation. Dose of active compound Free fatty acids Free fatty acids (μg) (mol/l) (% of control) 0 1.45 100 10 1.25 83.7 50 0.83 56.1 100 0.85 57.4 200 1.1 74.3
The conclusion is that the inhibitors of the present invention have effects both in in vitro as well as in in vivo systems, which can be expected provide for a great potential at the treatment of high blood lipid levels, diabetes type 2 and obesity.
In a further aspect of the invention the compounds disclosed above are used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals for reducing appetite, in order to reduce obesity.
In the first experiment, the effects of orally administered dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether (shortened dimaele in Figures) for 5 days on food intake and blood lipids was examined in female Sprague-Dawley rats. A single dose of dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether administration (50 μl) through a gastric gavage to rats that had been fed with high-fat diet resulted in a highly significant reduction in food intake. The reduction of food intake was accompanied with the decreased body weight in these rats fed with high-fat diet. However, dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether failed to decrease food intake in rats fed with low-fat diet. Blood lipids analysis has shown that dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether decreased serum triglyceride and fatty acids, but this was not statistic significance. Dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether had no effect on plasma cholesterol levels. Furthermore, we have measured that serum peptide YY3-36, released from the gastrointestinal tract postprandially in proportion to the calorie content of a meal. There was no difference of serum PYY3-36 levels in rats received dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether compared to the control rats (0.85±0.26 ng/ml vs. 0.86±0.24 ng/ml). Serum leptin levels markedly decreased in dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether-treated rats, whereas serum ghrelin levels were increased when compared with the control group. At the end of experiment, pancreatic lipase activity and protein expression were determined following infusion of dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether for 5 days. Pancreatic lipase activity was not changed in dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether-treated rats, but the lipase protein expression was slightly reduced when compared to the control rats. A second experiment was subsequently undertaken to investigate whether oral administration of dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether would affect blood lipids levels as well. Rats that have been deprived of food for 17 h were orally given with either Intralipid (200 mg/ml) or dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether (200 μl) plus Intralipid. Blood samples were colleted at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after administration. Dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether significantly reduced plasma triglycerides and fatty acids levels during the test period of 180 min. Thus, the potential use of this inhibitor as a therapeutic tool against hyperlipidaemia and obesity was emerging by the effectiveness of reduction in body weight and food intake. In the current experiment, we will investigate the effect of colipase inhibitor on the activity and expression of pancreatic lipase from rats fed with a high-fat diet.
Materials and Methods
Female female Sprague-Dawley rats were used for all experiments. Rats were housed in a temperature-controlled room (22±1° C.) under a 12-h light (6:00-18:00)/12-h cycle, given free access to water, and fed an libitum on a standard chow unless otherwise stated for a high-fat diet experiment. All procedures using animals were approved by the local ethics committee and followed the guidelines for experiments in animals (European Economic Community Council Directive 86/609/EEC).
Evaluation of Food Intake
For measurement of food consumption rats were individually housed in cage and given a high-fat diet for a week before the beginning of the experiment. The high-fat diet consisted of 16.4% protein, 25.6% carbohydrates and 58.0% fat with a caloric density of 23.6 kJ/g. Rat with as libitum access to high-fat food were orally given dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether (37.5 or 50 μl dissolved in 1% methycellulose) through a gastric gavage or 1% methyl cellulose at the onset of the dark cycle (18:00) and food intake was measured at 15 h following dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether administration from pre-weighed portions of food dispensed from were cage top. Cages were carefully monitored for evidence of food spillage or grinding.
