Patent application title: Method of Detection of Alterations in MSH5
Richard Kolodner (San Diego, CA, US)
Nena Winand (Freeville, NY, US)
DANA-FARBER CANCER INSTITUTE, INC.
IPC8 Class: AC12Q168FI
Class name: Chemistry: molecular biology and microbiology measuring or testing process involving enzymes or micro-organisms; composition or test strip therefore; processes of forming such composition or test strip involving nucleic acid
Publication date: 2008-08-21
Patent application number: 20080199876
Patent application title: Method of Detection of Alterations in MSH5
RONALD I. EISENSTEIN;NIXON PEABODY LLP
DANA-FARBER CANCER INSTITUTE, INC.
Origin: BOSTON, MA US
IPC8 Class: AC12Q168FI
We have now discovered that mammals have a DNA gene analogous to that
existing in bacteria. MSH5 defects or alterations in this mismatch repair
pathway in a mammal, such as a human can be diagnostic of a
predisposition to cancer, and prognostic for a particular cancer. We have
discovered and sequenced MSH5 in this in a number of mammals, including
humans. This gene can be used in assays, to express gene product, for
drug screens, and therapeutically.
1. An isolated and purified human MSH5 protein having the amino acid
sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:2, or a fragment of at least six amino
13. A method of determining whether there is an alteration in a mammalian MSH5 gene which comprises: a) isolating a biological specimen from a preselected mammal; b) testing the specimen for an alteration in said mammalian MSH5 protein and c) comparing the results obtained in step b) with a wild type control.
14. The method of claim 13, wherein the biological specimen is selected from blood, tissue, serum, stool, urine, sputum, cerebrospinal fluid, supernatant from cell lysate and a eukaryotic cell sample.
15. The method of claim 13, wherein the mammal is a human.
16. The method of claim 13, wherein an alteration is indicative of a predisposition to malignant growth of cells in the mammal.
17. The method of claim 13, wherein an alteration is indicative of a predisposition to a malady associated with inappropriate meiotic segregation.
18. The method of claim 15, wherein the biological specimen is selected from a group of blood related individuals.
20. The method of claim 17, wherein the malady is infertility or Downs Syndrome.
28. The method of claim 13, wherein the alteration is detected by measuring the level of protein expression.
33. A method of diagnosing a DNA mismatch repair defective tumor of a mammal, comprising: isolating a tissue from said mammal suspected of being a tumor;and detecting an alteration in a MSH5 expression product, wherein said alteration is indicative of a DNA mismatch repair defective tumor.
34. The method of claim 33, wherein the mammal is a human.
35. The method of claim 34, wherein the DNA mismatch repair defective tumor is lung, breast, colorectal ovary, endometrial (uterine), renal, bladder, skin, rectal and small bowel.
36. A method of prognosis in an individual having cancer, comprising, comparing a cancer cell from said individual with a non-cancer cell from said individual for the presence of an alteration in the MSH5 protein.
37. The method of claim 36, wherein an alteration in both cells indicates a genetic basis for said cancer.
38. A method of screening for agents affecting a mammalian MSH5 protein comprising:a) selecting a first test cell having an alteration in the mammalian MSH5 protein;b) selecting a second test cell, said second cell derived from said first cell, but not having the alteration in the MSH5 protein;c) contacting said test cells with a selected agent; andd) comparing the effects of said agent on the first and second test cells.
39. An isolated polypeptide encoded by an isolated nucleic acid encoding at least one exon of human MSH5 or a fragment encoded by at least 25 nucleotides of an exon from SEQ ID NO: 1.
40. An isolated polypeptide segment, wherein said polypeptide segment is encoded by at least 25 nucleotides between nucleotides 235-1908 of SEQ ID NO: 1.
41. An isolated polypeptide segment encoded by at least 25 nucleotides, from at least one exon from SEQ ID NO: 1, wherein the nucleotide sequence is selected from the group consisting of exons 1-24, wherein exon 1 starts at position 235 and continues continuously for 221 basepairs, exon 2 is the next 160 basepairs, exon 3 is the next 124 basepairs, exon 4 is the next 81 basepairs, exon 5 is the next 63 basepairs, exon 6 is the next 122 basepairs, exon 7 is the next 110 basepairs, exon 8 is the next 36 basepairs, exon 9 is the next 83 basepairs, exon 10 is the next 46 basepairs, exon 11 is the next 139 basepairs, exon 12 is the next 63 basepairs, exon 13 is the next 129 basepairs, exon 14 is the next 73 basepairs, exon 15 is the next 110 basepairs, exon 16 is the next 81 basepairs, exon 17 is the next 88 basepairs, exon 18 is the next 190 basepairs, exon 19 is the next 127 basepairs, exon 20 is the next 150 basepairs, exon 21 is the next 75 basepairs, exon 22 is the next 144 basepairs, exon 23 is the next 138 basepairs and exon 24 is the next 74 basepairs.
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
This application is a divisional under 35 U.S.C. §§ 120 and 121 of copending application Ser. No. 10/680,386, filed Oct. 7, 2003, which is a divisional under 35 U.S.C. § 120 of application Ser. No. 09/470,276, filed Dec. 22, 1999, now patented as U.S. Pat. No. 6,670,460 which is a continuation under 35 U.S.C. § 120 of application no. PCT/US98/13850, filed Jul. 2, 1998, which claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) of Provisional Application No. 60/051,686, filed Jul. 3, 1997.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention pertains to a mammalian DNA mismatch repair gene, MSH5, and uses thereof, for example, in drug screening, cancer prognosis and diagnosis. The gene product is required for meiotic crossing over and segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. More specifically, the invention relates to detection of alterations in the gene which are associated with some mammalian, preferably human, cancers, as well as conditions involving problems in meiotic segregation.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Accurate transmission of genetic information is important in the survival of a cell, an organism, and a species. A number of mechanisms have evolved that help to ensure high fidelity transmission of genetic material from one generation to the next since mutations can lead to new genotypes that may be deleterious to the cell. DNA lesions that frequently lead to mutations are modified, missing or mismatched nucleotides. Multiple enzymatic pathways have been described in prokaryotic systems that can specifically repair these lesions.
There are at least three ways in which mismatched nucleotides arise in DNA. First, physical damage to the DNA or DNA precursors can give rise to mismatched bases in DNA. For example, the deamination of 5-methyl-cytosine creates a thymine and, therefore, a G-T mispair. Second, misincorporation, insertion, or deletion of nucleotides during DNA replication can yield mismatched base pairs. Finally, genetic recombination produces regions of heteroduplex DNA which may contain mismatched nucleotides when such heteroduplexes result from the pairing of two different parental DNA sequences. Mismatched nucleotides produced by each of these mechanisms are known to be repaired by specific enzyme systems.
The well defined mismatch repair pathway is the E. coli MutHLS pathway that promotes a long-patch (approximately 3 Kb) excision repair reaction which is dependent on the mutH, mutL, mutS and MutU(uvrD) gene products. The MutHLS pathway appears to be the most active mismatch repair pathway in E. coli and is known to both increase the fidelity of DNA replication and act on recombination intermediates containing mispaired bases. This system has been reconstituted in vitro and requires the MutH, MutL, MutS and UvrD (helicase II) proteins along with DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, DNA ligase, single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) and one of the single-stranded DNA exonucleases, Exo I, Exo VII or RecJ. MutS protein binds to the mismatched nucleotides in DNA. MutH protein interacts with GATC sites in DNA that are hemi-methylated on the A and is responsible for incision on the unmethylated strand. Specific excision of the unmethylated strand results in increased fidelity of replication because excision is targeted to the newly replicated unmethylated DNA strand. MutL facilitates the interaction between MutS bound to the mismatch and MutH bound to the hemi-methylated Dam site resulting in the activation of MutH. UvrD is the helicase that appears to act in conjunction with one of the single-stranded DNA specific exonucleases to excise the unmethylated strand leaving a gap which is repaired by the action of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, SSB and DNA ligase. In addition, E. coli contains several short patch repair pathways including the VSP system and the MutY (MicA) system that act on specific single base mispairs.
In bacteria, therefore, mismatch repair plays a role in maintaining the genetic stability of DNA. The bacterial MutHLS system has been found to prevent genetic recombination between the divergent DNA sequences of related species such as E. coli and S. typhimurium (termed: homologous recombination).
A number of human mismatch repair genes have been discovered. Defects in the human MSH2 gene are associated with Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC), a familiar form of human colorectal cancer (CRC) that is also known as Lynch's Syndrome. Other mismatch repair genes discovered in humans include MLH1.
These genes are not only involved with susceptibility to cancer, but can be associated with other aspects. For example, defects in MSH2 and MLH1 confer resistance to alkylating agents frequently used in treating cancers. Consequently, the discovery of mismatch repair genes is extremely important. For example, finding a new mismatch repair gene permits one to look for defects in that gene and determine its association with particular cancers. This not only permits one to determine susceptibility to particular cancers, but to have a better prognosis of the disease and to more fully understand what therapies to use. Thus, being able to find additional mammalian, particularly human, mismatch repair genes is very important.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
We have discovered and sequenced mammalian MSH5 genes which are involved in the DNA mismatch repair pathway. We have identified its chromosomal location in humans as well as the intron-exon borders in both mice and humans. This gene produces a protein involved in meiotic crossing over and segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. Thus, defects in the gene should indicate susceptibility to disorders associated with those activities such as Downs Syndrome and certain types of infertility. Further defects in mismatch repair genes indicate susceptibility to various types of cancer. Moreover, defects in this gene confer resistance to alkylating agents. Alkylating agents represent a preferred class of chemotherapeutic agents frequently used in treating cancer. Consequently, individuals diagnosed with cancer should have that cancer screened for the presence of a defect in the MSH5 gene. If the individual has such a defect, then an agent other than an alkylating agent should be prescribed. This gene, also has other applications. It can be used in assays, to express gene product, for drug screens, and therapeutically.
DESCRIPTION OF THE SEQUENCE LISTING
SEQ ID NO.:1 is the nucleotide sequence of the human MSH5 MSH2 gene.
SEQ ID NO.:2 is the deduced amino acid sequence of the human MSH5 gene product.
SEQ ID NOs.:3-26 are the nucleotide sequence of the 5' exon-intron borders.
SEQ ID NOs:27-50 are the nucleotide sequences of the 3' intron-exon borders.
SEQ ID NOs: 51 and 52 are primers used in screening for human genomic MSH5.
SEQ ID NO:53 is the nucleotide sequence of the murine MSH5 gene.
SEQ ID NO:54 is the deduced amino acid sequence of the murine MSH5 gene product.
SEQ ID NOs:55-85 represent nucleotide intronic sequences of human MSH5.
SEQ ID NOs:86-90 are nucleotide sequences of the 5' exon-intron borders of mMSH5.
SEQ ID NOs:91-95 are nucleotide sequences of the 3' intron-exon borders of mMSH5.
SEQ ID NOs:96-100 represent nucleotide intronic sequences of murine MSH5.
SEQ ID NOs:101-104 are primers used.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
We have discovered that mammals have a DNA mismatch repair gene analogous to a gene that exists in bacteria and yeast. Defects or alterations in this mismatch repair gene in a mammal, such as a human, will result in abnormalities in meiotic crossing over and segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. Such a phenotype should have a high correlation with abnormalities associated with such defects. For example, in many types of infertility and Downs Syndrome, problems in meiotic chromosome segregation are present. Accordingly, discovering a defect or alteration in the MSH5 gene (SEQ ID NO:1 provides the complete human sequence) can be diagnostic of a predisposition to such an abnormality. Additionally, mismatch repair genes are typically associated with an increased risk of cancer. Thus, the discovery of defects in MSH5 can be diagnostic of a predisposition to cancer, and prognostic for a particular cancer.
The diagnostic and prognostic methods of the present invention include looking for an alteration in mammalian MSH5 gene. Preferably, the mammalian MSH5 gene is human. The alteration may be due to a deletion, addition and/or mutation, such as a point mutation, in the gene. Any of these types of mutations can lead to non-functional gene products. The mutational events may occur not only in an exon, but also in an intron or non-exonic region. As a result of alterations of this kind, including alterations in non-exonic regions, effects can be seen in transcription and translation of members of the pathway, thereby affecting the ability to repair mismatch errors or meiotic events. The changes resulting from these alterations are also reflected in the resultant protein and mRNA as well as the gene. Other alterations that might exist in the pathway include changes that result in an increase or decrease in expression of a gene in the mismatch repair pathway.
Consequently, one aspect of this invention involves determining whether there is an alteration of MSH5. This determination can involve screening for alterations in the gene, its mRNA, its gene products, or by detecting other manifestations of defects in the pathway. Alterations can be detected by screening for a particular mismatch repair element in a suitable sample obtained, for example, from tissue, human biological fluid, such as blood, serum, plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, supernatant from normal cell lysate, supernatant from preneoplastic cell lysate, supernatant from neoplastic cell lysate, supernatants from carcinoma cell lines maintained in tissue culture, eukaryotic cells, etc.
In order to detect alterations in MSH5 from a particular tissue, such as a malignant tissue, it is helpful to isolate that tissue type free from the surrounding tissues. Means for enriching a tissue preparation e.g., for tumor cells, are known in the art. For example, the tissue may be isolated from paraffin or cryostat sections. Cancer cells may also be separated from normal cells by flow cytometry. These as well as other techniques for separating specific tissue types from other tissues, such as tumor from normal cells, are well known in the art. It is also helpful to screen normal tissue free from malignant tissue. Then comparisons can be made to determine whether a malignancy results from a spontaneous change in the mismatch repair pathway or is genetic.
Detection of mutations may be accomplished by molecular cloning of the MSH5 gene present in the tissue and sequencing the genes using techniques well known in the art. For example, mRNA can be isolated, reverse transcribed and the cDNA sequenced. Alternatively, the polymerase chain reaction can be used to amplify the MSH5 gene or fragments thereof directly from a genomic DNA preparation from the tissue such as tumor tissue. The DNA sequence of the amplified sequences can then be determined. Alternatively, one can screen for marker portions of the DNA that are indicative of changes in the DNA. The polymerase chain reaction itself is well known in the art. See e.g., Saiki et al., Science, 239:487 (1988); U.S. Pat. No. 4,683,203; and U.S. Pat. No. 4,683,195. Specific primers which can be used in order to amplify the mismatched repair genes will be discussed in more detail below.
Specific deletions of mismatch repair pathway genes can also be detected. For example, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) probes for the MSH5 gene or portion thereof, can be used to score loss of a wild-type allele. Other techniques for detecting deletions, as are known in the art, can be used.
Loss of the wild-type MSH5 may also be detected on the basis of the loss of a wild-type expression product. Such expression products include both the mRNA as well as the protein product itself. Point mutations may be detected by sequencing the mRNA directly or via molecular cloning of cDNA made from the mRNA. The sequence of the cloned cDNA can be determined using DNA sequencing techniques which are well known in the art. Alternatively, one can screen for changes in the protein. For example, a panel of antibodies, for example single chain or monoclonal antibodies, could be used in which specific epitopes involved in, for example, MSH5 meiotic segregation functions are represented by a particular antibody. Loss or perturbation of binding of a monoclonal antibody in the panel would indicate mutational alteration of the protein and thus of the gene itself. Alternatively, deletional mutations leading to expression of truncated proteins can be quickly detected using a sandwich type ELISA screening procedure, in which, for example, the capture antibody is specific for the N-terminal portion of the pathway protein. Failure of a labeled antibody to bind to the C-terminal portion of the protein provides an indication that the protein is truncated. Even where there is binding to the C-terminal, further tests on the protein can indicate changes. For example, molecular weight comparison. Any means for detecting altered mismatch repair pathway proteins can be used to detect loss of wild-type mismatch repair pathway genes.
Alternatively, mismatch detection can be used to detect point mutations in the MSH5 gene or its mRNA product. While these techniques are less sensitive than sequencing, they can be simpler to perform on a large number of cells. An example of a mismatch cleavage technique is the RNAase protection method, which is described in detail in Winter et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 82:7575 (1985) and Meyers et al., Science, 230:1242 (1985). In the practice of the present invention, the method involves the use of a labeled riboprobe which is complementary to the human wild-type MSH5. The riboprobe and either mRNA or DNA-isolated form the test tissue are annealed (hybridized) together and subsequently digested with the enzyme RNase A which is able to detect some mismatches in a duplex RNA structure. If a mismatch is detected by RNase A, it cleaves at the site of the mismatch. Thus, when the annealed RNA preparation is separated on an electrophoretic gel matrix, if a mismatch has been detected and cleaved by RNase A, an RNA product will be seen which is smaller than the full-length duplex RNA for the riboprobe and the mismatch repair pathway mRNA or DNA. The riboprobe comprises only a segment of the MSH5 mRNA or gene it will be desirable to use a number of these probes to screen the whole mRNA sequence for mismatches.
In similar fashion, DNA probes can be used to detect mismatches, through enzymatic or chemical cleavage. See, e.g., Cotton et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 85:4397 (1988); and Shenk et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 72:989 (1975). Alternatively, mismatches can be detected by shifts in the electrophoretic mobility of mismatched duplexes relative to matched duplexes. See, e.g., Cariello, Human Genetics, 42:726 (1988). With either riboprobes or DNA probes, the cellular mRNA or DNA which might contain a mutation can be amplified using PCR before hybridization.
DNA sequences of the MSH5 gene from test tissue which have been amplified by use of polymerase chain reaction may also be screened using allele-specific probes. These probes are nucleic acid oligomers, each of which contains a region of the MSH5 gene sequence harboring a known mutation. By use of a battery of allele-specific probes, the PCR amplification products can be screened to identify the presence of a previously identified mutation in the gene. Hybridization of allele-specific probes with amplified mismatch repair pathway sequences can be performed, for example, on a nylon filter. Hybridization to a particular probe indicates the presence of the same mutation in the tumor tissue as in the allele-specific probe.
Altered MSH5 gene or gene products can be detected in a wide range of biological samples, such as serum, stool, or other body fluids, such as urine and sputum. The same techniques discussed above can be applied to all biological samples. By screening such biological samples, a simple early diagnosis can be achieved for many types of abnormalities such as defects in chromosomal segregation or cancers. For example someone can be screened as part of a pre-pregnancy battery of tests. Thus, if fertility problems arise, the knowledge of the defect can be used in determining the treatment. Moreover, even if a pregnancy results, the knowledge can be used in determining whether and the types of pre-natal screening.
Similarly, Even when someone has been diagnosed with cancer, these screens can be prognostic of the condition, e.g., spontaneous mutation versus hereditary. The prognostic method of the present invention is useful for clinicians so that they can decide upon an appropriate course of treatment. For example, a hereditary mutation in the DNA mismatch repair system suggests a different therapeutic regimen than a sporadic mutation. In addition, mutations in MSH5 confer resistance to alkylating agents which are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. Thus, knowing of a defect permits one to choose an alternative course of therapy.
The methods of screening of the present invention are applicable to any sample in which defects in MSH5 has a role, such as in tumorigenesis.
The method of the present invention for diagnosis of, for example, a DNA mismatch repair defective tumor is applicable across a broad range of tumors. These include breast, lung, colorectal, ovary, endometrial (uterine), renal, bladder, skin, rectal and small bowel.
The present invention also provides a kit useful for determination of the nucleotide sequence of a MSH5 using a method of DNA amplification, e.g., the polymerase chain reaction or an antibody. The kit comprises a set of pairs of single stranded oligonucleotide DNA primers which can be annealed to sequences within or surrounding the MSH5 gene in order to prime amplifying DNA synthesis of the gene itself or to use as antibody for the gene product. In one preferred embodiment instructions for using the materials to screen for MSH5 for diagnosis or prognosis purposes are included.
In order to facilitate subsequence cloning of amplified sequences, primers may have restriction enzyme sites appended to their 5' ends. Thus, all nucleotides of the primers are derived from the mismatch repair gene sequences or sequences adjacent thereto except the few nucleotides necessary to form a restriction enzyme site. Such enzymes and sites are well known in the art. The primers themselves can be synthesized using techniques which are well known in the art. Generally, the primers can be made using synthesizing machines which are commercially available.
In a preferred embodiment, the set of primer pairs for detecting alterations in the hMSH5 gene comprises primer pairs that would border intron/exon borders. For example, one could use SEQ ID NOS:3-26 to pick one member of the pair and SEQ ID NOS:27-50 to pick another member. One can readily derive other primers to use based upon these sequences. Typically the primer will be at least about 10 nucleotides, more preferably at least about 13 nucleotides, still more preferably at least about 15 nucleotides, even more preferably at least about 20 nucleotides.
According to the present invention, a method is also provided of supplying MSH5 function to a cell which carries a mutant gene. The wild-type MSH5 gene or a functional part of the gene such as a domain supplying a particular function may be introduced into the cell in a vector such that the gene remains extrachromosomal. In such a situation, the gene will be expressed by the cell from the extrachromosomal location. By using traditional deletion mutant analysis, specific functional domains can readily be determined. For example, a domain supplying meiotic function. Alternatively, one can select a domain that supplies mismatch repair function. If a gene portion is introduced and expressed in a cell carrying a mutant MSH5, the gene portion should encode a part which is defective or deficient in that cell. More preferred is the situation where the wild-type mismatch repair pathway gene or a part of it is introduced into the mutant cell in such a way that it recombines with the endogenous mutant MSH5 gene present in the cell. Such recombination would require stable integration into the cell such as via a double recombination event which would result in the correction of the gene mutation.
Vectors for introduction of genes both for recombination and for extrachromosomal maintenance are known in the art and any suitable vector may be used. Such a cell can be used in a wide range of activities. For example, one can prepare a drug screen using a tumor cell line having a defect in the mismatch repair pathway and by this technique create a control cell from that tumor cell. Thus, one can determine if the compounds tested affect the pathway. Such a method can be used to select drugs that specifically affect the pathway or as a screen for agents, including known anti-cancer agents, that are effective against mismatch repair defective tumors. These drugs may be combined with other drugs for their combined or synergistic effects. In contrast, when comparing normal cells with neoplastic cells there can be a variety of factors affecting such cells, thus, such a comparison does not provide the same data. These cells may also be able to be used therapeutically, for example, in somatic cell therapy, etc.