Blood Lipids Analysis
Blood was drawn in rats from the intra-orbital bullar plexus under anaesthesia and collected in ice-cold tubes. Serum was obtained by centrifugation at 3000 g for 15 min at 4° C. For acute effect of dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether on blood lipids, overnight-fasted rats were given 200 μl dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether plus 1 ml (200 mg) Intralipids orally through a gastric gavage and blood collected at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. Plasma triglycerides was determined with an Sigma diagnostics kit. Plasma fatty acids were measured by NEFAC kit (Wako chemicals GmbH, Neuss, Germany). Plasma PYY (3-36) and leptin were measured with the PYY Enzyme Immunossay kit and leptin Enzyme Immunossay (Phoenix Pharmaceuticals, USA)
Pancreatic Lipase Activity and Expression
At the end of experiment, rats were killed and the pancreas collected for assay of lipase activity and protein expression. Lipase activity was determined with pH stat titration (Mettle Components DK 10, DK 11, DV11) using tributyrin dispersed in bile salt as substrate (Borgstrom & Erlanson). Lipase expression was analysed by western blot.
Western Blot Analysis
Pancreas was homogenized in 0.5% digitonin buffer containing 10 mM sodium phosphate (pH6.0) and 1 mini complete tablet on ice. After centrifuge at 14000 g, 4° C. for 10 min, the supernatant was collected and heating at 65° C., 15 min for inactivate endogenous lipase. The protein amount was measured by BCA method. Equal amount (50 μg) protein was load on 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gels, transferred to the nitrocellulose membranes and then incubated with anti-lipase antibody in the dilution 1:1000 at 4° C. overnight. Pancreatic lipase protein was detected using a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated donkey anti-rabbit antibody (1:8000) for 60 min at room temperature followed with an enhanced chemiluminescence (Pierce).
Stat View program was used for statistics analysis. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by post hoc tests for comparison of individual differences. Student's t-test was used for the analysis of triglycerides, PYY3-36, leptin and ghrelin data.
Inhibition of Lipase Activity In Vitro Assay
Dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether, a colipase inhibitor, inhibited lipase activity in a dose-depended manner, when using tributyrin or intralipid as the substrates (FIGS. 1A and 1B). The maximum inhibition was seen at the dose of 40 μmol and 80 μmol for tributyrin and Intralipid as substrates, respectively.
Reduction of High-Fat Food Intake and Body Weight
Food intake was measured in dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether and vehicle-treated rats fed with a high-fat diet. In rats given with 50 μl dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether, food intake was significantly inhibited at 1 day after administration. This inhibition was maintained up to the 5 days after dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether treatment as seen in FIG. 2A (Two-way ANOVA, p<0.001). In rats received 37.5 μl dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether, a trend towards reduced food intake was observed, however this did not reach statistic significance (FIG. 2B). When rats were orally given with 25 μl dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether, there was no food intake inhibition. In rats fed with a low-fat diet, food intake during the 5 testing days in dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether-treated rats was similar to the controls at the doses of 37.5 and 50 μl (FIG. 3).
A daily administration of dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether (50 μl) for 5 days produced significantly loss of body weight in rats compared with the non-dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether treatment group as shown in FIG. 4.
Reduction of Serum Triglyceride, Fatty Acids and Cholesterol Levels
Serum triglyceride, NEFA and cholesterol levels were determined in rats treated with dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether for 5 days. As seen in FIGS. 5A and 5B, serum triglycerides and fatty acids levels were decreased after administration of dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether (50 μl) for 5 days, this reduction was statistic significance (p<0.05). However, there was no difference in serum cholesterol levels between dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether (50 μl) and vehicle-treated rats at 5 day after treatment (data not shown).
Changes in Serum PYY3-36, Leptin and Ghrelin
To investigate the potential mechanism by which dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether inhibited high-fat food intake and decreased body weight, we have determined gut hormone peptide YY3-36 and appetite regulating peptides including leptin and ghrelin. In fasted rats treated with dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether (50 μl) for 5 days, serum PYY3-36 levels was similar to the controls (FIG. 6A), but serum leptin levels are significantly decreased in dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether-treated rats (FIG. 6B). By contrast, serum ghrelin levels are markedly increased when rats were orally given dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether for 5 days (FIG. 6C).