The present invention further provides a method for determining whether an alteration in a MSH5 gene is a mutation or an allelic variation. The method comprises introducing the altered gene into a cell having a mutation in the MSH5 gene being tested. The cell may be in vitro or in vivo. If the altered gene tested is an allelic variation, i.e., function is maintained, the mutation will be complemented and the cell will exhibit a wild-type phenotype. In contrast, if the altered gene in a mutation, the mutation will not be complemented and the cell will continue to exhibit non-wild type phenotype.
One can also prepare cell lines stably expressing MSH5. Such cells can be used for a variety of purposes including an excellent source of antigen for preparing a range of antibodies using techniques well known in the art.
Polypeptides or other molecules which have functional MSH5 activity may be supplied to cells which carry mutant alleles. The active molecules can be introduced into the cells by microinjection or by liposomes, for example. Alternatively, some such active molecules may be taken up by the cells, actively or by diffusion. Supply of such active molecules will effect a desired state, for example, meiotic segregation.
Predisposition to a difficulty with appropriate segregation of chromosomes or to cancers can be ascertained by testing normal tissues of humans. For example, a person who has inherited a germline MSH5 alteration would be prone to develop one of these abnormalities, for example cancers. This can be determined by testing DNA or mRNA from any tissue of the person's body. Most simply, blood can be drawn and the DNA or mRNA extracted from cells of the blood. Loss of a wild-type MSH5 allele, either by point mutation, addition or by deletion, can be detected by any of the means discussed above. Nucleic acid can also be extracted and tested from fetal tissues for this purpose.
Accordingly, the present invention provides for a wide range of assays (both in vivo and in vitro). These assays can be used to detect cellular activities of the members in an MSH5 activity such as mismatch repair, which include eukaryotic nucleotide sequences that are homologous to bacterial or yeast MSH5 and the cellular activities of the polypeptides they encode. In these assay systems, MSH5 genes, polypeptides, unique fragments, or functional equivalents thereof, may be supplied to the system or produced within the system. For example, such assays could be used to determine whether there is a MSH5 gene excess or depletion. For example, an in vivo assay systems may be used to study the effects of increased or decreased levels of transcript or polypeptides of the invention in cell or tissue cultures, in whole animals, or in particular cells or tissues within whole animals or tissue culture systems, or over specified time intervals (including during embryogenesis).
Another aspect of the invention relates to isolated DNA segments which hybridize under stringent conditions to a DNA fragment having the nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NOs:1 or 53, preferably SEQ ID NO:1, or a unique fragment thereof and codes for a member of a mammalian DNA MSH5 gene. Stringent hybridization conditions are well known to the skilled artisan. For example, the hybridization conditions set forth in Example 1 can be used.
Identification and Classification of Tumors
One preferred assay described herein permits the diagnosis and/or prognosis of mismatch repair defective tumors. The eukaryotic nucleotide sequences, polypeptides, and antibodies of this invention are particularly useful for determining pathological conditions suspected of being tumors that: (i) contain a non-wild type allele of a MSH5 nucleotide sequence and/or (ii) lack at least one antigenic determinant on a polypeptide that is encoded by such nucleotide sequence and/or contain new antigenic determinants.
Using any technique known in the art including, for example, Southern blotting, Northern blotting, PCR, etc. (see, for example, Grompe, Nature Genetics 5:111-117, 1993, incorporated herein by reference) the nucleotide sequences of the present invention can be used to identify the presence of non-wild type alleles of sequences.
For example, in one embodiment, using SEQ ID NO.: 1 or 3-50, PCR primers can be designed to amplify individual exons or introns of human MSH5. These primers can then be used to identify and classify human tumors that contain at least one non-wild type allele of at least one sequence of the human gene corresponding to SEQ ID No.: 1. Primer sets derived from SEQ ID NOS:3-50 can be used to amplify the individual exon of the human MSH5 gene. These primers all hybridize to intron sequences, and thus can be used to amplify exons and their flanking intron/exon junctions, including sequences important for splicing, from nucleic acid that has been isolated from a test sample, e.g., known tumor cells or cells suspected of being tumorous. The nucleotide sequences thus amplified can then be compared to the known, corresponding sequence to determine the presence or absence of any differences in the test sequences relative to wild type sequences. Tumors that contain at least one non-wild type allele of at least one sequence of the human gene can be classified as "mismatch repair defective". Comparisons of the sequences may be performed by direct sequence comparison or by other diagnostic methods known in the art including, but not limited to, single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis, denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and so on. (See, Grompe, supra.)
For instance, a primer set can be used to amplify sequences from a test tumor DNA and from control non-tumor DNA by standard PCR technique. For example, using PCR reactions that contained 10 mM Tris buffer pH 8.5, 50 mM KCL, 3 mM MgCl2, 0.01 gelatin, 50 μM each dNTP, 1.5 unit Taq DNA polymerase, 5 pmole each primer, and 25 ng template DNA. 35 cycles of 30 sec at 94° C., 30 sec at 55° C., and 1 min at 72° C. can be performed. Product bands are then analyzed by the methods of Grompe supra. By such a method, differences can be observed in the sequences amplified between the test, e.g., tumor and non-tumor DNA. Alternatively, product bands can be sequenced using such oligonucleotides. Thus, even a single-base-pair difference can be observed between a test and control. Even changes located within intron sequences can affect pre-mRNA splicing signals.
Other primer pairs can be used that amplify only intron sequences or only exon sequences. Product bands can be analyzed as described above.
Alternatively, the antibodies of the invention can be used as probes in standard techniques such as Western blotting to detect the absence in tumor tissues of at least one antigenic determinant on at least one eukaryotic polypeptide encoded by nucleotide sequences that are homologous to MSH5 and/or the presence of new antigenic determinants. Test cells, e.g., cancers expressing abnormal proteins, would be expected to contain e.g. mismatch repair defective tumors, as described above.
The present invention can also indicate other factors in cells having an alteration. For example, the information provided by the isolated mammalian MSH5 sequences and isolated polypeptides of the invention can be used to inactivate, in a host cell, an endogenous MSH5 nucleotide sequence. Physiological characteristics of the resultant altered host cell can be analyzed and compared to physiological characteristics of an unaltered host cell. Any physiological characteristics of the altered host cell that are different from those of the unaltered host cell can be noted. The same physiological characteristics can then be analyzed in test cells such as tumor cells to help identify those tumors that contain a non-wild type allele.
Physiological characteristics that can be analyzed in such a study include, but are not limited to alterations in the rate of accumulation of spontaneous mutations (e.g. by the rate of spontaneous mutation to drug resistance), alterations in the rate of reversion of mutations, alterations in the frequency of recombination between divergent sequences, alterations in the genomic stability of short repeated sequences, sensitivity or resistance to agents that induce DNA damage such as UV-light, nucleotide analogs, alkylating agents, etc. For examples of protocols that may be used in this kind of analysis, see Reenan and Kolodner, Genetics 132: 975-985 (1992); Kat et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA, 90: 6424-6428 (1993); Strand et al., Nature, 365: 274-276 (1993), each of which is incorporated herein by reference.
We mapped MSH5 to chromosome 6 using PCR analysis. More specifically to 6p21.3 using PCR analysis. More specifically to 6p21.3 using PCR analysis of a radiation hybrid panel. Thus, one can look for polymorphisms in or near that region by known means. More preferably one looks at 6p21.3.
Classification of Nucleotide Sequences that are Homologous to a Bacterial Mismatch Repair Gene
Different versions, or "alleles" of the mammalian MSH5 nucleotide sequences of the invention can be classified by their ability to functionally replace an endogenous nucleotide sequence, in a normal host cell. As used herein, a "wild type" allele is defined as a sequence that can replace an endogenous nucleotide sequence in a normal host cell without having detectable adverse effects on the host cell. A "non-wild type" allele or "alteration" is defined as a mammalian MSH5 nucleotide sequence that cannot replace an endogenous nucleotide sequence in a normal host cell without having detectable adverse effects on the host cell.
Non-wild type alleles of MSH5 nucleotide sequence of the invention can differ from wild type alleles in any of several ways including, but not limited to, the amino acid sequence of an encoded polypeptide and the level of expression of an encoded nucleotide transcript or polypeptide product.
Physiological properties that can be monitored include, but are not limited to, growth rate, rate of spontaneous mutation to drug resistance, rate of gene conversion, genomic stability of short repeated DNA sequences, sensitivity or resistance to DNA damage-inducing agents such as UV light, nucleotide analogs, alkylating agents and so on. For example, defective MSH5 genes confer resistance to alkylating agents.
Particular "non-wild type" alleles that encode a protein that, when introduced into a host cell, interferes with the endogenous gene, are termed "dominant negative" alleles.
Inactivation in a Host Cell of Endogenous Nucleotide Sequences
The information provided by the isolated nucleotide sequences and isolated polypeptides of the invention can be used to inactivate, for example, an endogenous nucleotide sequence that is homologous to a MSH5 gene and/or a polypeptide product encoded by an endogenous nucleotide sequence that is homologous to such gene in a host cell.
For example, non-wild type alleles of MSH5, can be used to inactivate endogenous nucleotide sequences in a host cell by, for example, hybridizing to the endogenous nucleotide sequences and thereby preventing their transcription or translation, or by integrating into the genome of the host cell and thereby replacing or disrupting an endogenous nucleotide sequence. More specifically, a non-wild type allele that can bind to an endogenous DNA sequences, for example to form a triple helix, could prevent transcription of endogenous sequences. A non-wild type allele that, upon transcription, produces an "antisense" nucleic acid sequence that can hybridize to a transcript of an endogenous sequence could prevent translation of the endogenous transcript. A non-wild type allele, particularly one containing an insertion or deletion of nucleotide sequences, could integrate into the host cell genome and thereby replace or disrupt an endogenous sequence.
In one embodiment, the amount of polypeptide expressed by an endogenous MSH5 gene may be reduced by providing polypeptide--expressing cells, preferably in a transgenic animal, with an amount of MSH5 gene anti-sense RNA or DNA effective to reduce expression of mismatch repair gene polypeptide.
A transgenic animal (preferably a non-human mammal) could alternatively be provided with a repressor protein that can bind to a specific DNA sequence, thereby reducing ("repressing") the level of transcription of MSH5 gene.
Transgenic animals of the invention which have attenuated levels of polypeptide expressed by MSH5 gene(s) have general applicability to the field of transgenic animal generation, as they permit control of the level of expression of genes.
Mutagenesis of Eukaryotic Nucleotide Sequences that are Homologous to a Bacterial Mismatch Repair Gene
The isolated nucleotide sequences and isolated polypeptides of the invention can be mutagenized by any of several standard methods including treatment with hydroxylamine, passage through mutagenic bacterial strains, etc. The mutagenized sequences can then be classified "wild type" or "non-wild type" as described above.
Mutagenized sequences can contain point mutations, deletions, substitutions, rearrangements etc. Mutagenized sequences can be used to define the cellular function of different regions of the polypeptides they encode. For example, the portion involved in chromosomal segregation can be mutagenized to delete such portion to confirm function.
Diagnosis of Susceptibility to an MSH5 Related Defect Such as Cancer or Inappropriate Chromosomal Segregation
The MSH5 nucleotide sequences, polypeptides, and antibodies of this invention are particularly useful for diagnosis e.g. of susceptibility to cancers whose incidence correlates with an alteration of a member of the pathway, as described. Such cancers would be expected to contain mismatch repair defective tumors, as described above.
Using any technique known in the art, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, PCR, etc. (see, for example, Grompe, supra) the nucleotide sequences of the present invention can be used to identify the presence of relevant non-wild type alleles of MSH5.
Alternatively, the antibodies of the invention can be used as probes in standard techniques such as Western blotting to detect the absence of at least one relevant antigenic determinant on at least one polypeptide encoded by MSH5 nucleotide sequences in sample tissues from individuals being tested for susceptibility to a condition associated with an MSH5 defect such as a chromosomal segregation difficulty or cancer.
In preferred embodiments one would also test for defects in other mismatch repair genes such as MSH2, MLH1, MSH3, MSH6, etc.
Identification of Effective Therapeutic Agents
Molecules and host cells provided by the invention can be used to identify therapeutic agents effective against MSH5 defects. In particular, the molecules and host cells of the invention could be used to identify therapeutic agents effective against MSH5 defects such as cancers. For example, the presence of a non-wild type allele of MSH5 and/or with the lack of at least one antigenic determinant on a polypeptide that is encoded by such a nucleotide sequence.
For instance, as described above, altered host cells can be generated in which an endogenous MSH5 nucleotide sequence has been inactivated and/or in which a MSH5 polypeptide product has been inactivated. Such an altered host cell can be contacted with various potential therapeutic agents or combinations thereof. Physiological effects of such therapeutic agents or combinations thereof can be assayed by comparing physiological characteristics of an altered host cell that has been contacted with the therapeutic agents or combinations thereof to the physiological characteristics of an unaltered host cell that has been contacted with the therapeutic agents or combinations thereof.
In preferred embodiments, the altered host cell is a mammalian cell, for example, a human cell, either in tissue culture or in situ (preferably non-human). Other eukaryotic cells such as yeast, may also be used. Potential therapeutic reagents that may be tested include, but are not limited to, intercalating agents, nucleotide analogs, and X-rays. Possible physiological effects that may be assayed include, but are not limited to, alterations in the rate of accumulation of spontaneous mutations (e.g. by the rate of spontaneous mutation to drug resistance), alterations in chromosomal segregation during meiosis, alterations in meiotic crossing over, alterations in the rate of reversion of mutations, alterations in the frequency of recombination between divergent sequences, alterations in the genomic stability of short repeated sequences, sensitivity or resistance to agents that induce DNA damage such as UV-light, nucleotide analogs, alkylating agents, and so on. Preferred therapeutic agents or combinations thereof can be selected.
Preferred cancer therapeutic agents include therapeutic agents or combinations thereof that are relatively toxic to the altered cell as compared to the unaltered cell. Toxicity can be defined in terms of parameters such as increased cell death (assayed by cell count), decreased DNA replication (assayed by, for example, incorporation of titrated thymidine (3H), and slowed cell growth rate (assayed by cell count).
In one particular embodiment of the invention, altered and unaltered host cells can be contacted with therapeutic agents or combinations thereof in the presence of DNA damaging agents, for example nucleotide analogs (e.g. 5-FU, 2AP), UV Light, or alkylating agents. It might be expected that DNA damaging agents alone would be lethal to altered host cells containing an endogenous, but inactivated nucleotide sequence or polypeptide product of the invention because the nucleotide analogs would be incorporated into the DNA, creating mutations that cannot be repaired in the absence of a functional mismatch repair system. However, such an effect has not been observed in analogous systems. Nonetheless, it is likely that DNA-damaging agents, when combined with other therapeutic agents, would be relatively toxic to altered cells.
The assays described herein allow for the identification of therapeutic cancer agents or combinations thereof that, when administered in the presence of DNA damaging or other agents, would be relatively toxic to an altered host cell containing an inactivated endogenous nucleotide sequence of the invention and/or an inactivated polypeptide product of the invention as compared to an unaltered cell.
Alternative preferred therapeutic agents include those that, when administered, restore the physiological characteristics of the altered cell that has been contacted with the therapeutic reagents, or combination thereof, to more closely resemble the physiological characteristics of an unaltered, untreated host cell. It is further preferred that these therapeutic agents, or combinations thereof, do not significantly affect the physiological characteristics of an unaltered host cell.
Therapeutic and Pharmaceutic Compositions
The nucleotide sequences and polypeptides expressed by these sequences described herein can also be used in pharmaceutical compositions in, for example, gene therapy. An exemplary pharmaceutical composition is a therapeutically effective amount of a MSH5 sequence of the invention optionally included in a pharmaceutically-acceptable and compatible carrier. The term "pharmaceutically-acceptable and compatible carrier" as used herein, and described more fully below, refers to (i) one or more compatible solid or liquid filler diluents or encapsulating substances that are suitable for administration to a human or other animal, and/or (ii) a system, such as a retroviral vector, capable of delivering the MSH5 nucleotide sequence to a target cell. In the present invention, the term "carrier" thus denotes an organic or inorganic ingredient, natural or synthetic, with which the mismatch repair nucleotide sequences and polypeptides of the invention are combined to facilitate application. The term "therapeutically-effective amount" is that amount of the present pharmaceutical compositions which produces a desired result or exerts a desired influence on the particular condition being treated. Various concentrations may be used in preparing compositions incorporating the same ingredient to provide for variations in the age of the patient to be treated, the severity of the condition, the duration of the treatment and the mode of administration.
The term "compatible", as used herein, means that the components of the pharmaceutical compositions are capable of being comingled with the nucleic acid and/or polypeptides of the present invention, and with each other, in a manner such that there is no interaction that would substantially impair the desired pharmaceutical efficacy.
Dose of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention will vary depending on the subject and upon particular route of administration used. By way of an example only, an overall dose range of from about, for example, 1 microgram to about 300 micrograms is contemplated for human use. This dose can be delivered on at least two separate occasions, preferably spaced apart by about 4 weeks. Pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention can also be administered to a subject according to a variety of other, well-characterized protocols. For example, certain currently accepted immunization regimens can include the following: (i) Recommended administration times are a first dose at elected date; a second dose at 1 month after first dose; and a third dose at 5 months after second dose. See Product Information, Physician's Desk Reference, Merck Sharp & Dohme (1990), at 1442-43. (e.g., Hepatitis B Vaccine-type protocol); (ii) Recommended administration for children is first dose at elected date (at age 6 weeks old or older); a second dose at 4-8 weeks after first dose; a third dose at 4-8 weeks after second dose; a fourth dose at 6-12 months after third dose; a fifth dose at age 4-6 years old; and additional boosters every 10 years after last dose. See Product Information, Physician's Desk Reference, Merck Sharp & Dohme (1990), at 879 (e.g., Diptheria, Tetanus and Pertussis-type vaccine protocols). Desired time intervals for delivery of multiple doses of a particular composition can be determined by one of ordinary skill in the art employing no more than routine experimentation.
The polypeptides of the invention may also be administered per se (neat) or in the form of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt. When used in medicine, the salts should be pharmaceutically acceptable, but non-pharmaceutically acceptable salts may conveniently be used to prepare pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof and are not excluded from the scope of this invention. Such pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, those prepared from the following acids: hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, nitric, phosphoric, maleic, acetic, salicylic, p-toluene-sulfonic, tartaric, citric, methanesulphonic, formic, malonic, succinic, naphthalene-2-sulfonic, and benzenesulphonic. Also, pharmaceutically acceptable salts can be prepared as alkaline metal or alkaline earth salts, such as sodium, potassium or calcium salts of the carboxylic acid group. Thus, the present invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions, for medical use, which comprise nucleic acid and/or polypeptides of the invention together with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers thereof and optionally any other therapeutic ingredients.
The compositions include those suitable for oral, rectal, topical, nasal, ophthalmic or parenteral administration, all of which may be used as routes of administration using the materials of the present invention. Other suitable routes of administration include intrathecal administration directly into spinal fluid (CSF), direct injection onto an arterial surface and intraparenchymal injection directly into targeted areas of an organ. Compositions suitable for parenteral administration are preferred. The term "parenteral" includes subcutaneous injections, intravenous, intramuscular, intrasternal injection or infusion techniques.
The compositions may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form and may be prepared by any of the methods well known in the art of pharmacy. All methods include the step of bringing the active ingredients of the invention into association with a carrier which constitutes one or more accessory ingredients.
Compositions of the present invention suitable for oral administration may be presented as discrete units such as capsules, cachets, tablets or lozenges, each containing a predetermined amount of the nucleic acid and/or polypeptide of the invention in liposomes or as a suspension in an aqueous liquor or non-aqueous liquid such as a syrup, an elixir, or an emulsion.
Preferred compositions suitable for parenteral administration conveniently comprise a sterile aqueous preparation of the nucleic acid and/or polypeptides of the invention which is preferably isotonic with the blood of the recipient. This aqueous preparation may be formulated according to known methods using those suitable dispersing or wetting agents and suspending agents. The sterile injectable preparation may also be a sterile injectable solution or suspension in a non-toxic parenterally-acceptable diluent or solvent, for example as a solution in 1,3-butane diol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that may be employed are water, Ringer's solution and isotonic sodium chloride solution. In addition, sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose any bland fixed oil may be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. In addition, fatty acids such as oleic acid find use in the preparation of injectibles.
The nucleic acids and/or polypeptides of the present invention can also be conjugated to a moiety for use in vaccines. The moiety to which the nucleic acids and/or polypeptides is conjugated can be a protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and the like. The chemical structure of this moiety is not intended to limit the scope of the invention in any way. The moiety to which nucleic acids and/or polypeptides may be bound can also be an adjuvant. The term "adjuvant" is intended to include any substance which is incorporated into or administered simultaneously with the nucleic acids and/or polypeptides of the invention which potentiates the immune response in the subject. Adjuvants include aluminum compounds, e.g., gels, aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate gels, and Freund's complete or incomplete adjuvant. The paraffin oil may be replaced with different types of oils, e.g., squalene or peanut oil. Other materials with adjuvant properties include BCG (attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis), calcium phosphate, levamisole, isoprinosine, polyanions (e.g., poly A:U), leutinan, pertussis toxin, lipid A, saponins and peptides, e.g., muramyl dipeptide. Rare earth salts, e.g., of lanthanum and cerium, may also be used as adjuvants. The amount of adjuvant required depends upon the subject and the particular therapeutic used and can be readily determined by one skilled in the art without undue experimentation.