Pancreatic Lipase Activity and Protein Expression
Since dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether as a colipase inhibitor completely inhibited lipase activity in vitro assay as seen in FIG. 1. We have also determined the lipase activity and protein expression in vivo in rats when administed dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether (50 μl) for 5 days through a gastric gavage. Pancreatic lipase activity in dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether-treated rats was similar to controls (p>0.05), but the protein expression was reduced in dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether group when compared to the control rats (FIG. 7).
Acute Effect of Dimethylaminoethyl Dodecyl Ether on Serum Triglycerides, Fatty Acids and Cholesterol Levels
For comparison to the reduction of serum triglycerides and fatty acids from rats orally administered with dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether for 5 days, rats received a single dose of dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether (200 μl) infusion plus 1 ml Intralipid (200 mg) or Intralipid alone through a gastric gavage. Serum triglycerides levels were significantly reduced at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after infusion (FIG. 8A, p<0.05). Furthermore, dimethylaminoethyl dodecyl ether infusion decreased serum fatty acids concentrations measured at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min time points as shown in FIG. 8B.
In a still further aspect of the invention the compounds disclosed above are used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals for reducing the expression of pancreatic lipase, in order to reduce obesity.
When employed as pharmaceuticals, the compounds of this invention are usually administered in the form of pharmaceutical compositions. These compounds can be administered by a variety of routes including oral, and rectal. These compounds are effective as oral compositions. Such compositions are prepared in a manner well known in the pharmaceutical art and comprise at least one active compound.
This invention also includes pharmaceutical compositions, which contain, as the active ingredient, one or more of the compounds described herein associated with pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. In making the compositions of this invention, the active ingredient is usually mixed with an excipient, diluted by an excipient or enclosed within such a carrier which can be in the form of a capsule, sachet, paper or other container. When the excipient serves as a diluent, it can be a solid, semi-solid, or liquid material, which acts as a vehicle, carrier or medium for the active ingredient. Thus, the compositions can be in the form of tablets, pills, powders, lozenges, sachets, cachets, elixirs, suspensions, emulsions, solutions, syrups, soft and hard gelatine capsules, suppositories, and packaged powders.
In preparing a formulation, it may be necessary to mill the active compound to provide the appropriate particle size prior to combining with the other ingredients. If the active compound is substantially insoluble, it ordinarily is milled to a particle size of less than 200 mesh. If the active compound is substantially water soluble, the particle size is normally adjusted by milling to provide a substantially uniform distribution in the formulation, e.g. about 40 mesh.
Some examples of suitable excipients include lactose, dextrose, sucrose, sorbitol, mannitol, starches, gum acacia, calcium phosphate, alginates, tragacanth, gelatine, calcium silicate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, cellulose, sterile water, syrup, and methyl cellulose. The formulations can additionally include: lubricating agents such as talc, magnesium stearate, and mineral oil; wetting agents; emulsifying and suspending agents; preserving agents such as methyl- and propylhydroxy-benzoates; sweetening agents; and flavouring agents. The compositions of the invention can be formulated so as to provide quick, sustained or delayed release of the active ingredient after administration to the patient by employing procedures known in the art.
The compositions are preferably formulated in a unit dosage form. The term "unit dosage forms" refers to physically discrete units suitable as unitary dosages for human subjects and other mammals, each unit containing a predetermined quantity of active material calculated to produce the desired therapeutic effect, in association with a suitable pharmaceutical excipient. Preferably, the compound of Formula (I) above is employed at no more than about 20 weight percent of the pharmaceutical composition, more preferably no more than about 15 weight percent, with the balance being pharmaceutically inert carrier(s).