Identification of Factors that Interact with MSH5 Polypeptide Products of the Invention
The nucleotide sequences and polypeptides of the invention can be used to identify interacting factors. Identifying those proteins that interact with the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO.:2 should further identify other proteins that act in mismatch repair. Yeast provides a particularly powerful system for genetic identification of interacting factors. In addition to genetic methods, several biochemical methods, such as co-immunoprecipitation and protein affinity chromatography can be used to identify interacting proteins.
In one embodiment of the invention, co-immunoprecipitation is used to identify proteins that interact with the isolated polypeptides of the invention, such as the polypeptides of SEQ ID NOS.:2 and SEQ ID NO.:54. Co-immunoprecipitation has proven useful for identifying interacting proteins (see, for example, Kolodziej and Young, Methods Enzymol. 194:508, 1991, incorporated herein by reference; Pallas et al., J. Virol 62:3934, 1988, incorporated herein by reference).
In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO.:2 may be engineered using standard methods to contain a flu 12CA5 epitope tag (Kolodziej and Young, supra) at either or both the N-terminus and the C-terminus. It may be necessary to insert the epitope at internal locations. The tagged protein may then tested for the ability to provide mismatch repair function in yeast cells whose endogenous copy of the MSH5 gene has been inactivated. If functional tagged proteins cannot be produced, polyclonal or monoclonal antisera raised against antigenic determinants on the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO.:2 may be used.
Tagged protein is expressed in log or stationary phase, in mitotic cells or in meiotic cells. Different levels of expression (e.g. native promoter, cen vector; GAL10 promoter, cen vector; GAL10 promoter, 2μ based vector) can be tested. The cells are lysed and the tagged protein is precipitated using the flu 12CA5 antibody (or the polyclonal antisera raised against SEQ ID NO.:2 determinants) and analyzed by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis to detect proteins that co-precipitate (Koloddziej and Young 1991, supra; Pallas et al., supra).
The specificity of co-precipitation is evaluated in experiments in which untagged, rather than tagged protein is expressed and in which tagged protein is expressed and control mouse antisera are substituted for the flu 12CA5 antibody. Sensitivity to salt and different detergents like SDS, NP40 and digitonin are used to evaluate the stability and specificity of observed interactions. The possibility that such interactions require mispaired bases can be tested by adding oligonucleotide duplexes containing mispaired bases and control oligonucleotide duplexes lacking mispaired bases to the cell extracts prior to addition of antibody.
If interacting proteins are found, gel electrophoresis or immunoaffinity chromatography can be used to purify sufficient amounts to obtain N-terminal and internal protein sequences by standard techniques (see, for example, Matsudaira J. Biol. Chem. 262:10035-10038, 1987, incorporated herein by reference). This sequence information can then be used for comparison with DNA and protein databases and for cloning the genes encoding the proteins for use in reverse genetics analysis and protein overproduction. An identical protocol may be performed with the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO.: 54, or any other polypeptide that is encoded by a MSH5 nucleotide sequence of the invention.
In another embodiment of the invention, proteins that interact with the polypeptides of the invention, in particular with polypeptides of SEQ ID NOS.:2 and/or 54, may be identified using a protein affinity column on which these proteins are immobilized. (See, Formosa et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA, 80:2442, 1983. For example, 1 to 10 mg of protein can be covalently linked to AffiGel-10 (made by BioRad Laboratories, Richmond, Calif.) or equivalent matrix. Parallel chromatography experiments on a column containing a polypeptide of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NO.: 2) and a control BSA column can be performed to identify proteins that specifically bind to the polypeptide of the invention. Identified interacting proteins can be N-terminal sequenced as described above. Also, antibodies can be produced to react with identified interacting proteins. Such antibodies can then be used, for example, to screen expression libraries to facilitate cloning of genes that encode the identified interacting proteins. Once interacting proteins have been identified and isolated, biochemical experiments may be performed to assess the functional significance of their interaction with the polypeptides of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NO.:2). Such experiments include determining: 1) if the interacting protein(s) enhance a specific activity such as the mispair binding activity of the polypeptide of the invention; 2) if the interacting protein(s) restore function to inactive in vitro systems; and 3) if the interacting protein(s) substitute for any required protein fractions in in vitro reconstitution experiments. For a description of a representative in vitro system, see Muster-Nassal and Kolodner, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA, 83:7618 (1986), incorporated herein by reference.
Biochemical methods can also be used to test for specific interactions between isolated polypeptides of the invention and already known proteins, for example proteins involved in DNA replication or recombination. In one approach, these known proteins can be immobilized on nitrocellulose filters or other supports, the support blocked to prevent non-specific binding, incubated with an epitope-tagged polypeptide of the invention and then probed with antibody reactive with the epitope tag (for example, the 12CA5 flu antibody) to detect epitope-tagged polypeptides of the invention that have bound to the filter by interaction with the immobilized known protein. Non-epitope-tagged polypeptides of the invention can be used instead in combination with antisera reactive against antigenic determinants of those polypeptides.
When interacting proteins have been cloned, standard methods including mutagenesis and others described in this application can be used to determine the cellular function(s) of those proteins, e.g., mismatch repair, chromosomal segregation, other types of DNA repair, DNA replication, recombination, and so on.
Once proteins have been identified that interact with an isolated polypeptide of the invention, similar types of experiments can be performed to identify proteins that interact with those newly identified proteins. By systematically applying this approach, it may be possible to identify a number of proteins that function in mismatch repair and simultaneously gain insight into the mechanism by which they act.
Alternately, or additionally, genetic methods can also be used to identify proteins that interact with polypeptides of the invention.
For example, one method is the two hybrid system described by Chien et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA., 88:9578 (1991), incorporated herein by reference. This method may be used to identify proteins that interact with polypeptides of the invention. For example, the N-terminal half of SEQ ID NO.:2 may contain at least one region that interacts with other proteins (Reenan and Kolodner, Genetics 132:963, supra). This region may be fused at the end of amino acids 1-147 of the Gal4 protein to make a fusion protein that will bind to the Gal4 site in DNA.
The fusion protein can then be used to screen an available library of yeast DNA fragments fused to the Gal4 activation domain for activation of a GAL1-LacZ reporter. Positives can be rescreened to eliminate plasmids from the library that activate in the absence of the SEQ ID NO.:2 polypeptide segment. The remaining positive clones may be used to isolate disruptions of the yeast genes from which the sequences on the library plasmids originated. Cells containing such disruptions may be analyzed to determine if the disruptions affect spontaneous mutation rate, gene conversion, repair of plasmids containing mispaired bases, and/or genomic stability of short repeated DNA sequences, as would be expected for disruption of a gene involved in mismatch repair. This method is rapid since the required libraries are readily available from any of several sources, for example, Dr. Roger Brent at the Massachusetts General Hospital. It is straightforward to determine if any cloned genes have properties consistent with a role in mismatch repair. Libraries of DNA fragments from eukaryotic organisms other than yeast that are fused to Gal4 for an activation domain can also be screened. Such libraries can be made by using standard methods.
An alternate genetic method that can be used to identify proteins that interact with polypeptides of the invention and the genes that encode them is to use secondary mutation analysis. For example, yeast cells or mammalian cells carrying a mutation in the MSH5 gene, corresponding to SEQ ID NO.:1 or other mammalian homologue can be mutagenized and screened to identify secondary mutations that either correct or augment the mismatch repair defects of the original, MSH5 disrupted cells. Mutagenized cells can be assayed for effects on, for example, spontaneous mutation rate, gene conversion, repair of plasmids containing mispaired bases, and genomic stability of short repeated DNA sequences, as already described in this application.
Secondary mutations that correct defects of the MSH5-disrupted cells are termed "suppressors". Suppressor mutations can be isolated in genes that interact with MSH5. For explanation of the logic in isolating suppressor mutations and protocols involved see, for example, Adams and Botstein, Genetics 121: 675-683 (1989); Novick et al., Genetics 121: 659-674 (1989); Jarvik and Botstein, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 2738-2742 (1975), all of which are incorporated herein by reference. Those genes can then be cloned and sequenced by standard protocols.
Secondary mutations that augment the mismatch repair defects of the original, MSH5-disrupted cells can sometimes have extreme effects, to the extent the mutagenized cells are no longer viable. Such secondary mutations are referred to as "synthetic lethals". For an explanation of the logic and protocols involved in identifying these mutations, see Kranz and Holm, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA 87: 6629-6633, (1990), incorporated herein by reference. The effects of synthetic lethal mutations can be assayed in the presence or absence of DNA damaging agents such as UV light, nucleotide analogs, alkylating agents, etc. As mentioned above, it is desirable for the possible development of therapeutic agents effective against cancer to identify circumstances under which DNA damaging agents are lethal to host cells bearing an inactivated eukaryotic nucleotide sequence of the invention. In this case, studies of synthetic lethality in yeast can be used to identify genes that, when mutated, render MSH5-disrupted cells sensitive to DNA damaging agents.
Such genes would be logical targets for chemotherapy development. Agents, such as antisense reagents or other soluble enzyme inhibitors, for example, that inactivate such genes might render tumors having an altered endogenous copy of SEQ ID NO.:1; sensitive to DNA damaging agents such as nucleotide analogs, light, alkylating agents, or other therapeutic agents.
Expression of Pathway Members
Recombinant vectors containing nucleotide sequences of the invention can be introduced into host cells by, for example, by transformation, transfection, infection, electroporation, etc. Recombinant vectors can be engineered such that the mammalian nucleotide sequences of the invention are placed under the control of regulatory elements (e.g. promoter sequences, polyadenylation signals, etc.) in the vector sequences. Such regulatory elements can function in a host cell to direct the expression and/or processing of nucleotide transcripts and/or polypeptide sequences encoded by the mammalian nucleotide sequences of the invention.
Expression systems can utilize prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic (i.e., yeast, human) cells. See, for example, "Gene Expression Technology", Volume 185, Methods in Enzymology, (ed. D. V. Goeddel), Academic Press Inc., (1990) incorporated herein by reference. A large number of vectors have been constructed that contain powerful promoters that generate large amounts of mRNA complementary to cloned sequences of DNA introduced into the vector. For example, and not by way of limitation, expression of eukaryotic nucleotide sequences in E. coli may be accomplished using lac, trp, lambda, and recA promoters. See, for example, "Expression in Escherichia coli", Section II, pp. 11-195, V. 185, Methods in Enzymology, supra; see also Hawley, D. K., and McClure, W. R., "Compilation and Analysis of Escherichia coli promoter DNA sequences", Nucl. Acids Res., 11: 4891-4906 (1983), incorporated herein by reference. Expression of mammalian nucleotide sequences of the invention, and the polypeptides they encode, in a recombinant bacterial expression system can be readily accomplished.
Yeast cells suitable for expression of the mammalian nucleotide sequences of the invention, and the polypeptides they encode, include the many strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (see above) as well as Pichia pastoris. See, "Heterologous Gene Expression in Yeast", Section IV, pp. 231-482, V. 185, Methods in Enzymology, supra, incorporated herein by reference. Moreover, a large number of vector-mammalian host systems known in the art may be used. See, Sambrook et al., Volume III, supra and "Expression of Heterologous Genes in Mammalian Cells", Section V, pp. 485-596, V. 185, Methods in Enzymology, supra, incorporated herein by reference.
Suitable expression systems include those that transiently or stably expressed DNA and those that involve viral expression vectors derived from simian virus 40 (SV 40), retroviruses, and baculoviruses. These vectors usually supply a promoter and other elements such as enhancers, splice acceptor and/or donor sequences, and polyadenylation signals. Possible vectors include, but are not limited to, cosmids, plasmids or modified viruses, but the vector system must be compatible with the host cell used. Viral vectors include, but are not limited to, vaccinia virus, or lambda derivatives. Plasmids include, but are not limited to, pBR322, pUC, or BLUESCRIPT® (Stratagene) plasmid derivatives. Recombinant molecules can be introduced into host cells via transformation, transfection, infection, electroporation, etc. Generally, expression of a protein in a host is accomplished using a vector containing DNA encoding that protein under the control of regulatory regions that function in the host cell.
In particular, expression systems that provide for overproduction of a MSH5 protein can be prepared using, for example, the methods described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,820,642 (Edman et al., Apr. 11, 1989), incorporated herein by reference. The general requirements for preparing one form of expression vector capable of overexpression are: (1) the presence of a gene (e.g., a prokaryotic gene) into which a MSH5 nucleotide sequence can be inserted; (2) the promoter of this prokaryotic gene; and (3) a second promoter located upstream from the prokaryotic gene promoter which overrides the prokaryotic gene promoter, resulting in overproduction of the extracellular matrix protein. The second promoter is obtained in any suitable manner. Possible host cells into which recombinant vectors containing eukaryotic nucleotide sequences of the invention can be introduced include, for example, bacterial cells, yeast cells, mammalian cells in tissue culture or in situ.
Eukaryotic nucleotide sequences of the invention that have been introduced into host cells can exist as extra-chromosomal sequences or can be integrated into the genome of the host cell by homologous recombination, viral integration, or other means. Standard techniques such as Northern blots and Western blots can be used to determine that introduced sequences are in fact being expressed in the host cells.
The MSH5 gene can be introduced into a host (target) cell by any method which will result in the uptake and expression of the MSH5 gene by the target cells. These can include vectors, liposomes, naked DNA, adjuvant-assisted DNA, catheters, etc. Vectors include chemical conjugates such as described in WO 93/04701, which has a targeting moiety (e.g. a ligand to a cellular surface receptor) and a nucleic acid binding moiety (e.g. polylysine), viral vectors (e.g. a DNA or RNA viral vector), fusion proteins such as described in PCT/US 95/02140 (WO 95/22618) which is a fusion protein containing a target moiety (e.g. an antibody specific for a target cell) and a nucleic acid binding moiety (e.g. a protamine), plasmids, phage, etc. The vectors can be chromosomal, non-chromosomal or synthetic.
Preferred vectors include viral vectors, fusion proteins and chemical conjugates. Retroviral vectors include moloney murine leukemia viruses and HIV-based viruses. One preferred HIV-based viral vector comprises at least two vectors wherein the gag and pol genes are from an HIV genome and the env gene is from another virus. DNA viral vectors are preferred. These vectors include pox vectors such as orthopox or avipox vectors, herpesvirus vectors such as a herpes simplex I virus (HSV) vector [Geller, A. I. et al., J. Neurochem, 64:487 (1995); Lim, F., et al., in DNA Cloning: Mammalian Systems, D. Glover, Ed. (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford England) (1995); Geller, A. I. et al., Proc Natl. Acad. Sci.: U.S.A.:90 7603 (1993); Geller, A. I., et al., Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA: 87:1149 (1990)], adenovirus vectors [LeGal LaSalle et al., Science, 259:988 (1993); Davidson, et al., Nat. Genet. 3: 219 (1993); Yang, et al., J. Virol. 69: 2004 (1995)] and adeno-associated virus vectors [Kaplitt, M. G., et al. Nat. Genet. 8:148 (1994)].
Pox viral vectors introduce the gene into the cells cytoplasm. Avipox virus vectors result in only a short term expression of the MSH5 gene. Adenovirus vectors, adeno-associated virus vectors and herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors are preferred for introducing the MSH5 gene into neural cells. The adenovirus vector results in a shorter term expression (about 2 months) than adeno-associated virus (about 4 months), which in turn is shorter than HSV vectors. The particular vector chosen will depend upon the target cell and the condition being treated. The introduction can be by standard techniques, e.g. infection, transfection, transduction or transformation. Examples of modes of gene transfer include naked DNA, CaPO4 precipitation, DEAE dextran, electroporation, protoplast fusion, lipofection, cell microinjection, viral vectors, etc.
In one method of expressing a human MSH5 nucleotide sequence and the polypeptide it encodes, a cDNA clone that contains the entire coding region of the polypeptide (e.g. SEQ ID NO.: 1) is cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector and transfected into cells such as cells derived from the simian kidney (e.g., COS-7 cells). Expression is monitored after transfection by, for example, Northern, Southern, or Western blotting.
Host cells carrying such introduced sequences can be analyzed to determine the effects that sequence introduction has on the host cells. In particular, cells could be assayed for alterations in the rate of accumulation of spontaneous mutations (e.g. by the rate of spontaneous mutation to drug resistance), in the rate of reversion of mutations, in the frequency of homologous recombination, in the frequency of recombination between divergent sequences, or in the genomic stability of short repeated sequences. In particular, mammalian cells carrying introduced sequences of the invention could be tested for the stability of di- and trinucleotide repeats by the method of Schalling et al. (Schalling et al. Nature. Genetics, 4:135, 1993, incorporated herein by reference.), or for sensitivity to agents that induce DNA damage such as UV-light, nucleotide analogs, etc.
In particular embodiments, a nucleotide sequence of the invention may be used to inactivate an endogenous gene by homologous recombination, and thereby create a MSH5 gene-deficient cell, tissue, or animal. For example, and not by way of limitation, a recombinant human nucleotide sequence of the present invention may be engineered to contain an insertional mutation (e.g., the neo gene) which, when inserted, inactivates transcription of an endogenous MSH5 gene. Such a construct, under the control of a suitable promoter operatively linked to a nucleotide sequence of the invention, may be introduced into a cell by a technique such as transformation, transfection, transduction, injection, etc. In particular, stem cells lacking an intact endogenous MSH5 gene may generate transgenic animals deficient in that mismatch repair gene, and the polypeptide it encodes, via germ line transmission.
In a specific embodiment of the invention, an endogenous MSH5 gene in a cell may be inactivated by homologous recombination with a mutant MSH5 gene, thereby allowing the development of a transgenic animal from that cell, which animal lacks the ability to express the encoded mismatch repair gene polypeptide. In another embodiment, a construct can be provided that, upon transcription, produces an "anti-sense" nucleic acid sequence which, upon translation, will not produce the required mismatch repair gene polypeptide.
A "transgenic animal" is an animal having cells that contain mammalian DNA which has been artificially inserted into a cell, which DNA becomes part of the genome of the animal that develops from that cell. The preferred DNA contains human MSH5 nucleotide sequences. The mammalian gene may be entirely foreign to the transgenic animal or may be identical to the natural gene of the animal, but which is inserted into the animal's genome at a location which differs from that of the natural copy. Transgenic animals provide good model systems for studying the development of cancer, problems with chromosomal segregation the effects of potential therapeutic reagents, and the carcinogenicity of chemical agents administered to the animals.
Functional Equivalents and Unique Fragments of Isolated Nucleotide Sequences and Polypeptides
This invention pertains to isolated mammalian MSH5 nucleotide sequences their functional equivalents, or unique fragments of these sequences, that may be used in accordance with this the invention. Nucleotide sequences or "probes" that are capable of hybridizing are also included. Additionally, the isolated polypeptides encoded by these sequences, and unique fragments of the polypeptides, may also be used in accordance with the invention. The polypeptides can be used, for example to raise an antibody to a unique sequence.
The term "unique fragment" refers to any portion of a mammalian MSH5 nucleotide sequence or polypeptide of the invention that as of the filing date of this application has been found only among the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and has not otherwise been identified as of this date in a public data base.
For example, because the exact nucleotide MSH5 sequence is known for two mammalian homologues (SEQ ID NOs.:1 and 54) one of ordinary skill in the art can readily determine the portions of the human or murine homologues that have not been publicly found in other nucleotide sequences as of the filing date. Moreover, numerous public data bases are known and one can rapidly compare a putative unique sequence with the database.
The term "unique fragment" can refer to a nucleotide or amino acid sequences that is found in all mammalian MSH5 homologues or their encoded proteins, or to nucleotide or amino acid sequences that are found in only one homologue (e.g., human) and absent from other homologues (e.g., murine).
Unique fragments" can be practically defined by the use of computer programs capable of comparing nucleic acid and/or polypeptide sequences. In particular a computer program such as the HYPERBLAST program (Altschul et al. J. Mol. Biol. 215:403-410, 1990, incorporated herein by reference) can be used to translate a DNA sequence in all possible reading frames and then to search known databases (e.g. GenBank, PIR, SWIS-PROT) for similar or identical sequences.
PCR can be Used to Generate Unique Fragments of the Homologues of the Invention
Preferred unique fragments of a nucleotide sequence are between length 15 and 6000 nucleotides (nt.), with particularly preferred fragments being less than approximately 3000 nt long. More preferably, the fragment is at least 25 nucleotides. Unique fragments of a nucleotide sequence may be single-stranded.
Preferred unique fragments of a polypeptide are between approximate 5 and 100 amino acids in length. More preferably at least 12 amino acids in length, still more preferably at least 20 amino acids in length.
The term "functional equivalent", when applied to the nucleotide sequences of the invention, describes a sequence that satisfies one of the following conditions: (i) the nucleotide sequence in question can hybridize to a MSH5 nucleotide sequence, but it does not necessarily hybridize to that sequence with an affinity that is the same as that of the naturally occurring nucleotide sequence (ii) the nucleotide sequence in question can serve as a probe to distinguish between MSH5 nucleotide sequences and other nucleotide sequences.
For example, the human cDNA clone SEQ ID NO.: 1 is an MSH5 gene. However, due to normal sequence variation within the human population, clones derived from different libraries would likely show sequence variability relative to the clone of SEQ ID NO.: 1. In particular, in some instances, the phenomenon of codon degeneracy (see below), will contribute to nucleotide differences without differences in the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein. In other cases, even the protein sequence may vary somewhat. In most instances, the changes are insignificant and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences are functionally equivalent. As discussed below, such equivalence can be empirically determined by comparisons of structural and/or functional characteristics.
Due to the degeneracy of nucleotide coding sequences (see Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, Garland Publishing, New York and London, 1989--page 103, incorporated herein by reference), other nucleic acid sequences may be used in the practice of the present invention. These include, but are not limited to, sequences based upon SEQ ID NO: 1 that have been altered by the substitution of different codons encoding the same amino acid residue within the sequence, thus producing a silent change. Almost every amino acid except tryptophan and methionine is represented by several codons. Often the base in the third position of a codon is not significant, because those amino acids having 4 different codons differ only in the third base. This feature, together with a tendency for similar amino acids to be represented by related codons, increases the probability that a single, random base change will result in no amino acid substitution or in one involving an amino acid of similar character. Such degenerate nucleotide sequences are regarded as functional equivalents of the specifically claimed sequences.
The nucleotide sequences of the invention (e.g. SEQ ID NOs.:1-54) can be altered by mutations such as substitutions, additions or deletions that provide for functionally equivalent nucleic acid sequence. In particular, a given nucleotide sequence can be mutated in vitro or in vivo, to create variations in coding regions and/or to form new restriction endonuclease sites or destroy preexisting ones and thereby to facilitate further in vitro modification. Any technique for mutagenesis known in the art can be used including, but not limited to, in vitro site-directed mutagenesis (Hutchinson, et al., J. Biol. Chem. 253:6551, 1978), use of TAB® linkers (Pharmacia), PCR-directed mutagenesis, and the like. The functional equivalence of such mutagenized sequences, as compared with un-mutagenized sequences, can be empirically determined by comparisons of structural and/or functional characteristics.
According to the invention, an amino acid sequence is "functionally equivalent" compared with the sequences depicted in, for example, SEQ ID NO.:2 if the amino acid sequence contains one or more amino acid residues within the sequence which can be substituted by another amino acid of a similar polarity which acts as a functional equivalent. The term "functionally equivalent", when applied to the amino acid sequences of the invention, also describes the relationship between different amino acid sequences whose physical or functional characteristics are substantially the same. Substitutions, deletions or insertions of amino acids often do not produce radical changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of a polypeptide, in which case polypeptides containing the substitution, deletion, or insertion would be considered to be functionally equivalent to polypeptides lacking the substitution, deletion, or insertion.
Functionally equivalent substitutes for an amino acid within the sequence may be selected from other members of the class to which the amino acid belongs. The non-polar (hydrophobic) amino acids include alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophan and methionine. The polar neutral amino acids include glycine, serine, threonine, cysteine, tyrosine, asparagine, and glutamine. The positively charged (basic) amino acids include arginine, lysine and histidine. The negatively charged (acidic) amino acids include aspartic acid and glutamic acid.
Substantial changes in functional or, for example, immunological properties may be avoided by selecting substitutes that do not differ from the original amino acid residue. More significantly, the substitutions can be chosen for their effect on: (i) maintaining the structure of the peptide backbone in the area of the substitution, for example, as a sheet or helical conformation; (ii) maintaining the charge or hydrophobicity of the molecule at the target side; or (iii) maintaining the bulk of the side chain. The substitutions that in general could expected to induce greater changes, and therefore should be avoided, are those in which: (a) glycine and/or proline is substituted by another amino acid or is deleted or inserted; (b) a hydrophilic residue, e.g., seryl or threonyl, is substituted for (or by) a hydrophobic residue, e.g., leucyl, isoleucyl, phenylalanyl, or alanyl; (c) a cysteine residue is substituted for (or by) any other residue; (d) a residue having an electropositive side chain, e.g., lysyl, arginyl, or histidyl, is substituted for (or by) a residue having an electronegative charge, e.g., glutamyl or aspartyl, or (e) a residue having a bulky side chain, e.g., phenylalanine, is substituted for one (or by) one not having such a side chain, e.g., glycine.
Most deletions and insertions in a MSH5 polypeptide and substitutions in particular, are not expected to produce radical changes in the characteristics of the polypeptide. Nevertheless, when it is difficult to predict the exact effect of the substitution, deletion, or insertion in advance of doing so, one skilled in the art will appreciate that the effect will be evaluated using routine screening assays as described herein and known in the art. For example, a change in the immunological character of a human MSH5 gene product, such as binding to a given antibody, can be measured by an immunoassay such as a competitive type immunoassay.
The functional equivalence of two polypeptide sequences can be assessed by examining physical characteristics (e.g. homology to a reference sequence, the presence of unique amino and sequences, etc.) and/or functional characteristics analyzed in vitro or in vivo. For example, looking at functional equivalents of the proteins of SEQ ID NO.:2. These functional equivalents may also contain a helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif, a Mg2+ ATP binding domain, and/or the amino acid sequence TGPNM. These functional equivalents may also be capable of binding to mismatched base pairs in, for example, a filter-binding assay.
Functional equivalents may also produce a dominant MSH5 defective phenotype when expressed in E. coli, as detected in an assay described herein, or may otherwise behave like MSH5 proteins in other assays herein described or known in the art.
Also included within the scope of the invention are polypeptides or unique fragments or derivatives thereof that are differentially modified during or after translation, e.g., by phosphorylation, glycosylation, crosslinking, acylation, proteolytic cleavage, linkage to an antibody molecule, membrane molecule or other ligand (Ferguson, et al., Ann. Rev. Biochem. 57:285-320, 1988).
Polypeptide fragments of the invention can be produced, for example, by expressing cloned nucleotide sequences of the invention encoding partial polypeptide sequences. Alternatively, polypeptide fragments of the invention can be generated directly from intact polypeptides. Polypeptides can be specifically cleaved by proteolytic enzymes, including, but not limited to, trypsin, chymotrypsin or pepsin. Each of these enzymes is specific for the type of peptide bond it attacks. Trypsin catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds whose carbonyl group is from a basic amino acid, usually arginine or lysine. Pepsin and chymotrypsin catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds from aromatic amino acids, particularly tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine. Alternate sets of cleaved polypeptide fragments are generated by preventing cleavage at a site which is susceptible to a proteolytic enzyme. For example, reaction of the ε-amino groups of lysine with ethyltrifluorothioacetate in mildly basic solution yields a blocked amino acid residue whose adjacent peptide bond is no longer susceptible to hydrolysis by trypsin. Goldberger et al. Biochem., 1:401 (1962). Treatment of such a polypeptide with trypsin thus cleaves only at the arginyl residues.
Polypeptides also can be modified to create peptide linkages that are susceptible to proteolytic enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis. For example, alkylation of cysteine residues with β-halo ethylamines yields peptide linkages that are hydrolyzed by trypsin. Lindley, Nature, 178: 647 (1956). In addition, chemical reagents that cleave polypeptide chains at specific residues can be used. Withcop, Adv. Protein Chem. 16: 221 (1961). For example, cyanogen bromide cleaves polypeptides at methionine residues. Gross & Witkip, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 83: 1510 (1961). Thus, by treating MSH5 polypeptides or fragments thereof with various combinations of modifiers, proteolytic enzymes and/or chemical reagents, numerous discrete overlapping peptides of varying sizes are generated. These peptide fragments can be isolated and purified from such digests by chromatographic methods.
Alternatively, polypeptides of the present invention can be synthesized using an appropriate solid state synthetic procedure. Steward and Young, Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis, Freemantle, San Francisco, Calif. (1968). A preferred method is the Merrifield process. Merrifield, Recent Progress in Hormone Res., 23: 451 (1967). The activity of these peptide fragments may conveniently be tested using, for example, a filter binding or immunologic assay as described herein.
Also within the scope of the invention are nucleic acid sequences or proteins encoded by nucleic acid sequences derived from the same gene but lacking one or more structural features as a result of alternative splicing of transcripts from a gene that also encodes the complete mismatch repair gene, as defined previously.
Nucleic acid sequences complementary to DNA or RNA sequences encoding polypeptides of the invention or a functionally active portion(s) thereof are also provided. In animals, particularly transgenic animals, RNA transcripts of a desired gene or genes may be translated into polypeptide products having a host of phenotypic actions. In a particular aspect of the invention, antisense oligonucleotides can be synthesized. These oligonucleotides may have activity in their own right, such as antisense reagents which block translation or inhibit RNA function. Thus, where human polypeptide is to be produced utilizing the nucleotide sequences of this invention, the DNA sequence can be in an inverted orientation which gives rise to a negative sense ("antisense") RNA on transcription. This antisense RNA is not capable of being translated to the desired product, as it is in the wrong orientation and would give a nonsensical product if translated.
Nucleotide Hybridization Probes
The present invention also provides an isolated nucleotide "probe" that is capable of hybridizing to a eukaryotic target sequence that is homologous to a bacterial mismatch repair gene.
A probe is a ligand of known qualities that can bind selectively to a target. A nucleotide probe according to the invention is a strand of nucleic acid having a nucleotide sequence that is complementary to a nucleotide sequence of a target strand. In particular, the nucleotide sequence of a probe of the present invention is complementary to a sequence found in a mammalian MSH5 nucleotide sequence. In particular, probes that hybridize to any unique segment of any of SEQ ID NO.:1 are included in the invention. Such probes are useful, for example, in nucleic acid hybridization assays, Southern and Northern blot analyses, etc. Hybridization conditions can vary depending on probe length and compositions. Conditions appropriate to a particular probe length and composition can be readily determined by consultation with standard reference materials (see Sambrook et al. supra).
A preferred oligonucleotide probe typically has a sequence somewhat longer than that used for the PCR primers. A longer sequence is preferable for the probe, and it is valuable to minimize codon degeneracy. A representative protocol for the preparation of an oligonucleotide probe for screening a cDNA library is described in Sambrook, J. et al., Molecular Cloning, Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York, 1989. In general, the probe is labeled, e.g., 32 P, and used to screen clones of a cDNA or genomic library.
Preferred nucleotide probes are at least 20-30 nucleotides long, and contain at least 15-20 nucleotides that are complimentary to their target sequence in a eukaryotic nucleotide sequence that is homologous to a bacterial mismatch repair gene. Preferred nucleotide probes can be radioactively labeled or conjugated to fluorescent tags such as those available from New England Biolabs (Beverly, Mass.) or Amersham (Arlington Heights, Ill.) and can be used to probe, for example, Southern blots, Northern blots, plaque lifts, colony lifts, etc. Nucleotide probes of the invention include, for example, probes made by chemical synthesis and probes generated by PCR.
Preferred nucleotide probes of the invention, be they oligonucleotides, PCR--generated fragments, or other nucleic acid sequences (e.g. isolated clones), can be used in the general protocol described above.
Nucleotide probes of the invention can also be used in standard procedures such as nick translation, 5' end labeling and random priming (Sambrook et al. supra).
The term "antibodies" is meant to include monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies and antibodies prepared by recombinant nucleic acid techniques that are selectively reactive with polypeptides encoded by eukaryotic nucleotide sequences of the present invention. The term "selectively reactive" refers to those antibodies that react with one or more antigenic determinants of a MSH5 polypeptide and do not react to any appreciable extent with other polypeptides. Antigenic determinants usually consist of chemically active surface groupings of molecules such as amino acids or sugar side chains and have specific three dimensional structural characteristics as well as specific charge characteristics. Antibodies can be used for diagnostic applications or for research purposes.
In particular, antibodies may be raised against amino-terminal (N-terminal) or carboxy-terminal (C-terminal) peptides of a polypeptide encoded by MSH5 nucleotide sequences.
Generally, to isolate antibodies to a MSH5 polypeptide of the invention, a peptide sequence that contains an antigenic determinant is selected as an immunogen. This peptide immunogen can be attached to a carrier to enhance the immunogenic response. Although the peptide immunogen can correspond to any portion of such a polypeptide, certain amino acid sequences are more likely than others to provoke an immediate response, for example, an amino acid sequence including the C-terminal amino acid of a polypeptide encoded by a gene that contains nucleotide sequences of the invention.
Other alternatives to preparing antibodies that are reactive with a polypeptide encoded by a human nucleotide sequence of the invention include: (i) immunizing an animal with a protein expressed by a prokaryotic (e.g., bacterial) or eukaryotic cell; the cell including the coding sequence for all or part of a MSH5 polypeptide; or (ii) immunizing an animal with whole cells that are expressing all or a part of a MSH5 polypeptide. For example, a cDNA clone encoding a polypeptide of the present invention may be expressed in a host using standard techniques (see above; see Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning; A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: 1989) such that 5-20% of the total protein that can be recovered from the host is the MSH5 polypeptide. Recovered proteins can be electrophoresed using PAGE and the appropriate protein band can be cut out of the gel. The desired protein sample can then be eluted from the gel slice and prepared for immunization. Alternatively, a protein of interest can be purified by using conventional methods such as, for example, ion exchange hydrophobic, size exclusion, or affinity chromatography.
Once the protein immunogen is prepared, mice can be immunized twice intraperitoneally with approximately 50 micrograms of protein immunogen per mouse. Sera from such immunized mice can be tested for antibody activity by immunohistology or immunocytology on any host system expressing a polypeptide encoded by eukaryotic nucleotide sequence that is homologous to a bacterial mismatch repair gene and by ELISA with the expressed polypeptide encoded by a eukaryotic nucleotide sequence that is homologous to a bacterial mismatch repair gene. For immunohistology, active antibodies of the present invention can be identified using a biotin-conjugated anti-mouse immunoglobulin followed by avidin-peroxidase and a chromogenic peroxidase substrate. Preparations of such reagents are commercially available; for example, from Zymad Corp., San Francisco, Calif. Mice whose sera contain detectable active antibodies according to the invention can be sacrificed three days later and their spleens removed for fusion and hybridoma production. Positive supernatants of such hybridomas can be identified using the assays described above and by, for example, Western blot analysis.
To further improve the likelihood of producing an antibody as provided by the invention, the amino acid sequence of MSH5 polypeptides may be analyzed in order to identify portions of amino acid sequence which may be associated with increased immunogenicity. For example, polypeptide sequences may be subjected to computer analysis to identify potentially immunogenic surface epitopes. Such computer analysis can include generating plots of antigenic index, hydrophilicity, structural features such as amphophilic helices or amphophilic sheets and the like.
For preparation of monoclonal antibodies directed toward polypeptides encoded by a eukaryotic nucleotide sequence of the invention, any technique that provides for the production of antibody molecules by continuous cell lines may be used. For example, the hybridoma technique originally developed by Kohler and Milstein (Nature, 256: 495-497, 1973), as well as the trioma technique, the human B-cell hybridoma technique (Kozbor et al., Immunology Today, 4:72), and the EBV-hybridoma technique to produce human monoclonal antibodies, and the like, are within the scope of the present invention. See, generally Larrick et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,001,065 and references cited therein. Further, single-chain antibody (SCA) methods are also available to produce antibodies against polypeptides encoded by a eukaryotic nucleotide sequence of the invention (Ladner et al. U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,704,694 and 4,976,778).
The monoclonal antibodies may be human monoclonal antibodies or chimeric human-mouse (or other species) monoclonal antibodies. The present invention provides for antibody molecules as well as fragments of such antibody molecules.
Those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that a large variety of possible moieties can be coupled to antibodies against polypeptides encoded by a eukaryotic nucleotide sequence that is homologous to a bacterial mismatch repair gene, or to other molecules of the invention. See, for example, "Conjugate Vaccines", Contributions to Microbiology and Immunology, J. M. Cruse and R. E. Lewis, Jr (eds), Carger Press, New York, (1989), the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.
Coupling may be accomplished by any chemical reaction that will bind the two molecules so long as the antibody and the other moiety retain their respective activities. This linkage can include many chemical mechanisms, for instance covalent binding, affinity binding, intercalation, coordinate binding and complexation. The preferred binding is, however, covalent binding. Covalent binding can be achieved either by direct condensation of existing side chains or by the incorporation of external bridging molecules. Many bivalent or polyvalent linking agents are useful in coupling protein molecules, such as the antibodies of the present invention, to other molecules. For example, representative coupling agents can include organic compounds such as thioesters, carbodiimides, succinimide esters, diisocyanates, glutaraldehydes, diazobenzenes and hexamethylene diamines. This listing is not intended to be exhaustive of the various classes of coupling agents known in the art but, rather, is exemplary of the more common coupling agents. (See Killen and Lindstrom 1984, "Specific killing of lymphocytes that cause experimental Autoimmune Myesthenia Gravis by toxin-acetylcholine receptor conjugates." Jour. Immun. 133:1335-2549; Jansen, F. K., H. E. Blythman, D. Carriere, P. Casella, O. Gros, P. Gros, J. C. Laurent, F. Paolucci, B. Pau, P. Poncelet, G. Richer, H. Vidal, and G. A. Voisin. 1982. "Immunotoxins: Hybrid molecules combining high specificity and potent cytotoxicity". Immunological Reviews 62:185-216; and Vitetta et al., supra).
Preferred linkers are described in the literature. See, for example, Ramakrishnan, S. et al., Cancer Res. 44:201-208 (1984) describing use of MBS (M-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester). See also, Umemoto et al. U.S. Pat. No. 5,030,719, describing use of halogenated acetyl hydrazide derivative coupled to an antibody by way of an oligopeptide linker. Particularly preferred linkers include: (i) EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino-propyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride; (ii) SMPT (4-succinimidyloxycarbonyl-alpha-methyl-alpha-(2-pyridyl-dithio)-toluene (Pierce Chem. Co., Cat. #21558G); (iii) SPDP (succinimidyl-6 [3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionamido]hexanoate (Pierce Chem. Co., Cat #21651G); (iv) Sulfo-LC-SPDP (sulfosuccinimidyl 6 [3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propianamide]hexanoate (Pierce Chem. Co. Cat. #2165-G); and (v) sulfo-NHS(N-hydroxysulfo-succinimide: Pierce Chem. Co., Cat. #24510) conjugated to EDC.
The linkers described above contain components that have different attributes, thus leading to conjugates with differing physio-chemical properties. For example, sulfo-NHS esters of alkyl carboxylates are more stable than sulfo-NHS esters of aromatic carboxylates. NHS-ester containing linkers are less soluble than sulfo-NHS esters. Further, the linker SMPT contains a sterically hindered disulfide bond, and can form conjugates with increased stability. Disulfide linkages, are in general, less stable than other linkages because the disulfide linkage is cleaved in vitro, resulting in less conjugate available. Sulfo-NHS, in particular, can enhance the stability of carbodimide couplings. Carbodimide couplings (such as EDC) when used in conjunction with sulfo-NHS, forms esters that are more resistant to hydrolysis than the carbodimide coupling reaction alone.
Antibodies of the present invention can be detected by any of the conventional types of immunoassays. For example, a sandwich assay can be performed in which a polypeptide encoded by a eukaryotic nucleotide sequence that is homologous to a bacterial mismatch repair gene, as provided by the invention, is affixed to a solid phase. A liquid sample such as kidney or intestinal fluid containing, or suspected of containing, antibodies directed against a such a polypeptide of the invention is incubated with the solid phase. Incubation is maintained for a sufficient period of time to allow the antibody in the sample to bind to the immobilized polypeptide on the solid phase. After this first incubation, the solid phase is separated from the sample. The solid phase is washed to remove unbound materials and interfering substances such as non-specific proteins which may also be present in the sample. The solid phase containing the antibody of interest bound to the immobilized polypeptide of the present invention is subsequently incubated with labeled antibody or antibody bound to a coupling agent such as biotin or avidin. Labels for antibodies are well-known in the art and include radionuclides, enzymes (e.g. maleate dehydrogenase, horseradish peroxidase, glucose oxidase, catalase), fluors (fluorescein isothiocyanate, rhodamine, phycocyanin, fluorescamine), biotin, and the like. The labeled antibodies are incubated with the solid and the label bound to the solid phase is measured, the amount of the label detected serving as a measure of the amount of anti-urea transporter antibody present in the sample. These and other immunoassays can be easily performed by those of ordinary skill in the art.
gene--The term "gene", as used herein, refers to a nucleotide sequence that contains a complete coding sequence. Generally, "genes" also include nucleotide sequences found upstream (e.g. promoter sequences, enhancers, etc.) or downstream (e.g. transcription termination signals, polyadenylation sites, etc.) of the coding sequence that affect the expression of the encoded polypeptide.
wild-type--The term "wild-type", when applied to nucleic acids and proteins of the present invention, means a version of a nucleic acid or protein that functions in a manner indistinguishable from a naturally-occurring, normal version of that nucleic acid or protein (i.e. a nucleic acid or protein with wild-type activity). For example, a "wild-type" allele of a mismatch repair gene is capable of functionally replacing a normal, endogenous copy of the same gene within a host cell without detectably altering mismatch repair in that cell. Different wild-type versions of the same nucleic acid or protein may or may not differ structurally from each other.
non-wild type--The term "non-wild-type" when applied to nucleic acids and proteins of the present invention, means a version of a nucleic acid or protein that functions in a manner distinguishable from a naturally-occurring, normal version of that nucleic acid or protein. Non-wild-type alleles of a nucleic acid of the invention may differ structurally from wild-type alleles of the same nucleic acid in any of a variety of ways including, but not limited to, differences in the amino acid sequence of an encoded polypeptide and/or differences in expression levels of an encoded nucleotide transcript or polypeptide product.
For example, the nucleotide sequence of a non-wild-type allele of a nucleic acid of the invention may differ from that of a wild-type allele by, for example, addition, deletion, substitution, and/or rearrangement of nucleotides. Similarly, the amino acid sequence of a non-wild-type mismatch repair protein may differ from that of a wild-type mismatch repair protein by, for example, addition, deletion, substitution, and/or rearrangement of amino acids.
Particular non-wild-type nucleic acids or proteins that, when introduced into a normal host cell, interfere with the endogenous mismatch repair pathway, are termed "dominant negative" nucleic acids or proteins.
homologous/homologue--The term "homologous", as used herein is an art-understood term that refers to nucleic acids or polypeptides that are highly related at the level of nucleotide or amino acid sequence. Nucleic acids or polypeptides that are homologous to each other are termed "homologues".