The active compound is effective over a wide dosage range and is generally administered in a pharmaceutically effective amount. For example, when the drug is administered via the oral route, each dosage contains from about 1 mg to about 1000 mg, preferably about 2 mg to about 500 mg, more preferably about 5 mg to about 100 mg, even more preferably about 5 mg to about 60 mg, of the active ingredient. It, will be understood, however, that the amount of the compound actually administered will be determined by a physician, in the light of the relevant circumstances, including the condition to be treated, the chosen route of administration, the actual compound administered and its relative activity, the age, weight, and response of the individual patient, the severity of the patient's symptoms, and the like. From a principle point of view the formulation should be administered simultaneously with a food intake, and should then be administered in an amount providing a sufficient inhibition of lipids. Thus the body may need some lipids from a nutritional point of view and this may then influence the amount of inhibiting compounds of the invention administered. The effect of the compounds of the invention takes place in the small intestine and thus there is no further effect obtained as such, but of possible metabolites of the compounds.
For preparing solid compositions such as tablets, the principal active ingredient is mixed with a pharmaceutical excipient to form a solid preformulation composition containing a homogeneous mixture of a compound of the present invention. When referring to these pre-formulation compositions as homogeneous, it is meant that the active ingredient is dispersed evenly throughout the composition so that the composition may be readily subdivided into equally effective unit dosage forms such as tablets, pills and capsules. This solid pre-formulation is then subdivided into unit dosage forms of the type described above containing the active ingredient of the present invention.
The tablets, pills or granules of the present invention may be coated or otherwise compounded to provide a dosage form affording the advantage of prolonged action. For example, the tablet or pill can comprise an inner dosage and an outer dosage component, the latter being in the form of an envelope over the former. The two components can be separated by an enteric layer, which serves to resist disintegration in the stomach and permit the inner component to pass intact into the duodenum or to be delayed in release. A variety of materials can be used for such enteric layers or coatings, such materials including a number of polymeric acids and mixtures of polymeric acids with such materials as shellac, cetyl alcohol, and cellulose acetate.
The tablets, pills or granules of the present invention may be coated with a sustained release coating enabling release at pancreas, where the pancreatic lipase is set free to the intestine. Such a sustained release coating will thus allow for a small release, if any, in the stomach, but allow for total release in the upper part of the small intestine.
For example, a tablet may be prepared by compression or moulding. Compressed tablets may be prepared by compressing in a suitable machine a composition of the invention in a free-flowing form such as powder or granules, optionally mixed with a binder, a lubricant, an inert diluent, and/or a surface active or dispersing agent. Moulded tablets may be made by moulding in a suitable machine, a mixture of the powdered compound moistened with an inert liquid diluent.
In a preferred embodiment, at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient is a binder, a filler, or a mixture thereof. Suitable excipients include lubricants, disintegrants, and mixtures thereof. Preferred excipients include, but are not limited to, lactose, croscarmellose, microcrystalline cellulose, pre-gelatinised starch, and magnesium stearate.
Binders suitable for preparing dosage formulations of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, corn starch, potato starch, or other starches, gelatine, natural and synthetic gums such as acacia, sodium alginate, alginic acid, other alginates, powdered tragacanth, guar gum, cellulose and its derivatives (e.g., ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate, carboxymethyl cellulose calcium, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), polyvinyl pyrrolidone, methyl cellulose, pre-gelatinised starch, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, (e.g., Nos. 2208, 2906, 2910), microcrystalline cellulose and mixtures thereof.
Suitable forms of microcrystalline cellulose include, for example, the materials sold as AVICEL-PH-101, AVICEL-PH-103 and AVICEL-PH-105 (available from FMC Corporation, American Viscose Division, of Marcus Hook, Pa.). A particularly suitable binder is a mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose sold as AVICEL RC-581 by FMC Corporation.
Examples of suitable fillers for use with the dosage forms of the compounds of the invention include, but are not limited to, talc, calcium carbonate (e.g., granules or powder), microcrystalline cellulose, powdered cellulose, dextrates, kaolin, mannitol, salicylic acid, sorbitol, starch, pre-gelatinised starch, and mixtures thereof.