The term "homologous" necessarily refers to a comparison between two sequences. In accordance with the invention, two nucleotide sequences are considered to be homologous if the polypeptides they encode are at least about 50-60% identical, preferably about 70% identical, for at least one stretch of at least 20 amino acids. Preferably, homologous nucleotide sequences are also characterized by the ability to encode a stretch of at least 4-5 uniquely specified amino acids. Both the identity and the approximate spacing of these amino acids relative to one another must be considered for nucleotide sequences to be considered to be homologous. For nucleotide sequences less than 60 nucleotides in length, homology is determined by the ability to encode a stretch of at least 4-5 uniquely specified amino acids.
upstream/downstream--The terms "upstream" and "downstream" are art-understood terms referring to the position of an element of nucleotide sequence. "Upstream" signifies an element that is more 5' than the reference element. "Downstream" refers to an element that is more 3' than a reference element.
intron, exon/intron--The terms "exon" and "intron" are art-understood terms referring to various portions of genomic gene sequences. "Exons" are those portions of a genomic gene sequence that encode protein. "Introns" are sequences of nucleotides found between exons in genomic gene sequences.
sporadic--The term "sporadic" as used herein and applied to tumors or cancers, refers to tumors or cancers that arise in an individual not known to have a genetic or familial pre-disposition to cancer. The categorization of a tumor or cancer as "sporadic" is, of necessity, based on available information and should be interpreted in that context. It is possible, for example, that an individual that inherits a low-penetrance mutation (i.e. a mutation that, statistically, is unlikely to have a dramatic phenotype) will develop cancer as a result of that mutation (i.e. will have had a genetic pre-disposition to cancer) but will have had no family history of cancer. Tumors in that individual might originally be identified as sporadic because the individual was not known to have a genetic predisposition to cancer. The term "sporadic", therefore, is used to conveniently describe those tumors or cancers that appear to have arisen independent of inherited genetic motivation, but is not intended to point to defining molecular distinctions between inherited and sporadic tumors or cancers.
affected--The term "affected", as used herein, refers to those members of a kindred that either have developed a characteristic cancer and/or are predicted, on the basis of, for example, genetic studies, to carry an inherited mutation that confers susceptibility to cancer.
The invention will now be further described in the following examples.
Cloning and Characterization of the Human MSH5 Gene
The original human EST (clone i.d. 115902) was identified by homology searches of the dbEST using the hMSH2 amino acid sequence. The sequence of this clone was determined from T3 and T7 primers. The 992 bp contig generated showed homology when translated and aligned with S. cerevisiae MSH5. The original contig corresponds to bp 1908-2900 of the complete cDNA. The 5' end of the cDNA was then cloned in two consecutive 5' RACE steps. The 3' end was confirmed by 3' RACE.
The human genomic locus was cloned by screening a P1 human genomic DNA library by PCR using primers DFCI 23663 (SEQ ID NO:51)(GAATGGCAGACATCCTCTGA) and DFCI 23876 (SEQ ID NO:52)(GGTATATGCTCTTCCCTGATGA). The intron-exon junctions of hMSH5 were characterized by sequencing these clones using primers derived from the hMSH5 cDNA sequence.
HMSH5 was mapped unambiguously to chromosome 6 by PCR analysis of the NIGMS Human/Roden Somatic Cell Hybrid Mapping Panel 2. Alternative locations of chromosome 1 or 6 had been obtained. Subsequent demonstration that the chromosome 1-specific NIGMS line was actually contaminated with DNA from the chromosome 6-specific line confirmed the location of the gene on human chromosome 6. Fine mapping to 6p21.3 was completed and reconfirmed by PCR analysis of a radiation hybrid panel. The actual result was: 7.04cR from CHLC.GATA4A03.76, at a LOD score of >3. The mapping panel used was Genebridge 4, obtained from Research Genetics, Inc.
The Complete cDNA Sequence for hMSH5
TABLE-US-00001 (SEQ ID NO:1) CGCTCCTTTTGCAGGCTCGTGGCGGTCGGTCAGCGGGGCGTTCTCCCACC TGTAGCGACTCAGGTTACTGAAAAGGCGGGAAAACGCTGCGATGGCGGCA GCTGGGGGAGGAGGAAGATAAGCGCGTGAGGCTGGGGTCCTGGCGCGTGG TTGGCAGAGGCAGAGACATAAGACGTGCACGACTCGCCCCACAGGGCCTT CAGACCCCTTCTTTCCAAAGGAGCCTCCAAGCTCATGGCCTCCTTAGGAG CGAACCCAAGGAGGACACCGCAGGGACCGAGACCTGGGGCGGCCTCCTCC GGTTTCCCCAGCCCGGCCCCAGTGCCGGGCCCCAGGGAGGCCGAGGAGGA GGAAGTCGAGGAGGAGGAGGAGCTGGCCGAGATCCATCTGTGTGTGCTGT GGAATTCAGGATACTTGGGCATTGCCTACTATGATACTAGTGACTCCACT ATCCACTTCATGCCAGATGCCCCAGACCACGAGAGCCTCAAGCTTCTCCA GAGAGTTCTGGATGAGATCAATCCCCAGTCTGTTGTTACGAGTGCCAAAC AGGATGAGAATATGACTCGATTTCTGGGAAAGCTTGCCTCCCAGGAGCAC AGAGAGCCTAAAAGACCTGAAATCATATTTTTGCCAAGTGTGGATTTTGG TCTGGAGATAAGCAAACAACGCCTCCTTTCTGGAAACTACTCCTTCATCC CAGACGCCATGACTGCCACTGAGAAAATCCTCTTCCTCTCTTCCATTATT CCCTTTGACTGCCTCCTCACAGTTCGAGCACTTGGAGGGCTGCTGAAGTT CCTGGGTCGAAGAAGAATCGGGGTTGAACTGGAAGACTATAATGTCAGCG TCCCCATCCTGGGCTTTAAGAAATTTATGTTGACTCATCTGGTGAACATA GATCAAGACACTTACAGTGTTCTACAGATTTTTAAGAGTGAGTCTCACCC CTCAGTGTACAAAGTGGCCAGTGGACTGAAGGAGGGGCTCAGCCTCTTTG GAATCCTCAACAGATGCCACTGTAAGTGGGGAGAGAAGCTGCTCAGGCTA TGGTTCACACGTCCGACTCATGACCTGGGGGAGCTCAGTTCTCGTCTGGA CGTCATTCAGTTTTTTCTGCTGCCCCAGAATCTGGACATGGCTCAGATGC TGCATCGGCTCCTGGGTCACATCAAGAACGTGCCTTTGATTCTGAAACGC ATGAAGTTGTCCCACACCAAGGTCAGCGACTGGCAGGTTCTCTACAAGAC TGTGTACAGTGCCCTGGGCCTGAGGGATGCCTGCCGCTCCCTGCCGCAGT CCATCCAGCTCTTTCGGGACATTGCCCAAGAGTTCTCTGATGACCTGCAC CATATCGCCAGCCTCATTGGGAAAGTAGTGGACTTTGAGGGCAGCCTTGC TGAAAATCGCTTCACAGTCCTCCCCAACATAGATCCTGAAATTGATGAGA AAAAGCGAAGACTGATGGGACTTCCCAGTTTCCTTACTGAGGTTGCCCGC AAGGAGCTGGAGAATCTGGACTCCCGTATTCCTTCATGCAGTGTCATCTA CATCCCTCTGATTGGCTTCCTTCTTTCTATTCCCCGCCTGCCTTCCATGG TAGAGGCCAGTGACTTTGAGATTAATGGACTGGACTTCATGTTTCTCTCA GAGGAGAAGCTGCACTATCGTAGTGCCCGAACCAAGGAGCTGGATGCATT GCTGGGGGACCTGCACTGCGAGATCCGGGACCAGGAGACGCTGCTGATGT ACCAGCTACAGTGCCAGGTGCTGGCACGAGCAGCTGTCTTAACCCGAGTA TTGGACCTTGCCTCCCGCCTGGACGTCCTGCTGGCTCTTGCCAGTGCTGC CCGGGACTATGGCTACTCAAGGCCGCGTTACTCCCCACAAGTCCTTGGGG TACGAATCCAGAATGGCAGACATCCTCTGATGGAACTCTGTGCCCGAACC TTTGTGCCCAACTCCACAGAATGTGGTGGGGACAAAGGGAGGGTCAAAGT CATCACTGGACCCAACTCATCAGGGAAGAGCATATACCTCAAACAGGTAG GCTTGATCACATTCATGGCCCTGGTAGGCAGCTTTGTGCCAGCAGAGGAG GCCGAAATTGGGGCAGTAGACGCCATCTTCACACGAATTCATAGCTGCGA ATCCATCTCCCTTGGCCTCTCCACCTTCATGATCGACCTCAACCAGGTGG CGAAAGCAGTGAACAATGCCACTGCACAGTCGCTGGTCCTTATTGATGAA TTTGGAAAGGGAACCAACACGGTGGATGGGCTCGCGCTTCTGGCCGCTGT GCTCCGACACTGGCTGGCACGTGGACCCACATGCCCCCACATCTTTGTGG CCACCAACTTTCTGAGCCTTGTTCAGCTACAACTGCTGCCACAAGGGCCC CTGGTGCAGTATTTGACCATGGAGACCTGTGAGGATGGCAACGATCTTGT CTTCTTCTATCAGGTTTGCGAAGGTGTTGCGAAGGCCAGCCATGCCTCCC ACACAGCTGCCCAGGCTGGGCTTCCTGACAAGCTTGTGGCTCGTGGCAAG GAGGTCTCAGATTTGATCCGCAGTGGAAAACCCATCAAGCCTGTCAAGGA TTTGCTAAAGAAGAACCAAATGGAAAATTGCCAGACATTAGTGGATAAGT TTATGAAACTGGATTTGGAAGATCCTAACCTGGACTTGAACGTTTTCATG AGCCAGGAAGTGCTGCCTGCTGCCACCAGCATCCTCTGAGAGTCCTTCCA GTGTCCTCCCCAGCCTCCTGAGACTCCGGTGGGCTGCCATGCCCTCTTTG TTTCCTTATCTCCCTCAGACGCAGAGTTTTTAGTTTCTCTAGAAATTTTG TTTCATATTAGGAATAAAGTTTATTTTGAAGAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
The cDNA is 2881 bp, exclusive of the poly-A tail. The translational start is base 235 (A of ATG). The translational stop is base 2737 (T of TGA).
hMSH5 Predicted Amino Acid Sequence
TABLE-US-00002 (SEQ ID NO:2) MASLGANPRRTPQGPRPGAASSGFPSPAPVPGPREAEEEEVEEEEELAEI HLCVLWNSGYLGIAYYDTSDSTIHFMPDAPDHESLKLLQRVLDEINPQSV VTSAKQDENMTRFLGKLASQEHREPKRPEIIFLPSVDFGLEISKQRLLSG NYSFIPDAMTATEKILFLSSIIPFDCLLTVRALGGLLKFLGRRRIGVELE DYNVSVPILGFKKFMLTHLVNIDQDTYSVLQIFKSESHPSVYKVASGLKE GLSLFGILNRCHCKWGEKLLRLWFTRPTHDLGELSSRLDVIQFFLLPQNL DMAQMLHRLLGHIKNVPLILKRMKLSHTKVSDWQVLYKTVYSALGLRDAC RSLPQSIQLFRDIAQEFSDDLHHIASLIGKVVDFEGSLAENRFTVLPNID PEIDEKKRRLMGLPSFLTEVARKELENLDSRIPSCSVIYIPLIGFLLSIP RLPSMVEASDFEINGLDFMFLSEEKLHYRSARTKELDALLGDLHCEIRDQ ETLLMYQLQCQVLARAAVLTRVLDLASRLDVLLALASAARDYGYSRPRYS PQVLGVRIQNGRHPLMELCARTFVPNSTECGGDKGRVKVITGPNSSGKSI YLKQVGLITFMALVGSFVPAEEAEIGAVDAIFTRIHSCESISLGLSTFMI DLNQVAKAVNNATAQSLVLIDEFGKGTNTVDGLALLAAVLRHWLARGPTC PHIFVATNFLSLVQLQLLPQGPLVQYLTMETCEDGNDLVFFYQVCEGVAK ASHASHTAAQAGLPDKLVARGKEVSDLIRSGKPIKPVKDLLKKNQMENCQ TLVDKFMKLDLEDPNLDLNVFMSQEVLPAATSIL
Sequences of the hMSH5 Intron-Exon Junctions
The tildes (˜) indicate approximate intron size, estimated by PCR across the introns. The combined size for introns 9 and 10 (*) is ˜2200 bp, as individual size estimates were not made in this case. Introns without tildes were completely sequenced. Additional intronic sequences generated to date are included in Appendix I.
The coding sequence (end of exon adjacent to each border) is in capitals and the intronic sequence is lowercase. Consensus splice donor and acceptor sequences are in bold. Phase indicates border phase, which means that the border falls after the indicated base of a codon. For example, given a methionine (ATG) codon: phase of 1 means the border falls between A and T, phase of 2 means the border falls between T and G, while phase of 3 means the border follows the codon. The first intron is in the 5' UTR. Therefore, phase is not applicable.
hMSH52 Gene Structure
TABLE-US-00003 INTRON length SEQ ID # phase (bp) NO: 5' border: 1 NA 232 TTCCAAAGG gtaacctccgcgtgacagaa 3 2 3 ~600 CTGGCCGAG gtctctgaggggagtagaaa 4 3 1 ~1500 TCCAGAGAG gtggggatggaaccatgaat 5 4 1 150 GAAAGCTTG gtaaggacttggtaaaggat 6 5 1 733 TGGATTTTG gtatctccttccttttgctt 7 6 3 164 CTCCTCACA gtgagattggtcctggggga 8 7 2 246 ATTTATGTT gtaggtgattcaccccaacc 9 8 2 ~626 CACTTACAG gtaaagaggtggaggcatgc 10 9 1 * GCCTCTTTG gtaggtgtgccccatccctc 11 10 2 ~2200* GCTGCTCAG gtgagtgggtcccacacata 12 11 3 127 AACGTGCCT gtgagcccagggtggagggc 13 12 3 ~594 CTCTACAAG gtaaggccttccttcttgaa 14 13 3 254 GGGAAAGTA gtgagtagaaggaaaaaggg 15 14 1 145 TTGATGAGA gtgagtgttgggtgtggatg 16 15 3 ~267 ATCCCTCTG gtgagggcaggagagtgggt 17 16 3 247 GACTTCATG gtaagaccctcaacctctgt 18 17 1 273 AGATCCGGG gtgaggaaaagccagaggtt 19 18 2 114 GAATGGCAG gtaagaatagaggcgggtgg 20 19 3 473 CTCAAACAG gtgaggagaagccctgcagc 21 20 3 348 CTCAACCAG gtcaaagggaacaaagggag 22 21 3 209 ACCAACACG gtgaggggagaaactgatga 23 22 3 202 CAGTATTTG gtgaggagaccaatctagct 24 23 3 155 GGCAAGGAG gtgatgagatccaaatgtgc 25 24 2 234 AATGGAAAA gtgcgtatatggccccagtg 26 3' border: 1 NA 232 ctcactttttgcatccgcag AGCCTCCAA 27 2 3 ~600 ctttcttccttgctggacag ATCCATCTG 28 3 1 ~1500 gatctctgttctccttccag TTCTGGATG 29 4 1 150 ttttctttcctcccccacag CCTCCCAGG 30 5 1 733 tgcttgcctccctcaaatag GTCTGGAGA 31 6 3 164 cactgctgatcccctcccag GTTCGAGCA 32 7 2 246 tttttgttttctgtcctcag GACTCATCT 33 8 2 ~626 cctccatttctcctcgacag TGTTCTACA 34 9 1 * cctgccttatccctcacaag AATCCTCAA 35 10 2 ~2200* acccaaaccctcacttccag GCTATGGTT 36 11 3 127 gtaaccttgtctgactgtag TTGATTCTG 37 12 3 ~594 tttttgtgtttctctcacag ACTGTGTAC 38 13 3 254 aacagtacttatctcctcag GTGGACTTT 39 14 1 145 cctgtcttccaccctcgtag AAAAGCGAA 40 15 3 ~267 ctcctctttactctccccag ATTGGCTTC 41 16 3 247 ctttgaacccctgtacccag TTTCTCTCA 42 17 1 273 ccttcctcacccactcccag ACCAGGAGA 43 18 2 114 tgcctctccgcccactgcag ACATCCTCT 44 19 3 473 ctgtctccttccctattcag GTAGGCTTG 45 20 3 348 gtccaccttatacccagcag GTGGCGAAA 46 21 3 209 aacctctgccctctttgcag GTGGATGGG 47 22 3 202 gtcttttattctcttttaag ACCATGGAG 48 23 3 155 caccttcttgcttgtcctag GTCTCAGAT 49 24 2 234 cgattttctctcttcttcag TTGCCAGAC 50
There are 25 exons in the human gene. Their sizes (in bp) are as follows:
1. 2212. 1603. 1244. 815. 636. 1227. 1108. 369. 8310. 4611. 13912. 6313. 12914. 7315. 11016. 8117. 8818. 19019. 12720. 15021. 7522. 14423. 13824. 7425. 254
The estimated size of the hMSH5 gene is 12,974 bp.
Cloning and Characterization of the Mouse MSH5
The original segment of the mouse MSH5 gene was obtained by genomic PCR using primers DFCI 24781 (SEQ ID NO:101) (CCAGAACTCTCTGGAGAAGC) and DFCI 24931 (SEQ ID NO:102)(GTGCTGTGGAATTCAGGATAC), based on the human cDNA sequence. The sequence of the mouse genomic PCR product was determined from the same primers. The resulting 76 bp sequence exhibited three nucleotide substitutions relative to the human sequence. The nucleotide substitutions were conservative (none was predicted to alter the amino acid sequence of the mouse protein relative to the human protein). The original genomic PCR product corresponds to bp 213-330 of the attached mouse cDNA. The 5' end of the cDNA was then cloned by 5' RACE, using this sequence as a starting point. The 3' end was cloned by RTPCR using primers DFCI NJW100 (SEQ ID NO:103) (CTCCACTATCCACTTCATGCCAGATGC) and DFCI 23924 (SEQ ID NO. 104) (GCTGGGGAGGACACTGGAAGGACTCTCA) after 3' RACE products generated with DFCI NJW100 proved refractory to cloning.
The mMSH5 genomic locus was cloned by screening a P1 mouse embryonic stem cell genomic DNA library by PCR using primers DFCI 24781 (SEQ ID NO:101) (CCAGAACTCTCTGGAGAAGC) and DFCI 24931 (SEQ ID NO:102) (GTGCTGTGGAATTCAGGATAC).
Several intron-exon junctions of mMSH5 were determined by sequencing of these clones using primers derived from the mMSH5 cDNA sequence. MMSH5 intronic sequences generated to date are set forth below.
The chromosomal location of mMSH5 has not been experimentally determined. However, based on comparative mapping data for human and mouse chromosomes, we predict that mMSH5 is located on mouse chromosome 17 in the syntenic region containing the murine homologues of C2, C4, Tnfα and HLA.B, which flank, or are closely associated with, the hMSH5 locus in 6p21.3.
The mMSH5 cDNA Sequence
TABLE-US-00004 (SEQ ID NO:53) GGCTTGGGGCGGTTGGTCAGGGAGGTGGATCGTCGCGGCTGAGAGTCGCC GAGCCCATGGCTTTCAGAGCGACCCCAGGCCGGACGCCGCCGGGACCCGG ACCCAGATCCGGAATCCCCTCAGCCAGCTTCCCCAGCCCTCAGCCCCCAA TGGCGGGGCCTGGAGGTATCGAGGAAGAGGACGAGGAGGAGCCCGCCGAG ATCCATCTGTGCGTGCTGTGGAGCTCGGGATACCTGGGCATTGCTTACTA TGACACTAGTGACTCCACTATCCACTTCATGCCAGATGCCCCAGACCACG AGAGCCTAAAGCTTCTCCAGAGAGTTCTGGATGAAATCAACCCCCAGTCT GTTGTCACAAGTGCCAAACAGGATGAGGCTATGACTCGATTTCTAGGGAA GCTTGCCTCTGAGGAGCACAGAGAGCCAAAGGGACCTGAAATCATACTTC TGCCAAGCGTGGATTTTGGTCCAGAGATAAGCAAACAGCGTCTCCTTTCC GGAAACTACTCCTTCATCTCAGACTCCATGACTGCTACTGAGAAAATCCT TTTCCTCTCCTCCATTATTCCCTTTGACTGTGTCCTCACGGTCCGGGCAC TTGGAGGACTGCTCAAGTTCCTGAGTCGAAGAAGAATTGGGGTTGAACTG GAAGACTATGATGTTGGCGTCCCTATCCTGGGATTCAAGAAGTTTGTATT GACCCATCTGGTGAGCATAGATCAAGACACTTACAGCGTTCTACAGATTT TCAAGAGTGAGTCTCACCCCTCGGTGTACAAAGTAGCCAGTGGGCTGAAG GAGGGGCTCAGCCTTTTTGGAATCCTCAACAGATGCCGCTGTAAGTGGGG ACAGAAGCTGCTCAGGCTGTGGTTTACACGTCCAACCCGGGAGCTAAGGG AACTCAATTCCCGACTGGATGTCATTCAGTTCTTCCTGATGCCTCAGAAC CTGGACATGGCCCAGATGCTGCACCGACTCCTGAGCCACATCAAGAATGT GCCTCTGATTCTGAAACGCATGAAGTTGTCCCACACCAAGGTCAGTGACT GGCAGGTCCTCTACAAGACTGTGTACAGTGCTCTCGGCCTGAGGGATGCC TGCCGTTCTCTGCCACAGTCCATCCAGCTTTTTCAGGACATTGCCCAGGA GTTCTCTGACGACCTGCATCACATTGCCAGCCTCATCGGGAAGGTGGTGG ACTTTGAGGAAAGTCTTGCTGAAAATCGCTTCACAGTCCTCCCTAACATA GACCCTGACATAGATGCCAAGAAGCGAAGGCTGATAGGGCTTCCGAGCTT CCTCACTGAAGTTGCTCAGAAGGAGCTGGAGAACCTGGACTCTCGCATCC CCTCATGCAGTGTCATCTACATCCCTCTGATTGGCTTCCTTCTTTCCATT CCCCGCTTGCCTTTCATGGTGGAAGCTAGTGACTTTGAGATTGAGGGGCT GGACTTCATGTTTCTCTCAGAGGACAAGCTGCACTATCGTAGCGCCCGGA cCAAGGAGCTGGACACGCTGCTGGGAGACCTGCACTGTGAGATCCGGGAC CAGGAGACTCTGTTGATGTACCAGCTGCAGTGCCAGGTGCTGGCACGGGC TTCGGTCTTGACTCGGGTATTGGACCTTGCCTCCCGCCTGGACGTCTTGT TGGCTCTTGCCAGTGCTGCCCGGGACTACGGCTATTCGAGACCGCATTAC TCTCCCTGTATCCATGGAGTACGAATCAGGAATGGCAGGCATCCTCTGAT GGAACTGTGTGCACGAACCTTCGTGCCCAACTCCACGGACTGTGGTGGGG ACCAGGGCAGGGTCAAAGTCATCACTGGACCCAACTCCTCAGGGAAAAGC ATATATCTCAAGCAGGTAGGCTTGATCACTTTCATGGCCCTGGTGGGCAG TTTCGTGCCTGCAGAGGAGGCCGAGATTGGGGTAATCGACGCCATCTTCA CTCGAATTCACAGCTGCGAATCCATCTCCCTCGGCCTcTCCACCTTCATG ATTGATCTCAACCAGGTGGCGAAAGCAGTGAACAATGCCACAGAGCACTC GCTGGTCCTGATCGATGAATTCGGGAAGGGGACCAACTCGGTGGATGGCC TGGCACTTCTGGCTGCTGTGCTCCGTCACTGGCTTGCACTGGGACCCAGC TGCCCCCACGTCTTTGTAGCCACCAACTTCCTGAGCCTTGTTCAGCTGCA GCTGCTGCCGCAAGGACCCCTGGTGCAGTATTTGACCATGGAGACTTGTG AGGATGGGGAAGACCTTGTCTTCTTCTACCAGCTTTGCCAAGGCGTCGCC AGTGCCAGCCACGCCTCCCACACAGCGGCCCAGGCTGGGCTTCCTGACCC ACTCATTGCTCGTGGCAAAGAGGTCTCAGACTTGATCCGCAGTGGGAAAC CCATCAAGGCCACGAATGAGCTTCTAAGGAGAAACCAAATGGAAAACTGC CAGGCACTGGTGGATAAGTTTCTAAAACTGGACTTGGAGGATCCCACCCT GGACCTGGACATTTTCATTAGTCAGGAAGTGCTGCCCGCTGCTCCCACCA TCCTCTGAGAGTCCTTCCAGTGTCCT
The translational start is base 57 (A of ATG). The translational stop is base 2556 (T of TGA). The 5' UTR is suspected of being artifactually truncated due to premature termination of reverse transcription. The 3' UTR incomplete because of the cloning strategy used.