Typically, from about 50 to about 99 weight percent of a solid dosage form of the invention is binder and/or filler.
Disintegrants are used to cause the tablet to disintegrate when exposed to an aqueous environment. Too much of a disintegrant will produce tablets which may disintegrate in the bottle due to atmospheric moisture; too little may be insufficient for disintegration to occur and may thus alter the rate and extent of release of the compound of the invention from the dosage form. Thus, a sufficient amount of disintegrant that is neither too little nor too much to detrimentally alter the release of the drug should be used to form solid dosage forms of the invention. The amount of disintegrant used varies based upon the type of formulation and mode of administration, and is readily discernible to those of ordinary skill in the art. Typically, about 0.5 to about 15 weight percent of disintegrant, preferably about 1 to about 5 weight percent of disintegrant, may be used in the pharmaceutical composition.
Suitable disintegrants that may be used to form solid dosage forms include, but are not limited to, agar-agar, alginic acid, calcium carbonate, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, polacrilin potassium, sodium starch glycolate, potato or tapioca starch, other starches, pre-gelatinised starch, other starches, clays, other algins, other celluloses, gums and mixtures thereof.
Suitable lubricants for use with solid dosage forms include, but are not limited to, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, mineral oil, light mineral oil, glycerine, sorbitol, mannitol, polyethylene glycol, other glycols, stearic acid, sodium lauryl sulphate, talc, hydrogenated vegetable oil (e.g., peanut oil, cottonseed oil, sunflower oil, sesame oil, olive oil, corn oil, and soybean oil), zinc stearate, ethyl oleate, ethyl laurate, agar, and mixtures thereof. Additional lubricants include, for example, a syloid silica gel (AEROSIL 200, manufactured by W.R. Grace Co. of Baltimore, Md.), a coagulated aerosol of synthetic silica (marketed by Degussa Co. of Plano, Tex.), CAB-O-SIL (a pyrogenic silicon dioxide product sold by Cabot Co. of Boston, Mass.), and mixtures thereof. A lubricant may optionally be added, typically in an amount of less than about 1 weight percent of the pharmaceutical composition.
Preferably, each solid dosage form contains from about 5 mg to about 3000 mg of the compound of the invention. Preferably, each solid dosage form contains about 5 mg, about 25 mg, about 100 mg, about 200 mg, about 250 mg, or about 500 mg of the compound of the invention. Solid dosage forms suitable for oral administration preferably contain from about 5 mg to about 200 mg the compound of the invention.
The liquid forms in which the novel compositions of the present invention may be incorporated for administration orally include aqueous solutions, suitably flavoured syrups, aqueous, and flavoured emulsions with edible oils such as corn oil, cottonseed oil, sesame oil, coconut oil, or peanut oil, as well as elixirs and similar pharmaceutical vehicles.
Furthermore, the pharmaceutical compositions containing one or more compound(s) of this invention can be administered in combination any other suitable drug, for example for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. When the combination therapy is employed, the pharmaceutical composition containing the compound(s) of this invention and the second drug may be administered simultaneously, sequentially or separately. Each component used in the combination therapy is employed in an amount sufficient for its intended purpose. For example, the secondary drug is employed in sufficient amounts to effect reduction of symptom in question in vivo.
Preferably, the dose range for compounds of this invention is from about 1 mg to about 1000 mg per dose, more preferably about 2 mg to about 500 mg, even more preferably about 5 mg to about 100 mg, and still more preferably about 5 mg to about 60 mg. Again, the particular dose used will depend on the patient (age, weight, etc.), and the severity of the disease (mild, moderate, severe). Lastly, a pharmaceutical composition containing two active ingredients can also be prepared for administering the drugs simultaneously.
The administration of the present drug(-s) will normally take place in connection with food intake, when lipase-colipase are set free due to digestion and an optimal inhibition will be obtained below duodenum.