The mMSH5 Predicted Amino Acid Sequence
TABLE-US-00005 (SEQ ID NO:54) MAFRATPGRTPPGPGPRSGIPSASFPSPQPPMAGPGGIEEEDEEEPAEIH LCVLWSSGYLGIAYYDTSDSTIHFMPDAPDHESLKLLQRVLDEINPQSVV TSAKQDEAMTRFLGKLASEEHREPKGPEIILLPSVDFGPEISKQRLLSGN YSFISDSMTATEKILFLSSIIPFDCVLTVRALGGLLKFLSRRRIGVELED YDVGVPILGFKKFVLTHLVSIDQDTYSVLQIFKSESHPSVYKVASGLKEG LSLFGILNRCRCKWGQKLLRLWFTRPTRELRELNSRLDVIQFFLMPQNLD MAQMLHRLLSHIKNVPLILKRMKLSHTKVSDWQVLYKTVYSALGLRDACR SLPQSIQLFQDIAQEFSDDLHHIASLIGKVVDFEESLAENRFTVLPNIDP DIDAKKRRLIGLPSFLTEVAQKELENLDSRIPSCSVIYIPLIGFLLSIPR LPFMVEASDFEIEGLDFMFLSEDKLHYRSARTKELDTLLGDLHCEIRDQE TLLMYQLQCQVLARASVLTRVLDLASRLDVLLALASAARDYGYSRPHYSP CIHGVRIRNGRHPLMELCARTFVPNSTDCGGDQGRVKVITGPNSSGKSIY LKQVGLITFMALVGSFVPAEEAEIGVIDAIFTRIHSCESISLGLSTFMID LNQVAKAVNNATEHSLVLIDEFGKGTNSVDGLALLAAVLRHWLALGPSCP HVFVATNFLSLVQLQLLPQGPLVQYLTMETCEDGEDLVFFYQLCQGVASA SHASHTAAQAGLPDPLIARGKEVSDLIRSGKPIKATNELLRRNQMENCQA LVDKFLKLDLEDPTLDLDIFISQEVLPAAPTIL
Sequences of the hMSH5 Introns
Consensus splice donor and acceptor sequences are in bold. Where the complete intronic sequence is unknown, paired slashes in bold (//) indicate the position of the sequence gap.
TABLE-US-00006 Intron 1: (SEQ ID NO:55) gtaacctccgcgtgacagaatgagggtggggcgcgtggagtttcccacaa tctgtactttagttaaatacccgagaattcacctcctgtgtccacagctc tccacgcccctcagccctgccccgcagccctgtatcagaagtacttagcg ctttgcattctgcgcgccaccctaccccggcctcctctgtgaatcgttgc ttccgaaccgccctcactttttgcatccgcag Intron 2: (SEQ ID NO:56) gtctctgaggggagtagaaacttgaatggagagttgatgggaatttaaaa taaaagagggttgggagccggg// (SEQ ID NO:57) aaaaaaaaacagggttgggaagagctgggcaagtctcttacctcctgagt ggctgtttcacattcactaaatgggggtgatgatgcctatctcagagatt tgagaaaatgattaaattatataagacatggtaaaccctacacttatgag tgattctaatagtgatttcctttcttccttgctggacag Intron 3: (SEQ ID NO:58) gtggggatggaaccatgaattcctctgctctctgggattgcagatgtgtt acacacacacacacacacacacacacacacacacacatattttttttttc tagacagagtcttgctctgttacccaggctcaagtgcagtggcgcaatct tggctcactgcagcctccacctcctgggttcaagcaattctcctgactca acctcccgagtagctgggactacaggcgtgtgccaccacacccagctagt tttttgtgtgtgtttttagcacagacggtgtttcaccatgttggccaggg tggtctcaaactcctgaccttgtgatccgcccaccttggcctcctaaagt gctgggactacaggtgtgagtcaccacgcccagccatgttttacttacat taactcacctcactgtctagcatattttgtgttgctgtaaggaaatac// (SEQ ID NO:59) ggcgacaaatatatatgacgtatttacaatgtttcaggtgcttcagattc agccctgggcaaatcagtcatgtctgttctccaggggtttacagcctagt gacaacatccagaacatcccacttccctctcaccatcccaccactcttaa ctacttttctaaatctcaacttctacctgtgttcccactgtgcagagcac tccctactcctagggaggaaatgtttttgagaaggagaggggtaggaaga ggagggctatgggttttctcttagtcaaagacaaagatcctttaactcat ttgatctctgttctccttccaag Intron 4: (SEQ ID NO:60) gtaaggacttggtaaaggatagagggaaaatggggaaggactaatatatg gaatattccagggggctagaattgggtgagagggagtgtcagacagaggt agaaggactgagatgtaaagaatgatagccttttctttcctcccccacag Intron 5: (SEQ ID NO:61) gtatctccttccttttgctttgcctaactccctgttccggtgtcccattc tttcccccaactctaccttcatcatcacagatctcccctctgccttatgt catcctaaacctttgtgctcctcatgccctatgacctgtccccccaagat ctctcctgctccctaccctttaataatctgcagcttattgggaagcctct gcttaagtcatgtctagggatgagggcctcccctgaggagtggtgacact ttttggacagggttttattgttggaattctccccattaagttaaagcctt ttatcaccaaaccaaaaggcactgcctcagtgacccttattatgatccat aaggcacttctataactttcctaggtttacaataagaacaggagtgtact atcctaattagatattaaggcattagtgttactagttctattaataccat tattttgaccaaaatcctcaattccagacagatgtctactttcctcagcc atttatctttctcaggctgtgctttcagacaagtatctttatattatatg tagaataaaaagagaattagactaagagtctgaaaatttggttcttgctc tagctttccattaactgcctgtgtgagcttgggcaagtcaaataatctct cttgcttctattgtctcattcttaaaatggggtgaaaaaattgagctaca agaccgttccctttgcttgcctccctcaaatag Intron 6: (SEQ ID NO:62) gtgagattggtcctgggggataagggctgggaggcggcacaagtgctagg gctgaattctgggaggtactggcctagccctggaaaatagtaactttccc tggtgctctgcagcccccaggagatttaagatttaccccgattccactgc tgatcccctcccag Intron 7: (SEQ ID NO:63) gtaggtgattcaccccaaccccaaccaaagtaatgtgggattgggaggcc tgaaaagtaaagtgggggtggggtgtggatgtggctgtgacccagtgggt caagggctctaggacacccgggagaatctaagggctaatgagactttggg aagaagactgggacaatattcagagagggggacaaaggaagtggagttgt ggaacgaactcagactgcttcctgcttttttgttttctgtcctcag Intron 8: (SEQ ID NO:64) gtaaagaggtggaggcatgctgctgtctctggggagggagaaggattaag tttaatgccccaataatcctaatgaggctctagtttccctaatcctgggg ctattaagatctctctccttgaaggaaagggaaggggggttttgagggaa agagaggaagaaaagcataaagatactagctttcttttctatagggagaa actgaggcaaagaaaagtaagggacaaaccttacatcaagatatgatctc ggctgggcgcggtggctcatgcctgtaatccccgcgctttgggaggccaa ggcgggtggatcgcctgaggtcaggagtttgagacctgaccaatatggta aaaccccgtctctactaaaaatataaaaattagctgggtgtgttgtgcgc ctgtaatccca// (SEQ ID NO:65) tttttttttaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaagacgtgatctcaggaggatatccc ctgtccccattccatttatcagtcctcaattcttattcccctcaaaagtc caagttaccccaaactcctccatttctcctcgacag Intron 9: (SEQ ID NO:66) gtaggtgtgccccatccctcatctcacgtacaaagacctaccagaaaagc aattggctccaaagatgtgtcccagcctcccttcccacttcactcccatt gtcagatatctctttcatgccaatccaaatttcttacctatttgtacccc ccgccccccaagcttgagcatcttcccatactttgtggctgtacagtgtg ttgcatatcagccattactttaccaattctgtgttccttccctgggtttg tatgaatgtttctactagttgggtacctgttagggactttgggagacctt gtgtatagagaagagttttgtaactgcataactgcctatttgatttgtat agag// (SEQ ID NO:67) ccaggagtagagggagagacagaaacagccaacaatggcccagaaaatgg atgatatattagataagggaagaaatgagttaccagattggggagagatg gtttggatgtcaaagcaggtgatcggtgacgtcagcgtccgagggaagac ggctgccaccggcggggccagttgagggaactaggtagttaagtgttgtc gggctaaaagtccctagagtgtccatccctcccccatctccatgtgcggt aatcccagctcatttaggggccaggcaccaactttggttgcctttgtgcc ctcccaggccagcttcctcaacaaccagcacctctgactggatgcctcag gttagacacataaacacattccattgccctgtccgtgccttgtaacaagt tcactccctgccttatccctcacaag Intron 10: (SEQ ID NO:68) gtgagtgggtcccacacatactacacactaatgcatgaattccatatgca cactacatactaagcctactaatggcagtatacagattctcacatacacc accccacctagtagtagtaaagcaactgccctttactgagcactggctaa ctgcatttcatccttataacagctttgtgtagtagctgatatgcatctca ttttttgttgtcagcgcaggtacacatatacattgatgatacacagactt gcacacatacagcagcaggaaaaaacacaaaatgtaaggccgggcacagt ggctcacacctgttatcagcactttggggggccaacgctgggtgaccttc catctttg// (SEQ ID NO:69) cacaggaagaatatgaaaagatgaatgtctgttgctgttacccagagaca ctttcacagctaaaaagacatacaaactcatactgactcaccgtctctta ctcagcctcagagtgagctgcagtgttggcacacaaatacctcaacacac tgctctccttctaaaatattgacaagctccgttacttatatacatggaat gacacacggtcttatccgttgaaactgtgatatgtagacacaattatgct cacatctagcaattttcagtagatacatgtaaacacacctgaatgggtag gacactgcacttgccactacattcccatagcacatcgtggatacatattg ccacaatccccagggactgcaagcacactttttggcaaactgagatcaag atgatagatgtaacttgtagtacccccacccaaaccctcacttccag Intron 11: (SEQ ID NO:70) gtgagcccagggtggagggcagggaggtggggaaggaggttgagggctga tactgggcagtgggcttcttgaggggcattagagtgagggaagagaaaac agcggctgtaaccttgtctgactgtag Intron 12: (SEQ ID NO:71) gtaaggccttccttcttgaatcccaaaa// (SEQ ID NO:72) tacaggcatgagccactgtgcctggccaggaccatatcttaattgtcttt gtagtttcagtgtttggtacagtgcctctcactgtttctttttgcctttg agatcttccctctttgttactgtgatcttccctactggtctttgttcttc tgagtctgtccctatcaccacctcaacccgagctggatgtggcctgtcct cctttttgtgtttctctcacag Intron 13: (SEQ ID NO:73)
gtgagtagaaggaaaaagggagtgcacccagggaggtcagggagagagaa tgcagtgtgcaagatggggaaacatggaagatattgaggtcaattggata aagaatgggatggtgggaggaggcagcagaacttcagggaagtatctgga gggtgagagttaaaggaggactgcagggagaattggggcccaaggagagc tgaggaacaggacagagggtgccaggtcctaagaaacagtacttatctcc tcag Intron 14: (SEQ ID NO:74) gtgagtgttgggtgtggatgggcctgtgagccctgcgcagtgatggagta ccatccttggcaggtggtcaccacagctggggatcttcatagcaaccagg gcaggagactcacttttgataaccacctgtcttccaccctcgtag Intron 15: (SEQ ID NO:75) gtgagggcaggagagtgggtgtagccttcagatgtcttttgggggagata ttaggcttatgaaagacatactggtagataagaaaacttgtggggc// (SEQ ID NO:76) atcttttaagctcccttgggatggggaggttccagtaagtctccaaacaa gagagtagagtatctcctctttactctccccag Intron 16: (SEQ ID NO:77) gtaagaccctcaacctctgtaaggtgagtgatgaggaaaatgagtcagca gctgaggaagagcgttactctacagcagcactgcccaatatgggatctct cctctgtagttttactctgagctttaccagcactgagacaaaggaaagag aagtcagagttaggggctggaggtggggttagaaagatggggaaggagag gaggaccaagagatgcaaagtccacagctttgaacccctgtacccag Intron 17: (SEQ ID NO:78) gtgaggaaaagccagaggttatatgcattgtaagatgtttaaaaaaagca gcagccaggggaaggaggggagtgggcaacttggggatgcttccaacagg cccctcctcttcctgctctctgtctcgctcactctgactctatcttttcc tctgaatgtcttgaggtctcagattgtatctgcaacctgtttccagatcc ccctaggggcctctgcctctccttcactttcccctggaactgacctccag ctcccttcctcacccactcccag Intron 18: (SEQ ID NO:79) gtaagaatagaggcgggtggaggaatacacatgaggggcccaaaggctac atcttctgggggttcatctatcttgatccacaagccatgcgaggtgcctc tccgcccactgcag Intron 19: (SEQ ID NO:80) gtgaggagaagccctgcagcctgggcctctggcgtctcctgcatctactc cacccctacttgccagccaactcaggctcctgcagctcttctcccatttt ctgaccccgctcttcatgaaaggaccatcacccacatccctgtgcttcca cctcacatgttcttattctccactggagagccatgctctaatggaacttt ccgtggcccaaattccttcacctgcctctgagtaggtacacaccactccc aagtatgtctctgcccacgtcccgtgcctcttcactgattctaaattagc ccacagggctatggtcaggattcggggaggagagacagagtcagtgtgtc tgttacctatttctcctgtttcaccctgtccatttctctttgatgtgcca ttcatgccttgagcctcactttcacctcagcccacggcaccaggccccag gccctgtctccttccctattcag Intron 20: (SEQ ID NO:81) gtcaaagggaacaaagggaggtgggattgaggaaggggataatgggaaag gaacccctgaaaatgctcataacaggaaagcatgccctctgctgcatgcc ctttatactaaaagtggggagcactaaggtcagagataagaagaatcaat accataaacatttcttgaacccttgtttcatgtgagtcactgttggcaaa gaggatgaacaaagcgtgcacctcaccattcaagaacttgcagtgcagta gggagggcatgtatacagctttattcacaggccaactgtggtcagtgcgt tacgggcttccaatactaacttccccttgtccaccttatacccagcag Intron 21: (SEQ ID NO:82) gtgaggggagaaactgatgaggggagaaactaaggaggggaaaatggagg aggatgaaggagcatgacagtgaggctgggcctctggaatggaatagggc tgtgtgggcagaaaagaaatagaacacgagacagggaaaggcagtgcaag tgcagaggggcatatggggtccccatggctccgaatgctaacctctgccc tctttgcag Intron 22: (SEQ ID NO:83) gtgaggagaccaatctagctcctcggggacccccaggctgggcatttccc agaggtggggattggctcctctatcagaacaagggctccctcagcacaga gaccacatcccttcccttttctccctccccacaggattggccaagggttt caggacaggaaggaggtgattgatgatacactgtcttttattctctttta ag Intron 23: (SEQ ID NO:84) gtgatgagatccaaatgtgcaaccacctccacatcagagctccctttcat tcctagtcctactgggcctgggtctaggtccacaggatttctgaccctta tttccccttctcttccccactccccttactcctcccaccttcttgcttgt cctag Intron 24: (SEQ ID NO:85) gtgcgtatatggccccagtgtctttaccctctctgcatcttctcctgcaa ctcttctcccccctccagcactttgcccttcagaaacccaccatttcttt ctgaaatccctaaatcttcaagatcccaggttttctgtgccacagcctct cccctctgcccagggatttggttgtccattctgccataaatcttgcgatt ttctctcttcttcag
Sequences of the mMSH5 Intron-Exon Junctions
The coding sequence (end of exon adjacent to each border) is in capitals and the intronic sequence is lowercase. Consensus splice donor and acceptor sequences are in bold. Phase indicates border phase, which means that the border falls after the indicated base of a codon. For example, given a methionine (ATG) codon: phase of 1 means the border falls between A and T, phase of 2 means the border falls between T and G, while phase of 3 means the border follows the codon.
TABLE-US-00007 INTRON length SEQ ID # phase (bp) No: 5' border: 10 2 79 GCTGCTCAG gtatacagtaccacgctccc 86 17 1 135 AGATCCGGG gtgaggagcccgtggtagga 87 18 2 79 GAATGGCAG gtgagaaggggccccatgtc 88 19 3 389 CTCAAGCAG gtgaggggccgccaagctgg 89 21 3 180 ACCAACTCG gtgcggaggaaaatgaagag 90 3' border: 10 2 79 ttcccatcccaaccctccag GCTGTGGTT 91 17 1 135 ctctctctctccttctccag ACCAGGAGA 92 18 2 79 tgtctctctacccaccacag GCATCCTCT 93 19 3 389 tctcccctgccctggcccag GTAGGCTTG 94 21 3 180 tcacctctgccctttgacag GTGGATGGC 95
Sequences of the mMSH5 Introns
Consensus splice donor and acceptor sequences are in bold.
TABLE-US-00008 Intron 10: (SEQ ID NO:96) gtatacagtaccacgctccccaagcaaagtcaagatgagagaagacgtga cttgtaaccttcccatcccaaccctccag Intron 17: (SEQ ID NO:97) gtgaggagcccgtggtaggagggggcaggctgctctaacagaccctgctc tcatgctggcccctctgcatggtcacactgcatctgcatgcctgcttcca gatctttccaggcacctctctctctccttctccag Intron 18: (SEQ ID NO:98) gtgagaaggggccccatgtcctgctgtggggatcctccctgggtccacaa accatgcagtgtctctctacccaccacag Intron 19: (SEQ ID NO:99) gtgaggggccgccaagctgggggcccacatctccatctcctctggccgcc aggccagatcctctgcccccccccacacacacatacagcacatgtccttg tcctctgagggacagtctgttctttaggatagacctttccgtggccacaa gtccctggaccaacctccaaatagatccatgccgttccctagtatgcctt tacccacaaccttgactctggagttaattgtgaagtcaggacccaggaaa ctgtgttccagggctctgttcttctgttacactgtgtcctctctttaatc tgtcgttcatgtctttagttgagacccatttttactttgcccatagtacg gcaacaggcccatgttctgtctcccctgccctggcccag Intron 21: (SEQ ID NO:100) gtgcggaggaaaatgaagagatgctaaggaggggggatggaggaaaatga gaaccgggagcaggagactgacctcagggaagaaaagggggatgcgtgca cagaggggaggagaagccatgacagctacagaaggacacagctgtcctgg ttctgccctctcacctctgccctttgacag
All references mentioned herein are hereby incorporated by reference.
It is evident that those skilled in the art given the benefit of the foregoing disclosure may make numerous other uses and modifications thereof and departures from the specific embodiments described herein without departing from the inventive concepts, and the present invention is to be limited solely by the scope and spirit of the appended claims.
10412900DNAHuman 1cgctcctttt gcaggctcgt ggcggtcggt cagcggggcg ttctcccacc tgtagcgact 60caggttactg aaaaggcggg aaaacgctgc gatggcggca gctgggggag gaggaagata 120agcgcgtgag gctggggtcc tggcgcgtgg ttggcagagg cagagacata agacgtgcac 180gactcgcccc acagggcctt cagacccctt ctttccaaag gagcctccaa gctcatggcc 240tccttaggag cgaacccaag gaggacaccg cagggaccga gacctggggc ggcctcctcc 300ggtttcccca gcccggcccc agtgccgggc cccagggagg ccgaggagga ggaagtcgag 360gaggaggagg agctggccga gatccatctg tgtgtgctgt ggaattcagg atacttgggc 420attgcctact atgatactag tgactccact atccacttca tgccagatgc cccagaccac 480gagagcctca agcttctcca gagagttctg gatgagatca atccccagtc tgttgttacg 540agtgccaaac aggatgagaa tatgactcga tttctgggaa agcttgcctc ccaggagcac 600agagagccta aaagacctga aatcatattt ttgccaagtg tggattttgg tctggagata 660agcaaacaac gcctcctttc tggaaactac tccttcatcc cagacgccat gactgccact 720gagaaaatcc tcttcctctc ttccattatt ccctttgact gcctcctcac agttcgagca 780cttggagggc tgctgaagtt cctgggtcga agaagaatcg gggttgaact ggaagactat 840aatgtcagcg tccccatcct gggctttaag aaatttatgt tgactcatct ggtgaacata 900gatcaagaca cttacagtgt tctacagatt tttaagagtg agtctcaccc ctcagtgtac 960aaagtggcca gtggactgaa ggaggggctc agcctctttg gaatcctcaa cagatgccac 1020tgtaagtggg gagagaagct gctcaggcta tggttcacac gtccgactca tgacctgggg 1080gagctcagtt ctcgtctgga cgtcattcag ttttttctgc tgccccagaa tctggacatg 1140gctcagatgc tgcatcggct cctgggtcac atcaagaacg tgcctttgat tctgaaacgc 1200atgaagttgt cccacaccaa ggtcagcgac tggcaggttc tctacaagac tgtgtacagt 1260gccctgggcc tgagggatgc ctgccgctcc ctgccgcagt ccatccagct ctttcgggac 1320attgcccaag agttctctga tgacctgcac catatcgcca gcctcattgg gaaagtagtg 1380gactttgagg gcagccttgc tgaaaatcgc ttcacagtcc tccccaacat agatcctgaa 1440attgatgaga aaaagcgaag actgatggga cttcccagtt tccttactga ggttgcccgc 1500aaggagctgg agaatctgga ctcccgtatt ccttcatgca gtgtcatcta catccctctg 1560attggcttcc ttctttctat tccccgcctg ccttccatgg tagaggccag tgactttgag 1620attaatggac tggacttcat gtttctctca gaggagaagc tgcactatcg tagtgcccga 1680accaaggagc tggatgcatt gctgggggac ctgcactgcg agatccggga ccaggagacg 1740ctgctgatgt accagctaca gtgccaggtg ctggcacgag cagctgtctt aacccgagta 1800ttggaccttg cctcccgcct ggacgtcctg ctggctcttg ccagtgctgc ccgggactat 1860ggctactcaa ggccgcgtta ctccccacaa gtccttgggg tacgaatcca gaatggcaga 1920catcctctga tggaactctg tgcccgaacc tttgtgccca actccacaga atgtggtggg 1980gacaaaggga gggtcaaagt catcactgga cccaactcat cagggaagag catatacctc 2040aaacaggtag gcttgatcac attcatggcc ctggtaggca gctttgtgcc agcagaggag 2100gccgaaattg gggcagtaga cgccatcttc acacgaattc atagctgcga atccatctcc 2160cttggcctct ccaccttcat gatcgacctc aaccaggtgg cgaaagcagt gaacaatgcc 2220actgcacagt cgctggtcct tattgatgaa tttggaaagg gaaccaacac ggtggatggg 2280ctcgcgcttc tggccgctgt gctccgacac tggctggcac gtggacccac atgcccccac 2340atctttgtgg ccaccaactt tctgagcctt gttcagctac aactgctgcc acaagggccc 2400ctggtgcagt atttgaccat ggagacctgt gaggatggca acgatcttgt cttcttctat 2460caggtttgcg aaggtgttgc gaaggccagc catgcctccc acacagctgc ccaggctggg 2520cttcctgaca agcttgtggc tcgtggcaag gaggtctcag atttgatccg cagtggaaaa 2580cccatcaagc ctgtcaagga tttgctaaag aagaaccaaa tggaaaattg ccagacatta 2640gtggataagt ttatgaaact ggatttggaa gatcctaacc tggacttgaa cgttttcatg 2700agccaggaag tgctgcctgc tgccaccagc atcctctgag agtccttcca gtgtcctccc 2760cagcctcctg agactccggt gggctgccat gccctctttg tttccttatc tccctcagac 2820gcagagtttt tagtttctct agaaattttg tttcatatta ggaataaagt ttattttgaa 2880gaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa 29002834PRTHuman 2Met Ala Ser Leu Gly Ala Asn Pro Arg Arg Thr Pro Gln Gly Pro Arg1 5 10 15Pro Gly Ala Ala Ser Ser Gly Phe Pro Ser Pro Ala Pro Val Pro Gly20 25 30Pro Arg Glu Ala Glu Glu Glu Glu Val Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Leu Ala35 40 45Glu Ile His Leu Cys Val Leu Trp Asn Ser Gly Tyr Leu Gly Ile Ala50 55 60Tyr Tyr Asp Thr Ser Asp Ser Thr Ile His Phe Met Pro Asp Ala Pro65 70 75 80Asp His Glu Ser Leu Lys Leu Leu Gln Arg Val Leu Asp Glu Ile Asn85 90 95Pro Gln Ser Val Val Thr Ser Ala Lys Gln Asp Glu Asn Met Thr Arg100 105 110Phe Leu Gly Lys Leu Ala Ser Gln Glu His Arg Glu Pro Lys Arg Pro115 120 125Glu Ile Ile Phe Leu Pro Ser Val Asp Phe Gly Leu Glu Ile Ser Lys130 135 140Gln Arg Leu Leu Ser Gly Asn Tyr Ser Phe Ile Pro Asp Ala Met Thr145 150 155 160Ala Thr Glu Lys Ile Leu Phe Leu Ser Ser Ile Ile Pro Phe Asp Cys165 170 175Leu Leu Thr Val Arg Ala Leu Gly Gly Leu Leu Lys Phe Leu Gly Arg180 185 190Arg Arg Ile Gly Val Glu Leu Glu Asp Tyr Asn Val Ser Val Pro Ile195 200 205Leu Gly Phe Lys Lys Phe Met Leu Thr His Leu Val Asn Ile Asp Gln210 215 220Asp Thr Tyr Ser Val Leu Gln Ile Phe Lys Ser Glu Ser His Pro Ser225 230 235 240Val Tyr Lys Val Ala Ser Gly Leu Lys Glu Gly Leu Ser Leu Phe Gly245 250 255Ile Leu Asn Arg Cys His Cys Lys Trp Gly Glu Lys Leu Leu Arg Leu260 265 270Trp Phe Thr Arg Pro Thr His Asp Leu Gly Glu Leu Ser Ser Arg Leu275 280 285Asp Val Ile Gln Phe Phe Leu Leu Pro Gln Asn Leu Asp Met Ala Gln290 295 300Met Leu His Arg Leu Leu Gly His Ile Lys Asn Val Pro Leu Ile Leu305 310 315 320Lys Arg Met Lys Leu Ser His Thr Lys Val Ser Asp Trp Gln Val Leu325 330 335Tyr Lys Thr Val Tyr Ser Ala Leu Gly Leu Arg Asp Ala Cys Arg Ser340 345 350Leu Pro Gln Ser Ile Gln Leu Phe Arg Asp Ile Ala Gln Glu Phe Ser355 360 365Asp Asp Leu His His Ile Ala Ser Leu Ile Gly Lys Val Val Asp Phe370 375 380Glu Gly Ser Leu Ala Glu Asn Arg Phe Thr Val Leu Pro Asn Ile Asp385 390 395 400Pro Glu Ile Asp Glu Lys Lys Arg Arg Leu Met Gly Leu Pro Ser Phe405 410 415Leu Thr Glu Val Ala Arg Lys Glu Leu Glu Asn Leu Asp Ser Arg Ile420 425 430Pro Ser Cys Ser Val Ile Tyr Ile Pro Leu Ile Gly Phe Leu Leu Ser435 440 445Ile Pro Arg Leu Pro Ser Met Val Glu Ala Ser Asp Phe Glu Ile Asn450 455 460Gly Leu Asp Phe Met Phe Leu Ser Glu Glu Lys Leu His Tyr Arg Ser465 470 475 480Ala Arg Thr Lys Glu Leu Asp Ala Leu Leu Gly Asp Leu His Cys Glu485 490 495Ile Arg Asp Gln Glu Thr Leu Leu Met Tyr Gln Leu Gln Cys Gln Val500 505 510Leu Ala Arg Ala Ala Val Leu Thr Arg Val Leu Asp Leu Ala Ser Arg515 520 525Leu Asp Val Leu Leu Ala Leu Ala Ser Ala Ala Arg Asp Tyr Gly Tyr530 535 540Ser Arg Pro Arg Tyr Ser Pro Gln Val Leu Gly Val Arg Ile Gln Asn545 550 555 560Gly Arg His Pro Leu Met Glu Leu Cys Ala Arg Thr Phe Val Pro Asn565 570 575Ser Thr Glu Cys Gly Gly Asp Lys Gly Arg Val Lys Val Ile Thr Gly580 585 590Pro Asn Ser Ser Gly Lys Ser Ile Tyr Leu Lys Gln Val Gly Leu Ile595 600 605Thr Phe Met Ala Leu Val Gly Ser Phe Val Pro Ala Glu Glu Ala Glu610 615 620Ile Gly Ala Val Asp Ala Ile Phe Thr Arg Ile His Ser Cys Glu Ser625 630 635 640Ile Ser Leu Gly Leu Ser Thr Phe Met Ile Asp Leu Asn Gln Val Ala645 650 655Lys Ala Val Asn Asn Ala Thr Ala Gln Ser Leu Val Leu Ile Asp Glu660 665 670Phe Gly Lys Gly Thr Asn Thr Val Asp Gly Leu Ala Leu Leu Ala Ala675 680 685Val Leu Arg His Trp Leu Ala Arg Gly Pro Thr Cys Pro His Ile Phe690 695 700Val Ala Thr Asn Phe Leu Ser Leu Val Gln Leu Gln Leu Leu Pro Gln705 710 715 720Gly Pro Leu Val Gln Tyr Leu Thr Met Glu Thr Cys Glu Asp Gly Asn725 730 735Asp Leu Val Phe Phe Tyr Gln Val Cys Glu Gly Val Ala Lys Ala Ser740 745 750His Ala Ser His Thr Ala Ala Gln Ala Gly Leu Pro Asp Lys Leu Val755 760 765Ala Arg Gly Lys Glu Val Ser Asp Leu Ile Arg Ser Gly Lys Pro Ile770 775 780Lys Pro Val Lys Asp Leu Leu Lys Lys Asn Gln Met Glu Asn Cys Gln785 790 795 800Thr Leu Val Asp Lys Phe Met Lys Leu Asp Leu Glu Asp Pro Asn Leu805 810 815Asp Leu Asn Val Phe Met Ser Gln Glu Val Leu Pro Ala Ala Thr Ser820 825 830Ile Leu329DNAHuman 3ttccaaaggg taacctccgc gtgacagaa 29429DNAHuman 4ctggccgagg tctctgaggg gagtagaaa 29529DNAHuman 5tccagagagg tggggatgga accatgaat 29629DNAHuman 6gaaagcttgg taaggacttg gtaaaggat 29729DNAHuman 7tggattttgg tatctccttc cttttgctt 29829DNAHuman 8ctcctcacag tgagattggt cctggggga 29929DNAHuman 9atttatgttg taggtgattc accccaacc 291029DNAHuman 10cacttacagg taaagaggtg gaggcatgc 291129DNAHuman 11gcctctttgg taggtgtgcc ccatccctc 291229DNAHuman 12gctgctcagg tgagtgggtc ccacacata 291329DNAHuman 13aacgtgcctg tgagcccagg gtggagggc 291429DNAHuman 14ctctacaagg taaggccttc cttcttgaa 291529DNAHuman 15gggaaagtag tgagtagaag gaaaaaggg 291629DNAHuman 16ttgatgagag tgagtgttgg gtgtggatg 291729DNAHuman 17atccctctgg tgagggcagg agagtgggt 291829DNAHuman 18gacttcatgg taagaccctc aacctctgt 291929DNAHuman 19agatccgggg tgaggaaaag ccagaggtt 292029DNAHuman 20gaatggcagg taagaataga ggcgggtgg 292129DNAHuman 21ctcaaacagg tgaggagaag ccctgcagc 292229DNAHuman 22ctcaaccagg tcaaagggaa caaagggag 292329DNAHuman 23accaacacgg tgaggggaga aactgatga 292429DNAHuman 24cagtatttgg tgaggagacc aatctagct 292529DNAHuman 25ggcaaggagg tgatgagatc caaatgtgc 292629DNAHuman 26aatggaaaag tgcgtatatg gccccagtg 292729DNAHuman 27ctcacttttt gcatccgcag agcctccaa 292829DNAHuman 28ctttcttcct tgctggacag atccatctg 292929DNAHuman 29gatctctgtt ctccttccag ttctggatg 293029DNAHuman 30ttttctttcc tcccccacag cctcccagg 293129DNAHuman 31tgcttgcctc cctcaaatag gtctggaga 293229DNAHuman 32cactgctgat cccctcccag gttcgagca 293329DNAHuman 33tttttgtttt ctgtcctcag gactcatct 293429DNAHuman 34cctccatttc tcctcgacag tgttctaca 293529DNAHuman 35cctgccttat ccctcacaag aatcctcaa 293629DNAHuman 36acccaaaccc tcacttccag gctatggtt 293729DNAHuman 37gtaaccttgt ctgactgtag ttgattctg 293829DNAHuman 38tttttgtgtt tctctcacag actgtgtac 293929DNAHuman 39aacagtactt atctcctcag gtggacttt 294029DNAHuman 40cctgtcttcc accctcgtag aaaagcgaa 294129DNAHuman 41ctcctcttta ctctccccag attggcttc 294229DNAHuman 42ctttgaaccc ctgtacccag tttctctca 294329DNAHuman 43ccttcctcac ccactcccag accaggaga 294429DNAHuman 44tgcctctccg cccactgcag acatcctct 294529DNAHuman 45ctgtctcctt ccctattcag gtaggcttg 294629DNAHuman 46gtccacctta tacccagcag gtggcgaaa 294729DNAHuman 47aacctctgcc ctctttgcag gtggatggg 294829DNAHuman 48gtcttttatt ctcttttaag accatggag 294929DNAHuman 49caccttcttg cttgtcctag gtctcagat 295029DNAHuman 50cgattttctc tcttcttcag ttgccagac 295120DNAHuman 51gaatggcaga catcctctga 205222DNAHuman 52ggtatatgct cttccctgat ga 22532576DNAHuman 53ggcttggggc ggttggtcag ggaggtggat cgtcgcggct gagagtcgcc gagcccatgg 60ctttcagagc gaccccaggc cggacgccgc cgggacccgg acccagatcc ggaatcccct 120cagccagctt ccccagccct cagcccccaa tggcggggcc tggaggtatc gaggaagagg 180acgaggagga gcccgccgag atccatctgt gcgtgctgtg gagctcggga tacctgggca 240ttgcttacta tgacactagt gactccacta tccacttcat gccagatgcc ccagaccacg 300agagcctaaa gcttctccag agagttctgg atgaaatcaa cccccagtct gttgtcacaa 360gtgccaaaca ggatgaggct atgactcgat ttctagggaa gcttgcctct gaggagcaca 420gagagccaaa gggacctgaa atcatacttc tgccaagcgt ggattttggt ccagagataa 480gcaaacagcg tctcctttcc ggaaactact ccttcatctc agactccatg actgctactg 540agaaaatcct tttcctctcc tccattattc cctttgactg tgtcctcacg gtccgggcac 600ttggaggact gctcaagttc ctgagtcgaa gaagaattgg ggttgaactg gaagactatg 660atgttggcgt ccctatcctg ggattcaaga agtttgtatt gacccatctg gtgagcatag 720atcaagacac ttacagcgtt ctacagattt tcaagagtga gtctcacccc tcggtgtaca 780aagtagccag tgggctgaag gaggggctca gcctttttgg aatcctcaac agatgccgct 840gtaagtgggg acagaagctg ctcaggctgt ggtttacacg tccaacccgg gagctaaggg 900aactcaattc ccgactggat gtcattcagt tcttcctgat gcctcagaac ctggacatgg 960cccagatgct gcaccgactc ctgagccaca tcaagaatgt gcctctgatt ctgaaacgca 1020tgaagttgtc ccacaccaag gtcagtgact ggcaggtcct ctacaagact gtgtacagtg 1080ctctcggcct gagggatgcc tgccgttctc tgccacagtc catccagctt tttcaggaca 1140ttgcccagga gttctctgac gacctgcatc acattgccag cctcatcggg aaggtggtgg 1200actttgagga aagtcttgct gaaaatcgct tcacagtcct ccctaacata gaccctgaca 1260tagatgccaa gaagcgaagg ctgatagggc ttccgagctt cctcactgaa gttgctcaga 1320aggagctgga gaacctggac tctcgcatcc cctcatgcag tgtcatctac atccctctga 1380ttggcttcct tctttccatt ccccgcttgc ctttcatggt ggaagctagt gactttgaga 1440ttgaggggct ggacttcatg tttctctcag aggacaagct gcactatcgt agcgcccgga 1500ccaaggagct ggacacgctg ctgggagacc tgcactgtga gatccgggac caggagactc 1560tgttgatgta ccagctgcag tgccaggtgc tggcacgggc ttcggtcttg actcgggtat 1620tggaccttgc ctcccgcctg gacgtcttgt tggctcttgc cagtgctgcc cgggactacg 1680gctattcgag accgcattac tctccctgta tccatggagt acgaatcagg aatggcaggc 1740atcctctgat ggaactgtgt gcacgaacct tcgtgcccaa ctccacggac tgtggtgggg 1800accagggcag ggtcaaagtc atcactggac ccaactcctc agggaaaagc atatatctca 1860agcaggtagg cttgatcact ttcatggccc tggtgggcag tttcgtgcct gcagaggagg 1920ccgagattgg ggtaatcgac gccatcttca ctcgaattca cagctgcgaa tccatctccc 1980tcggcctctc caccttcatg attgatctca accaggtggc gaaagcagtg aacaatgcca 2040cagagcactc gctggtcctg atcgatgaat tcgggaaggg gaccaactcg gtggatggcc 2100tggcacttct ggctgctgtg ctccgtcact ggcttgcact gggacccagc tgcccccacg 2160tctttgtagc caccaacttc ctgagccttg ttcagctgca gctgctgccg caaggacccc 2220tggtgcagta tttgaccatg gagacttgtg aggatgggga agaccttgtc ttcttctacc 2280agctttgcca aggcgtcgcc agtgccagcc acgcctccca cacagcggcc caggctgggc 2340ttcctgaccc actcattgct cgtggcaaag aggtctcaga cttgatccgc agtgggaaac 2400ccatcaaggc cacgaatgag cttctaagga gaaaccaaat ggaaaactgc caggcactgg 2460tggataagtt tctaaaactg gacttggagg atcccaccct ggacctggac attttcatta 2520gtcaggaagt gctgcccgct gctcccacca tcctctgaga gtccttccag tgtcct 257654833PRTHuman 54Met Ala Phe Arg Ala Thr Pro Gly Arg Thr Pro Pro Gly Pro Gly Pro1 5 10 15Arg Ser Gly Ile Pro Ser Ala Ser Phe Pro Ser Pro Gln Pro Pro Met20 25 30Ala Gly Pro Gly Gly Ile Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Pro Ala Glu35 40 45Ile His Leu Cys Val Leu Trp Ser Ser Gly Tyr Leu Gly Ile Ala Tyr50 55 60Tyr Asp Thr Ser Asp Ser Thr Ile His Phe Met Pro Asp Ala Pro Asp65 70 75 80His Glu Ser Leu Lys Leu Leu Gln Arg Val Leu Asp Glu Ile Asn Pro85 90 95Gln Ser Val Val Thr Ser Ala Lys Gln Asp Glu Ala Met Thr Arg Phe100 105 110Leu Gly Lys Leu Ala Ser Glu Glu His Arg Glu Pro Lys Gly Pro Glu115 120 125Ile Ile Leu Leu Pro Ser Val Asp Phe Gly Pro Glu Ile Ser Lys Gln130 135 140Arg Leu Leu Ser Gly Asn Tyr Ser Phe Ile Ser Asp Ser Met Thr Ala145 150 155 160Thr Glu Lys Ile Leu Phe Leu Ser Ser Ile Ile Pro Phe Asp Cys Val165 170 175Leu Thr Val Arg Ala Leu Gly Gly Leu Leu Lys Phe Leu Ser Arg Arg180