The following preparations and examples are given to enable those skilled in the art to more clearly understand and to practice the present invention. They should not be considered as limiting the scope of the invention, but merely as being illustrative and representative thereof.
Hard gelatine capsules containing the following ingredients are prepared:
TABLE-US-00005 Quantity Ingredient (mg/capsule) Active Ingredient 30.0 Starch 305.0 Magnesium stearate 5.0
The above ingredients are mixed and filled into hard gelatine capsules in 340 mg quantities.
A tablet Formula is prepared using the ingredients below:
TABLE-US-00006 Quantity Ingredient (mg/tablet) Active Ingredient 25.0 Cellulose, microcrystalline 200.0 Colloidal silicon dioxide 10.0 Stearic acid 5.0
The components are blended and compressed to form tablets, each weighing 240 mg.
Tablets, each containing 30 mg of active ingredient, are prepared as follows:
TABLE-US-00007 Quantity Ingredient (mg/tablet) Active Ingredient 30.0 mg Starch 45.0 mg Microcrystalline cellulose 35.0 mg Polyvinylpyrrolidone 4.0 mg (as 10% solution in sterile water) Sodium carboxymethyl starch 4.5 mg Magnesium stearate 0.5 mg Talc 1.0 mg Total 120.0 mg
The active ingredient, starch and cellulose are passed through a No. 20 mesh U.S. sieve and mixed thoroughly. The solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone is mixed with the resultant powders, which are then passed through a 16 mesh U.S. sieve. The granules so produced are dried at 50 to 60° C., and passed through a 16 mesh U.S. sieve. The sodium carboxymethyl starch, magnesium stearate, and talc, previously passed through a No. 30 mesh U.S. sieve, are then added to the granules which, after mixing, are compressed on a tablet machine to yield tablets each weighing 120 mg.
Capsules, each containing 40 mg of medicament are made as follows:
TABLE-US-00008 Quantity Ingredient (mg/capsule) Active Ingredient 40.0 mg Starch 109.0 mg Magnesium stearate 1.0 mg Total 150.0 mg
The active ingredient, starch, and magnesium stearate are blended, passed through a No. 20 mesh U.S. sieve, and filled into hard gelatine capsules in 150 mg quantities.
Suppositories, each containing 25 mg of active ingredient are made as follows:
TABLE-US-00009 Ingredient Amount Active Ingredient 25 mg Saturated fatty acid glycerides to 2,000 mg
The active ingredient is passed through a No. 60 mesh U.S. sieve and suspended in the saturated fatty acid glycerides previously melted using the minimum heat necessary. The mixture is then poured into a suppository mould of nominal 2.0 g capacity and allowed to cool.
Suspensions, each containing 50 mg of medicament per 5.0 ml dose are made as follows:
TABLE-US-00010 Ingredient Amount Active Ingredient 50.0 mg Xanthan gum 4.0 mg Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (11%) 50.0 mg Microcrystalline cellulose (89%) Sucrose 1.75 g Sodium benzoate 10.0 mg Flavour and Colour q.s. Purified water to 5.0 ml
The active ingredient, sucrose and xanthan gum are blended, passed through a No. 10 mesh U.S. sieve, and then mixed with a previously made solution of the microcrystalline cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose in water. The sodium benzoate, flavour, and colour are diluted with some of the water and added with stirring. Sufficient water is then added to produce the required volume.
A formulation may be prepared as follows:
TABLE-US-00011 Quantity Ingredient (mg/capsule) Active Ingredient 15.0 mg Starch 407.0 mg Magnesium stearate 3.0 mg Total 425.0 mg
The active ingredient, starch, and magnesium stearate are blended, passed through a No. 20 mesh U.S. sieve, and filled into hard gelatine capsules in 425.0 mg quantities. Other suitable formulations for use in the present invention can be found in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, edited by E. W. Martin (Mack Publishing Company, 18th ed., 1990).
Patent applications by Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson, Goteborg SE
Patent applications by FORSKARPATENT I SYD AB