185 190Arg Ile Gly Val Glu Leu Glu Asp Tyr Asp Val Gly Val Pro Ile Leu195 200 205Gly Phe Lys Lys Phe Val Leu Thr His Leu Val Ser Ile Asp Gln Asp210 215 220Thr Tyr Ser Val Leu Gln Ile Phe Lys Ser Glu Ser His Pro Ser Val225 230 235 240Tyr Lys Val Ala Ser Gly Leu Lys Glu Gly Leu Ser Leu Phe Gly Ile245 250 255Leu Asn Arg Cys Arg Cys Lys Trp Gly Gln Lys Leu Leu Arg Leu Trp260 265 270Phe Thr Arg Pro Thr Arg Glu Leu Arg Glu Leu Asn Ser Arg Leu Asp275 280 285Val Ile Gln Phe Phe Leu Met Pro Gln Asn Leu Asp Met Ala Gln Met290 295 300Leu His Arg Leu Leu Ser His Ile Lys Asn Val Pro Leu Ile Leu Lys305 310 315 320Arg Met Lys Leu Ser His Thr Lys Val Ser Asp Trp Gln Val Leu Tyr325 330 335Lys Thr Val Tyr Ser Ala Leu Gly Leu Arg Asp Ala Cys Arg Ser Leu340 345 350Pro Gln Ser Ile Gln Leu Phe Gln Asp Ile Ala Gln Glu Phe Ser Asp355 360 365Asp Leu His His Ile Ala Ser Leu Ile Gly Lys Val Val Asp Phe Glu370 375 380Glu Ser Leu Ala Glu Asn Arg Phe Thr Val Leu Pro Asn Ile Asp Pro385 390 395 400Asp Ile Asp Ala Lys Lys Arg Arg Leu Ile Gly Leu Pro Ser Phe Leu405 410 415Thr Glu Val Ala Gln Lys Glu Leu Glu Asn Leu Asp Ser Arg Ile Pro420 425 430Ser Cys Ser Val Ile Tyr Ile Pro Leu Ile Gly Phe Leu Leu Ser Ile435 440 445Pro Arg Leu Pro Phe Met Val Glu Ala Ser Asp Phe Glu Ile Glu Gly450 455 460Leu Asp Phe Met Phe Leu Ser Glu Asp Lys Leu His Tyr Arg Ser Ala465 470 475 480Arg Thr Lys Glu Leu Asp Thr Leu Leu Gly Asp Leu His Cys Glu Ile485 490 495Arg Asp Gln Glu Thr Leu Leu Met Tyr Gln Leu Gln Cys Gln Val Leu500 505 510Ala Arg Ala Ser Val Leu Thr Arg Val Leu Asp Leu Ala Ser Arg Leu515 520 525Asp Val Leu Leu Ala Leu Ala Ser Ala Ala Arg Asp Tyr Gly Tyr Ser530 535 540Arg Pro His Tyr Ser Pro Cys Ile His Gly Val Arg Ile Arg Asn Gly545 550 555 560Arg His Pro Leu Met Glu Leu Cys Ala Arg Thr Phe Val Pro Asn Ser565 570 575Thr Asp Cys Gly Gly Asp Gln Gly Arg Val Lys Val Ile Thr Gly Pro580 585 590Asn Ser Ser Gly Lys Ser Ile Tyr Leu Lys Gln Val Gly Leu Ile Thr595 600 605Phe Met Ala Leu Val Gly Ser Phe Val Pro Ala Glu Glu Ala Glu Ile610 615 620Gly Val Ile Asp Ala Ile Phe Thr Arg Ile His Ser Cys Glu Ser Ile625 630 635 640Ser Leu Gly Leu Ser Thr Phe Met Ile Asp Leu Asn Gln Val Ala Lys645 650 655Ala Val Asn Asn Ala Thr Glu His Ser Leu Val Leu Ile Asp Glu Phe660 665 670Gly Lys Gly Thr Asn Ser Val Asp Gly Leu Ala Leu Leu Ala Ala Val675 680 685Leu Arg His Trp Leu Ala Leu Gly Pro Ser Cys Pro His Val Phe Val690 695 700Ala Thr Asn Phe Leu Ser Leu Val Gln Leu Gln Leu Leu Pro Gln Gly705 710 715 720Pro Leu Val Gln Tyr Leu Thr Met Glu Thr Cys Glu Asp Gly Glu Asp725 730 735Leu Val Phe Phe Tyr Gln Leu Cys Gln Gly Val Ala Ser Ala Ser His740 745 750Ala Ser His Thr Ala Ala Gln Ala Gly Leu Pro Asp Pro Leu Ile Ala755 760 765Arg Gly Lys Glu Val Ser Asp Leu Ile Arg Ser Gly Lys Pro Ile Lys770 775 780Ala Thr Asn Glu Leu Leu Arg Arg Asn Gln Met Glu Asn Cys Gln Ala785 790 795 800Leu Val Asp Lys Phe Leu Lys Leu Asp Leu Glu Asp Pro Thr Leu Asp805 810 815Leu Asp Ile Phe Ile Ser Gln Glu Val Leu Pro Ala Ala Pro Thr Ile820 825 830Leu55232DNAHuman 55gtaacctccg cgtgacagaa tgagggtggg gcgcgtggag tttcccacaa tctgtacttt 60agttaaatac ccgagaattc acctcctgtg tccacagctc tccacgcccc tcagccctgc 120cccgcagccc tgtatcagaa gtacttagcg ctttgcattc tgcgcgccac cctaccccgg 180cctcctctgt gaatcgttgc ttccgaaccg ccctcacttt ttgcatccgc ag 2325674DNAHumanintron(73)..(74)N = A or T or G or C 56gtctctgagg ggagtagaaa cttgaatgga gagttgatgg gaatttaaaa taaaagaggg 60ttgggagccg ggnn 7457189DNAHuman 57aaaaaaaaac agggttggga agagctgggc aagtctctta cctcctgagt ggctgtttca 60cattcactaa atgggggtga tgatgcctat ctcagagatt tgagaaaatg attaaattat 120ataagacatg gtaaacccta cacttatgag tgattctaat agtgatttcc tttcttcctt 180gctggacag 18958450DNAHumanintron(449)..(450)N = A or T or G or C 58gtggggatgg aaccatgaat tcctctgctc tctgggattg cagatgtgtt acacacacac 60acacacacac acacacacac acacacatat tttttttttc tagacagagt cttgctctgt 120tacccaggct caagtgcagt ggcgcaatct tggctcactg cagcctccac ctcctgggtt 180caagcaattc tcctgactca acctcccgag tagctgggac tacaggcgtg tgccaccaca 240cccagctagt tttttgtgtg tgtttttagc acagacggtg tttcaccatg ttggccaggg 300tggtctcaaa ctcctgacct tgtgatccgc ccaccttggc ctcctaaagt gctgggacta 360caggtgtgag tcaccacgcc cagccatgtt ttacttacat taactcacct cactgtctag 420catattttgt gttgctgtaa ggaaatacnn 45059323DNAHuman 59ggcgacaaat atatatgacg tatttacaat gtttcaggtg cttcagattc agccctgggc 60aaatcagtca tgtctgttct ccaggggttt acagcctagt gacaacatcc agaacatccc 120acttccctct caccatccca ccactcttaa ctacttttct aaatctcaac ttctacctgt 180gttcccactg tgcagagcac tccctactcc tagggaggaa atgtttttga gaaggagagg 240ggtaggaaga ggagggctat gggttttctc ttagtcaaag acaaagatcc tttaactcat 300ttgatctctg ttctccttcc aag 32360150DNAHuman 60gtaaggactt ggtaaaggat agagggaaaa tggggaagga ctaatatatg gaatattcca 60gggggctaga attgggtgag agggagtgtc agacagaggt agaaggactg agatgtaaag 120aatgatagcc ttttctttcc tcccccacag 15061733DNAHuman 61gtatctcctt ccttttgctt tgcctaactc cctgttccgg tgtcccattc tttcccccaa 60ctctaccttc atcatcacag atctcccctc tgccttatgt catcctaaac ctttgtgctc 120ctcatgccct atgacctgtc cccccaagat ctctcctgct ccctaccctt taataatctg 180cagcttattg ggaagcctct gcttaagtca tgtctaggga tgagggcctc ccctgaggag 240tggtgacact ttttggacag ggttttattg ttggaattct ccccattaag ttaaagcctt 300ttatcaccaa accaaaaggc actgcctcag tgacccttat tatgatccat aaggcacttc 360tataactttc ctaggtttac aataagaaca ggagtgtact atcctaatta gatattaagg 420cattagtgtt actagttcta ttaataccat tattttgacc aaaatcctca attccagaca 480gatgtctact ttcctcagcc atttatcttt ctcaggctgt gctttcagac aagtatcttt 540atattatatg tagaataaaa agagaattag actaagagtc tgaaaatttg gttcttgctc 600tagctttcca ttaactgcct gtgtgagctt gggcaagtca aataatctct cttgcttcta 660ttgtctcatt cttaaaatgg ggtgaaaaaa ttgagctaca agaccgttcc ctttgcttgc 720ctccctcaaa tag 73362164DNAHuman 62gtgagattgg tcctggggga taagggctgg gaggcggcac aagtgctagg gctgaattct 60gggaggtact ggcctagccc tggaaaatag taactttccc tggtgctctg cagcccccag 120gagatttaag atttaccccg attccactgc tgatcccctc ccag 16463246DNAHuman 63gtaggtgatt caccccaacc ccaaccaaag taatgtggga ttgggaggcc tgaaaagtaa 60agtgggggtg gggtgtggat gtggctgtga cccagtgggt caagggctct aggacacccg 120ggagaatcta agggctaatg agactttggg aagaagactg ggacaatatt cagagagggg 180gacaaaggaa gtggagttgt ggaacgaact cagactgctt cctgcttttt tgttttctgt 240cctcag 24664413DNAHumanintron(412)..(413)N = A or T or G or C 64gtaaagaggt ggaggcatgc tgctgtctct ggggagggag aaggattaag tttaatgccc 60caataatcct aatgaggctc tagtttccct aatcctgggg ctattaagat ctctctcctt 120gaaggaaagg gaaggggggt tttgagggaa agagaggaag aaaagcataa agatactagc 180tttcttttct atagggagaa actgaggcaa agaaaagtaa gggacaaacc ttacatcaag 240atatgatctc ggctgggcgc ggtggctcat gcctgtaatc cccgcgcttt gggaggccaa 300ggcgggtgga tcgcctgagg tcaggagttt gagacctgac caatatggta aaaccccgtc 360tctactaaaa atataaaaat tagctgggtg tgttgtgcgc ctgtaatccc ann 41365136DNAHuman 65ttttttttta aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaagacg tgatctcagg aggatatccc ctgtccccat 60tccatttatc agtcctcaat tcttattccc ctcaaaagtc caagttaccc caaactcctc 120catttctcct cgacag 13666356DNAHumanintron(355)..(356)N = A or T or G or C 66gtaggtgtgc cccatccctc atctcacgta caaagaccta ccagaaaagc aattggctcc 60aaagatgtgt cccagcctcc cttcccactt cactcccatt gtcagatatc tctttcatgc 120caatccaaat ttcttaccta tttgtacccc ccgcccccca agcttgagca tcttcccata 180ctttgtggct gtacagtgtg ttgcatatca gccattactt taccaattct gtgttccttc 240cctgggtttg tatgaatgtt tctactagtt gggtacctgt tagggacttt gggagacctt 300gtgtatagag aagagttttg taactgcata actgcctatt tgatttgtat agagnn 35667426DNAHuman 67ccaggagtag agggagagac agaaacagcc aacaatggcc cagaaaatgg atgatatatt 60agataaggga agaaatgagt taccagattg gggagagatg gtttggatgt caaagcaggt 120gatcggtgac gtcagcgtcc gagggaagac ggctgccacc ggcggggcca gttgagggaa 180ctaggtagtt aagtgttgtc gggctaaaag tccctagagt gtccatccct cccccatctc 240catgtgcggt aatcccagct catttagggg ccaggcacca actttggttg cctttgtgcc 300ctcccaggcc agcttcctca acaaccagca cctctgactg gatgcctcag gttagacaca 360taaacacatt ccattgccct gtccgtgcct tgtaacaagt tcactccctg ccttatccct 420cacaag 42668360DNAHumanintron(359)..(360)N = A or T or G or C 68gtgagtgggt cccacacata ctacacacta atgcatgaat tccatatgca cactacatac 60taagcctact aatggcagta tacagattct cacatacacc accccaccta gtagtagtaa 120agcaactgcc ctttactgag cactggctaa ctgcatttca tccttataac agctttgtgt 180agtagctgat atgcatctca ttttttgttg tcagcgcagg tacacatata cattgatgat 240acacagactt gcacacatac agcagcagga aaaaacacaa aatgtaaggc cgggcacagt 300ggctcacacc tgttatcagc actttggggg gccaacgctg ggtgaccttc catctttgnn 36069447DNAHuman 69cacaggaaga atatgaaaag atgaatgtct gttgctgtta cccagagaca ctttcacagc 60taaaaagaca tacaaactca tactgactca ccgtctctta ctcagcctca gagtgagctg 120cagtgttggc acacaaatac ctcaacacac tgctctcctt ctaaaatatt gacaagctcc 180gttacttata tacatggaat gacacacggt cttatccgtt gaaactgtga tatgtagaca 240caattatgct cacatctagc aattttcagt agatacatgt aaacacacct gaatgggtag 300gacactgcac ttgccactac attcccatag cacatcgtgg atacatattg ccacaatccc 360cagggactgc aagcacactt tttggcaaac tgagatcaag atgatagatg taacttgtag 420tacccccacc caaaccctca cttccag 44770127DNAHuman 70gtgagcccag ggtggagggc agggaggtgg ggaaggaggt tgagggctga tactgggcag 60tgggcttctt gaggggcatt agagtgaggg aagagaaaac agcggctgta accttgtctg 120actgtag 1277130DNAHumanintron(29)..(30)N = A or T or G or C 71gtaaggcctt ccttcttgaa tcccaaaann 3072222DNAHuman 72tacaggcatg agccactgtg cctggccagg accatatctt aattgtcttt gtagtttcag 60tgtttggtac agtgcctctc actgtttctt tttgcctttg agatcttccc tctttgttac 120tgtgatcttc cctactggtc tttgttcttc tgagtctgtc cctatcacca cctcaacccg 180agctggatgt ggcctgtcct cctttttgtg tttctctcac ag 22273254DNAHuman 73gtgagtagaa ggaaaaaggg agtgcaccca gggaggtcag ggagagagaa tgcagtgtgc 60aagatgggga aacatggaag atattgaggt caattggata aagaatggga tggtgggagg 120aggcagcaga acttcaggga agtatctgga gggtgagagt taaaggagga ctgcagggag 180aattggggcc caaggagagc tgaggaacag gacagagggt gccaggtcct aagaaacagt 240acttatctcc tcag 25474145DNAHuman 74gtgagtgttg ggtgtggatg ggcctgtgag ccctgcgcag tgatggagta ccatccttgg 60caggtggtca ccacagctgg ggatcttcat agcaaccagg gcaggagact cacttttgat 120aaccacctgt cttccaccct cgtag 1457598DNAHumanintron(97)..(98)N = A or T or G or C 75gtgagggcag gagagtgggt gtagccttca gatgtctttt gggggagata ttaggcttat 60gaaagacata ctggtagata agaaaacttg tggggcnn 987683DNAHuman 76atcttttaag ctcccttggg atggggaggt tccagtaagt ctccaaacaa gagagtagag 60tatctcctct ttactctccc cag 8377247DNAHuman 77gtaagaccct caacctctgt aaggtgagtg atgaggaaaa tgagtcagca gctgaggaag 60agcgttactc tacagcagca ctgcccaata tgggatctct cctctgtagt tttactctga 120gctttaccag cactgagaca aaggaaagag aagtcagagt taggggctgg aggtggggtt 180agaaagatgg ggaaggagag gaggaccaag agatgcaaag tccacagctt tgaacccctg 240tacccag 24778273DNAHuman 78gtgaggaaaa gccagaggtt atatgcattg taagatgttt aaaaaaagca gcagccaggg 60gaaggagggg agtgggcaac ttggggatgc ttccaacagg cccctcctct tcctgctctc 120tgtctcgctc actctgactc tatcttttcc tctgaatgtc ttgaggtctc agattgtatc 180tgcaacctgt ttccagatcc ccctaggggc ctctgcctct ccttcacttt cccctggaac 240tgacctccag ctcccttcct cacccactcc cag 27379114DNAHuman 79gtaagaatag aggcgggtgg aggaatacac atgaggggcc caaaggctac atcttctggg 60ggttcatcta tcttgatcca caagccatgc gaggtgcctc tccgcccact gcag 11480473DNAHuman 80gtgaggagaa gccctgcagc ctgggcctct ggcgtctcct gcatctactc cacccctact 60tgccagccaa ctcaggctcc tgcagctctt ctcccatttt ctgaccccgc tcttcatgaa 120aggaccatca cccacatccc tgtgcttcca cctcacatgt tcttattctc cactggagag 180ccatgctcta atggaacttt ccgtggccca aattccttca cctgcctctg agtaggtaca 240caccactccc aagtatgtct ctgcccacgt cccgtgcctc ttcactgatt ctaaattagc 300ccacagggct atggtcagga ttcggggagg agagacagag tcagtgtgtc tgttacctat 360ttctcctgtt tcaccctgtc catttctctt tgatgtgcca ttcatgcctt gagcctcact 420ttcacctcag cccacggcac caggccccag gccctgtctc cttccctatt cag 47381348DNAHuman 81gtcaaaggga acaaagggag gtgggattga ggaaggggat aatgggaaag gaacccctga 60aaatgctcat aacaggaaag catgccctct gctgcatgcc ctttatacta aaagtgggga 120gcactaaggt cagagataag aagaatcaat accataaaca tttcttgaac ccttgtttca 180tgtgagtcac tgttggcaaa gaggatgaac aaagcgtgca cctcaccatt caagaacttg 240cagtgcagta gggagggcat gtatacagct ttattcacag gccaactgtg gtcagtgcgt 300tacgggcttc caatactaac ttccccttgt ccaccttata cccagcag 34882209DNAHuman 82gtgaggggag aaactgatga ggggagaaac taaggagggg aaaatggagg aggatgaagg 60agcatgacag tgaggctggg cctctggaat ggaatagggc tgtgtgggca gaaaagaaat 120agaacacgag acagggaaag gcagtgcaag tgcagagggg catatggggt ccccatggct 180ccgaatgcta acctctgccc tctttgcag 20983202DNAHuman 83gtgaggagac caatctagct cctcggggac ccccaggctg ggcatttccc agaggtgggg 60attggctcct ctatcagaac aagggctccc tcagcacaga gaccacatcc cttccctttt 120ctccctcccc acaggattgg ccaagggttt caggacagga aggaggtgat tgatgataca 180ctgtctttta ttctctttta ag 20284155DNAHuman 84gtgatgagat ccaaatgtgc aaccacctcc acatcagagc tccctttcat tcctagtcct 60actgggcctg ggtctaggtc cacaggattt ctgaccctta tttccccttc tcttccccac 120tccccttact cctcccacct tcttgcttgt cctag 15585215DNAHuman 85gtgcgtatat ggccccagtg tctttaccct ctctgcatct tctcctgcaa ctcttctccc 60ccctccagca ctttgccctt cagaaaccca ccatttcttt ctgaaatccc taaatcttca 120agatcccagg ttttctgtgc cacagcctct cccctctgcc cagggatttg gttgtccatt 180ctgccataaa tcttgcgatt ttctctcttc ttcag 2158629DNAHuman 86gctgctcagg tatacagtac cacgctccc 298729DNAHuman 87agatccgggg tgaggagccc gtggtagga 298829DNAHuman 88gaatggcagg tgagaagggg ccccatgtc 298929DNAHuman 89ctcaagcagg tgaggggccg ccaagctgg 299029DNAHuman 90accaactcgg tgcggaggaa aatgaagag 299129DNAHuman 91ttcccatccc aaccctccag gctgtggtt 299229DNAHuman 92ctctctctct ccttctccag accaggaga 299329DNAHuman 93tgtctctcta cccaccacag gcatcctct 299429DNAHuman 94tctcccctgc cctggcccag gtaggcttg 299529DNAHuman 95tcacctctgc cctttgacag gtggatggc 299679DNAHuman 96gtatacagta ccacgctccc caagcaaagt caagatgaga gaagacgtga cttgtaacct 60tcccatccca accctccag 7997135DNAHuman 97gtgaggagcc cgtggtagga gggggcaggc tgctctaaca gaccctgctc tcatgctggc 60ccctctgcat ggtcacactg catctgcatg cctgcttcca gatctttcca ggcacctctc 120tctctccttc tccag 1359879DNAHuman 98gtgagaaggg gccccatgtc ctgctgtggg gatcctccct gggtccacaa accatgcagt 60gtctctctac ccaccacag 7999389DNAHuman 99gtgaggggcc gccaagctgg gggcccacat ctccatctcc tctggccgcc aggccagatc 60ctctgccccc ccccacacac acatacagca catgtccttg tcctctgagg gacagtctgt 120tctttaggat agacctttcc gtggccacaa gtccctggac caacctccaa atagatccat 180gccgttccct agtatgcctt tacccacaac cttgactctg gagttaattg tgaagtcagg 240acccaggaaa ctgtgttcca gggctctgtt cttctgttac actgtgtcct ctctttaatc 300tgtcgttcat gtctttagtt gagacccatt tttactttgc ccatagtacg gcaacaggcc 360catgttctgt ctcccctgcc ctggcccag 389100180DNAHuman 100gtgcggagga aaatgaagag atgctaagga ggggggatgg aggaaaatga gaaccgggag 60caggagactg acctcaggga agaaaagggg gatgcgtgca cagaggggag gagaagccat 120gacagctaca gaaggacaca gctgtcctgg
ttctgccctc tcacctctgc cctttgacag 18010120DNAHuman 101ccagaactct ctggagaagc 2010221DNAHuman 102gtgctgtgga attcaggata c 2110327DNAHuman 103ctccactatc cacttcatgc cagatgc 2710428DNAHuman 104gctggggagg acactggaag gactctca 28
Patent applications by DANA-FARBER CANCER INSTITUTE, INC.
Patent applications in class Involving nucleic acid
Patent applications in all subclasses Involving nucleic acid